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A committee of colleges, led by Benjamin Bloom (1956), identified three domains of educational activities: Cognitive: mental skills (Knowledge) Affective: growth in feelings or emotional areas (Attitude) Psychomotor: manual or physical skills (Skills) Since the work was produced by higher education, the words tend to be a little bigger than we normally use. Domains can be thought of as categories. Trainers often refer to these three categories as KSA (Knowledge, Skills, and Attitude). This taxonomy of learning behaviors can be thought of as “the goals of the learning process.” That is, after a learning episode, the learner should have acquired new skills, knowledge, and/or attitudes. The committee also produced an elaborate compilation for the cognitive and affective domains, but none for the psychomotor domain. Their explanation for this oversight was that they have little experience in teaching manual skills within the college level (I guess they never thought to check with their sports or drama department). This compilation divides the three domains into subdivisions, starting from the simplest behavior to the most complex. The divisions outlined are not absolutes and there are other systems or hierarchies that have been devised in the educational and training world. However, Bloom’s taxonomy is easily understood and is probably the most widely applied one in use today. Cognitive Domain The cognitive domain (Bloom, 1956) involves knowledge and the development of intellectual skills. This includes the recall or recognition of specific facts, procedural patterns, and concepts that serve in the development of intellectual abilities and skills. There are six major categories, which are listed in order below, starting from the simplest behavior to the most complex. The categories can be thought of as degrees of difficulties. That is, the first one must be mastered before the next one can take place. Category Example and Key Words (verbs) Knowledge: Recall data or information. Examples: Recite a policy. Quote prices from memory to a customer. Knows the safety rules.
Key Words: categorizes. modifies. defends. Key Words: analyzes. summarizes. rearranges. plans. relates. illustrates. names. extends. compares. Integrates training from several sources to solve a problem. translates. outlines. changes. Evaluation: Make judgments about the value of ideas or materials. Comprehension: Understand the meaning. Design a machine to perform a specific task. relates. Revises and process to improve the outcome. creates. Recognize logical fallacies in reasoning. produces. knows. distinguishes. infers. manipulates. composes. infers. tells. deconstructs. relates. Translates an equation into a computer spreadsheet. shows. designs. Explain in one’s own words the steps for performing a complex task. writes. uses. organizes. labels. modifies. Examples: Write a company operations or process manual. describes.Key Words: defines. prepares. Distinguishes between facts and inferences. and interpretation of instructions and problems. Synthesis: Builds a structure or pattern from diverse elements. solves. interprets. combines. Application: Use a concept in a new situation or unprompted use of an abstraction. explains. devises. summarizes. distinguishes. operates. compiles. differentiates. State a problem in one’s own words. predicts. Examples: Rewrites the principles of test writing. states. Apply laws of statistics to evaluate the reliability of a written test. lists. constructs. interpolation. outlines. Key Words: applies. generalizes. gives an example. rewrites. selects. translation. explains. recalls. Put parts together to form a whole. paraphrases. Gathers information from a department and selects the required tasks for training. discovers. Analysis: Separates material or concepts into component parts so that its organizational structure may be understood. discriminates. with emphasis on creating a new meaning or structure. Key Words: comprehends. predicts. Applies what was learned in the classroom into novel situations in the work place. matches. demonstrates. Examples: Troubleshoot a piece of equipment by using logical deduction. reproduces. contrasts. . generates. reorganizes. identifies. computes. reconstructs. rewrites. identifies. separates. Examples: Use a manual to calculate an employee’s vacation time. breaks down. revises. estimates. diagrams. converts. selects. recognizes.
