In this chapter we shall consider the problem of initial stability, which correspond to very small departures from an assumed equilibrium condition. Of particular concern to the ship designer and operator is the transverse stability and consequently we apply a small angle of heel to the ship. A rigid body floating freely on the surface of a fluid has six degrees of freedom, three of translation and three of rotation. For disturbances from a state of equilibrium, the naval architect refers to the movements in the six degrees as shown in Table 6.1.

Movement Fore and aft translation Transverse translation Vertical translation Rotation about a fore and aft axis Rotation about a transverse axis Rotation about a vertical axis

Table 6.1. Dynamic surge sway heave roll pitch yaw

Quasi-static heel trim -

6.1. Heeling Forces and Moments
The magnitude of heeling forces and moments determines the forces and moments that must be generated by the forces of weight and buoyancy in order to prevent capsizing or excessive heel. External heeling forces affecting transvers stability may be caused by; • • • • • • Beam winds and waves Lifting of heavy weights over the side High speed turns Grounding Strain on mooring lines Towline pull of tugs

Internal heeling forces include • • Shifting of on-board weights athwartship Entrapped water on deck

Beam winds and waves : When a ship is exposed to a beam wind, the wind pressure acts on the portion of the ship above the waterline, and the resistance of the water to the ship’s lateral motion exerts a force on the opposite side below the waterline. The situation is shown in Figure 6.1.


Equilibrium with respect to angle of heel will be reached when • • The ship is moving to leeward with a speed such that the water resistance equals the wind pressure, and The ship has heeled to an angle such that the moment produced by the forces of weight and buoyancy equals the moment developed by the wind pressure and the water pressure

Wind pressure



Water pressure


Figure 6.1. Effect of beam winds

As the ship heels from the vertical, the wind pressure, water pressure, and their vertical separation remain substantially constant. The ship’s weight is constant and acts at a fixed point. The force of buoyancy is also constant, but the point it acts varies with the angle of heel. Equilibrium will be reached when sufficient horizontal separation of the centers of gravity and buoyancy has been produced to cause a balance between heeling and righting moments. Lifting of Heavy Weights over the Side : When a weight is lifted over the side, as shown in Figure 6.2, the force exerted by the weight acts through the outboard end of the boom, regardless of the angle of heel or the height to which the load has been lifted. Therefore, the weight of the sidelift may be considered to be added to the ship at the en of the boom. If the ship’s centre of gravity is initially on the ship’s centreline, as at G in Figure 6.2, the centre of gravity of the combined weight of the ship and the sidelift will be located along the line GA, and will move to a final position G1, when the load has been lifted clear of the pier. Point G1 will be off the ship’s centreline and somewhat higher than G. The ship will heel until the centre of buoyancy has moved off the ship’s centreline to a position directly below point G1. High Speed Turns : When a ship is executing a turn, a centrifugal force is generated, which acts horizontally through the ship’s centre of gravity. This force is balanced by a horizontal water pressure on the side of the ship, as shown in Figure 6.3. Except for the point of application of the heeling force, the situation is similar to that in which the ship is acted upon by a beam wind, and the ship will heel until the moment of the ship’s weight and buoyancy equals that of the centrifugal force and water pressure.


2.e.b 6.Weight G G1 B1 Displacement Figure 6. The ship will heel until until the moment of buoyancy about the point of contact with the bottom becomes equal to the moment of the ship’s weight about the same point.3. part of the energy due to its forward motion may be absorbed in lifting the ship. The force of buoyancy will be less than the weight of the ship.3 . between the bottom and the ship will develop. As the ship grounds. R. (W-R). as shown in Figure 6. i.4. in which case a reaction. Lifting of Heavy Weights over the Side Weight Centrifugal force G B B1 Water pressure Displacement Figure 6. High Speed Turns Grounding : If a ship runs aground in such a manner that the bottom offers little restraint to heeling. the reaction of the bottom may produce a heeling moment. since the ship is supported by the combination of buoyancy and the reaction of the bottom.a = W.

Grounding There are numerous other situations in which external forces can produce heel.5. 6. will cause the ship’s centre of gravity to move. as shown in Figure 6. the ship’s centre of gravity will move from G to G1 in a direction parallel to the direction of movement of the shifred weight. liquids or cargo. A moored ship may be heeled by the combination of strain on the mooring lines and pressure produced by wind or current. If a weight is moved from A to B.4 . equilibrium would be reached when the centre of buoyancy has moved to a point where heeling and righting moments are balanced.Weight b G a B B1 R Reaction force Displacement-Reaction force Figure 6. such as passengers. Towline strain may produce heeling moments in either the towed or towing vessel. Movement of weight already aboard the ship. The ship will heel until the centre of buoyancy is directly below point G1.4. In each case.

