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A Comparative Study on the Duration for Milk to Stay Fresh outside the Refrigerator

A Comparative Study on the


Duration
for Milk to Stay Fresh Outside The
Refrigerator

Names of students : Ng Chia Lin (910222-06-5858)

: Lee Mei Yee (910615-06-5058)

: Goh Huei Wen (910817-10-5246)

: Jovy Soh Yi Sien (910123-06-5916)

Name of Teacher advisor : Mdm. Lee Meng See

Name of School : SMK ABDUL RAHMAN TALIB , Kuantan.

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A Comparative Study on the Duration for Milk to Stay Fresh outside the Refrigerator

INDEX

No. Contents Page


1 Aim 3
2 Procedure 3
3 Data 4-8
4 Conclusion 8
5 Introduction 9
6 Background information 9
7 Statement of problem 10
8 Hypothesis 10
9 Objective 10
10 Importance of the research 10
11 Analysis of data 11-13
12 Discussion 14
13 Acknowledgement 14
14 References 15
15 Appendix 16-23

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A Comparative Study on the Duration for Milk to Stay Fresh outside the Refrigerator

3.1 Aim : To investigate which type of milk can stay fresh for a
longer period outside the refrigerator.

3.2 Procedure:

1. Several types of milk were obtained.

2. 200ml of each type of the milk was poured into different containers.

3. The initial pH and temperature of each type of milk sample was


taken and recorded.

4. The milk were left to curd at room temperature for a duration of 24 hours.

5. The pH reading of the milk were taken at every 30 minutes interval and
recorded. (The surrounding temperature was kept constant at the room
temperature throughout the experiment.)

51153140.doc

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A Comparative Study on the Duration for Milk to Stay Fresh outside the Refrigerator
Full cream milk Low fat milk
Time pH Temperature(°C Time pH Temperature(°C)
interval(sec) ) interval(sec)
0 5.3 16.0 0 5.4 16.0
30 5.2 18.5 30 5.4 18.5
60 5.2 26.0 60 5.4 26.0
90 5.2 27.0 90 5.3 27.0
120 5.2 28.0 120 5.3 28.0
150 5.2 28.5 150 5.3 28.5
180 5.2 28.5 180 5.3 28.5
210 5.2 29.0 210 5.3 29.0
240 5.2 29.0 240 5.3 29.0
270 5.2 29.0 270 5.3 29.0
300 5.2 28.5 300 5.3 28.5
330 5.2 28.0 330 5.3 28.0
360 5.2 28.0 360 5.3 28.0
390 5.2 29.0 390 5.3 29.0
420 5.2 29.0 420 5.3 29.0
450 5.2 28.0 450 5.3 28.0
480 5.2 28.0 480 5.2 28.0
510 5.2 28.0 510 5.2 28.0
540 5.2 28.0 540 5.2 28.0
570 5.1 28.5 570 5.2 28.5
600 5.1 28.5 600 5.2 28.5
630 5.1 28.0 630 5.2 28.0
660 5.1 28.0 660 5.1 28.0
690 4.9 28.0 690 5.0 28.0
720 4.9 28.0 720 4.9 28.0
750 4.9 28.0 750 4.9 28.0
780 4.8 28.0 780 4.8 28.0
810 4.7 28.0 810 4.8 28.0
840 4.7 28.0 840 4.7 28.0
870 4.7 28.0 870 4.7 28.0
900 4.6 28.0 900 4.7 28.0
930 4.6 28.0 930 4.7 28.0
960 4.6 28.0 960 4.7 28.0
990 4.6 28.0 990 4.7 28.0
1020 4.6 28.0 1020 4.7 28.0
1050 4.6 28.0 1050 4.7 28.0
1080 4.6 28.0 1080 4.7 28.0
1110 4.6 28.0 1110 4.7 28.0
1140 4.6 28.0 1140 4.7 28.0
1170 4.6 28.0 1170 4.7 28.0
1200 4.6 28.0 1200 4.7 28.0
1230 4.6 28.0 1230 4.6 28.0
1260 4.6 28.0 1260 4.5 28.0
1290 4.5 28.0 1290 4.4 28.0

