TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE.....................................................................................................................................6 ..................................................................................................................................................................6 INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................................6 HOW WIRELESS WORKS ..................................................................................................................7 SPREADING THE SPECTRUM..........................................................................................................................8 SPREAD SPECTRUM: DOWN TO THE BITS.........................................................................................................9 INTRODUCTION TO SPREAD SPECTRUM..................................................................................10 HOW SPREAD SPECTRUM WORKS...............................................................................................................12 DETAILS ON SPREAD SPECTRUM.................................................................................................................12 DIRECT SEQUENCE SYSTEMS ......................................................................................................................12 FREQUENCY HOPPING SYSTEMS...................................................................................................................12 DIRECT SEQUENCE VS FREQUENCY HOPPING ..............................................................................................13 WHAT SPREAD SPECTRUM DOES................................................................................................................15 CHAPTER TWO .................................................................................................................................17 CODE DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS...........................................................................................17 THE CDMA STANDARDS..................................................................................................................17 CDMA STANDARD: IS-95A ..................................................................................................................17 WHY CDMA..........................................................................................................................................17 BACKGROUND OF CDMA................................................................................................................18 CHAPTER THREE..............................................................................................................................20 POWER CONTROL IN CDMA..........................................................................................................20 THE NEAR-FAR PROBLEM.........................................................................................................................20 POWER CONTROL TECHNIQUES (PCT).......................................................................................................21 Reverse Link Power Control ..........................................................................................................21
Open Loop Control...................................................................................................................................21 Closed Loop Control ................................................................................................................................21

Forward Link Power Control ........................................................................................................22 Reverse Outer loop Power Control................................................................................................22 Power Control in Soft Handoff.......................................................................................................22 POWER MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES (PMT)...............................................................................................23 Forward Handoff Boundary...........................................................................................................23 Reverse Handoff Boundary ............................................................................................................23 Breathing........................................................................................................................................24 Wilting.............................................................................................................................................24 Blossoming......................................................................................................................................24 CHAPTER FOUR.................................................................................................................................25 HANDOFF..............................................................................................................................................25 HANDOFFS IN CDMA.........................................................................................................................25 STEPS IN HANDOFF ..................................................................................................................................25 SOFT HANDOFF........................................................................................................................................26 Forward CDMA Channel...............................................................................................................27

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Reverse Power Control...................................................................................................................27 Reverse CDMA Channel.................................................................................................................27 INITIATION OF SOFT HANDOFF...................................................................................................................28 Pilot Search.....................................................................................................................................28 Detection Thresholds......................................................................................................................28 CASES WHERE CDMA DOES NOT USE SOFT HANDOFFS................................................................................28 Inter Frequency Handoffs...............................................................................................................28 Timing Changes..............................................................................................................................29 Digital-to-Analog............................................................................................................................29 Handoffs between FM and CDMA systems ...................................................................................29 "SOFTER" HANDOFF.............................................................................................................................29 CHAPTER FIVE .................................................................................................................................30 CHANNELS...........................................................................................................................................30 CDMA CHANNELS..............................................................................................................................30 CDMA FORWARD CHANNELS..................................................................................................................30 Pilot Channel..................................................................................................................................30 Sync Channel..................................................................................................................................30 Paging Channel..............................................................................................................................30 Forward Traffic Channel................................................................................................................30 CDMA REVERSE CHANNELS....................................................................................................................31 Access Channel...............................................................................................................................31 Reverse Traffic Channel.................................................................................................................31 CHAPTER SIX.....................................................................................................................................32 CODES....................................................................................................................................................32 PN CODES.............................................................................................................................................32 FORWARD CDMA CHANNEL....................................................................................................................33
CHAPTER SEVEN.................................................................................................................................34

CAPACITY............................................................................................................................................34 CDMA CAPACITY...............................................................................................................................34 CDMA CAPACITY INCREASES .................................................................................................................34 CDMA AND CELL REUSE........................................................................................................................34 EB/NO AND INTERFERENCE THRESHOLD .....................................................................................................35 CDMA CAPACITY IMPROVEMENTS ...........................................................................................................35 BASIC CAPACITY CALCULATIONS - 3 SECTOR AMPS TO 3 SECTOR CDMA..................................................35 FIRST CDMA CARRIER ALLOCATION .......................................................................................................36 CAPACITY OF A CDMA NETWORK..............................................................................................36 SINGLE CELL CDMA CAPACITY..............................................................................................................37 Augmented Performance with CDMA............................................................................................38 Reverse Link Power Control in Multiple-Cell Systems..................................................................39 CAPACITY FOR MULTIPLE CELL CDMA.....................................................................................................39 Multiple-Cell Forward Link Capacity with Power Allocation.......................................................40 CONCLUSIONS AND COMPARISONS..............................................................................................................40 FACTORS INFLUENCING CAPACITY...........................................................................................40 VOICE ACTIVITY DETECTION.....................................................................................................................40 CDMA POWER CONTROL........................................................................................................................40 COVERAGE VERSUS CAPACITY....................................................................................................41 CHAPTER EIGHT...............................................................................................................................42

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CDMA STEPS........................................................................................................................................42 MODULATION IN CDMA..................................................................................................................42 CORRELATION...................................................................................................................................42 DE-SPREADING AND DETECTION................................................................................................43 VOICE CODING...................................................................................................................................43 MULTIPATH AND CDMA..................................................................................................................44 FADING DUE TO MULTIPATH .....................................................................................................................45 EFFECTS OF FADING ................................................................................................................................45 CHAPTER NINE .................................................................................................................................46 TIMING..................................................................................................................................................46 CDMA AND SYSTEM TIMING.........................................................................................................46 THE "CLOCK".........................................................................................................................................46 The system time scale......................................................................................................................46 The reference state of the system clock relative to system time......................................................46 HOW TO SET A CLOCK & FIND OUT THE TIME ...............................................................................................47 If you are a base station: GPS........................................................................................................47 If you are a mobile, listen to a base station....................................................................................47 PROCESS OF SYNCHRONIZATION TO SYSTEM TIME ........................................................................................47 CHAPTER TEN....................................................................................................................................48 PLANNING............................................................................................................................................48 RADIO PLANNING..............................................................................................................................48 OBJECTIVE .............................................................................................................................................49 COVERAGE..............................................................................................................................................49 CAPACITY...............................................................................................................................................49 ANTENNA...............................................................................................................................................49 DRIVE TEST............................................................................................................................................49 OPTIMIZATION.........................................................................................................................................50 Network Parameters Optimization.................................................................................................50 CHAPTER ELEVEN............................................................................................................................51 RF FUNDAMENTALS OF PLANNING.............................................................................................51 THEORY.............................................................................................................................................51 RADIO.................................................................................................................................................51 SIDEBANDS ......................................................................................................................................51 SPREAD SPECTRUM........................................................................................................................51 DEMODULATION.............................................................................................................................52 ANTENNA THEORY.........................................................................................................................52 0.6 FRESNEL ZONE..........................................................................................................................52 SPACE ATTENUATION...................................................................................................................52 DECIBELS..........................................................................................................................................52 ANTENNA TYPES.............................................................................................................................53 COAXIAL CABLE.............................................................................................................................53 DATA QUALITY...............................................................................................................................53 SYSTEM CALCULATIONS..............................................................................................................53 SITE.....................................................................................................................................................53 INSTALLATION TIPS.......................................................................................................................54 TESTING.............................................................................................................................................54

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..........................................56 INSTALLATION & NETWORK OPTIMIZATION............................................64 PROBLEMS & THEIR SOLUTIONS IN THE WLL NETWORK.................56 Site Acquisition services ...................................57 Propagation modeling.......63 ANALYSIS AND NETWORK IMPLEMENTATION...............54 IMPLICATIONS FOR CELL PLANNING ...........................................................................................57 SPECTRUM ENGINEERING & FREQUENCY MANAGEMENT.........................................................................................................................................57 RF DESIGN STANDARDS & GUIDELINES..... and Scheduling for a CDMA Downlink System ........................................................................................................60 CHAPTER THIRTEEN....................63 NETWORK OPTIMIZATION.............................................................................65 THE STATIC AND DROPPED CALLS THAT ARE HAUNTING THE CUSTOMERS MAY BE COMING FROM THE CELL SITE...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................60 KEY ELEMENTS IN DESIGNING CELLULAR............................................................................................................................................................................................................58 NETWORK & SWITCHING INFRASTRUCTURE DESIGN .....................60 Cluster Drive Tests....................................63 THE BASIC NETWORKING CONCEPTS:.....57 RF COVERAGE DESIGNS AND CAPACITY ANALYSES ..........................................................58 MOBILE SYSTEM FREQUENCY PLANNING & DESIGN ........................................................................58 RF SIGNAL COVERAGE DESIGNS ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................63 RF ENGINEERING CAPABILITIES.........58 TRAFFIC CAPACITY PLANNING & DESIGN ................................... Error Correction Coding................................... ................................................................... ........................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................................61 CHAPTER FOURTEEN.............................56 FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ENGINEERING........................................................................................59 COMPREHENSIVE RF OPTIMIZATION SERVICES ................................................................................................................................66 STEPS FOR ABATEMENT .. ................................................................................................................................................................65 SITE SELECTION................................................................67 CONCLUSION ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................67 CDMA IN WIRELESS LOCAL LOOP.......................................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................66 OTHER RF PROTECTION.............................................................57 INTERFERENCE ANALYSIS ........................................68 CDMA & RF Planning Page 4 of 73 Mukul ..................................................................................................58 NETWORK INTERCONNECTION.......... ..................................................................................................................................................................................56 COMMUNICATIONS SITE MANAGEMENT...........66 PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Unified Power Control..............................56 RF SERVICES...56 NETWORK ENGINEERING WITHIN RF PLANNING...63 NETWORK DEPLOYMENT AND PERFORMANCE......................................56 SITE SELECTION & SITE ACQUISITION .......................................................................63 THE PLANNING TOOL............................................................................................................................................................................................63 NETWORK PERFORMANCE AND QUALITY TESTING.....................................................................................59 COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN SERVICES ...................................................................66 TEST MEASUREMENTS...IDENTIFYING & RESOLVING CONFLICT.....................................................................................................................................66 SHIELDING........................................................................................................................................59 NETWORK SERVICES..................58 MICROWAVE RADIO SYSTEM PLANNING & DESIGN ...............................................60 Prior to Drive Tests:...................................................................................................................................................................................................59 RADIO FREQUENCY NETWORK PERFORMANCE........................................................................................................................................................................................................60 Initial Drive Tests:.........................................55 CHAPTER TWELVE .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................61 QUALITY OF SERVICE..................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................71 CONCLUSION.....70 STEPS FOR TRANSMITTING INTER CITY..................................................................................................70 INTER CITY MICROWAVE BACKHAUL.......................................................71 TEN TOP ADVANTAGES USING CDMA......69 MICROWAVE BACKHAUL CONNECTIVITY.......................................................................71 STEPS FOR TRANSMITTING INTRA CITY...70 STEPS FOR RECEIVING INTER CITY.......................................................................68 WLL SUBSCRIBER TERMINALS.................................................69 WLL INTERFACES TO THE PSTN....................72 CDMA & RF Planning Page 5 of 73 Mukul ......................................................................71 STEPS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF E1 IN THE INTERCITY MICROWAVE BACKBONE.............................................................................................NETWORK DEPLOYMENT..................................71 STEP FOR RECEIVING INTRA CITY:....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................70 INTRA CITY MICROWAVE BACKHAUL...................71 STEPS FOR DISTRIBUTION OF E1 WITHIN THE CITY.............................................................................................

wireless data transmission and satellite communications. it is necessary for the system to resist external interference. Anti-jam capability-particularly for narrow-band jamming. All users in the CDMA system use the same carrier frequency and CDMA & RF Planning Page 6 of 73 Mukul . It is only recently that practical implementations became feasible. which is a pseudo-noise code sequence that has a rate much greater than the data rate of the message. All of the spread-spectrum systems have to satisfy two criteria: 1. Interference rejection. 3. it is sometimes unavoidable to sacrifice some of the efficiency in order to enhance these features. In some cases. Transmitted bandwidth must be determined by some function that is independent of the message and is known to the receiver. such as FM and PCM. In a CDMA system. to operate at low spectral energy. Ranging CDMA is a wireless communications technology that uses the principle of spread spectrum communication. Multiple-access capability. but has also other advantages including extended range and more secure communications.CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Designers and planners of the communication systems are often concerned with the efficiency with which the systems utilize the signal energy and bandwidth. Secure communications. CDMA uses these code sequences as a means of distinguishing between individual conversations. Bandwidth expansion in spread spectrum systems is achieved by using a function that is independent of the message. Covert operation or low probability of intercept (LPI) 6. In most communication systems these are the most important issues. Spread spectrum techniques have other applications that make it unique and useful. the spread spectrum technology was developed and used for military purposes and their implementations were too expensive for the commercial applications. 4. Applications of this technology include cellular. These applications include: 1. Thus. thus it is more susceptible to white noise as opposed to other communication techniques. The intent of CDMA technology is to provide increased bandwidth in a limited frequency system. 7. The theoretical aspects of using spread spectrum in a strong interference environment have been known for over forty years. 2. New technological advancements such as VLSI. Improved spectral efficiency-in special circumstances 8. to provide multiple access capability without external control and secure channel not accessible to the outsiders. Spread spectrum techniques allow accomplishing such objectives. Multi-path protection 5. In the beginning. a narrowband message signal is multiplied by a spreading signal. The bandwidth of the transmitted signal must be greater than the transmitted signal 2. and advanced signal processing techniques made it possible to develop less expensive spread spectrum equipment for civilian use.

The advanced methods used in commercial CDMA technology improve capacity. Wireless technology uses individual radio frequencies repeatedly by dividing a service area into separate geographic zones called cells. When a cellular mobile is switched on it scans the group of control channels to determine the strongest base station signal. How Wireless Works Before we start talking about the CDMA we shall be familiar with the wireless. CDMA is being rapidly implemented in the wireless communications networks of many large communications corporations. and wireless data terminals. efficiency. CDMA is becoming a leading technology for relieving the spectrum congestion caused by the explosion in popularity of cellular mobile phones. CDMA systems provide operators and subscribers with significant advantages over analog and conventional TDMA-based systems. or as large as 20 miles across. Multiple users can therefore occupy the same frequency band. Because the system operates at such low power. such as an office." It is a form of spread-spectrum. CDMA stands for "Code Division Multiple Access. it uses mathematical codes to transmit and distinguish between multiple wireless conversations. The mobile switching center (MSC) dispatches the request to all base stations in the cellular system. fixed wireless telephones. CDMA is a driving technology behind the rapidly advancing personal communications industry. CDMA receivers. separate communication channels by a pseudo-random modulation that is applied and removed in the digital domain. Cells can be as small as an individual building. CDMA has gained international acceptance by cellular radio system operators as an upgrade because of its universal frequency reuse and noise-like characteristics. (This allows much greater capacity than radio systems like Citizens CDMA & RF Planning Page 7 of 73 Mukul . Old-fashioned radio receivers separate stations and channels by filtering in the frequency domain.may transmit simultaneously. and identifies itself through the reverse control channel. as do traditional technologies. All of these events happen within a few seconds that are unnoticeable by the users. The mobile identification number (MIN). and the MSC instructs the base station to move the call to an unused channel. Since becoming an officially recognized digital cellular protocol. However. When a telephone call is placed. Its bandwidth is much wider than that required for simple point-to-point communications at the same data rate because it uses noise-like carrier waves to spread the information contained in a signal of interest over a much greater bandwidth. In this document I will be discussing about CDMA in detail. because the conversations taking place are distinguished by digital codes. leading to a new generation of wireless networks. conversely. Control channels are only involved in setting up a call and moving it to an unused channel. a frequency being used to carry a telephone conversation in one cell can be used to carry a conversation in a nearby cell without interference. Each cell must be equipped with its own radio transmitter/receiver antenna. Instead of using frequencies or time slots. coverage and voice quality. signal is sent to the base station. which is the subscriber's telephone number. The base station of the mobile informs the MSC of the "handshake". an advanced digital wireless transmission technique. Because of its greater bandwidth. and multiple access capabilities. many users can share the same bandwidth simultaneously. This universal frequency reuse is crucial to CDMA's distinguishing high spectral efficiency. is then broadcast as a paging message to the forward control channels throughout the cellular system. The mobile receives the page.

This means that the signal may be spread over a large bandwidth with smaller spectral power levels and still achieve the required data rate. Because each signal is an assembly of many smaller signals at the fundamental frequency and its harmonics. This process is known as a "handoff". thus signals must be transmitted with enough power so the corruption by gaussian noise is not as effective and the probability that the data received is correct will remain low. increasing the frequency results in a more accurate reconstruction of the original signal. the wireless network senses that the signal is becoming weak and automatically hands off the call to the antenna in the next cell into which the caller is traveling. the performance increase for very wideband systems is referred to as "process gain". The effective drawback of narrow-band data communications is the limitation of bandwidth. Spreading the Spectrum Spread spectrum multiple access transmits the entire signal over a bandwidth that is much greater than that required for standard narrow band transmissions in order to gain signal-to-noise (S/N) performance. The S/N ratio may be decreased without decreasing the bit error rate. The wireless carrier in the area where they are traveling provides service so they can still make calls. In channels with narrow-band noise. Errors introduced by a noisy channel can be reduced to any desired level without sacrificing the rate of information transfer using Claude Shannon's equation describing channel capacity: C =W log 2 (1+S/N) Where C = Channel capacity in bits per second. W = Bandwidth. S/N = Energy per bit/Noise power.car phone or portable . increasing the transmitted signal bandwidth results in an increased probability that the received information will be correct. If the total signal power is interpreted as the area under the spectral density curve. then signals with equivalent total power may have either a large signal power concentrated in a small bandwidth or a small signal power spread over a large bandwidth. The benefits of increasing bandwidth become more clear.) When a customer using a wireless phone . Roaming occurs when subscribers travel beyond their home geographical area. The PN code runs at a higher rate than the RF signal and determines the actual transmission bandwidth. From a system viewpoint.Band (CB) in which all users contend to get their messages on the same limited channels. as the entire transmitted/received message is purely digital. CDMA & RF Planning Page 8 of 73 Mukul . Messages can be encoded to any level of secrecy desired with direct sequencing. This term is used to describe the received signal fidelity gained at the cost of bandwidth. This means that the effective SNR must be high enough so that the receiver should have no problem in recovering the transmitted code without error.approaches the boundary of one cell. A CDMA spread spectrum signal is created by modulating the radio frequency signal with a spreading sequence (a code consisting of a series of binary pulses) known as a pseudo-noise (PN) digital signal because they make the signal appear wide band and "noise like".

