Best Practices Guide

revision 3.0

McAfee® Network Security Platform
version 6.0

McAfee® Network Protection
Industry-leading network security solutions

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This product includes or may include: * Software developed by the OpenSSL Project for use in the OpenSSL Toolkit (http://www.openssl.org/). * Cryptographic software written by Eric A. Young and software written by Tim J. Hudson. * Some software programs that are licensed (or sublicensed) to the user under the GNU General Public License (GPL) or other similar Free Software licenses which, among other rights, permit the user to copy, modify and redistribute certain programs, or portions thereof, and have access to the source code. The GPL requires that for any software covered under the GPL, which is distributed to someone in an executable binary format, that the source code also be made available to those users. For any such software covered under the GPL, the source code is made available on this CD. If any Free Software licenses require that McAfee provide rights to use, copy or modify a software program that are broader than the rights granted in this agreement, then such rights shall take precedence over the rights and restrictions herein. * Software originally written by Henry Spencer, Copyright 1992, 1993, 1994, 1997 Henry Spencer. * Software originally written by Robert Nordier, Copyright (C) 1996-7 Robert Nordier. * Software written by Douglas W. Sauder. * Software developed by the Apache Software Foundation (http://www.apache.org/). A copy of the license agreement for this software can be found at www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0.txt. * International Components for Unicode ("ICU") Copyright (C) 1995-2002 International Business Machines Corporation and others. * Software developed by CrystalClear Software, Inc., Copyright (C) 2000 CrystalClear Software, Inc. * FEAD(R) Optimizer(R) technology, Copyright Netopsystems AG, Berlin, Germany. * Outside In(R) Viewer Technology (C) 1992-2001 Stellent Chicago, Inc. and/or Outside In(R) HTML Export, (C) 2001 Stellent Chicago, Inc. * Software copyrighted by Thai Open Source Software Center Ltd. and Clark Cooper, (C) 1998, 1999, 2000. * Software copyrighted by Expat maintainers. * Software copyrighted by The Regents of the University of California, (C) 1996, 1989, 1998-2000. * Software copyrighted by Gunnar Ritter. * Software copyrighted by Sun Microsystems, Inc., 4150 Network Circle, Santa Clara, California 95054, U.S.A., (C) 2003. * Software copyrighted by Gisle Aas. (C) 1995-2003. * Software copyrighted by Michael A. Chase, (C) 1999-2000. * Software copyrighted by Neil Winton, (C) 1995-1996. * Software copyrighted by RSA Data Security, Inc., (C) 1990-1992. * Software copyrighted by Sean M. Burke, (C) 1999, 2000. * Software copyrighted by Martijn Koster, (C) 1995. * Software copyrighted by Brad Appleton, (C) 1996-1999. * Software copyrighted by Michael G. Schwern, (C) 2001. * Software copyrighted by Graham Barr, (C) 1998. * Software copyrighted by Larry Wall and Clark Cooper, (C) 1998-2000. * Software copyrighted by Frodo Looijaard, (C) 1997. * Software copyrighted by the Python Software Foundation, Copyright (C) 2001, 2002, 2003. A copy of the license agreement for this software can be found at www.python.org. * Software copyrighted by Beman Dawes, (C) 1994-1999, 2002. * Software written by Andrew Lumsdaine, Lie-Quan Lee, Jeremy G. Siek (C) 1997-2000 University of Notre Dame. * Software copyrighted by Simone Bordet & Marco Cravero, (C) 2002. * Software copyrighted by Stephen Purcell, (C) 2001. * Software developed by the Indiana University Extreme! Lab (http://www.extreme.indiana.edu/). * Software copyrighted by International Business Machines Corporation and others, (C) 1995-2003. * Software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors. * Software developed by Ralf S. Engelschall <rse@engelschall.com> for use in the mod_ssl project (http:// www.modssl.org/). * Software copyrighted by Kevlin Henney, (C) 2000-2002. * Software copyrighted by Peter Dimov and Multi Media Ltd. (C) 2001, 2002. * Software copyrighted by David Abrahams, (C) 2001, 2002. See http://www.boost.org/libs/bind/bind.html for documentation. * Software copyrighted by Steve Cleary, Beman Dawes, Howard Hinnant & John Maddock, (C) 2000. * Software copyrighted by Boost.org, (C) 1999-2002. * Software copyrighted by Nicolai M. Josuttis, (C) 1999. * Software copyrighted by Jeremy Siek, (C) 1999-2001. * Software copyrighted by Daryle Walker, (C) 2001. * Software copyrighted by Chuck Allison and Jeremy Siek, (C) 2001, 2002. * Software copyrighted by Samuel Krempp, (C) 2001. See http://www.boost.org for updates, documentation, and revision history. * Software copyrighted by Doug Gregor (gregod@cs.rpi.edu), (C) 2001, 2002. * Software copyrighted by Cadenza New Zealand Ltd., (C) 2000. * Software copyrighted by Jens Maurer, (C) 2000, 2001. * Software copyrighted by Jaakko Järvi (jaakko.jarvi@cs.utu.fi), (C) 1999, 2000. * Software copyrighted by Ronald Garcia, (C) 2002. * Software copyrighted by David Abrahams, Jeremy Siek, and Daryle Walker, (C) 1999-2001. * Software copyrighted by Stephen Cleary (shammah@voyager.net), (C) 2000. * Software copyrighted by Housemarque Oy <http://www.housemarque.com>, (C) 2001. * Software copyrighted by Paul Moore, (C) 1999. * Software copyrighted by Dr. John Maddock, (C) 1998-2002. * Software copyrighted by Greg Colvin and Beman Dawes, (C) 1998, 1999. * Software copyrighted by Peter Dimov, (C) 2001, 2002. * Software copyrighted by Jeremy Siek and John R. Bandela, (C) 2001. * Software copyrighted by Joerg Walter and Mathias Koch, (C) 2000-2002. * Software copyrighted by Carnegie Mellon University (C) 1989, 1991, 1992. * Software copyrighted by Cambridge Broadband Ltd., (C) 2001-2003. * Software copyrighted by Sparta, Inc., (C) 2003-2004. * Software copyrighted by Cisco, Inc and Information Network Center of Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, (C) 2004. * Software copyrighted by Simon Josefsson, (C) 2003. * Software copyrighted by Thomas Jacob, (C) 2003-2004. * Software copyrighted by Advanced Software Engineering Limited, (C) 2004. * Software copyrighted by Todd C. Miller, (C) 1998. * Software copyrighted by The Regents of the University of California, (C) 1990, 1993, with code derived from software contributed to Berkeley by Chris Torek.