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A Comparative Study on the Duration for Milk to Stay Fresh outside the Refrigerator
Fresh milk Soymilk
Time pH Temperature(°C Time pH Temperature(°C)
interval(sec) ) interval(sec)
0 5.4 16.0 0 5.8 16.5
30 5.3 22.5 30 5.5 18.0
60 5.2 26.0 60 5.4 26.0
90 5.3 27.0 90 5.5 26.5
120 5.3 28.0 120 5.5 27.5
150 5.3 28.5 150 5.5 29.0
180 5.3 29.0 180 5.5 29.5
210 5.3 29.0 210 5.5 29.0
240 5.3 29.0 240 5.5 29.0
270 5.3 29.0 270 5.4 29.0
300 5.3 29.0 300 5.4 28.0
330 5.3 29.0 330 5.4 28.0
360 5.3 28.0 360 5.5 28.0
390 5.0 29.0 390 5.4 29.0
420 5.0 28.0 420 5.4 29.0
450 5.0 29.0 450 5.4 28.5
480 5.0 29.0 480 5.4 28.0
510 5.0 28.0 510 5.4 28.0
540 5.0 28.0 540 5.4 28.0
570 5.0 29.0 570 5.4 28.5
600 5.1 28.0 600 5.3 28.5
630 5.1 29.0 630 5.2 28.0
660 5.1 28.0 660 4.9 28.0
690 5.1 29.0 690 4.9 28.0
720 5.0 28.0 720 4.8 28.0
750 4.9 28.0 750 4.8 28.0
780 4.9 28.0 780 4.6 28.0
810 4.9 28.0 810 4.5 28.0
840 4.8 28.0 840 4.5 28.0
870 4.7 28.0 870 4.5 28.0
900 4.7 28.0 900 4.5 28.0
930 4.7 28.0 930 4.6 28.0
960 4.7 28.0 960 4.6 28.0
990 4.7 28.0 990 4.6 28.0
1020 4.7 28.0 1020 4.6 28.0
1050 4.7 28.0 1050 4.6 28.0
1080 4.7 28.0 1080 4.6 28.0
1110 4.7 28.0 1110 4.6 28.0
1140 4.7 28.0 1140 4.5 28.0
1170 4.7 28.0 1170 4.5 28.0
1200 4.7 28.0 1200 4.3 28.0
1230 4.7 28.0 1230 4.0 28.0
1260 4.7 28.0 1260 3.9 28.0
1290 4.6 28.0 1290 3.6 28.0

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A Comparative Study on the Duration for Milk to Stay Fresh outside the Refrigerator

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A Comparative Study on the Duration for Milk to Stay Fresh outside the Refrigerator

Calculation on the concentration of the H+ ions of

 Soymilk (at the initial of the experiment)


pH = 5.8
-log[H+]=5.8
[H+]=10-5.8
[H+]=1.58x10-6 mol dm-3

 Soymilk (when the milk not fit to be consumed)


pH =4.6
-log[H+]=4.6
[H+]=10 -4.

[H+]=2.51 x 10-5 mol dm-3

 Low fat milk (at the initial of the experiment)


pH =5.4
-log[H+]=5.4
[H+]=10-5.4
[H+]=3.98 x 10-6 mol dm-3

Low fat milk (when the milk not fit to be consumed)


pH = 4.6
-log[H+]=4.6
[H+]=10-4.6
[H+]=2.51 x 10-5 mol dm-3

 Full cream milk (at the initial of the experiment)


pH =5.3
-log[H+=5.3
[H+]=10-5.3
[H+]=5.01 x 10-6 mol dm-3

 Full cream milk (when the milk not fit to be consumed)


pH = 4.6
-log[H+]=4.6
[H+]=10-4.6
[H+]=2.51 x 10-5 mol dm-3

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A Comparative Study on the Duration for Milk to Stay Fresh outside the Refrigerator
 Fresh milk (at the initial of the experiment)
pH = 5.4
-log[H+]=5.4
[H+]=10-5.4
[H+]=3.98 x 10-6 mol dm-3