When referring to the number of "chips" used. We should keep in mind that each transmitter can be CDMA & RF Planning Page 9 of 73 Mukul . A PN-code is a sequence of high data rate bits ("chips") ranging from -1 to 1 (polar) or 0 to 1 (non-polar). Simply by multiplying the original modulated signal by this high data rate PNcode will result in dividing the signal into smaller bits. multiple users utilize each CDMA carrier frequency. The signal is divided up into smaller bits by multiplying it by a Pseudo-Noise code. The basic operation of the transmitter and receiver for spread spectrum will now be described briefly. if each system uses a unique spreading code to reduce interference between the different radios. PN-code. because the spreaded signal power is near that of gaussian noise levels. The reuse pattern is N=1. Narrow band communications. or lower spectral power density. An SS correlator can be thought of as a specially matched filter -. makes SS signals less likely to interfere with narrow band communications. This correlator does not respond to manmade. cause little to no interference to SS systems because the correlation receiver effectively integrates over a very wide bandwidth to recover an SS signal. Assuming this number is 10. SSMA is not very bandwidth efficient when used by a single user. and hence. each bit of the original signal would be divided up into 10 separate bits. The spread of energy over a wide band. By increasing the data rate by 10.An SS receiver uses a locally generated replica of pseudo noise (PN) code and a receiver correlator to separate only the desired coded information from all the possible signals. Direct sequence is spread spectrum technique in which the bandwidth of a signal is increased by artificially increasing the bit data rate. However. increase its bandwidth. SS radios can tolerate a high level of interference unlike conventional radios. we mean the number of small data bits in the PN-code per single bit of the original signal. The greater number of "chips" used results in a wider bandwidth proportional to the number of "chips". natural or artificial noise or interference. The correlator then "spreads" out a narrow band interferer over the receiver's total detection bandwidth. SS systems become bandwidth efficient in multiple user environments. This is done by breaking each bit into a number of sub-bits called "chips". Many spread spectrum radios can share the same frequency band. providing much greater capacity increase in frequency reuse.it responds only to signals that are encoded with a pseudo noise code that matches its own code. This reason makes SS communication an ideal choice for metropolitan areas with large blocking rates. that is. since many users can share the same spread spectrum bandwidth without interfering with one another. or "chips. Because only the receiver with the identical code can de spread the signal to recover the signal." This results in an increase in the data rate by 10. conversely. we also increase the bandwidth by 10. Thus an SS correlator (SS signal demodulator) can be "tuned" to different codes simply by changing its local code. Let's assume there are two transmitters with two different messages to be transmitted. Spread Spectrum: down to the bits CDMA technology focuses primarily on the "direct sequence" method of spread spectrum. Frequency reuse is universal. It responds only to SS signals with identical matched signal characteristics and encoded with the identical PN code.

In order for a receiver to extract a single message. Reception is accomplished by cross correlation of the received wide-band signal with a synchronously generated replica of the wide-band carrier. 2. it must multiply the incoming signal by the correct PN-code. wideband signal. The bandwidth of the carrier is much wider than the bandwidth of the data modulation. In case of spread spectrum (SS) systems. One of the most important features of the SS signal is that it contains large number of very different signaling formats used for communicating data symbols. it means that it appears to be random but in fact the information is contained within it. all messages are modulated on the same carrier frequency. and this can be manipulated by the system designer to get the desired effect. 3. and again multiplied by the same PN-code at the receiver end. we represent these transmissions by simply summing their spectrums. this technique of multiplying by the PN-code works perfectly. For spread spectrum. Lastly. each signal is transmitted. or pseudorandom. let's assume the range values for the PN-code is -1 and 1. the desired signal is demodulated to eliminate the carrier frequency. or the jammer CDMA & RF Planning Page 10 of 73 Mukul . have a multiplicity factor near unity while SS systems have multiplicity factors in the thousands. It means that the receiver which detects one of these formats cannot detect any other format within a single message. we effectively canceled out the PN-code for that particular message. the incoming signal is the spread spectrum signal.thought of as separate cell phones. which is not very likely considering the size of SS multiplicity factor. The receiver circuit that does this is called a correlator. After spreading the bandwidth. The output for each of the modulators is S1(t) and S2(t). This operation selects only the desired signal while rejecting all surrounding frequencies due to other messages in the spread spectrum. The number of formats used in an SS system is called the multiplicity factor of the communication link. if a signal is called pseudorandom. By eliminating the PN-code. each signal is multiplied by its own unique Pseudo-Noise code. and it collapses the spread signal back down to just the original narrow bandwidth centered at the modulated carrier frequency. Since the original signal at the transmitter end was multiplied by the PN-code. Thus. This rejection is known as the processing gain of the de spreading correlation process. C1(t) and C2(t). Most of the well known communication systems. After the modulator. we eliminate the spread spectrum effects for that particular message signal. For this example. The carrier is an unpredictable. Because many signals can be transmitted from different transmitters at the same time. Because we chose the PN-code to range from -1 to 1. The resulting signal is then passed through a band pass filter (BPF) centered at the carrier frequency. It refers to the increase in signal-to-noise ratio that results from this process. Processing gain increases as the number of chips per data bit increases. These are the high data rate bit patterns which spreads the signal's bandwidth. and is required for successful data communications. Introduction to Spread Spectrum The basic characteristics of spread spectrum system as follows: 1. The messages M1(t) and M2(t) first go through a modulator to modulate the message at a higher carrier frequency. Processing gain is a direct consequence of the direct sequence radio signal spreading and de spreading process. it can be seen that a jammer attempting to interfere with SS communication has to know exactly which signaling factors are being used. At the receiver end.

. High time resolution is attained by the correlation detection of wide-band signals. These two signals enter a correlation detector which extracts the message. In a stored reference (SR) system. Matched filter with such response is used at the receiver in order to recover transmitted signal. pure noise was used for a signal carrier. There is a chance though that the jammer can gain access to both channels thus reducing the multiplicity factor to 1 (no anti-jamming capability). and the carrier modulation is effectively random to an unwanted observer. 3. Another way to classify the SS system is by the modulation technique used to generate the SS signals. In early developments of SS techniques. is now on the verge of potentially explosive commercial development. both receiver and transmitter keep a 'copy' of the same pseudorandom signal. Matched filtering can also be used for reception of SS signals. These systems are called spread-spectrum code-division multiple-access (CDMA) systems. There are three basic configurations used for recovery of the SS carrier: 1. The jammer cannot use signal observations to improve its performance in this case. Differences in the time of arrival (TOA) of the wide-band signal. This property can be used to suppress multipath and. Anti jam (AJ) capability can be secured with an unpredictable carrier signal. Transmitter-receiver pairs using independent random carriers can operate in the same bandwidth with minimal cochannel interference. Scholtz recognizes at least five important performance attributes of SS systems which are due to the nature of their signal characteristics: 1. A system using indistinguishable data and SS carrier modulation is a form of privacy system. 4. in addition to intercept and DFing. source identification. Filter systems produce a wide-band. Low probability of intercept (LPI) can be achieved with high processing gain and unpredictable carrier signals when power is spread thinly and uniformly in the frequency domain. Detection is then similar to TR system. by the same token. one modulated by data and other unmodulated. 3. Low probability of signal exploitation (LPSE) may include additional effects. A low probability of position fix (LPPF) attribute goes one step further in including both intercept and direction finding (DFing) in its evaluation. and must rely on jamming techniques which are independent of the signal to be jammed. This technique gave superior randomness but could be accomplished only by TR system. to render repeater jammers ineffective. Transmitted reference (TR) system achieves detection by transmitting two versions of the carrier.g. which are distributed over a wide range of frequencies and then collected CDMA & RF Planning Page 11 of 73 Mukul . "Spread-spectrum radio communications. 5. 2. making detection against noise by the survailance receiver difficult. e. Carrier generator at the receiver is adjusted automatically in order to synchronize its output with the arriving carrier. Pseudorandom characteristic of the impulse response ensures security of the transmitted signal. pseudorandom impulse response. Some of the techniques are listed below: 1. 2. The reason: spread-spectrum signals. long a favorite technology of the military because it resists jamming and is hard for an enemy to intercept.has to reduce significantly his power per each signaling format by jamming all of the formats. In this case the SS carrier modulation takes on the role of a key in a cipher system. are detectable. Cryptographic capabilities result when the data modulation cannot be distinguished from the carrier modulation. on the order of the reciprocal of the signal bandwidth.

This capability is the main reason for all the interest in Spread Spectrum today. Binary code sequences as short as 11 bits or as long as [2^(89) . How Spread Spectrum Works them more noise-like. so are they unlikely to interfere with other signals intended for business and consumer users -. Spread and narrow band signals can occupy the same band. along with the basic information being sent. a class of modulation techniques usually called "Spread Spectrum. they transmit at a much lower spectral power density. at code rates from under a bit per second to several hundred megabits per second. to modulate their RF carrier. Such an advantage opens up crowded frequency spectra to vastly expanded use. To qualify as a spread spectrum signal. Details on Spread Spectrum Over the last 50 years. are so inconspicuous as to be 'transparent. This group of modulation techniques is characterized by its wide frequency spectra. Direct sequence systems Direct sequence spread spectrum systems are so called because they employ a high speed code sequence. The result of modulating an RF carrier with such a code sequence is to produce a signal centered at the carrier frequency. two criteria should be met: 1. The transmitted signal bandwidth is much greater than the information bandwidth.1] have been employed for this purpose. The high speed code sequence is used directly to modulate the carrier. The main lobe of this spectrum has a bandwidth twice the clock rate of the modulating code. Spread Spectrum signals use fast codes that run many times the information bandwidth or data rate. They are called "Pseudo" because they are not real gaussian noise.onto their original frequency at the receiver. The sidelobes have a null to null bandwidth equal to the code's clock rate.even ones transmitted on the same frequencies. This lower transmitted power density characteristic gives spread signals a big plus." has been developed. measured in Watts per Hertz. Frequency hopping systems CDMA & RF Planning Page 12 of 73 Mukul . direct sequence modulated spread spectrum with a (sin x/x)2 frequency spectrum.A binary phase shift keyed (BPSK) signal is the most common modulation signal type used in direct sequence systems. Some function other than the information being transmitted is employed to determine the resultant transmitted bandwidth. from null to null. The modulated output signals occupy a much greater bandwidth than the signal's baseband information bandwidth. with little or no interference. thereby directly setting the transmitted RF bandwidth. Spread Spectrum transmitters use similar transmit power levels to narrow band transmitters. Because Spread Spectrum signals are so wide. than narrowband transmitters.' Just as they are unlikely to be intercepted by a military opponent. 2. These special "Spreading" codes are called "Pseudo Random" or "Pseudo Noise" codes. Direct sequence spectra vary somewhat in spectral shape depending upon the actual carrier and data modulation used.

They purposely spread their signals across a very large band of frequencies. Most of these portable handheld computers rely on radio transmissions in the 2. That is. Range and coverage are often increased by using a network of repeaters that receive. and retransmit the signal. Each carrier frequency and its associated sidebands must stay within the channel width defined by the ETSI. the radio transmitter hops from one carrier frequency to another at a specific hopping rate. it "hops" from frequency to frequency over a wide band. Each receiver must know what spreading pattern or code the transmitter is using in order to decode the signals being sent. Reduced signal-to-noise of a spread spectrum signal is regained by the use of a despreading process in the receiver that boosts the level of the despread signal. and maintains a degree of privacy. Radio receivers use demodulators to get rid of the carrier frequency and extract the desired information. Instead of a [(sin x)/x]^2-shaped envelope. Radio signals consist of a carrier frequency to which information (audio. Modulation creates sidebands on both sides of the carrier frequency. The bandwidth of a frequency hopping signal is simply w times the number of frequency slots available. This avoids interference between adjacent carrier frequencies. It does just what its name implies. video. or digital data) is added in a process called modulation. and it is these sidebands that carry the information to be transmitted. the bit rates are in the range of 200 Kbps to 2Mbps. If only the intended receiver knows the transmitter's hopping pattern.4 GHz band the ETSI has established for unlicensed operation of spread spectrum radios. very high data rates are possible. where w is the bandwidth of each hop channel. The person operating the receiver needs to know what frequency to tune into (the carrier frequency) before the receiver can do the demodulation. then only that receiver can follow the transmission. in a specific sequence that appears to be a random pattern. The specific order in which frequencies are occupied is a function of a code sequence. amplify. This is called processing gain. Also. The transmitted spectrum of a frequency hopping signal is quite different from that of a direct sequence system. and the rate of hopping from one frequency to another is a function of the information rate. and rely on the fact that others in that band are doing the same. Direct Sequence Vs Frequency Hopping The nature of radio signals used for data transmissions RF portable data collection systems rely on radio waves to transmit information to a remote computer or wired network interface. the receiver must be using the correct method of demodulation that corresponds to the method used by the transmitter. Because the ETSI allows very wide bandwidths for spread spectrum radio transmissions. One issue associated with spread spectrum radios is receiver signal-to-noise as compared to a narrow-band transmission. The two most popular methods of encoding spread spectrum signals are called Direct Dequence (DS) spread.The wideband frequency spectrum desired is generated in a different manner in a frequency hopping system. CDMA & RF Planning Page 13 of 73 Mukul . Typically. Frequency Hopping (FH) In FH systems. Spread spectrum radio Spread spectrum transmitters maintain user privacy and avoid interference by the way they encode their frequency signals. the frequency hopper's output is flat over the band of frequencies used. and Frequency Hopping (FH).

and this can be manipulated by the system designer to get the desired effect. The resulting signal is demodulated to extract the data. and it collapses the spread signal back down to just the data side bands. if 10 chips are used. This is done by breaking each bit into 10 or more sub-bits called "chips". Processing gain is a direct consequence of the direct sequence radio signal spreading and despreading process. Performance Comparison Frequency hopped signals will generally have better adjacent channel selectivity compared to DS spread signals. FH systems are forced to stay on more of the time because of the need to constantly synchronize their hopping CDMA & RF Planning Page 14 of 73 Mukul . ADS radio can more easily rely on the wireless network access points to determine when it can shut down to conserve power. The ETSI allows FH systems to define their own channel spacing up to a maximum 1 MHz bandwidth in the 2. But FH radios must hop through 50 channels. For example. This is done by matching the proper spread code to the received spread signal. A receiver having the same despreading code as the transmitter can extract information from a DS spread signal. In those cases the data is retransmitted on the next hopping frequency. There also are ETSI requirements on the amount of time the transmitter can spend on any one channel. DS spread signals can actually be received and correlated even when they are lower than the accompanying noise on the channel. The receiver circuit that does this is called a correlator. Selective use of channels is not allowed in frequency hopping. There is a communications protocol that transmitters and receivers employ to cover those instances when two different transmitters attempt to use the same frequency simultaneously. This usually results in better overall reliability. A spread spectrum transmitter with a unique spread code cannot create the exact same side-bands (spectral lines) as another transmitter using a different code. This rejection is known as the processing gain of the despreading correlation process.Other FH transmitters will be using different patterns. This is done to avoid "collisions" between different transmitters. the processing gain of the despreading correlator regains the apparent loss in power when the correlator signal is collapsed back down to the data bandwidth. Processing gain increases as the number of chips per data bit increases. Removing the chipping also allows the modulated signal to be filtered at a narrow bandwidth. Filtering helps reject interference from other transmitters. The logic is that DS spreading lowers the signal power at any one frequency. the apparent data rate and resulting bandwidth also are increased proportionally. DS spread radios broaden the bandwidth of their transmissions by artificially increasing the data bit rate. DS spread radios also offer the opportunity for better power management than FH radios. DS radio users have the freedom of selecting the channels that have the least amount of traffic and interference in their area. which usually will be on non interfering frequencies.4 GHz band. The ETSI requires this to keep spectrum usage uniform and random. and thus removing the effects of chipping. In reality. and the number of channels that must be used. Direct Sequence Spread Rather than hop around the band. However. It is sometimes argued that DS spreading results in a weaker signal-to-noise ratio than the narrower FH signals. It refers to the increase in signal-to-noise ratio that results from this process. and is required for successful data communications.

Because of the processing gain of the receiver's correlator. might have a processing gain of from 11 to 16 dB. battery life is potentially longer with DS spread radios than it is with their FH counterparts. or lower spectral power density. Signal exploitation is the ability of an enemy (or a non-network member) to listen in to a network and use information from the network without being a valid network member or participant. It can tolerate total jammer power levels of from 0 to 5 dB stronger than the desired signal. the aspects and the does and don'ts while planning a network. All SS systems have a threshold or tolerance level of interference beyond which useful communication ceases. makes SS signals less likely to interfere with narrow band communications. and implementing efficient. spreading. cause little to no interference to SS systems because the correlation receiver effectively integrates over a very wide bandwidth to recover an SS signal. interleaving. Examines the access and reverse traffic code channels that make up the CDMA reverse channel. What Spread Spectrum Does The use of these special pseudo noise codes in spread spectrum (SS) communications makes signals appear wide band and noise-like. sync. Narrow band communications. For CDMA Cellular Mobile I have tried to provide some guidelines to planning. Therefore. Thus SS signals can be made to have any degree of message privacy that is desired. Then go through the fundamentals of cellular system planning. SS signals also are naturally more secure than narrowband radio communications. repeating. including its pilot. spread spectrum signals are hard to exploit or spoof. This tolerance or threshold is related to the SS processing gain.sequence with that of the RF network access points. Then. Processing gain is essentially the ratio of the RF bandwidth to the information bandwidth. Walk through the design issues surrounding the CDMA forward channel. and forward traffic code channels. The correlator then "spreads" out a narrow band interferer over the receiver's total detection bandwidth. Messages can also. Understand the techniques for encoding. Spoofing is the act of falsely or maliciously introducing misleading or false traffic or messages to a network. paging. secure CDMA networks. CDMA is an attractive technique for wireless access to broadband services and has emerged as the leading technology for today's new mobile communications systems. Besides being hard to intercept and jam. depending on data rate. This document provides an in-depth treatment of the important concepts for architecting. It is this very characteristic that makes SS signals possess the quality of Low Probability of Intercept. modulation. SS signals are hard to detect on narrow band equipment because the signal's energy is spread over a bandwidth of maybe 100 times the information bandwidth. The main objective of the document is to learn all the fundamentals to intensive system concepts and innovative implementation techniques for CDMA spread spectrum multiple access communications. Yes. filtering and QPSK transmission that make CDMA possible. Since the total integrated signal density or SNR at the correlator's input determines whether there will be interference or not. and securing the efficient CDMA cellular systems. The spread of energy over a wide band. A typical commercial direct sequence radio. conversely. developing. the system can work at negative SNR in the RF bandwidth. take a look at each CDMA code channel. analyzing. the system functions at positive SNR on the baseband data. CDMA & RF Planning Page 15 of 73 Mukul . designing.

be cryptographically encoded to any level of secrecy desired. The very allows military or intelligence levels of privacy and security to be had complexity. While these characteristics may not be very important business and LAN (local area network) needs. nature of SS with minimal to everyday important to CDMA & RF Planning Page 16 of 73 Mukul . these features are understand.