Issued JUNE 2010 / Best Practices Guide
700-2379-00/ 3.0 - English

Contents
Preface ........................................................................................................... v
Introducing McAfee Network Security Platform............................................................................. v About this Guide............................................................................................................................ v Audience .......................................................................................................................................vi Conventions used in this book ......................................................................................................vi Related Documentation................................................................................................................vii Contacting Technical Support ..................................................................................................... viii

Chapter 1 Introduction.................................................................................. 1
Pre-installation checklist................................................................................................................ 1

Chapter 2 Recommended Manager specifications.................................... 2
Manager Server specifications ...................................................................................................... 2 Manager Client specifications ....................................................................................................... 2 Determining your Database Requirements ................................................................................... 3

Chapter 3 Cabling best practices ................................................................ 4 Chapter 4 Large Sensor deployments ........................................................ 5
Staging Sensors prior to deployment ............................................................................................ 6 Recommendations for large Sensor deployment .......................................................................... 6

Chapter 5 Troubleshooting issues with Sensor ........................................ 7 Chapter 6 Configuration of Speed and Duplex settings ........................... 8
Duplex mismatches ....................................................................................................................... 8 Troubleshooting a Duplex Mismatch with Cisco Devices.............................................................. 8 Cisco PIX® Firewall ...............................................................................................................9 Cisco CSS 11000...................................................................................................................9 Cisco Catalyst® 2900XL, 3500XL Series (Hybrid).................................................................9 Cisco Catalyst 4000, 5000, 6000 Series (Native) ..................................................................9 Cisco IOS® for Catalyst 4000, 6000 Series ...........................................................................9 Auto-negotiation issues ................................................................................................................. 9 Situations that may result in Auto-negotiation issues...........................................................10 Valid Auto-negotiation and Speed Configuration settings....................................................10 Explanation of CatOS show port command counters ..........................................................11 Gigabit auto-negotiation (no link to connected device) ........................................................12

Chapter 7 Effective Policy Tuning practices ............................................ 13
Analyzing high-volume attacks.................................................................................................... 13 Managing Attack filters ................................................................................................................ 13 Learning profiles in DoS attacks.................................................................................................. 14

Chapter 8 Response Management ............................................................ 15
Sensor Response Actions ........................................................................................................... 15

Chapter 9 Creating Rule sets ..................................................................... 16

iii

Best methods for rule set creation............................................................................................... 16

Chapter 10 Port clustering on Asymmetric networks ............................. 17 Chapter 11 Access Control Lists (ACLs).................................................. 18 Chapter 12 SSL best practices .................................................................. 19
SSL only traffic - throughput........................................................................................................ 19 SSL only traffic - throughput........................................................................................................ 19 SSL traffic mixed with HTTP 1.1 traffic........................................................................................ 20 Supported SSL functionalities ..................................................................................................... 21 Supported Web servers .......................................................................................................22 Supported cipher suites .......................................................................................................22 SSLv3/TLS cipher suites......................................................................................................22 Unsupported SSL functionalities ................................................................................................. 22

Chapter 13 Sensor HTTP Response Processing deployment................ 23
Tests for enabling HTTP Response Traffic ................................................................................. 23 HTTP Response processing results for I series Sensors.....................................................24 HTTP Response processing results for M-series Sensors ..................................................24

Chapter 14 Database maintenance ........................................................... 26
Backup of data and configurations .............................................................................................. 26

Chapter 15 Alerts and Disk space maintenance ...................................... 28
Archiving alerts............................................................................................................................ 28 Scripts for disk space maintenance............................................................................................. 28 Dbtuning.bat .........................................................................................................................28 Purge.bat..............................................................................................................................29 Using File Maintenance Scheduler.............................................................................................. 29

Chapter 16 Manager Disaster Recovery (MDR) best practices .............. 30 Chapter 17 Performance issues ................................................................ 31
Sniffer trace ................................................................................................................................. 31 Data link errors ............................................................................................................................ 31 Half-duplex setting ...............................................................................................................31 Full-duplex setting ................................................................................................................31

Chapter 18 Vulnerability Assessment....................................................... 32 Chapter 19 I-series Sensor capacity by model number .......................... 33 Chapter 20 M-series Sensor capacity by model number ........................ 35 Chapter 21 Comparison Between I-1200/I-1400 and M-1250/M-1450 FE ports ............................................................................................................. 37 Index ............................................................................................................. 40

iv

discusses the information in this document. network Intrusion Prevention System (IPS) and Network Threat Behavior Analysis (NTBA) for mission-critical enterprise. It also provides information such as. and scalable Network Access Control (NAC). Introducing McAfee Network Security Platform McAfee® Network Security Platform [formerly McAfee® IntruShield®] delivers the most comprehensive. carrier. NAC Sensor. the supporting documents for this guide and how to contact McAfee Technical Support. and explains how this document is organized.speed & duplex settings Policy Tuning best practices Best Practices for creating Rule sets Port clustering on asymmetric networks Tips for Access Control Lists (ACLs) SSL best practices HTTP Response processing deployment for the Sensor Database Maintenance Alerts & Disk space Maintenance issues Manager Disaster Recovery (MDR) pairs Performance issues and Vulnerability Assessment v . accurate.Preface This preface provides a brief introduction to the product. and encrypted attacks. thus complementing the NAC and IPS capabilities in a scenario in which McAfee Network Security Sensor. and NTBA Appliance are installed and managed through a single Manager. Best practices are provided for the following topics/issues in Network Security Platform: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Hardware and software recommendations for Network Security Platform Cabling best practices Considerations for large McAfee® Network Security Sensor [formerly McAfee® IntruShield® Sensor] deployments Troubleshooting tips for the McAfee Network Security Sensor (Sensor) Sensor Deployment issues . McAfee® Network Threat Behavior Analysis Appliance provides the capability of monitoring network traffic by analyzing NetFlow information flowing through the network in real time. while providing unmatched protection against spyware and known. zero-day. and service provider networks. About this Guide This guide provides the recommended practices for using Network Security Platform most effectively.