6. A vertical line through the centre of buoyancy will intersect the centreline at a point M. Transverse metacentre and righting arm 6.6. The volumes of the emerged and immersed wedges must be equal for constant displacement. when δϕ → 0 . Effect of weight movement 6. δϕ . the righting arm. called the transverse metacentre. GZ.5.w Weight A w G G1 B B B1 Displacement Figure 6. The Transverse Metacentre Consider a symmetric ship heeled to a very small angle. and the lines along which the resultants of weight and buoyancy act are separated by a distance. The centre of buoyancy has moved off the ship’s centreline as a result of the inclination. as shown in Figure 6.5 .2. For small angles the upright and inclined waterlines will intersect on the waterline. δϕ M G Z δϕ B B1 Figure 6.

point M will remain practically stationary with respect to the ship as the ship is inclined to small angles. and is called the transverse metacentric height.6 .7. Since GZ is considered positive when the moment of weight and buoyancy tends to rotate the ship toward the upright position. say 2 or 3 degrees.1. M ϕ y g1 ϕ g B R B1 G Z Figure 6.2. 6. and negative when M is below G. If the locations of G and M are known. Metacentric radius 6.7. by the formula GZ ≅ GM sin ϕ The distance GM is therefore important as an index of transverse stability at small angles of heel.Unless there is an abrupt change in the shape of the ship in the vicinity of the waterline. as shown in Figure 6. GM is positive when M is above G. with sufficient accuracy. the righting arm for small angles of heel can be calculated readily. upto about 7-10 degrees. Metacentric Radius (BM) Consider a symmetric ship heeled to a small angle (ϕ).

I x = ∫ y 3 dx . B. The position of the centres of buoyancy. is the second moment of area.7 . For a given draught. 6. Metacentric Diagram The metacentre diagram is a convenient way of defining variations in relative heights of the centres of buoyancy and metacentre for a series of waterlines parallel to the design waterline.7. for small angles of heel BB1 = BM ϕ ⇒ ∇BMϕ = I x ϕ ⇒ BM = Ix ∇ Thus the height of the metacentre above the centre of buoyancy is found by dividing the second moment of area of the waterplane about its centreline by the volume of displacement. M. or the moment 3 0 of inertia.For small angles the emerged and immersed wedges are approximately triangular. On this vertical line. If y is the half ordinate of the original waterline at the cross section the emerged or immersed section area is. of a waterplane about its centreline. the distance DM represents the height of the centre of metacentre above the waterplane ans DB represents the depth of the centre of buoyancy below the waterplane. T. are dependent only on the geometry of the ship and the waterplane at which it is floating. Hence the movement of buoyancy is M = I x ϕ = v gg 1 = ∇ BB1 L L L Referring to Figure 6. 1 2 2 dM = 2 × y 2 ϕdx × y = y 3 ϕdx 2 3 3 The total righting moment is 2 2 M = ∫ ϕy 3 dx = ϕ∫ y 3 dx 3 3 0 0 2 The expression within the integral sign. a horizontal line is drawn intersecting the 45 degrees line in D and a vertical line is drawn through D.2. dA = 1 2 y ϕ 2 for a small length dx.2. the volume of each wedge is dV = 1 2 y ϕdx 2 The righting moment is equal to transverse shift of buoyancy.8. This process is repeated a 6. A typical metacentric diagram is shown in Figure 6. and metacentre. The vertical scale represents draught and a line is drawn at 45 degrees to this scale.

and buoyancy. Metacentric Diagram 6. The M curve. B. in which are listed the displacements and T1 values for each a number of draughts corresponding to typical ship loading conditions.8. A table may be constructed to the left of the diagram.8 .sufficient number of times to define the loci of metacentre and centre of buoyancy. on the other hand. These are termed the metacentre. the B curve is usually nearly staright for conventional ship forms.7 t/cm T1 G KB B K Figure 6. Metacentric Diagrams for Simple Geometrical Forms 6. M. DRAUGHT IN M TONS PER CM DRAUGHT : 6. M KM DISPLACEMENT IN TONS .3 m DISPLACEMENT : 12700 t : Since KB is approximately proportional to draught over the normal operating range. usually falls steeply with increasing draught at shallow draught than levels out and may even begin to rise at very deep draught. curves.

