HLTH – 1306 Test I Ch 1-4 Study Guide Chapter 1: What are the values of first aid? a. Value to self b.

Value to others c. Value in remote areas What is first aid? Immediate Care

How does a person minimize the risk of lawsuit when giving first aid? Getting permission, or “consent” from the victim

Expressed consent: Actual visible consent given by an alert, mentally competent victim o Handshake, verbal agreement, etc. Implied consent: Involves an unresponsive victim with a life-threatening condition It is assumed (implied) that they would consent if alert

Children and mentally incompetent adults: Consent must be obtained from the parent or guardian of the victim o If parent or guardian is unavailable, do not withhold first aid in order to obtain the consent; first aid should be given based on implied consent. o With mentally ill, only police officers are allowed to restrain or transport a person against that person’s will

1 slides Pg. Abandonment: CH. 7 First aiders should not intervene unless directed by an officer Negligence: (four components) Having a duty to act Breaching that duty Causing injury and damages Exceeding your level of training Duty to act: When employment requires it When on duty (and sometimes when off) When a preexisting responsibility exists o Parent for child o Driver for passenger Breach of duty: When first aider fails to provide the type of care that would be given by a person with the same or similar training Act of omission: o Failure to do that of someone with same/similar training Act of commission: o Doing something that someone with same/similar training would not do .

Recognize the emergency 2. Give first aid . vomitus. Decide to help 3. if EMS is needed 4. Call 911.Confidentiality: As a first aider. or just stench What should be done in an emergency? 1. may learn confidential information about victim Use extreme caution about revealing information learned Good Samaritan Law: Encourage people to assist others in distress by granting them immunity against lawsuits Applies when rescuer is: o Acting during an emergency o Acting in good faith o Acting without payment o Not guilty of misconduct or negligence Chapter 2 Why are ordinary bystanders less likely to offer emergency help? Lack of knowledge Confusion about what is an emergency Characteristics of the emergency o Blood. Check the victim 5.

12 What does a person need to do to develop an attitude to decide to help in an emergency? Decide to help before ever encountering an emergency What are the reasons people do not offer help? It could be harmful Helping doesn’t matter Obstacles may prevent helping What are the four questions to ask if you are unsure about calling 911? -[if answer is “yes” to any of these questions. or you are unsure. middle) . 14 (left column. call 911]Is the victim’s condition life threatening? Could the condition get worse and become life threatening on the way to the hospital? Does the victim need the skills or equipment of the EMS? Could the distance or traffic conditions cause a delay in getting the victim to the hospital? What conditions require immediate transportation to an emergency room? Pg.What are four factors to recognize the emergency? Severity Physical distance Relationship Time exposed Pg.

What are the advantages of calling 911 over driving a victim to the emergency room? Pg. The phone number you are calling from and your name 3. or bystanders Cause of the injury or illness Number of victims Disease precautions: Infectious disease: (communicable diseases) o Can be transmitted from one person to another o Transmission can be minimized with proper precautions Universal precautions: o Advise you to assume that all blood and certain body fluids pose a risk for transmission of infectious diseases o Designed to prevent first aiders from coming into direct contact with infectious agents . 14 (left column. bottom) What information will be needed when calling 911? 1. Number of persons needing help and any specific conditions 5. The victims location 2. the victim(s). What happened 4. Victims condition What are the three things of the 10 second scene size up? Hazards that could be dangerous to you.

Rub hands together for 15-20 seconds. Us soap and warm water. Dry hands completely with clean towel or air dry - Personal protective equipment: Pg. if possible 2.- Body substance isolations: o Techniques to provide additional protection o Infectious diseases can spread through:    Blood or fluid splash Surface contamination Lack of or improper handwashing - Proper hand washing procedure: 1. Rinse soap from hands 4. wash all surfaces and under nails 3. eye protection. Hepatitis B virus o Pg. 17-19 o Medical exam gloves. and gowns o Provides barrier between infectious disease and first aider - Blood borne diseases: HIV. mouth-to-mouth barrier device. 20 . SARS o Pg. 19 - Air borne disease: tuberculosis.

clear information o Offer support and comfort through your words and presence o Use a gentle tone of voice Chapter 3: What three body systems do most life threatening injuries and illnesses affect? Respiratory. heart.What are the stages of grieving? Denial Anger Bargaining Depression Acceptance How do you deal with: A dying victim: o Avoid negative statements o Assure the victim you will locate family o Allow for some home o Use a gentle tone of voice o Let the victim know that everything that can be done to help will be done Survivors: o Allow survivors to grieve o Provide simple. brain and spinal cord . honest. circulatory and nervous What organs are involved in most life threatening injuries and illnesses? Lungs.

27 . posterior tibial. 26 What are the mechanics of breathing? First page of Ch. 3 PPT What are the signs of inadequate breathings (four)? A rate of breathing outside the normal range (table 3-1) Cool or clammy skin that is pale or cyanotic (blue-gray) Nasal flaring. especially in children An uncorrected respiratory problem in children and infants Chart of circulatory system: Pulse: Surge of blood given by heart beat Can be felt at any point where artery lies close to surface of body Major locations: o Carotid. dorsalis pedis arteries Blood pressure: Hypotension: (low BP) o If blood does not fill the system Hypertension: (high BP) o When the arterial walls have become hard and cannot expand readily Fig. 3-2 and 3-3 on Pg. femoral. radial. brachial. 25 What are normal respiration rate ranges for various age groups? Table 3-1 on Pg.Chart or respiratory system on Pg.

anxiety. 30 and 31 . clammy skin o Rapid pulse o Rapid breathing o Restlessness. or mental dullness o Nausea and vomiting o Reductions in total blood volume o Low or decreasing blood pressure o Subnormal body temperature Chart of CNS and PNS on Pg. 29 Hemorrhage: A large amount of blood loss in a short amount of time Perfusion: The circulation of blood through an organ or a structure Hypoperfusion: (shock) The inadequate circulation of blood through an organ or a structure What is shock and what are the signs and symptoms of shock? Hypoperfusion Signs/symptoms: o Pale or cyanotic (bluish). cool.Blood: Pg.

severe bleeding What is the AVPU Scale? Describes how responsive the victim is What are the levels of responsiveness and what does each mean? Table 4-1 on Pg.Chapter 4: What are the components of the scene size up? Determines safety of the scene Cause of injury or nature of illness Number of victims What are the steps of the initial check? Determine if victim is responsive Ensure that the victim’s airway is open Determine if victim is breathing Check for any obvious. 43 What are the ABCs of first aid? Check for: o Airway o Breathing o Circulation .

Table 4-2 Pg. or smell Table 4-5 Pg. feel. 52 . hear. 45 What can the victim’s skin color indicate? Table 4-3 Pg.What are the breath sounds and what are the possible causes of each? . 47 What are the skin temperatures/moisture levels an what are possible causes of each? Table 4-4 Pg. 47 What are the significant causes of injury? Signs: Victim’s conditions you can see. 48 Symptoms: DOTS: Deformity Open wounds Tenderness Swelling Things the victim feels and is able to describe Known as the chief complaint Medical identification tags: Pg.

Triage: Process of prioritizing multiple victims: o Immediate care o Urgent care o Delayed care o Dead What information is included in SAMPLE history? Ch. 4 PPT What are the classifications of victims according to care and transportation priorities? Same as process of prioritizing multiple victims What are the advantages of the left-side position? (recovery position) Keeps airway open Delays vomiting Delays poison’s effects Relieves pressure on a pregnant woman’s vena cava .

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