and values that you must type exactly are denoted using Courier New font.McAfee® Network Security Platform 6. The Service field on the Properties tab specifies the name of the requested service. Type: setup and then press ENTER. buttons. but is not necessarily familiar with daily IPS-related tasks. Information that you must read before beginning a procedure or that alerts you to negative consequences of certain actions. and commands on the User Interface (UI) are shown in Arial Narrow bold font. Names of keys on the keyboard are denoted using UPPER CASE. Parameters that you must supply are shown enclosed in angle brackets. click Backup. Conventions used in this book This document uses the following typographical conventions: Convention Example Terms that identify fields. options. Variable information that you must Type: Sensor-IP-address and then press type based on your specific ENTER. situation or environment is shown in italics. Text such as syntax. 1. or the commands necessary to perform particular tasks. key words. such as loss of data is denoted using this notation.D> Caution: vi . Procedures are presented as a series of numbered steps. Press ENTER. selections. Select My Company > Admin Domain > Summary. Menu or action group selections are indicated using a right angle bracket. and maintaining McAfee® Network Security Manager [formerly McAfee® IntruShield® Security Manager]. On the Configuration tab. configuring. set Sensor ip <A. tabs.B.C.0 Preface Audience This guide is intended for use by network technicians and maintenance personnel responsible for installing. the relationship between tasks.

but non-critical. or other serious consequences is denoted using this notation. accidents from contact with electricity. Notes that provide related. information are denoted using this notation.McAfee® Network Security Platform 6. Refer to Quick Tour for more information on these guides. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Quick Tour Installation Guide Upgrade Guide Getting Started Guide IPS Deployment Guide Manager Configuration Basics Guide I-1200 Sensor Product Guide I-1400 Sensor Product Guide I-2700 Sensor Product Guide I-3000 Sensor Product Guide I-4000 Sensor Product Guide I-4010 Sensor Product Guide M-1250/M-1450 Sensor Product Guide M-1250/M-1450 Quick Start Guide M-2750 Sensor Product Guide M-2750 Quick Start Guide M-3050/M-4050 Sensor Product Guide M-3050/M-4050 Quick Start Guide M-6050 Sensor Product Guide M-6050 Quick Start Guide M-8000 Sensor Product Guide M-8000 Quick Start Guide Gigabit Optical Fail-Open Bypass Kit Guide Gigabit Copper Fail-Open Bypass Kit Guide 10 Gigabit Fail-Open Bypass Kit Guide M-8000/M-6050/M-4050/M-3050 Slide Rail Assembly Procedure M-2750 Slide Rail Assembly Procedure M-series DC Power Supply Installation Procedure Administrative Domain Configuration Guide Manager Server Configuration Guide CLI Guide vii . Warning: Note: Related Documentation The following documents and on-line help are companions to this guide.0 Preface Convention Example Information that you must read to prevent injury.

and signature updates. Registered customers can obtain up-to-date documentation. PST Monday-Friday.mcafee. software downloads. and quick tips on McAfee's 24x7 comprehensive KnowledgeBase. Note: McAfee requires that you provide your GRANT ID and the serial number of your system when opening a ticket with Technical Support. customers can also resolve technical issues with the online case submit.McAfee® Network Security Platform 6.mcafee. In addition.html page. technical bulletins.com/us/about/contact/index.M.0 Preface • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Device Configuration Guide IPS Configuration Guide NAC Configuration Guide Integration Guide System Status Monitoring Guide Reports Guide Custom Attack Definitions Guide Central Manager Administrator's Guide Troubleshooting Guide Special Topics Guide—In-line Sensor Deployment Special Topics Guide—Sensor High Availability Special Topics Guide—Virtualization Special Topics Guide—Denial-of-Service NTBA Appliance Administrator's Guide NTBA Monitoring Guide NTBA Appliance T-200 Quick Start Guide NTBA Appliance T-500 Quick Start Guide Contacting Technical Support If you have any questions.M. Global phone contact numbers can be found at McAfee Contact Information http://www. Extended 24x7 Technical Support is available for customers with Gold or Platinum service contracts. viii . to 5:00 P. contact McAfee for assistance: Online Contact McAfee Technical Support http://mysupport.com. Phone Technical Support is available 7:00 A. You will be provided with a user name and password for the online case submission.

This can save considerable time during the installation and tuning process of the system. Following chapters outline the best practices for Network Security Platform. see Planning for installation. built for the accurate detection and prevention of intrusions and network misuse. Troubleshooting Guide. 1 . We recommend that you follow some of the best techniques and tips to use McAfee Network Security Platform most effectively. Pre-installation checklist There are some important tasks that you should consider before McAfee® Network Security Manager [formerly McAfee® IntruShield® Security Manager] software installation. For more information.CHAPTER 1 Introduction McAfee® Network Security Platform [formerly McAfee® IntruShield®] is a combination of network appliances and software.

we also recommend that the client hosts used to manage the Network Security Platform solution meet the requirements in the following table: Hardware Recommended Size/Speed Physical memory Processor 512 MB or more 1. the more high-end your Manager Server should be.2 Pentium processors 80 GB hard disk space (or greater) Manager Client specifications The Manager client is a Java Web application. The Manager contains Java applets. which provides a Web-based user interface for centralized and remote Sensor management. 2 .CHAPTER 2 Recommended Manager specifications McAfee® Network Security Manager (Manager) software runs on a dedicated Windows server. Many McAfee® Network Security Platform issues result from an under-powered Manager Server. Because Java applets take advantage of the processor on the host from which they are being viewed. Manager Server specifications The following is the recommended minimum hardware configuration for a Manager Server with embedded MySQL database: Hardware Recommended Size/Speed Physical memory Processor Hard Disk 4 GB RAM 2 x 3. The larger your deployment. Performance may be slow if you connect to the Manager using a browser on the server machine itself. we recommend larger configurations than the hardware specifications in the release notes. to manage 40 or more McAfee® Network Security Sensors (Sensors). For example.5 GHz or faster CPU Note: You will experience better performance in your configuration and dataforensic tasks by connecting to the Manager from a browser on the client machine.

mostly unique to the deployment scenario.McAfee® Network Security Platform 6. Note that an alert is roughly 200 bytes on average. and attempting to keep your active database size to about 40 GB. • Lifetime of alert and packet log data: You need to consider the time before you archive or delete an alert. one year) will require additional storage capacity to accommodate both old and new data. Maintaining your data for a long period of time (for example.0 Recommended Manager specifications Determining your Database Requirements The amount of space required for your database is governed by many factors. see Capacity Planning. Manager Server Configuration Guide. Things to consider while determining your database size requirements are: • Aggregate alert and packet log volume from all Sensors—Many Sensors amount to higher alert volume and require additional storage capacity. These factors determine the amount of data you want to retain in the database and the time for which the data has to be retained. 3 . Note: For more information on capacity planning. McAfee recommends archiving and deleting old alert data regularly. while a packet log is approximately 450 bytes. As a best practice.