Attends and reacts to a particular phenomenon. Explain and justify a new budget. criticizes. or satisfaction in responding (motivation). follows. Hire the most qualified candidate. presents. helps. aids. motivations. tells. writes. interprets. Examples: Listen to others with respect. identifies. Informs management on matters that one feels strongly about. Listen for and remember the name of newly introduced people. . models. while clues to these values are expressed in the learner’s overt behavior and are often identifiable. names. This ranges from simple acceptance to the more complex state of commitment. Key Words: appraises. greets. labels. Proposes a plan to social improvement and follows through with commitment. Learning outcomes may emphasize compliance in responding. enthusiasms. practices. Examples: Demonstrates belief in the democratic process. concepts. such as feelings. in order to fully understand them. Valuing: The worth or value a person attaches to a particular object. appreciation. willingness to hear. erects. assists. Affective Domain The affective domain (Krathwohl. Is sensitive towards individual and cultural differences (value diversity). describes. 1973) includes the manner in which we deal with things emotionally. uses. performs. critiques. holds. Know the safety rules and practices them. Examples: Participates in class discussions. Shows the ability to solve problems. recites. and attitudes. selected attention. evaluates. selects. selects. reads.Examples: Select the most effective solution. Key Words: answers. Bloom. summarizes. willingness to respond. justifies. or behavior. points to. conforms. Masia. explains. complies. concludes. replies. Responding to Phenomena: Active participation on the part of the learners. locates. Key Words: asks. values. Valuing is based on the internalization of a set of specified values. defends. gives. reports. discusses. contrasts. supports. discriminates. Gives a presentation. Questions new ideals. The five major categories are listed from the simplest behavior to the most complex: Category Example and Key Words (verbs) Receiving Phenomena: Awareness. phenomenon. sits. etc. compares. relates. describes. chooses.
justifies. listens. modifies. procedures. Displays a professional commitment to ethical practice on a daily basis. revises. and use of the motor-skill areas. Examples: Recognizes the need for balance between freedom and responsible behavior. Adjusts . reads. Values people for what they are. relates. modifies. verifies. follows. selects. and creating an unique value system. integrates. prepares. Organization: Organizes values into priorities by contrasting different values. Examples: Shows self-reliance when working independently. Psychomotor Domain The psychomotor domain (Simpson. social. Estimate where a ball will land after it is thrown and then moving to the correct location to catch the ball. to translation. interests. initiates. explains. orders. questions. organizes. coordination. qualifies. proposes. characteristic of the learner. and most importantly. synthesizes. Key Words: acts. and beliefs. completes. Revises judgments and changes behavior in light of new evidence. Creates a life plan in harmony with abilities. predictable. Key Words: adheres. generalizes. shares. joins. defends. Accepts responsibility for one’s behavior. practices. formulates. and synthesizing values. proposes. family. emotional). forms. explains. solves. The emphasis is on comparing. alters. differentiates. distance. 1972) includes physical movement. combines. Instructional objectives are concerned with the student’s general patterns of adjustment (personal. Internalizing values (characterization): Has a value system that controls their behavior.Key Words: completes. Cooperates in group activities (displays teamwork). precision. consistent. identifies. displays. demonstrates. relating. discriminates. The behavior is pervasive. serves. invites. Prioritizes time effectively to meet the needs of the organization. influences. Examples: Detects non-verbal communication cues. performs. or techniques in execution. Development of these skills requires practice and is measured in terms of speed. reports. and self. resolving conflicts between them. arranges. through cue selection. The seven major categories are listed from the simplest behavior to the most complex: Category Example and Key Words (verbs) Perception: The ability to use sensory cues to guide motor activity. compares. studies. This ranges from sensory stimulation. works. not how they look. Uses an objective approach in problem solving. Explains the role of systematic planning in solving problems. Accepts professional ethical standards.
heat of stove to correct temperature by smell and taste of food. proceeds. organizes. isolates. Examples: Performs a mathematical equation as demonstrated. Key Words: begins. mends. heats. Operates a computer quickly and accurately. It includes mental. measures. differentiates. and highly coordinated performance. manipulates. Guided Response: The early stages in learning a complex skill that includes imitation and trial and error. dismantles. mixes. . Set: Readiness to act. Proficiency is indicated by a quick. Drive a car. Key Words: copies. requiring a minimum of energy. grinds. sketches. Examples: Use a personal computer. detects. For example. moves. This category includes performing without hesitation. Shows desire to learn a new process (motivation). Recognize one’s abilities and limitations. physical. volunteers. NOTE: This subdivision of Psychomotor is closely related with the “Responding to phenomena” subdivision of the Affective domain. and emotional sets. Key Words: assembles. Displays competence while playing the piano. calibrates. Complex Overt Response: The skillful performance of motor acts that involve complex movement patterns. distinguishes. fixes. reproduce. calibrates. These three sets are dispositions that predetermine a person’s response to different situations (sometimes called mindsets). Examples: Maneuvers a car into a tight parallel parking spot. because they can tell by the feel of the act what the result will produce. and automatic performance. accurate. Key Words: chooses. displays. traces. manipulates. measures. reacts. displays. selects. Adjusts the height of the forks on a forklift by comparing where the forks are in relation to the pallet. states. Adequacy of performance is achieved by practicing. follows. builds. players are often utter sounds of satisfaction or expletives as soon as they hit a tennis ball or throw a football. Learned responses have become habitual and the movements can be performed with some confidence and proficiency. shows. fixes. Examples: Knows and acts upon a sequence of steps in a manufacturing process. organizes. Responds hand-signals of instructor while learning to operate a forklift. heats. Key Words: assembles. constructs. fastens. Repair a leaking faucet. relates. sketches. mends. grinds. fastens. react. responds Mechanism: This is the intermediate stage in learning a complex skill. dismantles. constructs. explains. mixes. identifies. describes. Follows instructions to build a model. displays.