9 . The volume of the barge is ∇ = LBT The height of the centre of buoyancy is KB = The metacentric radius is T 2 LB3 B2 I BM = = 12 = ∇ LBT 12T Then the height of metacentre above the keel is KM = KB + BM = T B2 + 2 12T As can be seen the height of metacentre depends upon the beam and draught but not the length. At zero draught KM would be infinite. dKM 1 B2 = − =0 dT 2 12T 2 ⇒ T= B 6 b) Triangular section Consider a barge of length L and waterline breadth B with constant triangular cross sections floating apex down at draught T.a) Rectangular section Consider a barge of length L and breadth B with constant rectangular cross sections floating at draught T. The volume of the barge is ∇= The height of the centre of buoyancy is 1 LBT 2 KB = 2T 3 6. Then the draught at which KM is minimum can be found as follows. The draught at which KM is minimum can be found by diffrentiating the equation for KM with respect to T and equating to zero. and the second term predominates for small draught values.

Then the draught at which KM is minimum can be found as follows. above or below the centre. GM is a measure of the ship’s stiffness in roll motion and largely governs the period of roll motion.3. floating with its axis horizontal. i. Too high a value of GM leads to a very short roll period.10 . Therefore GM = KB + BM − KG It is evident that GM is the key indicator of initial transverse stability. the buoyancy force always acts through the centre. 6. Measurement of Initial Stability The difference between the centre of gravity and the metacentre is defined as the metacentric height (GM) and this distance can be used the initial stability of a ship at smalll angles of heel. That is.The metacentric radius is LB3 I B2 BM = = 12 = ∇ 1 6T LBT 2 Then the height of metacentre above the keel is KM = KB + BM = 2T B 2 + 3 6T The draught at which KM is minimum can be found by differentiating the equation for KM with respect to T and equating to zero. dKM 2 B 2 = − 2 =0 dT 3 6T c) Circular section ⇒ T= B 2 Consider a circular cylinder of radius r and centre of section O. For any waterline. and for any inclination.e GM = KM − KG The height of metacentre above the keel is calculated by the summation of the height of centre of buoyancy above the keel (KB) and the metacentric radius (BM) as follows KM = KB + BM where the metacentric radius is the distance between the centre of buoyancy and the metacentre. KM is independent of draught and equal to r. too high values should be avoided. 6. Whilst it should obviously be positive. from 00 to 70-100. For small angles of heel the metacentric height (GM) is calculated by subtracting the height of the ship’s centre of gravity above the keel (KG) from the height of metacentre above the keel (KM).

Posdunine Morrish Normand Schneekluth Bauer Henschke ⎛ C WP ⎞ KB = T⎜ ⎜C +C ⎟ ⎟ WP ⎠ ⎝ B C 5T T⎛ ∇ KB = − = ⎜ 2.3C M − 0.828 − 0.1C B ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎛ C KB = T⎜ 0.0410 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ BM = ⎟ T ⎜ CB ⎝ ⎠ BM = B2 T BM = ⎛ 0. which is discussed in later sections.1 − 0.0861C P − 0.0122 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ CB ⎝ ⎠ 2 B ⎛ 0.09377C P − 0.1216C WP − 0.0067 ⎞ ⎜ 0. At the initial stages of design.9 − 0.09 − ⎟ BM = T ⎜ CB ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ BM = B2 T ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ Robb Riddlesworth Eames D’arcengelo Kiss Brown Mc Cloghrie Posdunine Rauert ⎛ C WP (0.0106 − 0.003) ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ CB ⎝ ⎠ 2 B ⎛ 0.11 .008 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ BM = ⎟ T ⎜ CB ⎝ ⎠ B2 T BM = ⎛ C2 ⎞ ⎜ WP ⎟ ⎜ 12C ⎟ B ⎠ ⎝ 2 B ⎛ C WP (C WP + 0. the metacentric height can be calculated by using approximate formulae.6C M ) ⎛ ⎞ 1 ⎜ ⎜ 16 − 7C ⎟ ⎟ B ⎠ ⎝ B2 ⎛ 0.36C M ) KB = T(0.9 − 0.343 B ⎜ C WP ⎝ KB = T (1.5 − B ⎜ 6 3A WP 3 ⎝ C WP KB = T (0.04) ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ BM = ⎟ T ⎜ 12C B ⎝ ⎠ B2 T BM = B2 T ⎛ 57C WP − 22 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 420C ⎟ B ⎝ ⎠ KG=aD Ship type a 6.The actual value of GM for a ship may be found by an inclining experiment. to ensure that the ship has sufficient initial stability.727C WP + 0.