 Fresh milk (when the milk not fit to be consumed)


pH = 4.6
-log[H+]=4.6
[H+]=10-4.6
[H+]=2.51 x 10-5 mol dm-3

The time taken for the milk to curd

Types of milk Time (hours) Rate (hrs-1)


Soymilk 14 0.0714
Low fat milk 16 0.0625
Full cream milk 18 0.0556
Fresh milk 22.5 0.0444

*Rate = 1/time

Time taken for the milk to reach pH 4.6: (milk cannot be consumed)

Types of milk Rate (hrs-1)


Soymilk 0.0714
Low fat milk 0.0625
Full cream milk 0.0556
Fresh milk 0.0444

3.3 Conclusion:

The duration for milk to stay fresh outside the refrigerator depends on the types of
milk used and the surrounding temperature. The pH value of the milk is used to
indicate the freshness of the milk. The duration for the soymilk to stay fresh
outside the refrigerator is the shortest followed by low fat milk, full cream milk and
fresh milk.

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A Comparative Study on the Duration for Milk to Stay Fresh outside the Refrigerator

4.0 Introduction :
Milk is an opaque white liquid produced by the mammary glands of
mammals. Milk is essential for growth. Milk is important, especially for children
who are at the rapid stage of growing. However, milk cannot last for a long time
outside the refrigerator. Milk spoils faster at room temperature.

Bacteria attack the lactose, converting it into lactic acid. Thus, a curd is formed
and is no longer safe for adults and children to consume. This research may help
consumers make their best choice when purchasing milk and under conditions when
they are forced to keep milk outside the refrigerator for example in transit and under
emergency conditions.

5.0 Background Information:


The basic types of milk are : Whole milk, 2% milk, 1% milk and skim milk.

Whole milk:referred to as “Homogenized milk’. Whole milk is best used only for
infants and young children up to the age of 2.

Reduced-fat milk (2%): This milk contains 2% milk fat. Drinking 2% milk is a
good way to wean oneself from whole milk at first, but it is too high in fat as a
permanent choice, unless your diet is otherwise very low in fat.

Soy milk: (also called soya milk, soybean milk or soy juice) is a beverage made
from soybeans. Soy milk contains about the same proportion of protein as cow's
milk: around 3.5%; fat 2%; 2.9% carbohydrate and 0.5% ash.

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A Comparative Study on the Duration for Milk to Stay Fresh outside the Refrigerator

6.0 Statement of the problem:


Which type of milk can stay fresh for the longest period of time outside the
refrigerator?

7.0 Hypothesis:

Fresh milk can stay fresh for the longest period of time outside the
refrigerator when compared to soymilk, full cream milk and low fat milk.

8.0 Objective.
The objective of this research is to find out:
8.1 which type of milk stay fresh longest outside the refrigerator.
8.2 the type of milk which is the most suitable to bring during outdoor
activities.

9.0 Importance of the research:

The findings of this research will enables consumers to determine which type of
milk is the most suitable, ie. with the least rate of spoilage and is able to stay
fresh while it is outside of the refrigerator.

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A Comparative Study on the Duration for Milk to Stay Fresh outside the Refrigerator

10.0 Analysis of data:


Graphical Representation of the results:

Graph of pH against time (soymilk)


)

5.9
5.8
5.7
5.6
5.5
5.4
5.3
5.2
5.1
5
1st time
4.9
4.8
4.7
4.6
4.5
4.4
4.3
4.2
4.1
4
0
60 180 300 360 390 750 810 870 900 930 1020 1050 1110 1170 1230 1290

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A Comparative Study on the Duration for Milk to Stay Fresh outside the Refrigerator
fresh milk (1st time )