are used to differentiate subscribers.250 kHz (1. neither one of the following two standards address the quality or reliability of the service. Power Control. the TIA gave its approval of the CDMA IS-95 standard." In March 1992. unique digital codes. The subscriber stations have more compatibility requirements than the base stations. The other one is for the CDMA PCS J. and are called "pseudo-Random Code Sequences. Handoff. The codes are shared by both the mobile station (cellular phone) and the base station. the capacity provided from these three multiple schemes are same. Why CDMA The CDMA scheme was developed mainly to increase capacity. The development of digital cellular systems for increasing capacity came just as the analog cellular system faced a capacity limitation in 1987. Compatibility (Radio Interface and Call Processing Protocols are specified to ensure this). CDMA is a digital multiple access technique specified by the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) as "IS-95. Code division multiple access (CDMA) is a digital air interface standard. In theory. It CDMA & RF Planning Page 17 of 73 Mukul . the capacity of the system will be dependent on a number of different factors. 1995. "This will be discussed in later sections.STD 008(1800 MHz band) and is not described here in this document. 1993 and IS95A revision was published in May. In July of 1993. claiming eight to fifteen times the capacity of analog. it does not matter whether the spectrum is divided into frequencies. time slots." All users share the same range of radio spectrum. the TIA established the TR-45. For cellular telephony.CHAPTER TWO CODE DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS The CDMA Standards With CDMA. However in cellular systems we might that one is better suited in certain communication media than another.5 subcommittee with the charter of developing a spread-spectrum digital cellular standard. CDMA Standard: IS-95A IS-95A defines a compatibility standard for wideband spread spectrum cellular mobile telecommunications (800 MHz band). It describes the Generation of channels. One of the unique aspects of CDMA is that while there are certainly limits to the number of phone calls that can be handled by a carrier. IS-95 was first published in July. These standards ensure that a mobile station can obtain service in any cellular system manufactured according to this standard. rather than separate RF frequencies or channels. However. this is not a fixed number. or codes. IS-95 systems divide the radio spectrum into carriers which are 1.25 MHz) wide." There are primarily two standards for CDMA as described below. Call Processing. and Registration techniques for cellular system operations. Rather.

the promising results of the first field trials demonstrated that CDMA could work as well in practice as it did in theory.employs a commercial adaptation of military spread-spectrum single-sideband technology. For CDMA.25 MHz band. The viability of CDMA technology was dismissed by TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) supporters as a technology that worked fine in theory but would never work in practice. Commercial CDMA was introduced. thus increasing talk time for portable devices 7. due to CDMA and analog operating in two spectras with no interference Background of CDMA To understand why there is a demand for CDMA. standardized. Increased capacity Improved voice quality. they can share the same carrier frequency. This creates a practical limit to how many users a system will sustain. It is difficult to interfere with or intercept a CDMA signal because of its use of a spread signal. however. Reduced interference to other electronic devices 8. Based on spread spectrum theory. Because users are isolated by code.the primary difference is that access to the local exchange carrier (LEC) is provided via wireless phone. however. Reduction in the number of calls dropped due to handoff failures 9. Unlike AMPS/TDMA. Ideally. The goal is to keep each mobile at the absolute minimum power level that is necessary to ensure acceptable service quality. but its practical application in the market did not take place until 40 years later due to the many technical obstacles that still needed to be overcome. combined with the realization that regulating all transmitter powers to the lowest level required for a link would achieve optimal multiple access communication. Spread spectrum communications have been used for encrypting military communication for many years. The main advantages of CDMA are as follows: 1. Coexistence with previous technologies. and initially deployed in less then seven years. eliminating the frequency reuse problem encountered in AMPS and DAMPS. 2. a relatively rapid maturation cycle compared to other CDMA & RF Planning Page 18 of 73 Mukul . 6. the power received at the base station from each mobile should be the same (minimum signal to interference). The rapid development of high density digital ICs. Every CDMA cell site can use the same 1. eliminating the audible effects of multipath fading Enhanced privacy and security Improved coverage characteristics which reduce the number of cell sites Simplified system planning reduces deployment and operating costs Reduced average transmitted power. Development of a reliable transport mechanism for wireless data communications 10. In 1991. 3. CDMA is an interference limited system. n = 1. allowed CDMA to materialize as a working technology. each user is a noise source on the shared channel and the noise contributed by users accumulates. 4. CDMA has a soft capacity limit. Mobiles that transmit excessive power increase interference to other mobiles. so with respect to clusters. This greatly simplifies frequency planning in a fully CDMA environment. 5. tested. precise power control of mobiles is critical in maximizing the system's capacity and increasing battery life of the mobiles. it is necessary to understand the technology that existed prior to its introduction and to know the background behind previous spread-spectrum systems. it is essentially the same as wireline service -. Its strengths in the military arena lie in its ability to resist enemy jamming and to provide secure communications. Its civilian mobile radio application was proposed theoretically in the late 1940's. The great attraction of CDMA technology from the beginning was its inherent ability to boost communications capacity and reuse frequencies to a degree unheard of in narrowband multiple access wireless technology.

followed by a launch in Korea and Pennsylvania. It has rapidly become the primary choice of carriers in the U. The first commercial CDMA service was launched in Hong Kong in 1995. 10 of the top 17 PCS carriers and the 2 largest PCS C block bidders have selected CDMA for their new digital network. CDMA & RF Planning Page 19 of 73 Mukul .technologies such as TDMA. Now 11 of the top 14 cellular carriers.S.

the strongest received mobile signal will capture the demodulator at the base station. To help eliminate the "Near-Far Problem". That is. Optimize the network resources. the mobile unit transmits only at the power necessary to maintain connection. Power Management Techniques will achieve c.5n W to 0.CHAPTER THREE POWER CONTROL IN CDMA The Near-Far Problem The CDMA technology had all the better things to its part but why then it took this long time to come into the commercial market. An extra benefit is extended battery life. thereby decreasing the probability that weaker signals will be received. the typical total dynamic range of path loss is of the order of 80 dB which means that the mobile transmitter must vary its power from about 2. This sampling is done 800 times per second and can be adjusted in 84 steps of 1 dB. CDMA & RF Planning Page 20 of 73 Mukul . and b. The key to high capacity of CDMA is the fact that instead of using constant power.25W. In CDMA.away subscribers. In cellular service areas. described above. its power output is lower. The critical part of DS-CDMA System is Power Control and Management because of many reasons Let us summarize what Power Control and Management Techniques has to achieve: Reduce the transmitted power of both mobile and base station. Power Control Techniques will achieve both a. The propagation path loss difference between these extreme users may be many tens of dB. The purpose of this is so that the received powers from all users are roughly equal. This solves the problem of a nearby subscriber overpowering the base station receiver and drowning out the signals of far away subscribers. stronger received signal levels raise the noise floor at the base station demodulators for the weaker signals. In general. described above. CDMA has not been previously implemented due to its "Near-Far Problem. In other words. the transmitters can be controlled in such a way that the received powers from all the users are roughly equal and the subscribers occupy the same spectrum. Received Power level of signals from all mobiles should be same at the base station. when a mobile unit is close to a base station. one near the base and one far from the base. This solves the problem of a nearby subscriber overpowering the base station receiver and drowning out the signals of far. The base station rapidly samples the radio signal strength indicator levels of each mobile and then sends a power change command over the forward radio link. Power Control is implemented at the base station by rapidly sampling the Radio Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) level of each mobile and sending power change command over the forward radio link. Two terms are used one is Power Control Techniques and the other is Power Management Techniques." Let's assume there are two users. CDMA uses power control.

CDMA & RF Planning Page 21 of 73 Mukul . So. PCT is implemented on base band of a channel and before adding all the Walsh channels in that frequency. Reverse Link Closed Loop Power Control techniques are used. the DS-CDMA System will be optimally used. In this case. This is under the assumption that coarse losses in the both directions are same. The base station directs the mobile to increase or decrease transmit power of mobile. the mobile receives power control commands from both the base station and the mobile will increase its transmit power only if both the base station's command the mobile to increase the transmit power otherwise the mobile will decrease its transmit power. The mobile initially estimates the required transmit power based on the received power at the mobile and access parameters provided by the base station. Reverse Link Open Loop Power Control Reverse Link Closed Loop Power Control Reverse Outer Loop Power Control Forward Link Power Control Reverse Link Power Control Open Loop Control This handles the wide dynamic range mentioned above.It is clear that with out Power Control Techniques. which are explained in detail below: 1. in practice both the techniques are used. So. By using Power Management Techniques. Each command results in increasing or lowering the mobile power by one dB . At the boundary of a cell site. So. the cell measures the received Eb/No and compares it to a set point( set by a cell function ). the DS-CDMA System will go haywire. then a "down "command is sent. this will not guarantee perfect power control. The dynamic range of the closed loop control is +-24 dB relative to the open loop estimate. If the measured Eb/No is above the set point. 3. There are 4 Power Control Techniques. The receiver AGC loop holds constant the total power entering its 1. otherwise an "up" command is sent. or a rate of 800 corrections per second. But.25 MHz IF pass band (which includes signal. The mobile shall change its transmit power accordingly. after the connection is established. The mobile estimates the path loss to the cell by measuring the received signal level in terms of analog AGC (Automatic Gain Control) voltage. depending on the open loop estimate. The measured front-end power is adjusted by a closed loop correction and then used to control the mobile transmit power accordingly. The commands are sent once every 1. 4.25 ms. Closed Loop Control Closed loop power control is a correction applied to the open loop power estimate. 2. and interference) . thermal noise. Power Control Techniques (PCT) Power Control Techniques are implemented on per user basis.

case. Set point is so chosen (by BSC) that required transmit power of mobiles is just enough to maintain reasonable Frame Error Rate (FER) of received signals from mobile. CDMA & RF Planning Page 22 of 73 Mukul . Thus. .Decrease power consumption of mobiles. The capacity of base station is increased because of reduction in transmit power of mobile which reduces interference in that cell as well as other cells. Rate set 2. This method is however relatively slow due to the processing delay in message parsing by the base station. If the FER is more. and then BTS commands mobile to decrease transmit power. The base station decides to raise the transmit power to those mobile under two conditions: . BSC decreases the Set Point which in turn indirectly reduces the transmit power of mobiles. The main aim of this Power Control is to reduce the transmit power of base station to each mobile (this will not shrink the cell because transmit power of pilot. The BSC adjusts the Set Point based on the Reverse Link FER.Periodic Frame Quality Measure sent by mobile is poor. because of excessive frame error rate.Power Control Command bit from BTS#1 0 0 1 1 Power Control Command bit from BTS#2 0 1 0 1 Action taken (per IS-95) by mobile Diversity combine from both BTS's Select BTS#2 Select BTS#1 Diversity combine from both BTS's Resulting change in transmit power of mobile Increase Power Decrease Power Decrease Power Decrease Power Bit Value: 0 Increase Power. its forward signal quality is poor. 1 Decrease Power. The base station sets Power control command bit by comparing the received power with the Threshold value or Set point. when the mobile station concludes. If the received power is more than Threshold value. This is not part of IS-95 because it doesn't have commands that are sent into air. IS-95 specifies only messaging-based forward control. then BSC increases the Set Point to decrease the FER. sync.Mobile requests a specific threshold needed for it. Forward Link Power Control In this. Power Control in Soft Handoff It is crucial to control the mobile transmit power during handoff by the cell that is receiving the best signal. That is. however incorporates a rapid power control mechanism which permits a faster and tighter power control. base station varies power transmitted in forward direction. it sends a report to the base station.Increase capacity of base station. Benefits of Reverse Outer loop Power Control: . paging channels are not reduced). so that minimum necessary power is transmitted. otherwise BTS commands mobile to increase transmit power of mobile. . Reverse Outer loop Power Control This is to adjust the Set point of Reverse Link Closed Loop Power Control. Otherwise.

the forward handoff boundary and reverse handoff boundary are aligned and so PMT is not needed.each cell and sector participating in the soft handoff makes a separate determination of the power control bit to be sent. Here. PMT is implemented by using the following processes: 1. Reverse Handoff Boundary Reverse Handoff Boundary between two sectors is defined as the surface where an Mobile Station's reverse link would perform the same. They are needed for irregular cell sites because with out Power Management Techniques the network capacity is reduced but CDMA system will not go haywire. it is also possible that two soft handoff participant sectors make a joint decision and both transmit. and performs an "or of the downs" logic operation as mentioned in detail in the handoff section of the document. here assume cell sites are of irregular. regardless of which of the two sectors were receiving. PMT is meant to align two handoff boundaries. Wilting 3. Power Management Techniques (PMT) All the above Power Control Techniques should be implemented for both regular cell sites (equal sized & non-overlapping) and irregular cell sites (unequal sized & overlapping). Using PMT. 2. Breathing. This happens when the soft handoff is between the sectors of one cell and one processing engine handles both branches of the handoff. Power Management Techniques are not needed for regular cell sites. However. Blossoming. assume cell sites of irregular size and are overlapping. As PMT is not needed for regular cell sites. one can only adjust the Forward Handoff Boundary to align with Reverse Handoff Boundary because Reverse Handoff Boundary is a physical boundary. which cannot be adjusted. Forward Handoff Boundary Forward Handoff Boundary between two sectors is defined as the surface where an Mobile Station's forward link would perform the same. The mobile is informed that the power control bits are identical so that it does diversity combining and single bit decision rather than separate decisions and a logical "or". In practice. PMT is applied to all Walsh channels of CDMA frequency. the cell sites are of irregular sizes and are overlapping. For irregular cell sites. regardless of which of the two sectors were transmitting. Before getting into Power Management Techniques. one has to understand two terms that are Forward Handoff Boundary and Reverse Handoff Boundary. For regular cell sites. which is also called as Handoff boundary balancing. the forward handoff boundary and reverse handoff boundary are not aligned and so PMT is needed to align the two handoff boundaries. The mobile processes them separately. CDMA & RF Planning Page 23 of 73 Mukul .

Thus a gradual increase in power is used to bring up the sector. The equation should able to find the difference between the actual Received Noise Power and the estimated Received Noise Power. Blossoming Sudden activation of a sector causes an increase in the forward link power leading to degradation in the forward link and possible dropped calls near the new sector. Thus a gradual decrease in transmitted power of base station is used to bring down the sector. Sector Wilting is used to achieve handoff boundary balancing during the process to bringing down the sector. The Wilting Module increases in steps the attenuation and Noise figure in transmit and receive paths of base station and there by mobiles get time to handoff to other base stations. the base station wilts till the transmit power is sufficiently below the threshold and now the base station begins to Blossom till transmit power exceeds threshold. This is implemented by using a suitable equation to find the attenuation to be inserted in the transmit path of the base station. This causes the radius of the forward link of the sector to follow the radius of the reverse link of the sector. which is the above difference minus some constant value. Blossoming is used to achieve handoff boundary balancing during the process of bringing up the sector. Wilting The motive of Wilting is to avoid calls to drop during bringing down of sector. And then calculate the attenuation to be applied to transmit path. When transmit power of base station exceeds certain threshold set by BSC. CDMA & RF Planning Page 24 of 73 Mukul . Sudden deactivation of a sector causes calls in the sector to drop. therefore keeping the reverse and forward link handoff boundaries balanced.Breathing The Breathing Module varies the attenuation in the forward link based on the amount of reverse power that is detected. The Blossoming Module decreases in steps the attenuation and Noise figure in transmit and receive paths of base station and there by mobiles get time to handoff.

In a traditional "hard" handoff. CDMA & RF Planning Page 25 of 73 Mukul . This is known as a "break-before-make" handoff. Steps in Handoff The main steps in any handoff can be summarized as follows: 1. Handoff occurs when a call has to be handed off from one cell to another as the user moves between cells. Traditional AMPS handoffs fail frequently. The number of handoff is seen to be anywhere from perhaps one every 8 . the connection to the current cell is broken. Soft handoffs require less power. On the other hand.like the reverse link. But. it is possible to make the connection to the new cell before leaving the current cell. resulting in annoying noise and distortion. and then the connection to the new cell is made. CDMA cell radii can be considerably larger than AMPS cell radii for any particular load distribution. even by skilled listeners. maintain good quality at all times : before. Soft handoff requires that multiple base stations transmit the same traffic to the mobile in question. late. Moreover each handoff is preceded and followed by poor link quality.CHAPTER FOUR HANDOFF Handoffs in CDMA The act of transferring support of a mobile from one base station to another is termed handoff. Starting in a state where only one cell is supporting the call in question. and after handoff. CDMA is specifically designed to reduce handoff failures. there is a detrimental effect of handoff due to the asymmetry in power control design between forward and reverse links. As mentioned above. The implementation of handoff is different between the narrowband standards and the CDMA standards. While the reverse link power control is fast and accurate. A mobile that is being served by one base station when another is closer in terms of path loss will be transmitting more power than would be necessary were it using the "right" cell. during. Moreover. the forward link power control is slow and loose. causing dropped calls and poor quality service. average reverse link capacity. which again reduces handoff rates simply on the basis of geometry.4 per call (roughly) which indicates that handoff is frequent enough for good performance to be considered important.10 calls to perhaps 3 . The higher overall interference level increases the effective reuse factor. and all others like it radiate excess power raises the overall interference level. This is known as a "make-before-break" or "soft" handoff. this increases the effective frequency reuse factor and thus reduces forward link capacity. good handoff performance in CDMA is very important. and thus reduces overall. Sloppy. or slow handoffs thus should be kept to an absolute minimum. the handoffs are totally undetectable. In IS-95A it is implemented via messaging this permits a faster power control implementation. In other words. which reduces interference and increases capacity. In fact. Since all cells in CDMA use the same frequency. The multiple active forward channels raise the overall interference level at the mobile . The fact that that mobile.