In other words. only after the McAfee® Network Security Sensor (Sensor) has been fully configured. or those with congestion problems. in the most security-conscious environments. the monitoring ports have been configured. most administrators cable the console and management ports. and only physically introduce the Sensor into the scanning process once the proper scanning policies are in place. and so on. the latest signature set has been downloaded. a private network is often used to connect the Sensor management ports to the McAfee® Network Security Manager (Manager).CHAPTER 3 Cabling best practices It is a common practice to physically cable the monitoring ports. Also. This is another best practice in terms of cabling the Sensors. 4 . use those connections to configure the solution.

Alert Traffic . more data is passed into the Manager.1. Depending on the policies deployed on your system. You must decide the point at which a signature set update process becomes time consuming.1.” and so on. Start-up load on the Manager . As the volume of alerting increases.Take note of the volume of alerting in your Sensors. Concurrent processes . which helps you to load concurrent images on the Sensor via the Sensor’s CLI. You can instead use the TFTP method for updating the Sensor image. For example. prior to the deployment. Your VIDS names should also be clear and easy for everyone maintaining the network to recognize at a glance. it is required to account for the startup load on the Manager. as this can lead to process locking. For more information on the process of using TFTP to update your Sensor software.CHAPTER 4 Large Sensor deployments When you consider large McAfee® Network Security Sensor (Sensor) deployments. there is potential to starve Manager resources since the resulting alerts are passed to the Manager. each Sensor must pass its alert data to the Manager when connectivity is re-established. recognizable names for your Sensors and any VIDS you create. see Upgrading Sensor software via a TFTP server. and try not to attempt other tasks during that time period. It can also lead to confusion if you have not provided unique.Depending on the number of VIDS and Admin Domains defined in your deployment. You can schedule this process though you can’t reboot the Sensor automatically. Note that from version 3.” “India-Bangalore-sens1. For example. At this point we would recommend that you utilize a second McAfee® Network Security Manager (Manager) to minimize the time. (where the number of Sensors deployed range from 36 to 70) there are some important tasks which should be considered. at a much faster rate. If the communication with the Manager is lost. the Manager Resource Tree can become very crowded. A reboot can take up to 5 minutes. the process would take approximately 3 minutes per Sensor. one Sensor at-a-time. establishing connections with all Sensors can be time consuming as Sensors continue to collect alerts. this process has been reduced to a matter of minutes. not • • • • • concurrently. in a deployment with 50 Sensors. which makes it difficult to locate the resource you require at any point of time. before deployment. The same is true for policy updates. Note that the resource names appear both in the Resource Tree of the Manager as well as in Alert data and Reports.1. • Signature Set downloads .But but any update from the Manager Server causes the process to take place sequentially. Sensor Software Updates . not hours. it will take approximately 2. with versions prior to 3. Usability .Be aware of the time periods in which your scheduled processes (such as database backup or report generation) occur. CLI Guide. McAfee recommends that you have a good understanding on the best techniques required to accomplish these tasks in your deployment scenario. For releases prior to 3.All Sensor software updates do require a reboot.When the Manager starts. compare a worldwide deployment where Sensors are named “4010-1” through “4010-25” as opposed to “UK-London-sens1. So. This includes having many users logged into the system simultaneously.Signature Set downloads are applied to Sensors serially. 5 .5 hours to complete a signature set update.

For more information on updating the Sensor with latest software updates. McAfee provides a few recommendations for this process: • Spend time creating effective policies before actual deployment. see Upgrading Sensor software via a TFTP server. and create an initial policy. and/or if you are planning to release Sensors to various geographical regions or remote locations. Large Sensor deployments have Sensors numbering between 36 and 70. if every Sensor in a large deployment is running it without any customization. Here they test the Sensor functionality. As each new batch of Sensors provides you with more data points. before shipping the Sensor to another. Or you might use the TFTP feature to load the Sensor image at one location. Availability of more information makes the tuning process easier.0 Large Sensor deployments Staging Sensors prior to deployment With large or very large deployments. they deploy the Sensor in a live environment. you can tune your policies more effectively. Device Configuration Guide. see Updating the configuration of a Sensor. Installation Guide. • 6 . make sure that the Sensor is working as expected. Note: Very large Sensor deployments mean that the number of Sensors deployed is more than 71. Once they are comfortable with the product. Stagger your Sensor deployment in phases. familiarize themselves with the Manager. and then box the configured Sensor and send it to its final destination. you will have to consider staging your Sensors before you release them to their final destination. use the McAfee® Network Security Manager (Manager) in a lab environment to push Sensor software to the Sensor. Recommendations for large Sensor deployment Most McAfee® Network Security Platform customers begin their deployment in their lab environment.McAfee® Network Security Platform 6. and become more aggressive in the number of Sensors you deploy in the next phase. But policies like the McAfee Network Security Platform provided All-Inclusive policy can overwhelm you with data. For example. For more information.

