Leadership in Work Teams

Angela Kenyatta Harvard University

Choose a Thought Partner
• Seated near you • Not a member of your ExEL team • Preferably someone that you don’t know • Introduce yourselves to one another

Harvard ExEL Oregon ISI Spring 2008

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Session Objectives
• To summarize key ideas from the IESE article • To “Get on the Balcony” and use analytic and diagnostic skills to compare the characteristics of constructive team cycling to the current progression of your ExEL Team • To apply learning’s to assess individual/ collective strengths and weaknesses and make performance improvement recommendations to your team

Harvard ExEL Oregon ISI Spring 2008

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The Best and Worst of Teaming
• What were the characteristics of the most effective team of which you’ve been a member ? • What were the characteristics of the least effective team of which you’ve been a member?

Harvard ExEL Oregon ISI Spring 2008

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What Makes A Team?
• “A team is a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose and certain shared goals, for which they hold themselves mutually accountable”. (Katzenbach and Smith, 1993).

Harvard ExEL Oregon ISI Spring 2008

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The Right Mix
• Effective teams are comprised of the right mix of technical, decisionmaking and interpersonal skills in order to accomplish the team’s mission

Harvard ExEL Oregon ISI Spring 2008

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Four Stages of Team Development
Forming Storming Norming Performing

Forming
• Focus on getting to know one another • Membership criteria is established • Anxiety and insecurities surface • Intentional trust building results in greater cohesiveness

Harvard ExEL Oregon ISI Spring 2008

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Storming
• Members respond to team’s challenges from different viewpoints and perspectives • Bids for power and influence occur • Communication process is critical – Seek Info – Define Problem – Clarify Criteria – Generate Alternatives – Evaluate Alternatives – Make Decision
Harvard ExEL Oregon ISI Spring 2008 9

Norming
• Rules and processes are decided upon • Unwritten rules and behavioral norms are established • Process of organization drives the development of a specific, measurable action plan

Harvard ExEL Oregon ISI Spring 2008

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Performing
• Collaborative work occurs • Accomplishments reinforce team identity • Secure required resources • Interact frequently during execution of action plan • Adapt action plan as needed

Harvard ExEL Oregon ISI Spring 2008

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The Carmill Model
(Cardonna & Miller, 2000)

• Constructive Cycle: Team goes through a series of stages that make them stronger and more mature • Destructive Cycle: Teams experience crises and negative behavior that weaken their capacity to accomplish their mission
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Roles in a work team
Decision Making Process Information Gathering Discussion Evaluation Action Plan Constructive Roles Contributor Communicator Questioner Collaborator Destructive Roles Doubter Distracted Diplomat/ Dominator Defeatist
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Harvard ExEL Oregon ISI Spring 2008

Let’s Rumble: Conflict in Teams
• “If the risk of conflict is implicit in any interaction between people, all the more so in a relationship that is based on interdependence and collaboration, and that requires a certain unity of opinion and action”

Harvard ExEL Oregon ISI Spring 2008

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The Faces of Conflict • Rational vs. Emotional • Explicit vs. Implicit • Issue vs. Attitude

Harvard ExEL Oregon ISI Spring 2008

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States of a Team Meeting Disagreement
EA+RD

Unity
EA+RA

Confrontation
RD+ED

Conformity
RA+ED

Harvard ExEL Oregon ISI Spring 2008

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Highly Effective Teams
• Fix and adhere to meeting dates • Provide information necessary to prepare for meeting ahead of time • Start and end at set times • Develop a clear, well thought out agenda • Avoid interference or interruption during meetings • Remain focused and “share the air”
Harvard ExEL Oregon ISI Spring 2008 17

What’s Your Take?
• What recommendation for increasing the effectiveness of your work together will you offer your team? • Jot down your recommendation, along with a brief rationale, and prepare to share during Team Time.
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