2. Determining that over-the-air link conditions between the mobile and the old serving cell are deteriorating, and that there is a potentially better link to a new, candidate cell. 3. Informing the candidate cell of the imminent handoff, including parameters needed to identify the mobile and execute the handoff. 4. Signaling the mobile to begin executing the handoff. 5. New cell beginning to service the mobile. 6. Mobile beginning to use the new cell. 7. Entering the mid-handoff state. 8. Mobile discontinuing use of the old cell. 9. Old cell stopping service to the mobile. 10. Ending in a state where only the new cell, is supporting the call in question. CDMA handoff offers several advantages over AMPS as follows: 1. It is "soft", meaning that communication is not interrupted by the handoff. This is sometimes called "make before break." This means fewer dropped calls for users and higher customer satisfaction for operators. 2. The handoff is not abrupt, but rather it is a prolonged call state during which there is communication via two or more base stations. The multi-way communication diversity improves the link performance during the handoff. The diversity gain partially compensates for the large path loss at the cell boundary. 3. The signal measurement that triggers the handoff is performed by the mobile stations, not the base stations. There is no handoff boundary in CDMA but rather a handoff region. The distributed handoff alleviates most of the shortcomings of the AMPS-style hard handoffs. For example, a decision that handoff should be initiated means only that another base station is added to the active set of base stations for this mobile. The handoff can be completed either by the mobile moving completely into the new cell, or by the mobile returning to the original serving cell. In either case the call is never in jeopardy due to link failure. The diversity during handoff improves link performance to the point where not only are the handoffs not disruptive, they are not even detectable. This also very much reduces the likelihood of dropped calls due to signaling failures that disrupt handoff coordination. Soft Handoff CDMA soft handoff is a call state in which two or more base stations support a mobile station. Those stations can be either separate sectors of separate cells, or they can be multiple sectors of the same cell, or any combination of these. The system chooses the best signal in order to provide the user with the best audio at all times. Mentioned previously were methods of current cellular technology that uses the "hard handoff" method when mobiles are changing cells. Because each mobile is on a limited channel within a specific cell, the transmitting base station must try to allocate a new channel to a new mobile. The problem arises when the mobile is active and also changing cells. At the very least, the persons will here some static or a glitch of some sort because the transmission had to be placed on a new carrier wave. This is relatively acceptable, except in cases when there are no more channels available to any mobile. In this case the call is just dropped. Since the bandwidth in CDMA

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schemes is common to all users, channel allocation is not required. In the CDMA network the current cell of the mobile is responsible for all transmissions. As the mobile nears the boundary of a neighboring cell, it receives transmissions from both cells. The mobile will receive some message from one cell, and some from the other until it has moved into one or the other cells. This is known as a "soft handoff" because the user never experiences any glitch and certainly never a dropped call. Forward CDMA Channel Each participating cell in a soft handoff transmits the same traffic stream to the mobile, bit-for-bit. They do so on any available code channel. Each base station chooses a code channel simply on the basis of availability. The mobile station must implement, in its Rake receiver, multiple fingers that are capable of "tuning" to any of the 63 available code channels. The outputs of those Rake fingers must be combined for good Eb/N0 performance. The presence of a pilot in the Forward CDMA Channel allows optimum coherent combining of those Rake outputs. Reverse Power Control Embedded in the Forward CDMA Channel are the reverse power control bits. These occur in pseudo-random positions in each 1.25 ms interval (power control group), or 16 times per frame. Each power control bit is interpreted as a command to raise or lower power by an increment of approximately 3/4 dB. Each base station makes power control decisions independently. The mobile station is responsible for demodulating the power control bits and raising or lowering its power accordingly. The goal of the power control is to maintain the reverse link transmit power at the lowest possible level commensurate with adequate error performance. The mobile is thus required to interpret the power control bits, which will often disagree, as requiring an increase in power only if all base stations in the handoff say "up"; if any participant says "down" then the mobile is required to reduce power. This rule is sometimes called "OR of the downs" - if anybody says down, you go down. Reverse CDMA Channel Spreading of the Reverse CDMA Traffic Channel is mobile-unique. There is nothing about the coding and modulation that depends in any way on the base stations that are serving the mobile. The mobile thus needs do nothing special about handoff, aside from proper interpretation of the power control bits. Combining of the reverse link signals to the base station is not specified in the air interface or performance standards. However practical considerations strongly encourage the use of selection diversity. That is, each base station de modulates, de interleaves, and de codes the traffic independently. When the traffic frames from the handoff participants arrive at the network interface, frame quality metrics can be compared and the best frame chosen for transmission to the network. This is sometimes called selection diversity - Use the best of the N available copies of each traffic frame.

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Initiation of Soft Handoff Pilot Search CDMA is said to use Mobile Assisted Handoff (MAHO). In practice this means that the mobile station continuously searches for the pilot code using a PN correlator specifically designated for this purpose. Universality of the pilot code (or Short Code) facilitates the search. All base stations use the same code. The mobile station can search in timing hypothesis without having to change the PN sequence. If the mobile already has a notion of CDMA system time, as it does if it is already involved in a call, then it can report the relative timing of a newly detected pilot. What distinguishes base stations from one another is the phase of their pilots. The period of each pilot is 26.667 ms. They are separated by a minimum of 64 chips, which is about 52 ms or about 15 km at the speed of light. The mobile timing will normally be good enough that a reported pilot offset unambiguously identifies the base station it has detected. Detection Thresholds The mobile reports pilots on the basis of their pilot-to-interference ratio (PIR). The PIR (called, strangely, Ec/I0 in much of the literature and standards) is compared to an absolute threshold to determine when it should be reported as a handoff candidate. That threshold is a parameter that the mobile obtains from the overhead messages broadcast by the base stations. When a pilot crosses the first threshold, T_ADD, then its presence is reported, via a message, to the network. The network will normally add that base station to the so-called Active Set, that is, the set of base stations that are participants in the soft handoff to the mobile in question. The second threshold is not absolute but relative. It is compared to the difference between the largest PIR in the active set and the PIRs of all other members. When any of them falls below this threshold, T_DROP, then another message is transmitted. The normal result is that the base station in question will be dropped from the Active Set, and that will be reported to the mobile by a signaling message. The effect of the two thresholds, one absolute, the other relative, is to ensure that any station that is able to contribute in any significant way to the overall SNR after diversity combining, is in the active set with high probability. Conversely, a base station is dropped only when it has deteriorated far below the best station. If the best station is itself marginal then the next strongest station will be retained. This twothreshold scheme has been found in practice to be very effective. Hiwever, too much handoff reduces capacity because of the excess number of Forward Traffic Channels needed to support it. It also impacts the number of channel elements (CDMA modems) needed in the base stations. Cases where CDMA does not use Soft Handoffs CDMA uses soft handoff whenever possible because the performance is very much superior to other forms of handoff. However there are several forms of handoff that cannot be done "softly". Inter Frequency Handoffs If there are multiple CDMA carrier frequencies active, then handoffs between them must be hard. While inter-frequency handoff is physically possible, the decision was

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Handoffs between FM and CDMA systems CDMA to analog handoffs are carried out by sending the same information that is required in a normal analog to analog handoff. This situation has come to be known as "Softer" handoff. The handoff direction message that initiates handoffs contains a field that shows which stations are transmitting the same power control bits so that the mobile can do pre-decision combining of those bits. Those timing offsets are accomplished by a hard handoff. a common modem that services all sectors of a handoff is capable of sending identical power control bits on all the sectors. Collocated stations permit combining to be done in a CDMA modem that has visibility of multiple sectors. to allow load balancing on network transmission facilities. This is allowed for in the air interfaces. CDMA & RF Planning Page 29 of 73 Mukul . Timing Changes The CDMA air interfaces. rather than by selection of entire frames. Analog to digital handoffs are not allowed.made in the standards committees to not require it as then the implementation would make the mobile station very complicated. Digital-to-Analog Usually there is no practical way to do soft handoffs between a CDMA digital system and an analog FM system. where the mobile's timing is already known. "SOFTER" Handoff All of this is modified a bit if the participants in a soft handoff are sectors of the same cell. include the ability to offset traffic frame timing from system time. Such combining can be done on a symbol-by-symbol basis. rather than trying to hand off to a neighboring site. a softer handoff is identical to soft handoff except for the treatment of the power control bits. These handoffs are thus always hard. Likewise. To the mobile. The interfrequency handoff can first be executed intra-site. Inter-frequency hard handoffs are probably best accomplished by doing so within one geographical site. followed immediately by a soft handoff to the neighbor without frequency change on the new frequency.

the Soft Handoff Overhead channels and the Effective (voice and data) traffic channels. Once a mobile unit has been paged and acknowledges that page. Sync Channel This channel provides cell site identification. With this information the mobile units can establish the System Time as well as the proper transmit power level to use to initiate a call. and phase tracking of signals from the cell site. plus channels allocated for soft handoff. ("Forward" is what the subscriber hears and "reverse" is what the subscriber speaks. The capacity of an effective traffic channel is equivalent to the traffic carrying capacity of an analog traffic channel. the Sync channels. Paging Channel The mobile unit will begin monitoring the paging channel after it has set its timing to the System Time provided by the sync channel. pilot transmit power. and base receive is the reverse direction.CHAPTER FIVE CHANNELS CDMA Channels Just when one grasps an understanding of the CDMA carrier which is 1. The number of "Effective" traffic channels includes the traffic carrying channels less the soft handoff channels. - CDMA uses the terms "forward" and "reverse" channels just like they are used in analog systems. Forward Traffic Channel CDMA & RF Planning Page 30 of 73 Mukul . call setup and traffic channel assignment information is then passed on this channel to the mobile unit. Mostly channels are designated in three ways: effective traffic channels. actual traffic channels and physical traffic channels. and the cell site pilot pseudo-random (PN) phase offset information. The number of "Actual" traffic channels includes the effective traffic channels.) CDMA Forward Channels Pilot Channel The pilot channel is used by the mobile unit to obtain initial system synchronization and to provide time. frequency. the path by which voice or data passes is the entire carrier. The fact is that with CDMA. someone talks about "traffic channels" and confuses the issue.25 MHz wide. The number of "Physical" traffic channels includes the Pilot channels. Base transmit equates to the forward direction. the Paging channels. CDMA traffic channels are different: they are dependent on the equipment platform on which the CDMA is implemented.

it will communicate to the base station over the access channel. Reverse Traffic Channel This channel carries the other half of the actual phone call and carries the voice and mobile power control information from the mobile unit to the base station. CDMA Reverse Channels Access Channel When the mobile unit is not active on a traffic channel. CDMA & RF Planning Page 31 of 73 Mukul .This channel carries the actual phone call and carries the voice and mobile power control information from the base station to the mobile unit. responses to pages. and call origination. The access channels are paired with a corresponding paging channel. This communication includes registration requests.

Therefore a maximal length pseudo-random sequence 2m-1 bits long before repeating itself. However the input inverter injects a logic 1 so that the maximal sequence can commence. The feedback tap points may be taken from the following stages: • • As the simplest circuit implementation is often desire. A pseudo-random generator that does not use such techniques is termed non-linear. a reset pulse is initiated. A 7-stage (i. for a 7-stage shift register 27=128 states.e. Maximal codes are the longest codes that a shift register of specified length can produce and have mathematical properties well suited to spread spectrum communications.CHAPTER SIX CODES PN CODES Pseudo-random (PN) codes can be categorized as being linear or non-linear codes. but the second inverter output is normally used to permit direct drive of the DBM in a direct sequence system. The maximal code is also available at the output (A) of the modulo-2 adder.e. used in spread spectrum. To avoid the all-zero lock up problem. However the all-zero state is not allowable as the pseudo-random generator would lock-up as exORing two logic 0 results in yet another logic 0 at that input. The output inverter ensures that maximal code output is inverted negating the effect of the anti-lockup inverter at the input. CDMA & RF Planning Page 32 of 73 Mukul . seven flip-flop) shift register can produce a maximal code of length 271=127 bits (known as chips in spread spectrum terminology) long. These could be found by experimentation but this would be very time consuming. Maximal codes are the longest codes that a shift register of specified length can produce and have mathematical properties well suited to spread spectrum communications. codes). When the shift register is switched on. are the maximal linear code sequences (sometimes called M-sequences or PN. This essentially means only ex-OR gates are used in the shift register feedback path. The circuit goes through a number of states (determined by the bits in the shift register at each clock pulse) before it repeats itself after a set number of states for a shift register of length m is 2m. i. A maximal shift register pseudo-random generator consists of a shift register with selected outputs being exclusive -ORed and fed back into the shift register input. The most commonly used group of pseudo-random sequences. inverting stages are inserted before the shift register input and at the output of the shift register input and at the output of the shift register. pseudo-noise. the first option of tapping the seventh and first stages is selected. This would normally lock up the pseudo-random sequence generator. To obtain a maximal sequence. This pulse initiate all shift register outputs to logic 0. the correct shift register outputs (tap points) must be found. Linear codes are generated using linear operations (which for binary pseudo-random codes is solely modulo-2 addition or subtraction).

The effect of the orthogonal channelization is to reduce the mutual interference between users. and contributes somewhat to the forward capacity. and have no contributions from the other users. which is the span of an FEC code symbol. Assuming that the spreading sequences are completely uncorrelated between users. First. While the cancellation is not perfect in a real system due to unavoidable multipath. they the other-channel interference terms rigorously cancel. it does help. not only are the spreading sequences correlated. it means that the expectations of the chip detection amplitudes depend only on the user being addressed. they are specifically designed to be rigorously orthogonal over the span of 64 chips. It is precisely that property that lets us separate the code channels in the receiver by selectively de-covering with the desired code channel. Neither of these is true in the real Forward CDMA Channel. it means that the users active in the various channels of one base station interfere with one another just as though they would if they came from different stations. CDMA & RF Planning Page 33 of 73 Mukul .Forward CDMA Channel The QPSK model is similar to the Forward CDMA Channel except neglecting the orthogonal channelization. Second. First. There are two consequences of this assumption. This means that the mutual interference terms are correlated in such a way that when the amplitudes are summed to make a soft code symbol. Second. there is a contribution to the mean detection amplitude from all the code channels.

This greatly increases the communication carrying capacity of the spectrum used in cellular systems when compared to the traditional practice of covering the widest possible area from a single transmission site. GSM allows for a 9dB C/I (carrier to interference ratio) instead of the traditional 17dB C/I used in TACS (the analog FDMA technology in the 900 MHz band). depending on terrain. By getting more channel reuse per unit of geographic area. In many types of cellular systems. CDMA & RF Planning Page 34 of 73 Mukul . 2. however. it is necessary to plan which frequencies are used at each cell site in order to minimize the interference among cell sites on the same frequency. CDMA and Cell Reuse One of the key design principals of cellular telecommunications is the use of the same frequencies. This allows GSM to place cell sites closer together and translates to about two times the capacity of TACS. and a number of other factors. A half-rate GSM system. interference levels. CDMA offers a greater system capacity than that offered by traditional analog cellular systems by using method #2. NAMPS is an example of a system technology which achieves greater capacity through method #1 (more channels per MHz of spectrum). propagation characteristics. By getting more channels per MHz of spectrum. It allows reuse of the same frequency in every sector of every cell. it is not possible to use every frequency in every cell site because of the interference which would result. Actual capacity will vary from cell to cell and sector to sector. over and over. This requirement has led to "frequency reuse patterns. Instead of one channel in 30 kHz as in AMPS. Therefore. Depending upon the starting assumptions and specific system designs. Plans for a half-rate GSM system are under consideration. with these other cellular technologies." AMPS systems (and those designed to be compatible with AMPS) often use a three-sector configuration and are designed with a 7 cell reuse pattern. in a particular geographic region. would result in approximately a 4 to 5 times capacity gain over analog TACS. NAMPS gets three channels in 30 kHz. GSM is an example of a system which uses method #2 (more channel reuse per unit of geographic area). carriers should be able to achieve an 8 to 10 times capacity gain over AMPS.CHAPTER SEVEN CAPACITY CDMA CAPACITY CDMA Capacity Increases Capacity gains in cellular systems can be attained in one of two ways: 1. thereby providing three times the capacity of AMPS. It is important to note that CDMA capacity computations are based upon system wide averages. using methods #1 and #2.

This equates to an N=1/S frequency reuse pattern. In order to keep voice quality high. the number of AMPS channels that fill the spectrum slated for a CDMA carrier 2. A decrease in the Eb/No ratio indicates that the relative level of interference. where S is the number of sectors per cell. the number of channels supported by the CDMA carrier CDMA & RF Planning Page 35 of 73 Mukul . as the Eb/No level increases. With CDMA. frame erasure rate and voice quality. CDMA achieves more capacity and uses less transmitter power than narrowband systems. is increasing. This leads to a need to limit the number of users on the system. call quality. on the other hand. and in every sector of a sector cell site. the CDMA system erases frames of information that contain too many errors. lowering capacity. CDMA. and system voice quality is improved. Eb/No and Interference Threshold Eb/No provides a measure of the performance of a CDMA link between the mobile and the cell. as compared to the level of the voice information. systems based on narrowband digital modulation generally use less sophisticated schemes which use up less bandwidth. It is the ratio in dB between the energy of each information bit and the noise spectral density. or better. Therefore. While all digital cellular systems use error correction coding. lowering CDMA's required Eb/No ratio. describes the number of frames that were erased due to poor quality. This will lower the voice quality of the conversation. Using a lower Eb/No to reach voice quality standards. This N=1/S reuse of frequencies is what gives CDMA its greater capacity over AMPS and other technologies. CDMA Capacity Improvements Basic Capacity Calculations . typically one seventh of all of the cellular frequencies allocated to an operator can be used in any one cell. It represents the signal to noise ratio for a single bit on the reverse link.referred to as "N = 7 reuse. The same CDMA RF carrier frequency is used in every cell site. the higher the overall cell site capacity. the operators of narrowband systems require a higher Eb/No. Conversely. Using an interference threshold. signals can be received in the presence of high levels of interference. the FER decreases. All users on a carrier share the same RF spectrum. then.3 Sector AMPS to 3 Sector CDMA The calculation of CDMA's capacity gain over a given AMPS system depends on two factors: 1. the higher the acceptable FER. The noise is a combination of background interference and the interference created by other users on the system. CDMA describes Eb/No noise interference in terms of the Frame Erasure Rate (FER). must be balanced against each other." In other words. uses advanced forward error correction coding as well as a digital demodulator. yet still result in the same. These two parameters. therefore. The FER.

The first CDMA channel will actually require 1. Since 3-sector AMPS has a seven cell reuse pattern. when it was realized that CDMA indeed is only interference limited (unlike FDMA and TDMA capacities which are mainly bandwidth limited). instead of 42. Capacity of a CDMA Network In 1985.3 times capacity increase results.One CDMA carrier requires 1. capacity can be increased by an amount inversely proportional to this factor. From the above lines. Unlike AMPS. and thus.25 MHz across 7 cell sites. First CDMA Carrier Allocation It is important to note that the capacity increase brought about by the addition of the first CDMA carrier frequency differs from the previous capacity computations. then. a total of six AMPS channels must be removed from each cell site (180 kHz ÷ 30 kHz/AMPS channel = 6). Better system designs can support 18-22 effective traffic channels per sector in a 3-sector system for cellular mobile network and 38-45 effective traffic channels per sector in a 3-sector environment of fixed WLL network. while conventional techniques can not reuse the same channel for every cell present in the channel. 42 AMPS channels must be removed in order to support one CDMA carrier. Each cell site would then lose 180 kHz of spectrum (1. (Carrier + 2*guard band = 1. it can be inferred that CDMA exhibits its greatest advantage over TDMA or FDMA not in satellite systems. When these 60 channels are replaced by the 378 CDMA channels.) Because of the guard bands. but in terrestrial digital cellular systems. 60 AMPS channels. On the other hand.27 MHz on each side. where interference can be reduced due to two different reasons: • Human-being voice signals are intermittent with a duty factor of approximately 3/8. CDMA can reuse the same (entire) spectrum for CDMA & RF Planning Page 36 of 73 Mukul .23 MHz + 2*0. Subsequent CDMA channels will be inserted between the existing guard bands and will require only 1.25 MHz each. However. This provides 54/114 effective channels per cell. • Spatial isolation can be achieved by using multibeamed or multisectored antennas. It is necessary to take into account the additional AMPS channels which must be taken out of service due to guard band requirements between CDMA and AMPS channels. must be removed from service (1. the panorama becomes more clear in 1990. CDMA achieves capacity gains of nine times that of AMPS (378 ÷ 42 = 9).25 MHz of bandwidth. Dr. inclusive of guard bands of 0.03 MHz = 60). This fact can be perfectly exploited in voice applications. a 6. CDMA can use the same 1. Given the seven cells.25 MHz in all three sectors in each of the seven cells. this example will spread the 1. Hence. That means that any reduction in interference converts directly and linearly into an increase in capacity.180).27 MHz = 1. Thus.8 MHz ÷ . it was not clear which technique was better. Viterbi published a paper where he made a very straightforward comparison of the capacity of CDMA in satellite applications to the other two techniques.25 ÷ 7 Å 0. Hence.77 MHz. According with that discussion.8 MHz of spectrum. CDMA supports 378/798 channels. So the second and third carriers would bring a 9 times capacity increase.