issue the following command: layer2 mode assert This pushes the Sensor into Layer2 Passthru (L2) mode. there is no need for the external kit. Sensors with FE ports contain an internal tap. Connect a fail-open kit. If a kit is attached to the Sensor. (It does not need a reboot if the layer2 mode assert command was used to put the Sensor into L2 mode). to disconnect the cables and let traffic flow unimpeded. Caution 3: Depending on the network equipment. Traffic then continues to flow directly through the Sensor. disabling the ports will send traffic through the internal tap. causing traffic to flow through the Sensor while bypassing the detection engine. McAfee recommends that you first try the following techniques. to any GE monitoring port pairs on the Sensor. disabling the Sensor ports forces traffic to flow through the bypass switch. if they are. which consists of a bypass switch and a controller. (The layer2 mode deassert command pushes the Sensor back to detection mode. Caution 2: A Sensor reboot breaks the link connecting the devices on either side of the Sensor and requires the re-negotiation of the network link between the two devices surrounding the Sensor. then you have eliminated certain Sensor hardware issues. • • Caution 1: Note that the Sensor will need to reboot to move out of L2 mode only if the Sensor entered L2 mode because of internal errors. without passing to the detection engine.CHAPTER 5 Troubleshooting issues with Sensor When McAfee® Network Security Sensor (Sensor) experiences problems in the in-line mode. providing fail-open functionality. Check to see whether your services are still affected.) Configure Layer2 Passthru Mode on each Sensor. effectively pulling the Sensor out of the path. before you remove it from the network. while the device is examined elsewhere. the problem could instead be a network issue or a configuration issue. one instinct is to physically pull it out of the path. 7 . to troubleshoot a Sensor issue: • All Sensors have a Layer2 Passthru feature. This enables you to set a threshold on the Sensor that pushes the Sensor into L2 bypass mode if the Sensor experiences a specified number of errors within a specified time frame. this disruption should range from a couple of seconds to more than a minute with certain vendors’ devices. Caution 4: A very brief link disruption might occur while the links are renegotiated to place the Sensor back in in-line mode. For FE monitoring ports. If you feel your Sensor is causing network disruption.

manually configure the switchport to 100 Mbps. Manually setting the speed and duplex to full-duplex on only one link partner generally results in a mismatch. This common issue results from disabling auto-negotiation on one link partner and having the other link partner default to a half-duplex configuration. Duplex mismatches A duplex mismatch (for example. For example. Troubleshooting a Duplex Mismatch with Cisco Devices When troubleshooting connectivity issues with Cisco switches or routers. and loss of communication. To troubleshoot this issue. while large ones fail due to a timeout. intermittent connectivity. small database queries may succeed. If your intent is not to use auto-negotiation. verify that the Sensor and the switch/routers are using a valid configuration.CHAPTER 6 Configuration of Speed and Duplex settings The most common McAfee® Network Security Sensor (Sensor) deployment problems relate to configuration of the monitoring port speed and duplex settings. you may be running into this issue. you must manually set both link partners' speed and duplex settings to full-duplex. Sometimes there are duplex inconsistencies between McAfee® Network Security Platform and the switch port. It can also create subtle problems in applications. Symptoms include poor port performance and frame check sequence (FCS) errors that increment on the switch port. This is the reason why speed and duplex cannot be hard-coded on only one link partner. Speed determination issues may result in no connectivity between the Sensor and its network device partners on either side. creating the mismatch. Following sections provide you the best practices related to these issues. If this action resolves the connectivity problems. if a Web server is talking to a database server through an Ethernet switch with a duplex mismatch. half-duplex. one end of the link in full-duplex and the other in halfduplex) may result in performance issues. The show intfport <port> command on the Sensor CLI will help reveal errors. Contact Cisco's TAC for assistance. Use the following commands to verify fixed interface settings on some Cisco devices that connect to Sensor: 8 .

Instead. and loss of communication. 6000 Series (Native) • • set port speed 1/1 100 set port duplex 1/1 full Cisco IOS® for Catalyst 4000. Auto-negotiation issues Auto-negotiation issues typically do not result in link establishment issues. view the output of the show port mod/port command. 9 . 6000 Series • • Router(config)# interface fastethernet slot/port Router(config-if)# speed 100 • Router(config-if)# duplex full When troubleshooting Network Security Platform performance issues with Cisco switches. This can cause performance issues. Generally these errors are not fatal—traffic still makes it through— but locating and fixing them is a time-waster. full-duplex mode and the other in half-duplex (also known as a duplex mismatch). When auto-negotiation leaves one end of the link in. autonegotiation issues mainly result in a loss of performance. intermittent connectivity. errors and re-transmissions can cause unpredictable behavior in the network. for example. 5000.0 Configuration of Speed and Duplex settings Cisco PIX® Firewall • interface ethernet0 100full Cisco CSS 11000 • • interface ethernet-3 phy 100Mbits-FD Cisco Catalyst® 2900XL. 3500XL Series (Hybrid) • • • interface FastEthernet0/2 duplex full speed 100 Cisco Catalyst 4000. and note the counter information.McAfee® Network Security Platform 6.

auto-negotiation should properly negotiate speed and duplex. but switch does not see Fast Link Pulse (FLP) and defaults to 10 Mbps halfduplex.McAfee® Network Security Platform 6.3u. if the switch used with the Sensor adheres to IEEE 802. • • Problems may arise when vendor switches/routers do not conform exactly to the IEEE specification 802.3u auto-negotiation specifications and all additional features are disabled. Network Security Platform Configuration 10/100 port Speed/Duplex Configuration of Switch Speed/Duplex Resulting Sensor Speed/Duplex Resulting Catalyst Speed/Duplex Comments 100 Mbps Full-duplex 1000 Mbps Full-duplex No Link No Link Neither side establishes link. Vendor-specific advanced features that are not described in IEEE 802. or software defects. due to speed mismatch. Generally. Valid Auto-negotiation and Speed Configuration settings The table below summarizes all possible settings of speed and duplex for Sensor and switch ports. 100 Mbps Full-duplex 100 Mbps Full-duplex 10 Mbps Half-duplex AUTO 100 Mbps Full-duplex 100 Mbps Full-duplex 100 Mbps Full-duplex 100 Mbps Half-duplex 1000 Mbps Full-duplex AUTO 100 Mbps Full-duplex 100 Mbps Half-duplex 10 Mbps Half-duplex 1000 Mbps Half-duplex No Link No Link 10 . hardware incapability.3u for 10/100 Mbps auto-negotiation (such as auto-polarity or cabling integrity) can also lead to hardware incompatibility and other issues. Neither side establishes link. and no operational issues should exist. due to speed mismatch Duplex Mismatch 1 Correct Manual Configuration2 Link is established.0 Configuration of Speed and Duplex settings Situations that may result in Auto-negotiation issues Auto-negotiation issues with the Network Security Platform Sensor may result from nonconforming implementation.