69 0.4. Wall sided formula For small angles of heel.12 .75 6.Tanker Bulk carrier Dry Cargo Passenger 0.e. Nor must the deck edge be immersed. shown in Figure 6. The transverse moment of volume shift can be expressed as y 4y 2 2 M T = ∫ y tan ϕdx × = ∫ y 3 tan ϕdx = tan ϕ∫ y 3 dx = I tan ϕ 2 3 3 3 where y is the half ordinate an I is the second moment of area of the waterplane about the centreline.68 0. The vessel can have a turn of bilge provided it is not exposed by the inclination of the ship.72 0. is 6. we found that the righting lever GZ ≅ GMϕ . Consider the wall sided section. A more accurate formula for GZ at angles around 100 is available for wall sided ships. GZ. Therefore M I tan ϕ BB1 = T = = BM tan ϕ ∇ ∇ Similarly the vertical moment 1 2 y3 1 M V = ∫ y 2 tan ϕ × y tan ϕdx = ∫ tan 2 ϕdx = I tan 2 ϕ 2 2 3 3 Therefore 1 I tan 2 ϕ MV 2 1 B1 R = = = BM tan 2 ϕ ∇ ∇ 2 From Figure 6. BR = BB1 cos ϕ + B1 R sin ϕ BR = BM tan ϕ cos ϕ + BR = sin ϕ(BM + 1 BM tan 2 ϕ sin ϕ 2 1 BM tan 2 ϕ) 2 Therefore. Because the vessel is wall sided the emerged and immersed wedges will have sections which are right angled triangels of equal area.9. those having vertical sides in the region of the waterline. i. the righting arm.9.

The ship is in unstable equilibrium when upright and will flop over rapidly to the angle of loll. Angle of Loll In certain conditions of loading it is possible for a ship to have negative GM when upright.9. 6. as shown in Figure 6.5.13 . As the ship heels to larger angles. If the ship has a positive GM it will be in equilibrium when GZ is zero.GZ = BR − BG sin ϕ 1 ⎛ ⎞ GZ = sin ϕ⎜ BM + BM tan 2 ϕ − BG ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ 1 ⎛ ⎞ GZ = sin ϕ⎜ GM + BM tan 2 ϕ ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ At small angles. this degenerates to GZ = GM sin ϕ . The formula is invalid at large heel angles. The GZ curve will have a negative slope at the origin.10. GZ increase to become positive at an angle. M W ϕ h1 g1 W1 y ϕ g B R B1 B2 K h L G Z L1 Figure 6. known as the angle of loll. The wall sided formula can be used to estimate the angle of loll. that is 1 ⎛ ⎞ GZ = sin ϕ⎜ GM + BM tan 2 ϕ ⎟ = 0 2 ⎝ ⎠ 6.

the value of GM for small inclinations about the loll position. tan ϕ = 2GM BM Such an angle is known as the angle of loll. which in this case would be a position of unstable equilibrium. These other solutions are at ϕ either side of the upright position being given by. 6. however.14 . Angle of loll If ϕ1 is the angle of loll. The first is ϕ = 0 . GZ (m) angle of loll Heel angle GM Figure 6. which means that in the upright position the ship is stable. i. will be given by the slope of the GZ curve at that point. The ship would show no preference for one side or the other. the ship has a negative GM there are two possible solutions for ϕ in addition to that of zero. which is the case with the ship upright.e. The second value is given by 1 GM + BM tan 2 ϕ = 0 2 ⇒ tan 2 ϕ = − 2GM BM With both GM and BM positive there is no solution to this meaning that the upright position is the only one of equilibrium. When.This condition is satisfied by two values of ϕ .10. not neutral. This also applies to the case of GM=0.