Transmission from cell site to subscriber. due to all above features. and on the order of 4 to 6 for FDMA. 2. This spread signals are added linearly. Power control is a very important issue in CDMA system design. employing a direct sequence spread spectrum waveform. a more important merit figure is the bit energy-to-noise density ratio (Eb/No). In each transmission side there is a digital system. because and independent pilot would be needed for each signal. So For N users. the net improvement in capacity of CDMA over TDMA and FDMA is on the order nearly to 20 for TDMA. cell-site transmitter performances an analog signal processing on the incoming user digital signals. Reverse direction. The digital System precedes the analog amplification and transmission functions. (N-1) interfering signals having power S each. Phase randomness is assured by modulating each signal with independent pseudorandom sequences on each of the two quadrature phases. This pilot signal provides the power control adjust for each mobile unit. and its importance has been discussed in the chapter three. Each user of CDMA system occupies the entire allocated spectrum. which consist of a forward-error correction (FEC) block. Thus the signal-to-noise interference power is: S/N = C/I = S/S(N-1) = 1/ N-1 ………………………(1) For CDMA designer. it is obvious that all subscriber unit signals are received at the same power level. In that system. The capacity of CDMA for the simple Single cell case to the more general. In the present case (single cell site). each cell-site demodulator processes a composite received waveform containing: 1.all cells. The other key feature of the cell-transmitter is the inclusion of a pilot signal in the forward direction. In numbers. and modulation and (direct sequence) spreading function. no pilot is used in the reverse direction (subscriber to cell-site) due a power efficiency considerations. On the forward link. multiple cell case. which is equal to: CDMA & RF Planning Page 37 of 73 Mukul . it can be distinguish two different transmission cases: • • Forward direction. thereby increasing capacity by a large percentage of the normal frequency factor. On the other hand. The desired signal with power S and. Transmission from subscriber to cell site. This adjust consist of a shift in the output power inversely to the total signal power it receives. Single Cell CDMA Capacity This is the case when a network to be considered consists of numerous mobile subscribers communicating with one single cell site (base station).

other cell sites interference will tend to equalize performance in the two directions. Thus. For a multiple cell system. This arguments definitely changes the balance to CDMA system over the other two spread spectrum techniques. The forward link has a much superior performance than reverse link because forward directions employs coherent demodulation and because its multiple transmitted signals are synchronously combined. noncoherent reception and independent fading of all users is assumed. The above argument is true for the relatively simple single cell site case. and consequently N is increased by nearly this factor. we can get an average number of users per cell increased by almost a factor of 8. With the beneficial combination of this two factors. however. the interference sources seen by each antenna are approximately one-third of those seen by an omnidirectional antenna. This expression is important because through it we can find out the capacity supported in terms of number of users: N = 1+ W/R* 1/Eb/No .(2) Where R is the bit information rate and W is the total bandwidth. The latter can be achieved in two ways: Sectorization. because several users can be talked at the same time.n/S ………………………(3) Usually. Augmented Performance with CDMA. we can only increase capacity by reducing other user interference and hence denominator of (2). it can be achieved the required Eb/No = 7 dB for a relatively powerful convolutional code. with 3 antennas per cell site. this reduces the interference term for a 3/8 factor. For practical purposes a factor more realistic is two). The goal is to increase the CDMA capacity as much as possible. it can be quickly noticed that in order to increase capacity we have to have short Eb/No ratio and large processing gain (W/R). which produces the corresponding increase in capacity (this characteristic is just partially true.. each having 120 effective beamwidth degrees. The first possibility is not practical because we can not go beyond Shannon limit.Eb/No = W/R* 1/((N-1) + (n/S)) ………………………. With dual antenna diversity. which can be monitored (this is a feature present in virtually every digital vocoder). in order to suppressed transmission when no voice is present. This reduces the (N-1) term in (2) by a factor of 3. In the case of reverse direction. For instance. W/R is referred as "processing gain" and Eb/No is the value required for adequate performance of the modem and decoder (which for digital voice implies a Bit Error Rate (BER) of 0. and eta is the background noise. Voice activity. On the average. Taking a look back in equation (3). Extensively studies show that either speaker is active only 35% to 40% of the time. CDMA & RF Planning Page 38 of 73 Mukul . which refer to use directional antennas at the cell site both for receiving and transmitting.001 or better).

the received Eb/No on the reverse link of any desired user becomes the random variable: Eb/No = W/R 1/(Xi + ( I/S) +( n/S)*Ns) ………………………. even the question of cell membership is not so simple.Reverse Link Power Control in Multiple-Cell Systems Power control is the single most important requirement for CDMA. each of the subscribers. and because of that. The generally accepted model is an attenuation which is the product of the fourth power of the distance. in a very dense urban environment. Another problem with this phenomenon is that its consequences are not the same for forward and reverse directions. However. If the subscriber is very close to the antenna. it can be probe that if sectorization. According with a practical viewpoint.(4) Where Ns is the users/sector and I is the total interference from users outside the desired user's cell. Often. exist a mutual interference among them. Power control can be achieved if prior to any transmission. because this phenomenon exhibits relatively fast variations. Talking about multiple-cell system case. the loss path factor can be as great as the inverse 5. It can happen that the closed-loop power control can not follow the fast changes due to Rayleigh fading.5 power. this path loss factor can change for different environments. Capacity for multiple Cell CDMA. A potential problem in power control design is due to so called Rayleigh fading. The interference from transmitter within the given subscriber's cell is treated as before: Since each user is power controlled by the same cell site. when active. The effect of power control to compensate for the corresponding attenuation to the cell site of the out-of-cell interferer. the corresponding maximum measure is not proveining from the nearest cell site. monitors the total received signal power from the cell site. and Xi are random variable. however. variable voice activity and the other cell interference statistics are taken into account. It can be probed. the resources can be shared equitably among users and capacity maximized. Ideally. the cell sites have to be distributed following an hexagonal geometry. On the other hand. with distribution: CDMA & RF Planning Page 39 of 73 Mukul . path loss can be modeled as a function that only depends on the distance from the cell site to the mobile unit. With this ideal disposition. since: Only by control of the power of each user accessing a cell. this feature requires a dynamic range of control on the order of 80 dB. that this interference depends mainly of two different terms: • • The attenuation caused by distance and blockage to the given cell site and. According to the power level it detects. A subscriber recognizes its membership by measuring the maximum pilot power among the cell sites that it receives. Follow a relatively large mathematical derivation. it transmits at an initial level which is the inverse function in magnitude of the received pilot power level. are power controlled by other cells sites. it arrives with the same power S. Subscribers in other cells. then a square law can be adequate.

with probability 'a' = {0. because near the boundaries of cells. with probability '1-a' ………………………………(5) The additional term I in (4) represent the other (multiple) cell user interference. that the reverse link can support over 36 users/sector or 108 users/cell. After make some complex estimations. Conclusions and Comparisons. capacity can be maximized. Any more power CDMA & RF Planning Page 40 of 73 Mukul . The primary design goal of a CDMA system is for all users to be received by the base station at the same power level. the forward link can do the same or better for 38 users/sector or 114 users/cell.Xi = {1. It can be follow from the previous results. Practically. This number becomes 44 users/sector or 132 users/cell if the neighboring cells are kept to half of this loading. only when voice activity is detected. this is done by acquiring (correlating to) the highest power pilot and measuring its energy. CDMA Power Control Another very important parameter that is key to providing enhanced capacity with CDMA is power control. or is quiet time when neither party is speaking. and also measuring the total energy received by the mobile's omnidirectional antenna from all cell site transmitters. providing the best speech quality. and to make that power level as low as possible while still maintaining a high quality call. The other 65% is spent listening to the other party. Since the level of "interference" created by all of the users directly determines system capacity. or even 1 kbps. When no voice activity is detected.001 bit error rates better than 99% of the time. The encoded rate can drop to 4. Multiple-Cell Forward Link Capacity with Power Allocation Although with a single cell no power control is required. considerable interference can be received from other cell-site transmitter fading independently. On the other hand. 2. with 0. the vocoder will drop its encoding rate. because there is no reason to have high speed encoding of silence. power control takes the form of power allocation at the cell-site transmitter according to the needs of individual subscribers in the given cell. a Eb/No = 5 dB is required. In a typical phone conversation a person is actively talking only about 35% of the time. with multiple cells it becomes important. and voice activity detection reduces the noise level in the system. IS-95 CDMA takes advantage of voice activity gain through its use of variable rate vocoders. Thus the variable rate vocoder uses up channel capacity only as needed. For the forward link. it can be show that for achieve a good BER (less than 0.001). The principle behind the variable rate vocoder is to have it run at high speed. Factors Influencing Capacity Voice Activity Detection Voice activity detection is another variable which helps to increase the capacity of a CDMA system.

compares it to the desired power level. Power control is also employed in analog and TDMA systems.25 milliseconds (800 times per second). each one is received at the same power level. and then makes a decision to raise or lower a specific mobile's transmit power as frequently as once every 1. In a CDMA system.than needed adds unnecessarily to the overall noise level on the CDMA channel. they will be asked to transmit more than their capability allows. have very slow and course power control capabilities. the cell site continually measures the received signal from the mobile. You cannot simultaneously achieve maximum capacity and maximum coverage. the base station communicates to the mobile station. As a result. Namely. this leads to shorter battery life. the fact that the power that the mobiles are required to transmit goes to infinity as the capacity pole is approached. As the required power increases. The practical consequence of this is that the system load should really be controlled so that the planned service area never experiences coverage failures because of this phenomenon. that we talk about in our Coverage-Capacity pages. It is a tradeoff. the greater the capacity. the handset must always transmit at a power level several dB higher than optimum to account for possible fading. CDMA & RF Planning Page 41 of 73 Mukul . and cuts down capacity. COVERAGE VERSUS CAPACITY There is some bad news arising from the CDMA capacity equation. This method ensures that no matter how close or far a mobile is from the cell site. Therefore. By contrast. mobiles at the fringe of coverage will begin to run out of transmitter power. As would be expected. so the average transmitted power is much lower than that required for an analog system. There are some interesting mathematical models of this. but it is not as precise as it is in CDMA. That is. instructing the mobile to adjust its power up or down. It is not really so much a problem as it is a system design consideration. most narrowband systems. CDMA adjusts mobile power levels up and down in 84 steps of 1 dB each. This means the subscriber unit cannot adjust power quickly enough to compensate for fades. In CDMA. the more precise the power control. The mobile station transmits only enough power to maintain a link.

and can be 9600. the system instantaneously shifts to using a higher transmission rate. or chip rate (the transmitted bits are called chips). with a Traffic Channel operating at 9600 bps. The chips are transmitted using a form of QPSK (quadrature phase shift keying) modulation which has been filtered to limit the bandwidth of the signal. Correlation is usually done with a circuit known as a correlator. CDMA starts with a basic data rate of 9600 bits per second. returning it to a rate of 9600 bps. A correlator is typically composed of a mixer followed by a low-pass filter that performs averaging. 7200. Partial matches yield values between one and zero. Correlation Correlation is a fundamental process in a spread-spectrum system and forms a common method of receiving signals. which increases the data rate while adding redundancy to the system. The mixer is where the two signals to be compared are multiplied together. This technique decreases the interference to other CDMA signals and thus allows an increase in system capacity.2288 MHz. 2400. The receiver detects the rate of the frame and processes it at the correct rate. 2400. For the system. or signals not spread at all. A match yields a high value of output. CDMA & RF Planning Page 42 of 73 Mukul . of 1. The desired signal will have a strong match with the locally generated PN code and yield a larger output from the correlator.2288 MHz bandwidth. When the decoding is applied to the other users' codes. 3600. or 1200 bps. or 1200 bps. 9600. This is then spread to a transmitted bit rate. The coding gain for the IS-95 CDMA system is 128. the output will be lower depending on how different the signals are. For speech. but if the two mixed signals differ. that is. When the talker speaks. the transmission rate is reduced to a low rate. This is added to the signal of all the other users in that cell. 1800. how similar in appearance they are to each other. there is no despreading. This value is therefore the average likeness of the two signals. correlation is often used to identify a signal that has been coded with a desired PN sequence. 4800. In a DS system. This technique allows the channel rate to dynamically adapt to the speech or data activity. The degree of likeness is often expressed as a number between zero and one. 4800. the rate can vary from frame to frame. The ratio of transmitted bits or chips to data bits is the coding gain. the coding is removed from the desired signal. frames can be sent at either 14400. the signals maintain the 1. or 21 dB. Correlation measures how alike two signals are. When the signal is received. the correlator is used to identify and detect signals with the desired spreading code. The averaging circuit report the average output of the mixer. The spreading process applies digital codes to the data bits. depending upon likeness. A Perfect match is typically indicated by a zero. Signals spread with other PN codes. For example. In a spread-spectrum receiver. when a talker pauses. will differ statistically from the desired signal and give a lower output from the correlator.CHAPTER EIGHT CDMA STEPS Modulation in CDMA Both the Forward and Reverse Traffic Channels use a similar control structure consisting of 20 millisecond frames.

anything that can be done to reduce the average transmitted power enhances capacity. the transmitter carrier frequency is being moved many times a second according to the spreading sequence. Comparatively. moving from channel to channel in exact step with the signal. If noise or interference is present. the mixer will produce a stream of ones for a non-inverted PN sequence or a stream of zeros for the inverted PN sequence. some of the received signal will be corrupted. a "1" results in a complete de-correlation since the PN code is inverted for this information bit. Within the correlator. Correlation action in a FH system is implemented differently but the concept is the same. by the chance that both the desired and undesired PN codes have a channel in common at that moment. while a "0" leaves the PN code unchanged. In comparison. In the correlator. The averaging circuit of correlator then performs a low-pass filter function. If the DS signal is viewed as a signal with two types of modulation impressed on it (one for spreading and the other containing information) then the despreading is a demodulation step aimed at the spreading sequence. It is mainly through the mixing process that interference is rejected within a spread-spectrum receiver. This is the heart of the DS interference-rejection process. The receiver uses the same spreading sequence to follow the transmitter. Through this action the correlator recovers the transmitted information. The despreading process is in fact performed by a correlator containing a mixer and an averaging circuit. If the receiver is out of step with the signal. Bit-inversion modulation is detected by this correlator action since an information bit of "1" caused the PN code to be inverted. In a frequency-hopping system. Here the mixer output resembles noise that is filtered by the correlator lowpass filter. Thus. collapsing the spread-spectrum signal by removing the effects of the spreading sequence is called despreading. thereby reducing the noise while passing the desired narrow band information. Undesired signals in the DS receiver passband are not correlated with the local PN code. the interfering signals are spread and resemble noise. What remains after the removal of the spreading sequence is the digital information stream. a "0" information bit generates an non-inverted PN code stream that closely correlates with the local PN code.Notice that the averaging circuit of the correlator gives the average mixer value over time. while the desired signal is despread and narrow band. Thus signals that are the same produce high outputs because the signals reinforce each other. it cannot recover the information being transmitted. An obvious target for such power CDMA & RF Planning Page 43 of 73 Mukul . Signals that are unlike cannot reinforce each other and therefore form lower-valued products. the undesired signals randomly fall in and out of match on a bit-by-base. the mixing process despreads the desired spread-spectrum signal and causes the undesired signals to spread to noise. After mixing. Voice Coding Because the interference is averaged. Narrow band signals will be visited occasionally by the hopping signal and should not be a cause of interference. like signals produce a high value while unlike signals produce lower values. In the correlator. De-spreading and Detection In DS systems. FH signals that are under the control of a different PN sequence will be received only randomly.

The reduction achieved in practice is less than the measured activity factor because the transmission rate in the air interface is not reduced to zero during idle periods. Fr is frequency reuse factor and SG is sectorization gain. is now about 26 times . The results are then combined together to make the signal stronger. being caused by motion of the vehicle through stationary interference patterns. Two rate families are currently supported: the first based on 9600 bps. This is essentially a set of four receivers. such as buildings. 1/4.optimization is the speech coding. others are in widespread used.5. Multiple replicas of the signal arrive at the receiver after travelling over differing paths. CDMA uses the multipath signals and combines them to make an even stronger signal at the receivers. This is in fact accomplished by features in both the air interface standards and the voice coder service option standards. the propagating signal is reflected from a number of objects in the physical environment. where the spatial scale of the interference pattern is the wavelength. Transmission is never reduced to zero because this would present problems related to channel supervision. multipath propagation phenomena have increasingly detrimental effects. Fading in a moving vehicle is more rapid. Human speech is an intermittent information source. hills. These. then a further increase in capacity of perhaps two times or more is possible. and achieves an average effective rate of something just over 4kbps. of course. and vehicles. One of the main advantages of CDMA systems is the capability of using signals that arrive in the receivers with different time delays. System capacity is affected by propagation phenomena. approximately 0. attenuation and time delay. Measurements at Bell Laboratories many years ago suggested that the activity factor in natural human conversation is in the range of 35-40%. The first coder standardized was IS-96.perhaps optimistic given the crude nature of the model. Each finger then demodulates the signal corresponding to a strong multipath. Fading is experienced by users of analog cellular phones very often. Variable rate data is accommodated in the air interface by providing a basic traffic data rate that can be reduced by binary ratios (1. One of the receivers (fingers) constantly searches for the different multipaths and feeds the information to the other three fingers. While increasing spreading bandwidth leads to an asymptotic improvement in Erlang capacity of CDMA per megahertz. MULTIPATH AND CDMA It is well known that cellular channel is severely impacted by the presence of multipath in the channel. This improves the call quality in congested areas that experience lot of interference from reflected signals. 1/2. and will also soon be standardized. and 1/8).400 bps. have different capacity characteristics. Each replica has a different phase. Due to its wide bandwidth and rake receivers. especially in handheld portables when standing nearly still. but suggestive of the substantial improvements possible by converting to CDMA. If that activity factor can be translated into power gating. CDMA & RF Planning Page 44 of 73 Mukul . The gain over AMPS capacity. In multipath . or about 50% of the actual air interface payload data rate of 8550 bps. The voice coding used in CDMA is standardized separately from the air interface as a service option. the second on 14. about one foot. CDMA subscriber units use rake receivers. by the same assumptions as above. The IS-96 standard operates in the nominal 9600 bps rate set. The pole capacity becomes W/R* 1/Eb/No*1/V*Fr*SG where V is the voice activity factor.

