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Basic difference between Volume flowrate & Mass flowrate & Energy flowrate

- Calculation Software
- List Standards in Flow Metering
- AGA-10
- ISO 6976
- Metering Station1
- AGA Report no 3 - Part 4 [Intro].pdf
- AGA-8 - Compressibility Factors of Natural Gas
- GPA 2172-09 FAQ
- ISO 6976
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- AGA 3 1992 vs AGA 3 1982
- 2007 AGA 9.pdf AGA 9 - 2007.pdf
- Fiscal Liquid Metering
- AGA_9
- Fundamentals of Orifice Measurement TechWpaper
- GPA-2261
- Custody Transfer Metering
- Systems Handbook M&R Station Instromet
- ISO 6974
- AGA-9

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By Anwar Sutan

There are a few types of gas meter. All of these meters at the end have one goal, which is

to get a reliable result of measurement that can be converted to amount of money. In the

old days, measurement is only based on standard volume total. But the amount of energy

will be different for different composition of gas. That’s why nowadays people use

energy measurement as a standard for buying and selling gas.

There are a few types of gas meter, we have mass meters, and we have volume meters.

We classify the type of meter base on what the raw output of the meter is. Then from the

raw data, with the help of some calculation standards, we will have parameters such as

density, compressibility, calorific value, etc. These parameters will help us determine all

other totalisers.

Some basic calculations that are used in gas turbine and ultrasonic metering systems are:

f

Gross volume flow rate: ⋅ mf ⋅ ctsm ⋅ cpsm ⋅ 3600 volume unit/hour

kf

πd 2

Gross volume flow rate: vog ⋅ ⋅ mf ⋅ ctsm ⋅ cpsm ⋅ 3600 volume unit/hour

4

ρL

Standard volume flow rate: GVF ⋅ standard volume unit/hour

ρS

Mass flow rate: GVF ⋅ ρ L Mass unit/hour

Energy flow rate: SVF ⋅ GHV energy unit/hour

f = frequency

kf = k factor (pulse/unit volume)

mf = meter factor

ctsm = correction factor for pipe expansion caused by temperature

cpsm = correction factor for pipe expansion caused by pressure

vog = velocity of gas

d = pipe diameter

ρ L = Line density

ρ S = Standard density

GVF = Gross Volume flow rate

SVF = Standard Volume flow rate

GHV = Gross heating value

Gross Volume Flow Rate

For a volumetric meter, there are two methods of getting gross volume flow rate. The

first one is where the signal from the meter is in the form of frequency. And the second

one is where the signal from the meter is in the form of velocity of gas.

If the signal from the meter is in the form of frequency, then the meter has to have a k

factor. K factor is a value that determines how many pulses represents 1 volume-unit. For

instance the k factor is 1000 pulses/m3. It means that 1 m3 will be represented by 1000

pulses.

If the signal taken from the meter is vog which taken from serial connection, then to get

the flow rate, the velocity has to be multiplied by the area of the internal diameter of the

pipe.

No meter is linear. That’s why they need to have wet calibration, which a meter being

calibrated is compared to a more accurate meter on a few flow rate points. A value that

corrects the deviation between the meter being calibrated and the reference meter is

called by meter factor. A meter factor value is applied in the meter being calibrated.

On some meters such as usm, when wet calibration is done, meter factor is applied in the

usm it self. In that case, there is no need to apply the meter factor in the flow computer

for the gross volume flow rate calculation anymore. But it is a choice of a customer to

disable the meter factor in the meter and apply it in flow computer. The only thing to be

noticed is that meter factor must not be applied in both flow computer and meter.

Another thing that will affect flow rate is that pipe expands with increase of temperature

and pressure. Because of the expansion, volume of the gas that goes through will be

different depending on the temperature and pressure. To compensate this, there is

correction factor on the temperature (ctsm) and correction factor on the pressure (cpsm).

Based on these explanations we get the formula of Gross Volume Flow rate:

f

⋅ mf ⋅ ctsm ⋅ cpsm ⋅ 3600

kf

or

πd 2

vog ⋅ ⋅ mf ⋅ ctsm ⋅ cpsm ⋅ 3600

4

The value 3600 is for volume/hour. It will be 86400 for volume/day. It varies depends on

the flow rate unit.

Standard volume flow rate is a flow rate that is calculated at standard pressure and

standard temperature. These standard pressure and temperature are standards defined by

standard association such as AGA, ISO, etc or standard pressure and temperature agreed

by buyer and seller.

The formula for standard volume from the gas equation is:

P ⋅T ⋅ Z

SVF = GVF ⋅ L S S

PS ⋅ TL ⋅ Z L

PL = Line Pressure

PS = Standard Pressure

TL = Line Temperature

TS = Standard Temperature

ZL = Line compressibility

ZS = Standard compressibility

We can also get the standard volume by knowing the standard density and line density:

ρL

SVF = GVF ⋅

ρS

ρ L = Line density

ρ S = Standard density

At most applications, these parameters such as compressibility and density are calculated.

The calculation is defined in standards. AGA 8 is on of the most used standard to get the

compressibility and density. Density also defined in ISO 6976 standard.

Mass flow rate is defined by how much mass goes through a meter in every certain time

unit. Mass can be determined by knowing fluid density. The formula for mass volume is:

For mass meter such as orifice, mass flow rate is the raw output from the calculation of

the orifice parameters. And by knowing the line and standard density, standard volume

and gross volume will be determined.

Energy flow rate is defined by how much energy goes through a meter in every certain

time unit. Energy can be determined by knowing Gross heating value which is defined by

how much energy contain in certain standard volume unit. The formula for energy flow

rate is:

Calculation for GHV is defined in standards such as ISO 6976 and GPA 2172.

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