At point B. the waterplane width ceases to increase and begins to reduce. This change is associated with immersion of the deck edge or emergence of the turn or bilge. The slope of the GZ curve near the origin is given by dGZ d(GMϕ) = = GM . For a round bilge vessel. Important features of this curve are as follows. As ϕ increases beyond small values. • At small angles GZ ≅ GMϕ . It may also be called the dynamical stability. the metacentric height. A steady overturning moment applied to the ship of value greater than ΔGZ max would cause it to capsize. This is known as a curve of static stability or GZ curve. GZ reaches its maximum value GZmax.11.15 A D Heel angle . For example C • • • The GZ curve makes no allowance for changes in centre of gravity at very large heel angles. such as through deck openings or engine intakes The GZ curve assumes quasi-static conditions which are certainly not present in a heavy sea GMsinϕ+1/2BMtan2ϕsinϕ P P GMϕ GMsinϕ range of stability 6. the slope of the GZ curve usually increases above the initial slope. For a wall sided ship. Thus. unlike heel. be corrected by applying a counter moment to the ship. This would merely cause the ship to flop over rapidly to a larger angle on the other side. GZ (m) due to cargo shift. The area under the GZ curve is a measure of the work done in steady conditions to heel the ship. It cannot. Statical Stability Curve A typical curve of GZ variation with heel angle is shown in Figure 6. • • • • • GZ curves are normally prodyced for a range of loading conditions. At point C. if the slope of the curve at the origin is extrapolated to a value of dϕ dϕ ϕ = 1 radian the ordinate has a value equal to GM. There are some deficiencies in GZ curves. GZ curve is normally corrected for any expected free surface effects in the condition concerned. At this point. this increase in slope may be small or even negative. 6. GZ becomes zero.1 ⎛ ⎞ GZ = sin ϕ⎜ GM + BM tan 2 ϕ ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ dGZ 1 ⎛ ⎞ = cos ϕ⎜ GM + BM tan 2 ϕ ⎟ + sin ϕBM tan 2 ϕ sec 2 ϕ = 0 dϕ 2 ⎝ ⎠ It is important to recognize the loll condition as it is potentially dangerous. This point is called the point of vanishing stability and distance OD is called the range of stability. as it is related to the energy absorbing capability of the ship in roll. there is a point of inflexion in the GZ curve and the slope begins to decrease.6. At point D. this is predicted by the wall sided formula for GZ (BM is always positive). for example B It makes no allowance for water flooding into the ship at large angles.

Free Surface Effect We have so far assumed that the contents of the ship do not move as the ship heels over. ships contain tanks of liquids such as oil and water.13. For small angles of heel. Cross Curves of Stability These curves show the relationship between the righting levers KZ and various displacements for a ship inclined at a constant angle.16 . We may assume that gg' ≅ bb' .7. In practice.13 the local centre of gravity of the liquid of density ρ1 moves to g´. the tank is only partly full. closer to the line of action of the buoyancy force. Cross curves of stability 6. If these tanks are pressed full then the contained fluid will behave as though it were solid. Statical stability curve 6.Figure 6. 60 75 90 KZ 45 30 15 DISPLACEMENT Figure 6. however.11. of value GG´´. If. and thus reduces the righting moment. ΔGG ' = w 1gg ' where w1 is the weight of the liquid in the tank.12. the contained liquid will move towards the downward side as the ship heels. that the new righting arm is given by G' Z' ≅ GZ − GG' ≅ GZ − GG' ' ϕ ≅ G' ' Mϕ ≅ (GM − GG' ' )ϕ There is an apparent loss of metacentric height. it is shown in Figure 6. The displacement cover the range from lightship to maximum possible loading condition. In Figure 6. Thus 6.8. This has the effect of shifting the ship’s centre of gravity G to G´. Taking the moments about G.

subdivision of the free surface alone has no effect as the liquid as a whole can still move in bulk beneath the surface. The free surface effect is particularly dangerous for ships with large deck areas close to waterline level. particularly on width. From this we can deduce that GG ' = i ρ1 ϕ ∇ ρS and i ρ1 ∇ ρS This is the apparent loss in GM due to the free surface of the liquid in the tank. If there are a number of tanks. the loss of GM is i I ≅ ≅ BM ∇ ∇ This loss is more than the original value of GM and the ship will therefore have negative upright L´ stability. i ρ ∑ GG ' ' = ∑ ∇ ρ 1 S GG ' ' = There are several points to note about the free surface effect: • • • • The free surface effect is always destabilizing It is independent of the volumes of the liquids.e. In the case of an accident when the deck is covered by even a shallow depth of sea water. in the same way as ship beam has a large effect on GM The best way to reduce the free surface effect is to subdivide the tanks so as to prevent the liquids in bulk. Z´´ W G´´ Z G W´ B B’ 6. This will cause the ship heel over rapidly and possibly' ≅ bb' = bmϕ = i ϕ v where i is the area moment of inertia of the free surface of the liquid in the tank and v is the volume of the liquid. such as a Ro-Ro ferry. Even a small amount of liquid can have a large effect if the free surface is large The free surface effect is independent of tank position. The deck of a car ferry often has an area and second moment of area equal to or greater than that of the ship’s load waterplane. either vertically or horizontally It is very dependent on size of the free surface. The subdivision must form completely separate tanks. i. then the total loss of GM due to the free surface effect is the sum of the individual effects.17 Z´ L M .