but it does affect capacity. in addition to the multiple random components of Rayleigh fading. They do not interfere because each component correlates at a different delay. The increase can be as much as perhaps 6 dB. the FEC coding and interleaving becomes more effective as the characteristic fade time becomes less than the interleaver span. then the fading is said to be Ricean. If there is a strong. that is. which in turn depends on the velocity of the mobile station. Generally fading increases the average SNR needed for a particular error rate. The duration of one spreading chip is 1/1. At high speed. and in both links. as well as reflecting or scattering surfaces. each having a random amplitude. greater will lead to resolved multipath. then they cannot be separated in the receiver. Fading is also characterized as Rayleigh or Rician. the power control will mitigate the effects of fading at low speed. It also depends on the fading rate. In the reverse link. 244 meters. unobstructed path between stations. Rayleigh fading exhibits deep signal dropouts. Rayleigh fading is the result of a vector sum of multiple signal components. which will be diversity combined by the receiver. then they can be separated by the despreading correlator in the receiver. or at the speed of light. and they do interfere with one another. at high speed it has little effect. CDMA & RF Planning Page 45 of 73 Mukul . It can be viewed alternatively as a signal whose I and Q amplitudes are Gaussian random deviates. Effects of Fading The effects of fading are complex and are different in the forward and reverse links. Multipath differences less than this will lead to flat fading.CDMA is much more robust than the analog technologies in the presence of multipath. constant component to the signal. when their delays are separated by at least the decorrelation time of the spreading. where there is a direct. Fading due to Multipath When the multipath components are "resolved" by the CDMA waveform. leading to what is sometimes called flat fading.2288MHz = 814 ns. Ricean fading is typical of line-of-sight situations. When the multipath components are separated by less than the decorrelation time.

preceded by 41 zeros. The short code has period 215 chips and the long code has period 242 . This is the 37 century clock. 1980 00:00:00 UTC.. First. How does all this happen? The "Clock" All stations keep a conventional time-of-day. As these are relatively prime numbers. but this is not directly relevant to code synchronization. the overall period is the product. GPS does not incorporate the leap second corrections. 215 and 242 -1. How does a clock with this long a period get set? It isn't as hard as it might seem. easyto-program algorithms that will offset an LFSR to any state. Second. the long code must be set to system time modulo 242 -1. but there are straightforward. The code "clock" is really the combined state of the Short Code and Long Code generators. GPS time is synchronous with Universal Coordinated Time (UTC) except for leap second corrections added to UTC. At system time zero the state of the each of the two Short Code generators is such that the current output is one. The system time scale System time is referenced to Global Positioning System (GPS) time. If they are separately set correctly. The 257 period 257 clock is really two clocks with incommensurate periods. The reference state of the system clock relative to system time At system time zero the state of the Long Code generator is such that the current output is one.CHAPTER NINE TIMING CDMA AND SYSTEM TIMING CDMA requires accurate time synchronization among all base stations and mobile stations.666. These are the number of states that each generator must be offset from its zero reference state. determine the generator state that corresponds to that number of states. preceded by 15 zeros. ms. and the latter is about 41 days. It is not quite obvious. given the binary representation of its offset. modulo 215.. measured in chips. The origin of GPS time is January 6. Setting the clock consists of two steps. system time is correct. When a mobile station is communicating with a base station they must be synchronized to within a fraction of a chip (814 ns). The former is 80/3 = 26. The Short Code must be set to system time.1 chips. This is the state immediately following the stuff bit. The fact that the short code is a modified LFSR sequence only slightly complicates the process. And the "clocks" (the PN generators) that must be synchronized have a period of 37 centuries. It is not. or about 257 chips. The accuracy must be within a few microseconds among base stations because the pilot code phase is used to distinguish them. CDMA & RF Planning Page 46 of 73 Mukul . It might seem that this is a hard thing to do. calculate the remainders after dividing the time by the two periods.

the sync message also contains both the time of day and the long code state as of the next 80 ms boundary. This accurate mobile transmit timing reduces the synchronization search window needed in the base. their derived system time will lag by that delay. Sync channel messages always start at an 80 ms "superframe" boundary. One superframe is three short code periods. CDMA & RF Planning Page 47 of 73 Mukul . Mobile stations derive system time from the pilot signals that they receiving. and are marked by a start-of-message indication. Because the mobile stations do not have any simple means of determining the propagation delay. readily available atomic frequency standards permit stations to "flywheel" for many hours. using the pilot offset of that particular base station that is contained in the sync message. the mobile station adjusts its transmitter short code phase back to system time. The 80 ms boundaries are already known because the interleaver must have been synchronized in order to have correctly decoded the message. Once the message has been successfully decoded the alignment of the superframes is known. Even in the absence of a GPS reference. Fourth. The system is specially designed to not require accurate timekeeping by the mobile stations while active. That code will be offset from system time according to the pilot offset used by that base station to distinguish itself from other base stations. perhaps days. its "clock" set to system time. When the mobile station has successfully performed all these steps. with a lag due to the base-to-mobile propagation delay. listen to a base station.How to set a clock & find out the time If you are a base station: GPS System time typically is maintained in the base stations by means of a GPS receiver. If you are a mobile. or 80/3 ms. Third. GPS-derived time is normally accurate to a fraction of one CDMA chip (833 ns). Transmissions from the mobile to the base will be aligned within two propagation delays when they arrive at the base. adjusted for the pilot offset. Process of Synchronization to system time First. Direct use of GPS is not absolutely required. This gives plenty of margin for repair or replacement of failed or damaged equipment. the sync channel interleaving synchronization is known because the interleaver block size is equal to the short code period. Once the mobile station has acquired the pilot. Second. but timing must be synchronized with GPS. the mobile station synchronizes its short code generator with a pilot signal from a candidate serving base station. the mobile demodulates and decodes the sync message. The long code state is loaded into the long code generator at the appropriate time. and remain within spec.

The main purpose of the planning is fewer base stations per network. • Objective • Coverage • Capacity • Antenna • Drive Test • Model selection and Tuning • Analysis • SAM and Site selection • Design remodeling • Issuance of final site plan • Optimization CDMA & RF Planning Page 48 of 73 Mukul . It must be able to support the required capacity and quality objectives ( in terms of blocked and dropped calls). The ultimate goal. How these cell are going to interact with larger cells. But designing a fixed WLL can reduce the cost significantly for the subscriber. improved voice quality and a reduction or elimination of drop outs and multipath problems. We also have to consider the significance of coverage overlaps and what effect that will have on the network performance and resources. In fact what is the objective of planning. The preliminary design will identify suite search areas to meet the coverage requirements defined under the objectives. In the wireless network we do not have to plan for the local loop or an area. of course. Telecom networks are not the exception to this fact. How can we control the coverage areas of the cell in the network. We plan for the coverage and capacity. We also have to take care of small cells of the network. The preliminary design will also identify the tentative no. Planning means that we know that what we are going to do and when. is driving the cost per minute of telephone services down to a level that every citizen from every walk of life can afford. We all know that planning should be cost and resource effective and efficient. As we know that the mobility is the cost.CHAPTER TEN PLANNING RADIO PLANNING Planning as we all know that it plays a vital role anywhere. As we know that spectrum available is how costly and it will always be valuable. By reducing the cost it will give hundreds of people basic telephony. All of which result in improved services and greatly reduced network cost. greater system efficiency and capacity. Based on the demand and coverage objectives the preliminary design is done. There are some basic steps involved in the planning. Finally all cell sites will be reevaluated against coverage objectives. of channels required at the site based on the demand criteria provided or developed by marketing. capacity limitations as well as the availability of radio site locations for the design. But I believe that wireless system will ultimately and inevitably be capable of better performance and lower cost than a wired system if the usage of the spectrum is done efficiently.

Before choosing the antenna for the base station we define the polarization. For that purpose we require the drive test. While planning we have to locate all the bottlenecks if any in the system capacity and make recommendations such as rates of handoffs. The knowledge of capabilities and the limitations of the equipment are very necessary. erlangs/subs. in effective attempt rate and interference. Coverage The coverage of the base station is defined a the locations where the actual measured signal level is either greater or equal to the receiver sensitivity. clutter and the topography is different for every town. antenna orientations. Before planning we identify the areas of high capacity and data subscribers. the capacity of network will change. PN Offset reuse patterns. For the drive test we first identify the routes and specify the appropriate data to be collected from these routes. So we require some tweaking a the clutter changes. It implies that any user on the street or in the building is provided with acceptable quality of service. In the other words the area. • • • IN BUILDING COVERAGE IN VEHICLE COVERAGE OUTDOOR COVERAGE The coverage analysis is done through the planning software tool with predefined fade margins and penetration losses in the design criteria guide lines. For the planning purposes we have to define our coverage requirements. The mean received signal level threshold usually represents coverage.Objective What we want to achieve? What kind of services we want to provide to our subscribers and what segment of subscriber is going to benefited from these services.6 dB fade margin. system capacity or BHCA. CDMA & RF Planning Page 49 of 73 Mukul . Antenna Antennas are so chosen that it fulfill the defined coverage requirements. power control algorithm and other interference. But the morphology. beam width and the gain of the antenna. calls handled. when and how we are going to implement these services? What kind of resources we require to get these services? The planner should be aware of the fact and the details of the equipment. Drive Test We use the propagation model for the radio predictions and use the standard models. If not handled properly then it will create dropped call rate increase. Capacity We chose CDMA because we wanted to provide the coverage over the vast area and to support the capacity for the basic telephony. voice coding rate. If there is any change in the traffic distribution. from which a subscriber can make and receive a call with acceptable call quality. Typically we plan for 90% of cell area and 75 % of cell edge reliability at 40 dB path loss slope and 5. The data is then fed into the planning tool and with the help of some algorithms if available otherwise with trial and error methods the model is tweaked and then it is used for the planning of that town. congestion.

These studies are then followed by field analysis of system performance. operational parameters adjustments. Engineering design tools can be utilized to conduct theoretical analysis and system design. CDMA & RF Planning Page 50 of 73 Mukul . call quality and service reliability. After the data is collected and analyzed and the problem areas are identified for the optimization purposes. The goal is to improve performance through the identification of system trouble areas and optimization of network performance through frequency retunes.We again do the drive test while optimization or finding the system trouble areas. We collect the data regarding the RF coverage. call processing. The network optimization includes: • Sector out put Power • Antenna Up Tilt or Down Tilt modifying the neighbor list to reduce the dropped calls and improve RF quality • Minimizing Co Channel and adjacent channel interference • Adjustment in hand off parameters to improve the call quality. Network Parameters Optimization Optimization of network parameters allows network operators to improve system performance and end user satisfaction. antenna modifications. Optimization The optimization of the operating system involves the detailed analysis of technical parameters and the field analysis of the system parameters. handoffs. site and carrier additions and other engineering solutions to improve the system quality.

or to a commentary on an AM pocket radio and we watch pictures sent by radio waves to our TV sets. Almost everyone in our "High Tech World" is familiar with radio communication in one form or another. or AM. These side-bands take up space in the spectrum and many modulation techniques to conserve space are being used. or FM. The information to be conveyed is imbedded within the PN code. data. [NOTE: A change in phase of the carrier frequency also results in an FM like signal that is easier to implement. Law Enforcement and Public Safety would be handicapped without it. resulting in a wide band FM like signal. to send messages or to monitor processes. Since the PN code is not totally random. as would Governments and their militaries. as we learned to transmit more complex information. Later. means to change the frequency of the carrier higher or lower with the modulating information. This philosophy is termed . Amplitude modulation. so is visible light. etc. SPREAD SPECTRUM Recently. SS can be a very wide band type of transmission. Direct sequence is a phase shift scheme. Industry uses it to dispatch vehicles. voice.g. CDMA & RF Planning Page 51 of 73 Mukul . Common modulation techniques are AM and FM. but we can use electronic equipment to detect them and wireless signals react in similar ways to light. a modulation scheme called "Spread Spectrum" was de-classified by the military for civilian use.CHAPTER ELEVEN RF FUNDAMENTALS OF PLANNING THEORY Theory. In the beginning this consisted of simply "keying" the carrier on and off and its was an extension of the telegraph. the frequencies of the modulating signal will add to and subtract from the carrier frequency. Because wireless signals are lower on the frequency spectrum than visible light we cannot see them. the modulation process became more complicated. But how does it work? RADIO Radio (now called WIRELESS) is a form of electromagnetic energy. theoretically. so most of what is called FM is really phase modulation. but it uses the band in a way that. We listen to music on the FM car radio. it has a definite pattern. without an interconnecting cable) it is necessary to have a carrier convey information. the idea is that several patterns can be interleaved in a wireless band of frequencies causing little interference.. setting up side-bands on either sides of the carrier. The spreading is accomplished by a Pseudorandom Noise or PN code modulated on a radio carrier. with direct sequence modulation a more common mode of transmission.] SIDEBANDS When a carrier is modulated. There are various kinds of spread spectrum technologies in operation. lessens the total interference.Narrow Band Transmission. To communicate from "here" to "there" by wireless (e. means to make the carrier stronger or weaker in unison with the modulating information and frequency modulation.

the line of sight is about 6 miles but the UHF wireless distance is around 7 miles.9 (x . First. 2 miles would equal -102 dBm. At the transmitting end.DEMODULATION After the wireless has been modulated. This "packetized" communication is termed modified X. The antenna AGL is about 97 feet at each end of a 14 mile unobstructed path over "flat" ground. These numbers are important in determining how strong the received signal will be and if a proposed link is practical.25. The height.5 (x. H=feet. In the 900 MHz region. The Packet Assemble and Disassemble process is referred to as "PAD".6 Fresnel Zone in the clear to prevent echoes or multipath from reducing the received signal. a loss of 6 dB equals . line of sight is about 3 miles. At 10 feet AGL. At the receiving end.25 of the whole).6 FRESNEL ZONE Another consideration with wireless is keeping the lower . rt. As was mentioned. or : D= sq rt. At 25 feet AGL. especially in propagation. Its width (900 MHz) is about 44 feet at 2. after the imbedded information is recovered.18 times the line of sight distance. UHF wireless and light is alike is many ways.2 (x. a loss of 3 dB equals . The lower . An easy way to appreciate the magnitude of the ratio is to remember that a loss of 1 dB equals a loss of .(2H).6F=(F1x. type and efficiency of this system will determine the distance between transmitting and receiving stations. Because we live on a rounded world.5 miles for a 5 mile link and about 72 feet at 7 miles for a 14 mile link.8 of the whole). An increase is the reciprocal. This increase at 900 MHz is approximately 1. 1 dB equals times 1.75 (x .6) SPACE ATTENUATION Wireless signals get weaker as the distance increases. it bends some and will go a bit farther than light. D=miles. before it is transmitted. the PN code is deciphered and then the imbedded information is validated. 6 CDMA & RF Planning Page 52 of 73 Mukul . 4 miles would equal -108 dBm.25 and its purpose is to ensure accurate data transfer. the line of sight distance will vary with height Above Ground Level or AGL. and a loss of 10 dB equals . and 16 miles would equal -120 dBm. They each tend to travel in a straight path called "line of sight" but because the wireless signal is at a lower frequency. the packets are disassembled. it is about 3. 0.9 miles. The lower part of the . 8 miles would equal -114 dBm.6 Fresnel Zone. The 900 MHz formula for calculating the lower 1st Fresnel Zone is: F1=72. At 6 feet AGL. the attenuation is -96 dBm for the first mile and increases by -6 dBm each time the distance doubles. the modulated carrier is detected and "de-spread". Multipath is to wireless as "ghosting" is to TV. Then . the imbedded data is assembled into "packets". DECIBELS The term dB is a logarithmic ratio that compares (in this case) two power levels.1 x sq. d=midway distance in miles.5 of the whole). must clear all obstacles for best results. ANTENNA THEORY To get the carrier signal from "here" to "there" involves an antenna system. (dxd / 2fd) where: F1=1st Fresnel Zone radius in feet. The formula for calculating antenna height or distance is: H=(DxD)/2. plus some additional information to ensure accuracy. 3 dB equals times 2.6 Fresnel Zone is like a "sag" or widening of the radio beam at the middle of the path. as well as the radio center line between the antennas.1 of the whole). and f= frequency in GHz. it must transmit over distance to a receiving system that reverses the modulating process.

the wireless system fails! CDMA & RF Planning Page 53 of 73 Mukul . Taking these precautions can save a lot of time and effort.5 dB/100 ft. subtract the losses with the goal being a received signal better than -105 dBm. the narrower the angle.001 watt is "0" dBm. A reasonable choice for up to 100 feet of cable is with a loss figure of about 4.25 dB. [By definition . Yagi-Uda or simply Yagi.000. the CDMA antenna must be as far as possible from them. it is possible to determine the viability of a wireless link before installing the equipment. These also come in various gains. RADAR stations. Stay away from locations that are sites for TV stations. all high powered. If the antenna system fails. yagi or panel type. The process is simply to add the gains.] DATA QUALITY Good CDMA RF network -105 dBm (approximately) of "clean" received signal to provide a minimum Bit Error Rate of 1 error out of 1. and 10 dB equals times 10. The higher the gain. pulsing modes of RF energy and other spread spectrum systems. paging systems. If an omnidirectional antenna is used. it should be mounted above or below the field of other transmitting antennas. COAXIAL CABLE How the connection from the antenna to RADIO is accomplished can be as important as the antenna. To multiply using logarithms.1 watt (x10 again) is + 20 dBm and I watt (x10 again) is +30 dBm. The Yagi is a directional antenna that has a relatively wide transmitting and receiving angle. The transmission line of coaxial cable must be chosen to match the 50 ohm antenna impedance and to limit the losses due to the cable length. There are many options in choosing a proper antenna and a very common external array is a 50 ohm. Another popular antenna is a panel type used mostly with cellular systems.01 watt (x10) is +10 dBm. or the radio. so the design signal strength at the radio will be -90 dBm allowing 15 dB of extra margin. it must be pointed away from any other transmitting antennas. SITE There are some important details that must be considered before the antenna is installed. SYSTEM CALCULATIONS By putting all of these calculations together. This limit is termed Effective Isotropic Radiated Power or EIRP and the value will be different based on site to site basis.dB equals times 4. with the 6-8 dB a good choice. one must add. If the antenna is a directional antenna. Check the proposed antenna site for other radio transmitting antennas. the system won't work well. It is wise to have some "insurance" or fade margin. The external antenna parts are vulnerable to many problems and they must be installed for easy repair. then .001 watt. It means the total power level in dBm of the radio plus the antenna gain must not exceed the limit. . A gain limit can be given by the authorities to reduce range and interference. so the drop for 50 ft would be 2. so the antenna gain figure will be important in meeting the EIRP requirement.] ANTENNA TYPES The next step is to design the antenna system. [NOTE: The loss in dB is linear with distance.000 bits sent. An example: the 1 watt transmitter output power of GINA is the same as +30 dBm. It can be mounted for either vertical or horizontal polarity and is offered with several gain figures. there are times when it is necessary to install a non-directional or omnidirectional antenna. The term dBm is the same ratio but related to . Then. If much of the wireless signal is lost before it reaches the antenna.