6
5.9
5.8
5.7

5.6
5.5
5.4
5.3
5.2
5.1
5 1st time

4.9
4.8
4.7
4.6
4.5
4.4

4.3
4.2
4.1
4
0 30 120 330 960 1020 1050 1110 1140 1200 1290

Graph of

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5.9
5.8
5.7
5.6
5.5
5.4
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5.3
A Comparative Study on the Duration for Milk to Stay Fresh outside the Refrigerator

51153140.doc

Data Analysis

Gra

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5.9
5.8
5.7
5.6
5.5
5.4
5.3
5.2
5.1
pH

5
4.9
4.8
4.7
13
4.6
A Comparative Study on the Duration for Milk to Stay Fresh outside the Refrigerator

11.0 Discussion:
In the process of carrying out this research we learnt a few important things. Some
of the factors which should have been kept constant were difficult to attain.
Among the constrains we encountered were:

11.1 The surrounding temperature was difficult to keep at a constant. The


experiment was carried outin a cool, dry and shaded place , kept away from
direct sunlight. However the temperature of the surrounding changes within a
range of 2oC . This value though small , should be kept at a constant should
we want to achieve a more conclusive result.

11.2 There are some additives and preservatives added into the milk purchased.
This interferes with the original nature of the milk used subsequently causing
the duration of milk to stay fresh outside the refrigerator to be longer.

11.3 Differences in the brands of milk used.


The brands of milk used is different. In this research, the brands of Full-
cream milk, Low-fat milk and Fresh milk is the same, ie: Dutch Lady and the
brands of soymilk is Homesoy.

12.0 Acknowledgement

We are very thankful to our teacher advisor, Mdm Lee Meng See, whose
encouragement, guidance and support from the beginning to the end enabled us to
develop a more in depth understanding of the project.
We would like to thank our parents for their unending love and support to
provide financial assistance and to carry out the research in some of our homes.
Besides, would also like to thank the Chemistry Laboratory Assistant,
Mr Michael Jacobs who showed us the correct ways in handling the equipments.
Lastly, we offer our thanks to all of those who encouraged us on and provided
constructive ideas to improve in any aspect during the completion of the project.

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A Comparative Study on the Duration for Milk to Stay Fresh outside the Refrigerator

13.0 References:

1. Tan Yin Toon & Kathirasan Muniady , Ace Ahead Chemistry Volume 1 STPM
Text, Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd, 2008

2. http://www.google.com.my/search?sourceid=navclient&ie=UTF-
8&rlz=1T4IBMA_enMY317MY317&q=ph+scale+of+milk

3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milk

4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milk#Spoilage_and_fermented_milk_products

5. Lee Ching, Pre-U Text STPM Biology Volume 1, Longman Pearson Malaysia
Sdn. Bhd. 2009

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appendix

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A Comparative Study on the Duration for Milk to Stay Fresh outside the Refrigerator

14.Appendix

pH meter

Paper cups used are labeled.


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A Comparative Study on the Duration for Milk to Stay Fresh outside the Refrigerator

The apparatus used.

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A Comparative Study on the Duration for Milk to Stay Fresh outside the Refrigerator

51153140.doc
appendix

The seal of the milk is opened.

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A Comparative Study on the Duration for Milk to Stay Fresh outside the Refrigerator

The milk is poured into respectively labeled paper cups.


appendix

Labeled paper cups with milk.

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A Comparative Study on the Duration for Milk to Stay Fresh outside the Refrigerator

The temperature of the milk is observed and recorded


51153140.doc
appendix

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A Comparative Study on the Duration for Milk to Stay Fresh outside the Refrigerator

The pH of the milk is noted and recorded at 30 minutes


interval

The temperature of the milk is noted and is kept constant.


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A Comparative Study on the Duration for Milk to Stay Fresh outside the Refrigerator

The pH of the milk is noted and recorded at every 30 seconds


intervals.

The data collected is recorded briefly on the papers.

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A Comparative Study on the Duration for Milk to Stay Fresh outside the Refrigerator

Discussion

The milk began to curd.

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A Comparative Study on the Duration for Milk to Stay Fresh outside the Refrigerator

~THANK YOU~

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