cable.McAfee® Network Security Platform 6. bad hardware (NIC. This is an indication that the internal transmit buffer is full. cable. Single Collisions Multiple Collisions This is an indication of a half-duplex configuration. Multiple collisions are the number of times the transmitting port had more than one collision before successfully transmitting the frame to the media. good FCS value. duplex mismatch. Single collisions are the number of times the transmitting port had one collision before successfully transmitting the frame to the media. These are the result of collisions at half-duplex. In some switches. This is an indication of a half-duplex configuration. These are the result of collisions at half-duplex. or a connected device generating frames with bad FCS. or port). FCS FCS error count is the number of frames that were transmitted or received with a bad checksum (CRC value) in the Ethernet frame. duplex mismatch. This counter should be zero unless there is excessive traffic through the switch. or a connected device generating frames that do not end with on an octet and have a bad FCS. 11 . bad hardware (NIC. This is an indication of excessive output rates of traffic. This is also an indication of the receive buffer being full.0 Configuration of Speed and Duplex settings Explanation of CatOS show port command counters Counter Description Possible Causes Alignment Errors Alignment errors are a count of the number of frames received that do not end with an even number of octets and have a bad CRC. This is also an indication of transmit buffer being full. These frames are dropped and not propagated onto other ports. the Out-Lost counter has a direct correlation to the Rcv-Err. Xmit-Err Rcv-Err This is an indication that the receive buffer is full. or port). Increasing speed and moving the link partner to full-duplex should minimize this occurrence. Situations such as excessive collisions and 10 Mb ports cause the transmit buffer to become full. This is an indication of excessive input rates of traffic. The counter should only increment in situations in which the switch is unable to forward out the port at a desired rate. UnderSize These are frames that are smaller than This is an indication of a bad frame 64 bytes (including FCS) and have a generated by the connected device.

If either device does not support Gigabit auto-negotiation. it just happens later than it does for a normal collision. duplex mode. or switch port) or a duplex neither side of the connection detects mismatch. duplex mismatch. Runts This is an indication of the result of collisions. or an ISL value. and remote fault information. a collision. Its detection is exactly the same as it is for a normal collision.1Q (dot1q). Gigabit auto-negotiation (no link to connected device) Gigabit Ethernet has an auto-negotiation procedure that is more extensive than that which is used for 10/100 Mbps Ethernet (per Gigabit auto-negotiation specification IEEE 802. or switch port). The two devices that cause the late collision never see that the other is sending until after it puts the entire packet on the network. Late collisions are detected by the transmitter after the first time slot of the 64-byte transmit time occurs. Excessive collisions are the number of This is an indication of over-utilization frames that are dropped after 16 of the switch port at half-duplex or attempts to send the packet resulted in duplex mismatch.0 Configuration of Speed and Duplex settings Counter Description Possible Causes Late Collisions A late collision occurs when two This is an indication of faulty hardware devices transmit at the same time and (NIC. IEEE 802. The reason for this occurrence is that the time to propagate the signal from one end of the network to another is longer than the time to put the entire packet on the network. These are frames smaller than 64 bytes with a bad FCS value This is an indication of faulty hardware (NIC.3z1998). disabling Gigabit autonegotiation forces the link up. configuration issue. 16 collisions. You must either enable or disable link negotiation on both ends of the link. dot1q. cable. 12 . Excessive Collisions Carrier Sense Carrier sense occurs every time an Ethernet controller wants to send data and the counter is incremented when there is an error in the process. They are only detected during transmissions of packets longer than 64 bytes. The Gigabit auto-negotiation negotiates flow control. Both ends of the link must be set to the same value or the link will not connect. or an Inter-Switch Link Protocol (ISL) configuration issue.McAfee® Network Security Platform 6. Giants These are frames that are greater than This is an indication of faulty 1518 bytes and have a bad FCS hardware. cable.

Note: As you interact with Network Security Platform policies. AOL IM is allowed traffic on the network. not “signature. The “Default Inline IPS’ policy can be changed at the Root Admin level. for instance. all McAfee® Network Security Sensors (Sensors) on initial deployment. For instance. it is a best practice to implement the latter. Analyzing high-volume attacks Take attacks that are generating the most alerts (use Consolidated View in Threat Analyzer) and investigate their legitimacy. an SMS server may be generating the alert Netbios: Copy Executable file attempt during the legitimate transfer of login scripts. but to tune these into segment-tailored custom policies. it will be evident that your network or security policy will affect the overall level of alerts. System Status Monitoring Guide. you encounter the term “attack”. These signatures and checks may contain very specific means for identifying a specific known exploit of the vulnerability. the following best practices can make tuning more efficient and effective. Managing Attack filters When a particular alert is declared as false positive. McAfee recommends. In almost all cases. have the McAfee® Network Security Platform 'Default Inline IPS' policy loaded on all interfaces. the next decision is whether to disable the corresponding attack altogether OR apply a particular attack filter to that attack that will disable alerting for a particular IP address or range of IP addresses. Many of the top alerts seen on the initial deployment of a Sensor will be common false positives seen in many environments. or more generic detection methods that aid in detecting unknown exploits for the vulnerability. Typically. An appropriately tuned policy will reduce false positives. and 13 . For more information. These tailored policies can be either cloned versions of Network Security Platform pre-configured policies or custom-built policies that employ custom rule sets.” Network Security Platform defines an attack as being comprised of one or more signatures. thresholds. where appropriate. anomaly profiles. or correlation rules. to use this or another McAfee Network Security Platform-provide policy as a starting point. If.McAfee® Network Security Platform 6. then there might not be a need to alert on AOL IM setup flows.0 Effective Policy Tuning practices CHAPTER 7 Effective Policy Tuning practices As of McAfee® Network Security Manager (Manager) software version 2. at the beginning of the tuning process. see Consolidated View. Though each network environment has unique characteristics. Rather than disable the alert altogether.1. where each method is used to detect an attempt to exploit a particular vulnerability in a system.