Inside. If the "VSWR" is acceptable and the antennas are pointed correctly. Follow the super structure with the cable to its base to the building. a Voltage Standing Wave Ratio ("VSWR") test should be done to determine that all electrical connections are correct and that the antenna is properly matched. the reflected power or VSWR" is read. although sometimes horizontal is used to reduce interference. with the appropriate fittings. Either will work. the ground connections.INSTALLATION TIPS If it is necessary to provide a tower to elevate the antenna. If the cable requires suspension from the base to the building. at the radio. [Or just put the system on line and see if it works!] Using the VOICE OPTION. it is desirable that the top be reachable with a self standing ladder for antenna orientation. protect it with a conduit to guard against crushing. The data can be two computers. with polarization either vertical or horizontal (Sometimes in some special applications the cross polarization is also used). An electrical test should be performed. and the cable entry points into the building. The antenna is usually mounted by "U" bolts. Each radio site will be checked in this way. Error Correction Coding. waterproof all outdoor fittings. Vertical is typical for wireless. Next. if it is installed. A test instrument called an inline wattmeter is connected between the radio and the coaxial cable going to the antenna.called a "BERT". from the radio to the main coaxial run for stress elimination at the radio's SMA connector. use a stranded wire to support the cable weight. data demands will exceed the system capacity. Unified Power Control. but the polarity must be the same at each end of the link for successful operation. A bonus with this option is the convenience of easy transmitter keying for RF testing. If the cable lays on a roof or the ground.) Upon entering a building. The transmitter is turned on and its output power is measured on the meter. When a mast is used. then the structure must safely support the weight of any service personnel. (The support will prevent a migration of the cable's inner conductor to the shield. TESTING when the mechanical installation is completed. leave a service loop at the antenna so there will sufficient length of cable to replace a faulty connector. Lightning protection is very important and the local building codes ought to be consulted for proper grounding procedures. when necessary. two terminals. it must be less than 5% of the transmitter power to be acceptable. Point the antenna as near as possible toward the far end of the path. The CDMA & RF Planning Page 54 of 73 Mukul . use a short flexible patch cable. the same as in other two-way radio communication. especially on tall buildings. Consider a coaxial cable lightning arrestor as well as an antenna that has a grounded matching network for added protection. in which case the system must make the most efficient use of its limited resources. Secure the coax so that there is no mechanical stress at the antenna connection. a Bit Error Rate Test set . any device that will send back "known" information when polled "a DGH module". is a push to talk and release to listen operation. When routing the coaxial cable. and Scheduling for a CDMA Downlink System Transmitting multimedia data over a CDMA channel presents a new set of challenges. leave a drip loop so that water will not follow the cable inside. Sometimes. the link is ready to be tested using data. After the test.

CDMA & RF Planning Page 55 of 73 Mukul . That is. Implications for Cell Planning If one extends the distinction between large-area and small-area shadowing. power control. with the latter determined by (predictable) large-scale mechanisms. at least in theory. the standard deviation will necessarily be large. This illustrates the interaction between power control and FEC. Finally. Finally. then the remaining bandwidth is wasted. The Designer's main objective is to maximize the overall system satisfaction. This may allow a spectrally more efficient planning if the cellular layout is optimised for the propagation environment. the critical information is then passed to the higher level for further optimization. the standard deviation of the shadowing will depend on the geographical resolution of the estimate of the areamean power. an iterative and distributed algorithm is applied at the system level to achieve the overall system optimization. we are able to reduce the transmit power while maintaining the same bit-error rate. VFEC. This unifies power control. and scheduling are not considered simultaneously. the result from scheduling affects both the VFEC selection and the transmit power level in order to meet the specific QOS of that data type." This objective is achieved by applying a distributed algorithm that divides the overall optimization problem into a hierarchy of three levels (system. for generic system studies. A propagation model which ignores specific terrain data produces about 12 dB of shadowing. Multipath propagation is separated from shadow fluctuations by considering the local-mean powers. At each level. For example. cell. and user). Thus. and scheduling for a downlink system by allocating the system resources. the standard deviation is a measure of the impreciseness of the terrain description. the (largescale) path loss is taken of simple form depending only on distance but not on details of the path profile. with the coding gain. consider a design that only controls power: if all active applications consume less than the available bandwidth. Compare this to a system that. the definition of shadowing covers any statistical fluctuation of the received local-mean power about a certain area-mean power. On the other hand. for the planning of a practical network in a certain (known) environment. which we call "system utility. We claim the system design is incomplete if the methods of variable forward error correction (VFEC). prediction methods using topographical data bases with unlimited resolution can. On the other hand. achieve a standard deviation of 0-1 dB. uses it for FEC coding. instead of wasting this bandwidth. the system performs independent and parallel optimizations. If. the accuracy of the large-scale propagation model may be refined.resources we consider are: fixed bandwidth available for each user and the transmit power budget for each cell.

etc. Pre design feasibility including topography. resulting in significant time and cost savings. Constructability and zoning. SMS. Identification and procurement of all ‘master friendly’ real estate sites including Search Area Map (SAM) analysis resulting in primary and alternative sites. microwave  Backhaul and trunking analysis  Installation and optimization of network systems  Equipment and radio testing CDMA & RF Planning Page 56 of 73 Mukul . TDMA.. including expansion analysis System/Network Optimization. morphology. By addressing this process up front and selecting sites that conform to ‘pre-approved’ zoning ordinances Site Acquisition services    Identify sites suitable for maximum radio coverage. Installation & Network Optimization RF Group has to work closely with other teams to ensure accurate equipment installation and optimization of the network. zoning and demographic analysis RF Design of BTS Interconnect analysis for Wireless Local Loop WLL Preliminary site count analysis and search ring evaluation Propagation modeling and analysis Conduct radio tests and signal interference analysis.CHAPTER TWELVE FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ENGINEERING Network Engineering Within RF Planning Radio Engineering Department plays a key role in the design and site selection process for the network. This is why RF engineering works hand in hand with Estate management to secure sites that promote maximum radio coverage within appropriately zoned areas. These services include:  Antenna systems  Tower. Site Selection & Site Acquisition The newly designed wireless networks should recognize and respect local zoning laws and telecommunications ordinances. GSM. The ability to design a network grid around a ‘friendly’ environment that will facilitate zoning and construction issues at the onset is the key to a successful build. e. CDMA.. cross-polar and technology choice. RF services          Evaluation and analysis of antenna systems. e. This proactive technique eliminates expensive ‘reissues’ and ‘redesigns’.g. monopole and shelters  Interconnect options/cost analysis  Fiber vs.g. PN Offset reuse and capacity planning.

identifying & resolving conflict The examination of sharing problems arising between applications using common or adjacent frequency allocations invariably demands some form of modeling. whether it is a wanted or an interfering path. RF Coverage Designs And Capacity Analyses The quality of RF analysis used to develop coverage designs is critical to the success of any wireless system. We. as a team. including. I believe in producing designs with cell counts and CDMA & RF Planning Page 57 of 73 Mukul . Spectrum engineering is the discipline through which this goal is achieved. interconnect and antennas Antenna orientation. from interference analysis and propagation modeling. No other design element can influence service quality and cost as much as the RF design. will be able to model interference arising between any communication systems. satellite based or terrestrial.  Quality assurance and safety planning Conformance of all applicable networks and end user requirements Communications Site Management Team has to provide a maintenance/management service for the network including:      Analysis of all BSC. propagation modeling. including cable racking and maximum lengths RF group should provide the full range of spectrum engineering services. One of the most urgent problems faced by spectrum users today is that of frequency sharing. We have to consider all of the activities that are required for spectrum engineering work. Spectrum Engineering & Frequency Management The growth in demand for radio frequency bandwidth necessitates the efficient and effective use of this finite resource. with the associated possibility of conflict between applications wishing to use common frequency allocations. cabling. Propagation modeling As part of any interference analysis activity it is necessary to have a detailed knowledge of the propagation behavior associated with each transmission path. be they fixed or mobile. We have to have the required understanding of propagation issues and try that our knowledge remains current. Clearly the identification and rectification of such potential problems is a major part of any system design process. interference analysis. Interference Analysis . Uptilt and downtilt inspections Perform an obstruction/attenuation and interference review Review and inspection of antennae azimuth and traffic capacity Review of tower installations and antenna Uptilt and downtilt design.

Traffic Capacity Planning & Design Using advanced GIS data.locations that optimize coverage while striking the proper balance with the cost of providing that coverage. These designs meet the coverage specification and design guidelines developed for the system. The network ties these radios together and connects them with the public telecommunications network. This network includes switching systems and associated physical plant. Network & Switching Infrastructure Design Without a supporting network. path analysis. RF Design Standards & Guidelines The quality of RF signal coverage provided by any RF design depends on the guidelines used and their agreement with the coverage and service objectives specified by the marketing groups. The frequency planning services provided encompass a variety of formats. vendor evaluation and selection. This provides a planned migration path to higher capacity systems accommodating future growth. the frequency assignments are made in a manner providing maximum capacity while maintaining interference levels at or below specification. customer profiles and RF coverage designs. site design. The processing gain in the CDMA system allows us to use the same frequency in every cell. and are a necessary input to the RF design activities. These include. In each case. This service develops the design specifications needed to satisfy the coverage and service objectives for the system. Transport media such as CDMA & RF Planning Page 58 of 73 Mukul . Mobile System Frequency Planning & Design In the CDMA system we do not have to plan for the frequency reuse. subscriber counts and usage are developed and converted into capacity forecasts for the initial deployment and future growth. a wireless system is just a lot of expensive radio stations. test and acceptance. such as BSC and MSC switches. equipment recommendations. Combining the experience and knowledge effective and efficient designs are produced. Microwave Radio System Planning & Design MW radio design includes the full range of tasks associated with this activity. Careful consideration of cell site locations and antenna heights and orientations results in optimized coverage. RF Signal Coverage Designs RF signal coverage designs are developed using a variety of commercially available propagation prediction tools.

vehicle counts and the local network call model (if possible) Preparation and review of daily network performance reports Identification of high volume sites along with traffic management solutions Integration and testing of remaining sites as needed Performing of Benchmark testing and analysis including: Identification of marketing objectives. intelligent services. and presenting data. Identification of candidate sites that meet the marketing's coverage and capacity requirements. and development of call models. and operator services. analog. and fine tune the propagation model on a site-specific basis. and respond to subscriber issues that arise during daily operation. Propagation and traffic analysis based on the initial paper design. Network Services Intelligent Network services such as HLR/Roaming. penetration rates. and report results on all final candidates. and customer support networks to monitor the network health. Network Interconnection The network interconnection services provided supply recommendations for connectivity to other network providers. development of test plans. CDMA & RF Planning Page 59 of 73 Mukul . Creation of initial paper design based sample drive test data. and microwave. analyzing. Field visits with Site Acquisition personnel. Short Message Service. and collecting. to collect billing. inter-exchange. terrestrial. or other traffic. Perform Continuous Wave (CW) drive testing. data.cable. digital. These other networks may carry mobile. and Emergency Services are essential to successful operation of a modern telecommunications network provider. voice mail. Development of final coverage objectives. Integration of CW data with the planning tool. Voice Mail. process data. marketing data. Calling Card Services (including Third Party Billing and Automated Directory Services). fiber. roaming. using the available planning tool. Perform inter-modulation analyses. propagation plots. Sample drive tests to determine the local propagation characteristics. forming drive routes. Radio Frequency Network Performance Network Performance Services including: • • • • • • Review of traffic analysis including: Erlang maps. Comprehensive design services           Interaction with the marketing department to review traffic predictions.

Site visits to visually verify construction Review of existing frequency or PN codes reuse offset plans and modify as needed ( if necessary) Identify and calculate tilt or azimuth changes as needed. The designer has to put care in the minimum separation between two cochannel cells. CDMA has a soft handoff problem. The reverse-link power control is for reducing near-end to far-end interference. The interference occurs when a mobile unit close to the cell site can mask the received signal at the cell site so that the signal from a far-end mobile unit is unable to be received by the cell site at the same time. Handoffs. Reverse-Link Power control. The handoff is the necessary overhead in order to switch the call to a new frequency channel in a new cell site without either interrupt the call or alerting the user. Fortunately. and Capacity Enhancement. Last but not least. Develop clusters of sites. and drive routes. A short review of the most important factors follows: • • • • • Co-channel Interference Reduction Factor (CIRF). Forward-Link Power control. Initial Drive Tests: • • • • Verify base station power output and calibrate as needed Perform sector testing at radii appropriate to the surrounding clutter and terrain Review and analyze sector test data with the client's engineers Identify any additional specific tilt or azimuth changes. azimuths and antenna selection. - - CDMA & RF Planning Page 60 of 73 Mukul . The forward-link power control is used to reduce the necessary interference outside its own cell boundary. in the cellular system design. based in its intrinsic characteristics. heights.Comprehensive RF Optimization services Prior to Drive Tests: • • • • • Review all CW drive test data and propagation plots Review of existing sites database including location. Cluster Drive Tests • • Collect and analyze data on established routes Adjust the network and re-drive the system Key Elements in Designing Cellular Several factor should be taken into account. The capacity of cellular system can be increased by handling cochannel interference reduction factor properly. based on the co-channel interference reduction factor.

The procedure of moving from one cell to another. Neighboring cells overlap with each other. The motivation for studying the new call and handoff blocking probabilities is that the Quality of Service in telecom networks is mainly determined by these two quantities. is called handoff. while a call is in progress. The first determines the fraction of new calls that are blocked. as well as with other networks. the new call is blocked. while the second is closely related to the fraction of admitted calls that terminate prematurely due to dropout. This approach has been used in where a single cell is isolated and it is assumed that the handoff attempts into this cell are characterized by a Poisson process. Reducing cells size necessitates large investments in equipment which of course increase the cost per subscriber. The rate of the Poisson process is related to various parameters of the system such as blocking CDMA & RF Planning Page 61 of 73 Mukul . Adding supplementary channels(frequencies) is also a very high cost solution since radio spectrum is a scare resource. If a channel is available. In this I would like to present a model that captures the differences between new call blocking and handoff blocking. it must first obtain a channel from one of the base stations that hears it (usually. The geographic area within which mobile units can communicate with a particular base station is referred to a cell. and of mobile units that communicate with the base stations via wireless links. it will be the base station which hears it the best). If no channel is available in the new cell. through the base stations and the backbone network.CHAPTER THIRTEEN QUALITY OF SERVICE Future wireless networks will provide ubiquitous communication services to a large number of mobile and basic telephony users. A set of channels (frequencies) is allocated to each base station When a mobile user wants to communicate with another user or a base station. thus ensuring continuity of communications when the users move from one cell to another. While performing handoff. The subscriber units communicate with each other. This kind of blocking is called handoff blocking and it refers to blocking of ongoing calls due to the mobility of the users. The approximation is based on the idea of isolating a set of cells and having a simplifying assumption regarding the handoff traffic into this set of cells. the mobile unit requires that the base station in the cell that it moves into will allocate it a channel. This can be achieved by applying efficient power control algorithms or by reducing the size of the cells or by increasing the number of channels (frequencies) in each cell. The design of such networks is based on an architecture that allows efficient use of the limited available spectrum. the handoff call is blocked. This kind of blocking is called new call blocking and it refers to blocking of new calls. Blocking probabilities can be reduced by increasing the capacity of the networks. Therefore. a good evaluation of the measures of performance can help a system designer to make its strategic decisions concerning cell size and the number of channel (frequencies) allocated to each cell. In the case that all the channels are busy. Good power control is not simple and may not always suffice. We consider movements of users along an arbitrary topology of cells. it is granted to the user. The user releases the channel under either of the following scenarios: (i) The user completes the call (ii) The user moves to another cell before the call is completed. This architecture consists of a backbone network with fixed base stations interconnected through a fixed network (usually wired).

CDMA & RF Planning Page 62 of 73 Mukul . the handoff and the new call blocking probabilities are identical.probabilities. when no priority is given to handoff call attempts over new call attempts. no difference exists between these call attempts. etc. In other words. isolate a group of cells and make no approximations regarding the handoff traffic between the cells in the group. It will be clear that a group of three neighboring cells is enough to differentiate between handoff call attempts and new call attempts. Thus this model won't be too complex and results may be easily obtained for any parameters of the system. In the new approximation that is introduced. The handoff traffic into cells of the group from cells outside the group is approximated by a Poisson process. due to the PASTA (Poisson arrivals see time-averages) property. mobility of the users.

Next.CHAPTER FOURTEEN NETWORK DEPLOYMENT AND PERFORMANCE THE BASIC NETWORKING CONCEPTS: This part of the document addresses the basic networking concepts of wireless networks. basic enabling technology was presented. and registration will be explained. exposing both the theoretical and practical aspects of mobile communication. As an introduction. and microcellular architectures. channel assignment and power control algorithms. CDMA). Following this introduction to mobile radio. RF Engineering Capabilities      Radio Engineering Design and Planning Network Objective Definition Link Budget Analysis Initial System Design (Propagation & Point-to-Point / Point-to-Multipoint) Coverage and Interference Testing Analysis and Network Implementation          Demographics and Capacity Estimation Network Expansion Planning Detailed Site Design Propagation Analysis Site Drive Testing Candidate Site Evaluation and Selection Frequency Planning / PN Assignment Site Engineering Specifications Operational Site Parameters Network Optimization     Test Plan Development System Drive Testing and Analysis System Parameter Settings Statistical Measurements and Analysis Network Performance and Quality Testing     Competitive Network Analysis Site Acceptance Testing System Acceptance Testing Network Performance and Evaluation Testing Page 63 of 73 Mukul CDMA & RF Planning .g. such as the cellular principle and multiple access technologies (e. which include roaming. I will address the subject of user mobility support in the wireless environment. call processing functions.. including examples of handoff schemes. investigated the underlying techniques used in design and operation of cellular networks. In particular. common-air protocols etc. routing.