2.9. the centre of gravity will be raised to a new position such that GG 1 = w×h Δ Since there is no change in the displacement or draught of the ship.13. Solid Weight Shifts. Free surface effect g g´ 6.18 . Vertical Weight Shifts w M W G1 G B h L K w Figure 6. If a weight of w tons already on board is raised through some distance h m. 6. and therefore the metacentric height will be reduced by the amount GG1 meters. Horizontal Weight Shifts 6.14.9. Additions and Removals 6.1.Figure 6. there will be no change in the position of the metacentre.9.

19 . w M d w W G W1 ϕ B G1 L1 B1 L K Figure 6. will always cause the ship’s centre of gravity to move in the same direction as the weight shift. because the addition or removal of weights from a ship changes the position of the centre of gravity of the ship and it also changes the draught and hence the position of the metacentre. no matter where onboard it is. Weight Additions/Removals This is a more complicated problem.Shifting weight horizontally. 6. 6.15.3. Thus. compared with vertical weight shifts. The resulting heel angle can be calculated by tan ϕ = w×d Δ × GM where w is the amount of weight shifted and d the horizontal distance the weight is shifted. horizontal weight shifts will always reduce the stability of the ship.9.

outfit and fittings. and machinery. Owing to the importance of GM and the difficulty of estimating KG accurately. Inclining Experiment The purpose of the inclining experiment is to find the KG and GM of a ship in a known condition. It is repeated after significant modifications to the ship during its service life. and ascertaining their individual centres of 6. The position of the centre of gravity of the lightship could be determined by considering all the weights such as steel.16. an inclining experiment is usually carried out on all new vessels. Parallel sinkage Height of centre of gravity : p= w T1 Height of centre of buoyancy Metacentric radius Metacentric height Heel angle ΔKG + wh Δ+w p⎞ ⎛ ΔKB + w ⎜ T + ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ : KB1 = Δ+w ∇ : BM 1 = BM ∇1 : GM 1 = KB1 + BM1 − KG 1 : KG 1 = : tan ϕ = w×d Δ 1 × GM 1 6.10.20 .d w M W1 W p G1 G B1 B h ϕ L1 L K Figure 6.

gravity. Thus wd GM = Δ tan ϕ All the quantities on the right hand side of the equation are measured as accurately as possible. preferably into the hold. For a particular condition of loading the weights of all the items which the ship carries would then have to be added on at their appropriate centres of gravity. Consider a known weight of amount w moved transversely across the ship a distance d. where ϕ is the small angle of heel involved. from the drawings the calculation of the lightship weight and the position of its centre of gravity would be a long and tedious process and the accuarcy of the result would be in some doubt. suspended. fuel. from which could be calculated the position of the centre of gravity for the complete ship. For this reason the lightship weight and the position of its centre of gravity are determined experimentally. The heel can be measured by means of a long pendulum with length l .. In this way the position of the centre of gravity of the loaded ship could be determined. 6. The ship’s displacement is found from the hydrostatic curves for the draughts measured during the experiment. It is advisable to suspend the small weights at the end of the pendulum into oil or some other kind of liquid to dampen oscillations.21 . etc. ϕ (in radians). The heeling moment wd must be balanced by the restoring moment ΔGMϕ . The heeling angle. and free to move. The inclining experiment is based on applying a known heeling moment and then measuring the resulting angle of heel. Whilst it is customary to calculate the volumes and centres of gravity of all the hold. is ϕ= a l where a is the deviation of the pendulum. fresh water and ballast spaces.