It is also a best practice to document all your tuning activities. you change the CIDR block of a subinterface) that causes a significant sudden traffic change on an interface. see Managing Attack Filters and Attack Responses. This involves setting thresholds manually for the type of segment characteristics that are learned in Learning Mode. before tuning DoS attacks. It is a best practice to have the Sensor re-learn the profile when there is a network change (that is. 14 . During this period it is not unusual to see DoS alerts associated with normal traffic flows (for example. see Managing DoS Learning Mode profiles on a Sensor. DoS SYN flood alerts reported outbound on a firewall interface to the Internet). since the Sensor can automatically adapt to it. Learning profiles in DoS attacks It is a best practice to let the Sensors learn the profiles of the particular segments they are monitoring. thus its Web traffic increases in parallel). we recommend that you create an attack filter for the SMS server and apply it to the attack. There is no need to re-learn a profile when network traffic increases or decreases naturally over time (for example. you move the Sensor from a lab or staging environment to a production environment) or a configuration change (that is. IPS Configuration Guide.McAfee® Network Security Platform 6. The learning process takes two days. an e-Commerce site that is getting more and more customers. Every attack filter created is globally stored. This is Learning Mode operation. the particulars of the profile (number of SYNS. If the Sensor does not re-learn the new environment. Note: For more information on attack filters. and so on) can be viewed per Sensor. DoS detection can also be implemented using the Threshold Mode.0 Effective Policy Tuning practices cancel the possibility of finding a real attack of this nature. The Report section can be used to assist the documentation process. After a profile has been learned. Implementing this mode successfully is critically dependent on detailed knowledge of the segments that the particular Sensors are monitoring. so that the filter can be applied to any Exploit or Reconnaissance attack. IPS Configuration Guide. it may issue false alarms or fail to detect actual attacks during a time period when it is adapting to the new network traffic conditions. The IPS Sensor configuration report will deliver reports that list attack filters that have been applied and attacks that have been otherwise customized. For more information on Sensor learning modes. ACKS.

a preset response from the Sensor is integral to the protection or prevention process. it is important not to set the policies and responses so fine that they disrupt the flow of traffic and slow down the system. For example. Will drop a detected attack packet and all subsequent packets in the same flow. see Sensor Actions. Critical attacks like buffer overflows and DoS attacks require responses in real time. alerts. If the Sensor is monitoring the network outside of the firewall in in-line mode. Developing a system of actions. IPS Configuration Guide. causing the attack to be blocked without your knowledge. see IPS Quarantine settings in the IPS Sensor. In this case. are best logged and analyzed as the impact is not immediate. lest you enable blocking for an attack. such as scans and low-impact well-known exploits. but disable alerting. Pay particular attention to this with the Recommended For Blocking (RFB) category of attacks. since McAfee® Network Security Platform can be customized to protect any zone in a network. and logs based on specific attacks or attack parameters (such as severity) is recommended for effective network security. if you are monitoring outside of a firewall in in-line mode. knowing what needs to be protected can help to determine the response type. IPS Configuration Guide. Note 1: For more information on other Sensor actions. IPS Quarantine: Sensor will quarantine/remediate a host as per the configurations in McAfee® Network Security Manager (Manager) and the Sensor monitoring ports. Thus. while scans and probes can be logged and researched to determine compromise potential and the source of the attack. a better understanding of the potential attack purpose can be determined. These include: • • Dropping Alert Packets: Only works in in-line mode.CHAPTER 8 Response Management When McAfee® Network Security Sensor (Sensor) detects an activity which violates a configured security policy. Note 2: For more information on IPS Quarantine. Proper configuration of responses is crucial to maintaining effective protection. Remember that response actions are decoupled from alerting. IPS Quarantine can be enabled per attack in the Policy Editors. preventing DoS attacks and attacks against the firewall is crucial. 15 . Other suspicious traffic intended for the internal network. Sensor Response Actions There are multiple Sensor actions that are available for configuration per attack.

create another include rule for Exploit. et cetera. For example.CHAPTER 9 Creating Rule sets A rule set is configured based on attack category. Each criterion must be matched in order for an alert to be triggered. combination that needs to be detected. These best practices can assist while creating rules sets in the McAfee® Network Security Manager (Manager). • Note: For more information on rule set creation. see Managing Rule Sets. et cetera. Start with an include rule that covers a broad range of operating systems. Sendmail as the application. Follow this with multiple exclusion rules that strip away protocols. operating system. Collaborative rule creation. The second method is collaboration: Create multiple include rules within one rule set for each category. 16 . Proper creation of rule sets is essential for eliminating false positives and ensuring maximum protection on your network. • General-to-specific rule creation. An exclude rule removes elements from the include rule in order to focus the policy's rule set. After this. create one or more exclude rules to strip away specific operating systems. protocol. et cetera. Unix as the OS. application. protocols. and SMTP as the protocol. Best methods for rule set creation There are two best practice methods employed for creating rule sets. IPS Configuration Guide. applications and protocols. WindMail. severity. Each rule in a set is either an include rule or an exclude rule. broadens the scope of the detection. thus focusing the rule set on the environment where it will be enforced. and benign trigger probability options. Next. that are rarely or never seen in a zone of your network. start with an include rule for all Exploit category attacks. create the first rule in the set with the Exploit category. and so forth in the same manner. An include rule (which should always start a rule set) is a set of parameters that encompass a broad range of well-known attacks for detection. Each include rule added. Windows 2000. severities. For example. applications. operating systems. The first method is general-to-specific.

Asymmetric networks are common in load balancing and active/passive configurations. Note: For more information on port clustering. All of the ports that make up the interface are configured as one logical entity. and a complete transmission may be received on one segment. an interface group appears in the System Configuration tool's Resource Tree as a single interface node (icon) under the Sensor where the ports are located. 17 . enables multiple ports on a single McAfee® Network Security Sensor (Sensor) to be grouped together for effective traffic monitoring. keeping the configuration consistent. see Port clustering (interface groups). Once configured. It is a best practice to implement a port clustering configuration when dealing with asymmetrically routed networks. Thus keeping state of asymmetric transmissions is essential for successfully monitoring the traffic. but depart on another. Getting Started Guide. referred to as Interface Groups in the Manager interface. Interface groups normalize the impact of traffic flows split across multiple interfaces. thus maintaining state to avoid information loss.CHAPTER 10 Port clustering on Asymmetric networks Port clustering.

you can configure explicit permit and deny rules for RPC as a whole. Network Security Platform detects use of and attacks in such programs as Yahoo Messenger. KaZaA. that use dynamic ports. with the exception of FTP. For RPC services. IPS Configuration Guide. you can explicitly deny these protocol instances by denying the fixed control port. or negotiate ports that do not follow a standard. An alternative option for denying protocols that use dynamic ports is to configure IDS policies to drop the attacks that are detected in such transmissions. such as instant messaging and peer-to-peer communication.323 and Netmeeting. There is a limit on the number of ACL rules that can be supported by a McAfee® Network Security Sensor (Sensor).CHAPTER 11 Access Control Lists (ACLs) Note the following points while working with Access Control Lists or ACLs: • You cannot set explicit ACL permit rules for protocols that negotiate ports dynamically. such as statd and mountd. TFTP. The following table specifies the rule limit for ACLs: Sensor ACL rule limit • • • • I-4010 I-4000 I-3000 I-2700 I-1400 I-1200 1000 1000 1000 400 100 50 Sensor ACL rule limit M-8000 M-6050 M-4050 M-3050 M-2750 M-1450 M-1250 1000 1000 1000 1000 400 100 50 Note: For more information. are not supported. which negotiate the data channel separately from the control channel. are not supported. Protocols such as H. but not its constituents. and RPC services. and so on. However. you can configure ACLs to explicitly deny these protocol instances by denying the fixed control port. However. see Access Control Lists. 18 . IRC. Protocols or services.