BER/FER. handoff. reflection. such as interactive traffic calculations and soft handoff. ensures a synthesis of the model parameters for each case. and others) calculated through proven. Cost 231 model. best server. Lee-Picquenard which considers attenuation (one mile and per decade loss. for each morphology type). Traffic capacity can be verified by the software through a Monte Carlo simulation at a later stage of the design. diffraction. Terrain and morphological data are considered for each propagation profile from the Radio Base Station to each resolution point. used to calculate the number of traffic channels required in each area. Different options for path loss calculations. and the other containing individual cell site data Traffic figures automatically generated from demographic or switch (MSC) data. Okumura-Hata model. applicable to medium-size urban cells d. It also provides conversion utilities to import and export data from different sources. and through recursive calculations. composite. fast propagation analysis in a variety of resolutions A propagation model that does not average or simplify calculations (a drawback inherent in many alternate models). and multi-path fading b. which can be made to different scales and projections (plots are limited only by the capabilities of the printer or plotter) • • • • • CDMA & RF Planning Page 64 of 73 Mukul . Site location based on traffic and guided by a hexagon grid • The software tool offers ease of use and completeness. morphology. The software design tool should include features and capabilities: • • A project database with one part containing all global parameters of a project. reverse link. It incorporates databases for topography. • • Precise prediction of RF coverage (single. for quick and rough calculations c. demography. such as: a. geographic and logistic references. number of servers.The Planning Tool It is useful to use a software tool for designing wireless systems. A microcell model that provides accurate results for small cells and uses high-resolution databases Automatic calculation of parameters. effective height. with features that optimize the design of a wireless network. Propagation model interacts with field measurement data. 1. A CDMA option provides all the special features of this technology. map images. The ability to work with accurate databases facilitates design and improves graphical outputs. and antennas. Detailed calculations of co-channel and adjacent channel interference Outstanding graphic presentations (on the screen and in printouts/plots). A comprehensive set of features makes the best choice of software for small to extremely large projects. thereby eliminating the guesswork for designers.

there is a distinct possibility that high RF signal levels will be present in the immediate vicinity of the cellular equipment. It's late at night. the only way to locate a cell site in a particular area is to share an existing tower that is already being used by one or more other transmitters. Could it be that mischievous little imps have invaded the equipment? No it's not a nightmare come true. morphology. and instead of sleeping the designers are wrestling with the myriad of inexplicable problems that plague one of the cell sites. and traffic of the cells. In either case.: • Unusual power regulation problems • Faulty test equipment • Inexplicable hand-offs and dropped calls • Transient. CDMA & RF Planning Page 65 of 73 Mukul . weird audio creeps in and out of your signals. In some locations. Many interference problems that haunt consumers using cellular phones. TV.g. terrain. We can use the Qualcomm's QEDesign. sometimes just walking in front of a rack causes switches to flip and relays to chatter. they are discovering increasing difficulty in obtaining authority to build new towers where needed. FM and shortwave radio.• Accurate hand-off algorithms and outstanding graphical outputs to contribute to the uniqueness of CDMA By developing an optimal system that most closely matches the demographics.. but controllable. MSI's Planet. Motorola's Net Plan or any other as it suits to us. are traceable to events originating not in the phone system. ambient field intensity levels may even exceed and pose personnel hazards. an albiet invisible. and. menace. microwave links and more. power supplies don't regulate like they should. such as AM. the system designer will be able to estimate precise equipment and materials needs. The symptoms of RF interference might manifest themselves during operations or routine repair situations. As cellular operators expand their systems in urban areas and build new systems in rural areas. as if possessed. but at cell or switching sites located near high-power radio frequency (RF) installations several miles away. undesirable audio-on signals • Other problems traced to a particular cell site What can a cellular operator do to isolate and correct the basic equipment problem and to understand more about the evolution of the problem at the crowded site contributing to this situation? The practical solution The answer is essentially to enclose the cell-site equipment and/or switch in a "box" that blocks all RF signals. Test equipment that worked on the bench goes haywire in the building. or engineers and technicians charged with fixing cellular problems. only high-power RF interference. e. Frequently. PROBLEMS & THEIR SOLUTIONS IN THE WLL NETWORK The static and dropped calls that are haunting the customers may be coming from the cell site. keeping all other signals out of the box and confining the cellular signals inside the box.

Fiber attenuation composites. This can be difficult. including field intensity measurements where needed. Shielding by itself won't prevent all RF penetration problems. Control of RF penetration problems begins with site selection. coating suspensions and more conventional techniques. Preliminary Analysis. There must always be penetrations of the shield for antenna transmission lines. and to anticipate future problems. Most shielding needs can be met by innovative applications of advanced architectural shielding materials. In addition to protecting investment in expensive equipment.As a practical matter. Steps For Abatement Actual abatement of induced RF interference can be addressed during system acquisition or upgrade by (1) avoidance or (2) design improvements based on a complete collection and analysis of data gathered during the preliminary site selection process. Shielding. water and sewer pipes. Using such things as fiber attenuation composites. such as the use of filters for power lines and possibly RF transmission lines. Additional diagnostic measurements will be necessary when using an existing site. The trick is to restrict passage through these penetrations so that unwanted RF signals that enter the shielded area are small enough to cause no harm to practical equipment installations. That is why it is important to accomplish a comprehensive engineering analysis from the outset of the project. The CDMA & RF Planning Page 66 of 73 Mukul . should be made to identify and document existing hazards. Other techniques might be necessary. and more conventional techniques can yield attenuations of 40dB or more in existing buildings. A careful study. A database study should be incorporated into initial or site improvement analyses. telephone lines. reducing maintenance costs and increasing reliability and customer satisfaction. Other RF Protection. attenuation of 40 dB or more can be readily obtained in existing buildings. While not to CIA specifications. main power. grounding cables. Site Selection. using proven electromagnetic parametric and geographic data and models. architectural shielding can protect the employees from potentially hazardous exposure to high RF signal levels. air conditioners. doors. especially if site acquisition people or land mobile engineers are unfamiliar with electro-magnetic effects. coating suspensions. most shielding needs can be met by innovative applications of advanced architectural shielding materials. to measure and determine the scope of potential RF generated problems and define various fix alternatives for ensuring complete system/environment compatibility. and may make the difference in the viability of a cell site. a perfect shielding box is neither achievable nor economically desirable. such attenuation frequently will be adequate to prevent RF ingress into the equipment. In the real world.

Shielding and other RF interference preventive actions must be taken into account at the very beginning of building design. In some cases. • Comparing the coverage of equipment located at one site with the coverage at another candidate site to ensure an optimum location. Test Measurements. "unauthorized" cable wall penetration.compatibility between the cell or switch site and the attendant environments. These data carry forward a baseline to support future preventative maintenance. • Identifying systems in the environment that represent potential sources or victims of interference. qualified and experienced in RF compatibility engineering. A thorough study and analysis of the electromagnetic environment of any potential cell site will prevent expensive surprises in the final product . to include baseline measurements at the suspected "threat" frequencies after the new equipment and shielding installations are in place. Based on these and similar supporting data. Test measurements must be built into the overall design process. air conditioner replacement. which should be done on a regular basis. equipment selection/upgrade or site selection process. it may be necessary to modify standard electronics lay-outs to ensure that existing installations and future site expansion will remain RF interference resistant. • Defining constraints due to EMC considerations to support the site-selection process. and problem trouble-shooting. No matter how well the equipment installation and site selection process is planned and executed. or other change which can corrupt the shield or other EMI preventive procedure. CDMA & RF Planning Page 67 of 73 Mukul . should be retained early in the design/planning process.Network operators should maintain the database typically supporting area site selection and RF interference/hazards analysis such as: • Defining regions where high-power fields exceed established radiation hazard criteria and provide information for inclusion in environmental impact statements. shielding and other RF protection techniques can be selected to complement and influence architectural and building construction planning. Conclusion It is never too early to plan for effective RF interference abatement. A competent consulting organization or engineer. there will be the invariable.

they can be moved to different areas easily. NETWORK DEPLOYMENT Because the subscriber locations in a WLL system are fixed and not mobile. The basic idea is that a central CDMA hub is installed where the phone lines come into an area. and so that base stations can be re-deployed as needed to best meet changes in traffic demand. apartment complex. fixed WLL systems can initiate service in stages. and then CDMA-compatible phones are installed in each office or house. the ideal fixed WLL system should be fully modular and scaleable so that additional capacity can be readily added to base stations. a building's standard wired phones can be connected to a wireless local loop hub that allows many phones to share a predetermined number of CDMA cellular transceivers. For example. the capacity needed for a mobile system is different than that for a fixed WLL system. however -. Service for a city. The nature of coverage is also different in fixed and mobile applications. but there are also some other uses of the technology being applied commercially. That capacity may be greater than that needed by the same number of mobile subscribers.wherever a wired phone would normally have to be installed.in a fixed WLL system as compared to a mobile system. can begin neighborhood by neighborhood as the WLL base stations are deployed.g. A fixed subscriber terminal will be oriented for the greatest signal strength upon installation. Wireless local loop technology is a way for a local cluster of telephones to be installed in areas that would normally require expensive or disrupting physical wire installation. and the traffic generated per subscriber may be higher due to lower tariffs than those charged for premium mobile service and the different usage patterns of homes and offices. be it an office building. the grade of service may be mandated to be better. This distinction between fixed and mobile applications does not in itself imply any differences in the technology. Consequently.. While a mobile system must effectively provide communications to all areas within signal range of the base station. The phones are not designed to be battery-powered portables. but because they are not tied to a phone jack. busy hour) traffic. While a mobile system's base stations must provide adequate capacity to support worst-case (e. but other dissimilarities associated with network deployment do. a directional antenna pointing to the nearest WLL base station can be used to improve the signal quality (in terms of the carrier-to-interference ratio) or extend the range. they get their power from standard 220V sources. for example. This is especially important for preexisting structures where adding more phone lines would be a problem. If a location does not have wired telephone service but has access to CDMA cellular coverage.CDMA in Wireless Local Loop CDMA's primary commercial application will definitely be with cellular wireless phones and pagers. The hub interfaces with the standard phone lines coming into such an area. a fixed system can assume that the subscriber terminal has been positioned to obtain the best possible signal. the initial deployment of radio base stations need only provide coverage to areas where immediate demand for service is apparent. Wireless local loop can also be applied in the other direction. and. or even a subdivision. if necessary. While a system supporting mobile communications would strive to provide coverage for an entire region before inauguration of service. a fixed system's base stations must only provide the capacity needed to support a known number of subscribers. so that network capacity can be redistributed among existing base stations. CDMA & RF Planning Page 68 of 73 Mukul . The service is almost transparent in that the users' phone act as if they were connected to a physical phone line except when all the transceivers in the wireless local loop hub are in use.

a subscriber terminal adapted for fixed wireless service should employ diversity receive antennas to counter the effects of whatever fades are present. With such single. As a result of such differences between fixed and mobile propagation environments.one connects a standard phone and receives standard phone service as if connected by copper lines to the telephone network. then directional antennas may be used at the base station to further improve the system's link margins. the WLL system's interface to the telephone network can be supported either by its own switch or through direct connection to the local exchange. Single. The manner in which the WLL system interconnects to the PSTN. If the fixed subscribers are localized. The WLL terminals may be handsets that allow the subscriber some degree of mobility. in turn. reduced transmit power levels at the base station of a fixed WLL system imply reduced base station costs and improved reliability. WLL Subscriber Terminals Subscribers in a WLL system receive phone service through terminals linked by radio to a network of base stations. and they may or may not include battery back-up for use during line power outages. And. due to local changes in the propagation environment.and multiple-line units that connect to standard wireline telephones are uniquely suited for fixed wireless services. CDMA & RF Planning Page 69 of 73 Mukul . as required. Terminals may be mounted indoors or outdoors. however. moreover. represents a key distinction between systems based on mobile wireless technology or adapted to fixed wireless. the subscriber terminals should support the signaling needed for payphone service. As mentioned previously. For example. an apartment complex.Similarly.and multiple-line designs. a fixed subscriber terminal will not experience the same magnitude of fading effects seen by a mobile terminal. WLL Interfaces to the PSTN Subscribers to a WLL system are linked via radio to a network of radio base stations which.from Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS) to advanced broadband services.or multiple-line units that connect to one or more standard telephones. In general. or a bank of payphones. the WLL and its subscriber terminal should support data and facsimile communications as well as voice without requiring any external"digital modem" adapters. Each line provided by a single. multipleline subscriber terminals provide more than one independent channel of service. Even fixed terminals will experience fades. WLL subscriber terminals adapted for fixed wireless service should incorporate antenna diversity to compensate for fading and should allow use of directional antennas to extend range. are tied by a backhaul network to allow interconnection to the PSTN. however. To truly deliver "standard phone service" however. they may be integrated desktop phone and radio sets. Such WLL subscriber terminal design variations highlight how mobile technology can be adapted to suit the variety of fixed wireless applications. Adapted for fixed wireless service in this way. Unlike any mobile wireless unit. assuming the same range of coverage and all other variables held constant. These differences in WLL terminal designs reflect the use of different radio technologies in wireless local loop systems and the varying levels of services that can be supported -. requires WLL capabilities above and beyond that offered by many mobile systems.or multiple-line subscriber unit should provide the ring current needed to support multiple extensions. the WLL subscriber terminal effectively becomes the analog of a wireline phone jack -. with each line routed as appropriate to support an office. or they may be single. the transmit power levels of a fixed WLL system can be reduced compared to that of a mobile system. While mobile terminals can be expected to move out of such fades.

2 would allow interface across multiple switch and WLL vendors. on the other hand. All the traffic is sent for the specified destination on these specified E1s only Intra City Microwave Backhaul For the Intra City the backhaul transmission is done at 3-21 GHz band. It can also reflect a given WLL system's reliance on technology designed for the support of mobile services. Before sending all the E1 trough the air each E1 is specified for its destination. In particular. Direct connection to PSTN switches can be either through analog or digital interfaces.WLL systems are available that incorporate their own switch or that connect to only one or a few specific switch types. Digital interfaces using 64 kbps PCM voice channels. By contrast. while V5. its adoption and introduction by the world's local exchange switch manufacturers have only just begun. Due to the history of mobile services as competitive independent networks distinct from wireline service providers. and some WLL systems are able to use them effectively. or Private Branch Exchange. the V5. Microwave Backhaul Connectivity Microwave is used to connect the cities to provide the required backhaul within the city (intra city) and between the cities the (inter city).or four-wire interfaces are provided by all central office switches to support copper line local loops. however. The WLL system itself can rely upon the PSTN to provide all primary switching functions. Before sending all the E1 trough the air each E1 is specified for its destination.2 landline digital interconnect standard has been standardized by the European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI) as the recommended open digital interface between a landline switching office and WLL system. this approach to WLL system architecture reflects the difficulty of supporting direct connection to the wide variety of switches globally deployed. such systems have been developed for use with specific mobile switch centers. All the traffic is sent for the specified destination on these specified E1s only Steps For Transmitting Inter City Calculate the total E1 required for the entire path CDMA & RF Planning Page 70 of 73 Mukul . In the meantime. Unfortunately. Ideally. In part. Remote Switch Unit. represents additional cost to the network operator. Inter City Microwave Backhaul • • • • • • • • • Inter city microwave backhaul is transmitted on the 3-21 GHz band. WLL equipment manufacturers have developed proprietary digital interfaces to suit specific switches as required by their specific markets. direct connection of a WLL system to existing central office switches effectively makes the WLL network a direct extension of the wireline network and allows use of underutilized switching resources. a WLL network adapted to fixed wireless services as a cost-effective extension of the wireline network should be able to connect to existing local exchanges in a cost-efficient manner that preserves the advanced features provided by the exchange and supports mixed-vendor networks. Analog two. The requirement of mobile switch centers or specific switch types as part of a WLL system. can be more convenient and less expensive. At the BSC (base station controller) total no of E1s are taken from the incoming radio and then fed into the DDF and jumpering is done at the BSC and the output is fed into the outgoing radio equipment. At the MSC (main switching center) total no of E1s are taken from the DDF and fed into the radio equipment.

of E1 for that destination Feed into the incoming radio of BSC Feed them into the DDF from the receiving radio Steps For Distribution Of E1 In The Intercity Microwave Backbone E1 are sent from the MSC for the last city in the route E1 are calculated for all the drop insert point in between At the first add/drop point all the E1 are taken and the required no. BTSs falling in the remaining routes can provide the coverage for the BTSs/BTS whose E1 links are terminated with the BSC Conclusion The needs of wireless local loop systems are different and distinct from those of mobile wireless systems. To best suit fixed wireless applications in WLL systems. From the point of view of the network operator. of E1 for that destination Feed into the incoming radio of BTS Feed them into the primary port from the receiving radio Steps For Distribution Of E1 Within The City The E1s are received from the BSC and fed into the incoming radio These E1 are sent in two direction opposite to each other called as primary and secondary paths All the E1 for the city are sent altogether and at each BTS in both the paths First BTS takes the required no. that in case of complete termination of E1 links from BSC to a set of BTSs or a single BTS in both the primary and secondary paths. This process will be repeated till the last add/drop point Steps For Transmitting Intra City • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Define the destination of each E1 in the BSC Define the primary and the secondary path for each E1 Define the total required no. of E1 are dropped and the rest E1 are sent forward. although aspects of the technology may be common.• • • • • • • • • • Get the required no. the questions to ask any WLL system vendor must include: CDMA & RF Planning Page 71 of 73 Mukul . of E1/time slots( fractional E1) at each cell site Send them to the outgoing radio for the intra city backhaul Step For Receiving Intra City: Receive the required no. of E1 from the DDF Specify the destination of these E1 Feed into the microwave radio Send it through the air Steps For Receiving Inter City Receive the required no. of E1 for its use and the rest E1 are send forward From the DDF these E1 are fed into the BTS primary port Logically each E1 passes through each BTS in both the paths but only required E1 are dropped at each BTS in both the paths Routes should be designed in such a way. mobile wireless technology should be adapted to directly address the requirements of fixed wireless.

with no interference at all. we can add one additional user so the voice quality is just slightly degraded. 9. No Guard Time in CDMA: TDMA requires the use of guard time between time slots.and multiple-line subscriber terminals provided? • Do the subscriber terminals support multiple extensions? • Can directional antennas be used at the subscriber terminals to extend the range from the base station? • Is antenna diversity used at the subscriber terminal to defeat the effects of fading? • Are data and facsimile communications supported in addition to voice without external adapters? • Can existing switch capacity be utilized by the WLL system by direct connection? • Is the deployment and additional cost of a mobile switch center or specific switch type avoided? Ten Top Advantages Using CDMA 1. This "waste" of bits does not exists in CDMA. Soft Capacity: Because in CDMA all the traffic channels share a single CDMA radio channel. no frequency management is needed. Because each channel user has active just 35% of the entire cycle. Less Fading: Less fading is observed in the wide-band signal while propagating in a mobile ratio environment. 2. all others benefit with less interference in a single CDMA radio channel. an equalizer is required. Of course. No Equalizer Needed: When the transmission rate is much higher than 10kb/s in both FDMA and TDMA. CDMA & RF Planning Page 72 of 73 Mukul . Capacity Advantage: Given correct parameters. 8. the rest of the time we are listening. Coexistence: Both systems. the guard time does occupy the time period for certain bits. reduced by 65%. the mutual interference is in a nice-free way. In CDMA all the users are sharing one radio channel. Since there is only one channel in CDMA. analog and CDMA can operate in two different spectrums. No Hard Handoff: In CDMA. every cell uses the same radio. allowing cost-effective deployment of capacity. and suitable for re-deployment if needed? • Is the system's underlying wireless technology standardized and able to take advantage of economies of scale? • Is the system spectrally efficient. So.• is the system modular. 6. which is cheaper than the equalizer. and twenty times FDMA radio capacity per channel/cell. TDMA and FDMA. because guard time is not needed in CDMA technique 5. CDMA only needs a correlator. 7. CDMA can have four times the TDMA radio capacity. and thus. No frequency management or assignment needed: In both. This feature avoids do handoff from one frequency to another while moving from one cell to another. 4. The human voice activity cycle is 35%. especially for high-capacity needs or in regions with severely constrained access to bandwidth? • Does the system take advantage of the differences between fixed and mobile propagation environments through directional antennas at the base station and lower transmit powers? • Are single. the channel capacity is increased about three times. Voice Activities Cycles: CDMA is the only one technique that success in take advantage of the nature of human conversation. 3. On the other hand. the frequency management is always a critical task to carry out. capable of future growth. the only difference is the code sequences.

For Microcell and in-building Systems: CDMA is a natural waveform suitable for microcell and in-building. CDMA & RF Planning Page 73 of 73 Mukul .10.

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