revises. after taking lessons. reorganizes. Harrow’s (1972): Reflex movements — Reactions that are not learned. achieving harmony and internal consistency. Example: Producing a video that involves music. Other Psychomotor Domain Taxonomies As mentioned earlier. but others have. Creates a new gymnastic routine. Perception — Response to stimuli such as visual. Example: Copying a work of art. or reading about it. auditory. or tactile discrimination. Examples: Constructs a new theory. Modifies instruction to meet the needs of the learners. designs. Naturalization — Having high level performance become natural. creates.” Articulation — Coordinating a series of actions. originates. initiate.NOTE: The Key Words are the same as Mechanism. Nancy Lopez hitting a golf ball. or grasping. color. Fundamental movements — Basic movements such as walking. Examples: Michael Jordan playing basketball. Example: Working and reworking something. sound. Adaptation: Skills are well developed and the individual can modify movement patterns to fit special requirements. Key Words: adapts. but will have adverbs or adjectives that indicate that the performance is quicker. Perform a task with a machine that it was not originally intended to do (machine is not damaged and there is no danger in performing the new task). Manipulation — Being able to perform certain actions by following instructions and practicing. Examples: Responds effectively to unexpected experiences. drama. becoming more exact. Few errors are apparent. . constructs. rearranges. Key Words: arranges. combines. There are two other popular versions: Dave’s (1975): Imitation — Observing and patterning behavior after someone else. Performance may be of low quality. so it will be “just right. changes. Precision — Refining. makes. Develops a new and comprehensive training programming. the committee did not produce a compilation for the psychomotor domain model. more accurate. etc. The one discussed above is by Simpson (1972). alters. Example: Creating work on one’s own. Origination: Creating new movement patterns to fit a particular situation or specific problem. varies. kinesthetic. without needing to think much about it. composes. better. etc. etc. builds. Learning outcomes emphasize creativity based upon highly developed skills.
ed. B. Handbook I: The Cognitive Domain. (R. 2000). New York: David McKay..). Armstrong. Washington. New York: David McKay Co Inc. B. a former student of Bloom. 1) changing the names in the six categories from noun to verb forms. (1973). Thinking to Learn: Models and Strategies to Develop a Classroom Culture of Thinking. Next Steps Learning Strategies using Bloom’s Taxonomy Instructional Design Toolkit Reference Bloom B. Cheltenham. Pohl. Simpson E. . Learning to Think. the Classification of Educational Goals. Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy Lorin Anderson. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Dave. Vic. Skilled movements — Advanced learned movements as one would find in sports or acting.. (1972) A Taxonomy of Psychomotor Domain: A Guide for Developing Behavioral Objectives. with perhaps the two most prominent ones being.. Krathwohl. R. The Classification of Educational Objectives in the Psychomotor Domain. H. A.: Hawker Brownlow. Understanding. No discursive communication — Effective body language. D. and 2) slightly rearranging them (Pohl. and Creating uses the same key words or verbs as shown in the table in the Cognitive Domain section. Inc. R. Applying. J. (2000). DC: Gryphon House. (1975). B. such as gestures and facial expressions. Tucson. Arizona: Educational Innovators Press. J. New York: David McKay Co. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. & Masia. This new taxonomy reflects a more active form of thinking and is perhaps more accurate: The six steps of Remembering. Analyzing. (1972). Handbook II: Affective Domain. M.Physical abilities — Stamina that must be developed for further development such as strength and agility. S. Bloom. Developing and Writing Behavioral Objectives. revisited the cognitive domain in the learning taxonomy in the mid-nineties and made some changes. Evaluating. Harrow. S.
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