The GM as measured will include any free surface effects due to liquids on board. (b) that the deflection of the pendulum for each shift is sufficiently large to give meaningful readings.e. The information for this adjustment is obtained by dipping all tanks on board at the time of the experiment and calculating the free surface effect in each case. Draughts and/or freeboards should be read immediately before or immediately after the test. 2w tons on each side of the ship. It may be necessary to have a larger inclination in small vessels in order to get sufficient deflection of the pendulum. However. Inclining experiment 6. each through distance d meters • • • • • • w from port to starboard 2w from port to starboard 2w from starborad to port to chack initial zero w from starboard to port 2w from starboard to port 2w from port to starboard to check initial zero Thus. i. d.1. Draughts should be read forward and aft and draughts or freeboards lifted amidships to determine hog or sag. care should be taken to ensure: (a) that the angle of heel does not exceed the angle at which GZ no longer equals GM sin α . the average inclination in degrees may be obtained for a movement of w tons through d meters. At the same time the density of the water should be recorded at various locations along the vessel.17. This virtual GM must be adjusted to a solid GM or a standard liquid condition.Figure 6. As w is moved across the deck the centre of gravity of the ship moves from G to G1 and the resulting angle of heel can be found as tan ϕ = wd ΔGM In the inclining experiment the values of w. and thus GM may be calculated. 6.10. preferrably consist of 4w tons. The weights to be used in the experiment should. Practical Execution of the Inclining Experiment The inclining experiment must be carried out in calm water in still conditions. In this regard vessels with appreciable flare at the waterline should be carefully considered and the angle of inclination should not exceed 1° . The weights used should be sufficient to give a total inclination of 1 1/2° to 3° on each side.22 . All persons required to be on board for the test should be in location during these readings. and (c) that changes in the waterplane area during the shifts are kept as small as possible. The inclinations must be recorded with the following weight movements. Δ and ϕ are all known.

and be checked as the experiment proceeds Special emphasis should be placed on draught readings and control of heeling weights At least two pendulums should be used. or other tanks. The presence of free surfaces reduces the actual value of GM by an amount given by 6. They can be determined by estimating GM. the moment arm. should be secured The ship should be as nearly complete as possible. The length of each pendulum should be as long as possible and they should be located in an area protected from the wind. These measures may include • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • A calm day with no wind should be chosen. and the angle of heel. The vessel should be as close to the design trim as possible and should not differ from this by more than 0. items to be taken off and items already on board which have to be shifted As few men as possible should remain on board. The depth of water under the hull should be sufficient to allow the vessel to move freely Excessive accumulations of rain.10. and an accurate list should be made of items to go on to complete. one at each end of the vessel. it is emphasized that empty tanks are preferred for an accurate test The vessel should be upright or within 1/2° from upright Heavy trim should be avoided. The natural period for the pendulum and the roll period of the vessel should not be close to each other At least 4 readings of moment versus heeling angle should be taken The maximum heeling angle should be in the range 5-100 6. Then the required weight is w= ΔϕGM d 6.2. The ship should ideally be inclined in a dry dock in order to avoid any disturbances caused by passing ships. snow or ice should be removed before the test All moorings should be slack and gangways removed All loose items such as derricks.10. Unless the vessel is at the designed trim. Free Surface Corrections After the value of GM has been calculated for the ship in the inclined condition there may be a correction to be made for the presence of free surfaces in double bottom. boats. However.01 LBP. Pendulum weights should be suspended into a liquid such as oil to dampen excessive movement.23 . The Accuracy of the Inclining Experiment The accuracy of the inclining experiment depends on many factors and measures must be taken to reduce the possibility of errors. Failing this. If possible the test should not be conducted in wind conditions heavier than a light breeze. soundings of tanks will not give true readings and the inclining stability calculation will require to be calculated for the trimmed waterline All measuerements should be taken with care.3. The estimation of GM can be made by preliminary weight and KG calculations. and those that do should remain on the centreline All tanks should be empty or pressed full.The weights to be used must produce a reasonable heel angle. it should be moored at a buoy with head to wind. etc.

∇ the displacement volume. of knuckled hull form) or is fitted with bilge keels. in smooth water with the minimum interference from wind and waves. 6. To ensure the most accurate results in obtaining this value the following precautions should be observed: • • • • The test should be conducted with the vessel in harbour. If rolling has been induced by lowering or raising a weight it 6. ρ1 the density of liquid with free surface.11. i. The vessel can be made to roll by rhythmically lifting up and putting down a weight as far off middle-line as possible. repeating themselves within reasonable limits. and ρ S the density of water in which the ship floats.e. this operation should be repeated at least twice more. the vessel is of hard chine construction (i. by pulling on the mast with a rope. By means of a stop watch. or reasonable doubt exists as to the adequacy of the intact stability characteristics of the ship. The method depends upon the relationship between the metacentric height and the rolling period in terms of the extreme breadth of the vessel. After allowing the roll to completely fade away. where.24 . the time should be taken for about five (5) of these complete oscillations. as soon as this forced rolling has commenced the means by which it has been induced must be stopped and the vessel allowed to roll freely and naturally. and this is most important. However. one complete oscillation will have been made when the vessel has moved right across to the other extreme side (i. Knowing the total time for the total number of oscillations made. over its complete range of operating conditions. If possible. where it is not practicable to carry out an inclining experiment.e. in every case the same number of complete oscillations should be timed to establish that the readings are consistent.δGM = ∑ i ρ1 ∇ ρS where i is the transverse moment of inertia of each free surface about its own centreline. Determination of Ship’s Metacentric Height (GM) by Means of the Rolling Period Test This method of approximating a ship’s initial metacentric height (GM) may be used for small vessels.e. or by any other means. starboard) and returned to the original starting point and is about to commence the next roll. the time for one complete oscillation can be calculated. It should be noted that a roll test is not acceptable as a basis for determining a ship’s stability characteristics. the counting of these oscillations should begin when the vessel is at the extreme end of a roll. Starting with the vessel at the extreme end of a roll to one side (say port) and the vessel about to move towards the upright. or as a supplement to an inclining experiment. by people running athwartships in unison. The rolling period required is the time for one complete oscillation of the vessel.

and only as much as is necessary to accurately count these oscillations. Care should be taken to ensure that there is a reasonable clearance of water under the keel and at the sides of the vessel. or liable to move (e. 5 percent of total load f = 0.values are within ± 0. i.g.78 2. If the ship’s own derrick is used. The mooring should be slack and the vessel "breasted off" to avoid making any contact during its rolling. The factor ‘f’ is of the greatest importance and data from a number of tests have been used in determining the following typical values: (A) For unloaded fishing boats (but with fuel. Weights of reasonable size which are liable to swing (e. liquids. T = time for a full rolling period in seconds (i. drum). should be secured against such movement.• • • • is preferable that the weight is moved by a dockside crane. for one oscillation ‘to and fro’ port-starboard-port. stores. for a hollow body. f = 0. and equipment). the metacentric height GM can be calculated from the following formula: ⎛ fB ⎞ GM = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜T ⎟ ⎝ r⎠ 2 Where: f = factor for the rolling period B = breadth of the ship in metric units. It must be noted that the greater the distance of masses from the rolling axis.) 1. The timing and counting of the oscillations should only begin when it is judged that the vessel is rolling freely and naturally. cargo. The free surface effects of slack tanks should be kept as small as is practicable during the test. 20 percent of total load f = 0. the weight should be placed on the deck. etc.e.761 (B) For vessels of normal size (excluding tankers): (a) empty ship or ship carrying ballast f = 0. 6.25 . Generally. To check this. and also to get some idea of the number of complete oscillations that can be reasonably counted and timed.05 of those given above. say T seconds. at the middle-line. it can be expected that: • the rolling coefficient for an unloaded ship. Therefore.e.e. f . a preliminary rolling test should be made before starting to record actual times. Having calculated the period for one complete oscillation.88 (b) ship fully loaded and with liquids in tanks comprising the following percentage of the total load on board (i. a lifeboat). as soon as the rolling is established. stores. will be higher than that for a loaded ship. the greater the rolling coefficient will be.75 3.73 The stated values are mean values. 10 percent of total load f = 0. or vice versa).g.

it may be necessary to discard a considerable number of observations. oscillations are either irregular or only regular for too short an interval of time to allow accurate measurements to be observed.e. i. it is not generally recommended that results be obtained from rolling oscillations taken in a seaway: • • • • Exact coefficients for tests in open waters are not available. far away from the rolling axis . The rolling periods observed may not be free oscillations but forced oscillations due to seaway.20 metres and below. The above recommended rolling coefficients were determined by tests with vessels in port and with their consumable liquids at normal working levels. care should be taken to discard readings which depart appreciably from the majority of other observations. it needs to be recognized that the determination of the stability by means of the rolling test in disturbed waters should only be regarded as a very approximate estimation. For oscillations corresponding to the sea period and differing from the natural period at which the vessel seems to move should be disregarded. In order to obtain satisfactory results. Specialized recording equipment is necessary. However.26 . For the following reasons.will be higher than that of the same ship having an empty double bottom. 6. Experiments have shown that the results of the rolling test method get increasingly less reliable the nearer they approach GM-values of 0.• the rolling coefficient for a ship carrying a great amount of bunkers and ballast . If this is done. In view of the foregoing circumstances. Frequently. the influences exerted by the vicinity of the quay. thus.both groups are usually located in the double bottom. sometimes it may be desirable to use the vessel’s period of roll as a means of approximately judging the stability at sea. the limited depth of water and the free surface of liquids in service tanks are covered.

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