1 get page requests per TCP connection with a 5K response each 1024-bit RSA 128-bit ARC4 I-2700 I-3000 I-4000 I-4010 Max. Refer the following sections for the SSL throughput measurements and test methodologies. Throughput 300 150 Mbps 400 200 Mbps 800 400 Mbps 800 400 Mbps 19 . Throughput 325 85 Mbps 600 155 Mbps 800 200 Mbps 1200 310 Mbps SSL only traffic . SSL Connections / Sec. SSL Connections / Sec. SSL only traffic .throughput • • • • Session resumption for 4 out of 5 TCP connections 5 HTTP 1.0 SSL best practices CHAPTER 12 SSL best practices Note that there is a performance impact when using the SSL decryption feature.McAfee® Network Security Platform 6.throughput • • • • Session resumption for 4 out of 5 TCP connections 5 HTTP 1.1 get page requests per TCP connection with a 10K response each 1024-bit RSA 128-bit ARC4 I-2700 I-3000 I-4000 I-4010 Max.

SSL Throughput HTTP 1. SSL Connections / Sec.1 Throughput Total Throughput 400 100 Mbps 1550 Mbps 1650 Mbps 800 200 Mbps 780 Mbps 980 Mbps I-4010 Max.1 Throughput Total Throughput 400 100 Mbps 1740 Mbps 1840 Mbps 800 200 Mbps 860 Mbps 1060 Mbps 20 . SSL Connections / Sec. SSL Connections / Sec. SSL Connections / Sec.1 Throughput Total Throughput 200 50 Mbps 860 Mbps 910 Mbps 400 105 Mbps 475 Mbps 580 Mbps I-4000 Max.1 traffic • • • • Session resumption for 4 out of 5 TCP connections 5 HTTP 1.1 Throughput Total Throughput 100 25 Mbps 475 Mbps 500 Mbps 200 50 Mbps 350 Mbps 400 Mbps I-3000 Max.1 get page requests per TCP connection with a 5K response each 1024-bit RSA 128-bit ARC4 I.McAfee® Network Security Platform 6. SSL Throughput HTTP 1. SSL Throughput HTTP 1.2700 Max. SSL Throughput HTTP 1. Throughput 550 250 Mbps 1300 600 Mbps 2700 1200 Mbps 4500 2 Gbps 8500 3. SSL Connections / Sec.8 Gbps SSL traffic mixed with HTTP 1.0 SSL best practices M-2750 M-3050 M-4050 M-6050 M-8000 Max.

1 Throughput Total Throughput 880 440 Mbps 4 Gbps 4. SSL Connections / Sec. SSL Connections / Sec. SSL Throughput HTTP 1. SSL Connections / Sec.1 Throughput Total Throughput 1750 800 Mbps 8 Gbps 8. SSL Connections / Sec.1 Throughput Total Throughput 110 50 Mbps 500 Mbps 550 Mbps M-3050 Max. SSL Throughput HTTP 1.0 SSL best practices M-2750 Max.McAfee® Network Security Platform 6.4 Gbps M-8000 Max.1 Throughput Total Throughput 220 100 Mbps 1.8 Gbps Supported SSL functionalities Following SSL functionalities are supported.1 Throughput Total Throughput 440 200 Mbps 2. SSL Throughput HTTP 1.7 Gbps M-6050 Max. SSL Throughput HTTP 1.5 Gbps 2. SSL Connections / Sec. SSL Throughput HTTP 1. 21 .2 Gbps 1.35 Gbps M-4050 Max.

0 SSL best practices Supported Web servers SSL decryption is supported for the following web servers: • • Microsoft Internet Information Server (IIS) Apache Supported cipher suites The following SSL cipher suites (as named in their respective RFCs) are supported: SSLv2 cipher suites • SSL_CK_RC4_128_WITH_MD5 • SSL_CK_RC4_128_EXPORT40_WITH_MD5 • SSL_CK_DES_64_CBC_WITH_MD5 • SSL_CK_DES_192_EDE3_CBC_WITH_MD5 SSLv3/TLS cipher suites • • • • • • • • • SSL/TLS_NULL_WITH_NULL_NULL SSL/TLS_RSA_WITH_NULL_MD5 SSL/TLS_RSA_WITH_NULL_SHA SSL/TLS_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_MD5 SSL/TLS_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_SHA SSL/TLS_RSA_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA SSL/TLS_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA SSL/TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA SSL/TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA SSLv3/TLS cipher suites Unsupported SSL functionalities The following SSL functionalities are not supported: • • iPlanet Web servers Diffie-Hellman ciphers (McAfee recommends that you disable acceptance of DiffieHellman requests on the SSL Web server to ensure that Network Security Platform is able to decrypt the traffic) Compression in the SSL records (a negotiable option in SSLv3 and TLS) PCT (Microsoft's extension to SSLv2) • • 22 .McAfee® Network Security Platform 6.

Therefore. When not running at maximum load.enable HTTP response processing in both directions.CHAPTER 13 Sensor HTTP Response Processing deployment HTTP response processing is disabled by default. changes in aggregate Sensor performance will depend on the proportion of HTTP traffic to other traffic on the link being monitored. Changing the HTTP response processing setting does not change the Sensor performance for any other protocol. The test results reflect performance at sustained load. In these environments. • Tests for enabling HTTP Response Traffic The test results provided in the next two sections illustrate potential impact of enabling response processing traffic. occasionally peaking at maximum capacity. Since HTTP requests are typically <= 1/10th of the response size. In these deployments. the combined HTTP request and response traffic processed by Sensors in real deployments is typically less than that shown in the tests.enable HTTP response processing for outbound traffic only. there is significant amount of request traffic in one direction and response traffic in the opposite direction. expected to occur in deployments protecting large Web server farms. and do not wish to serve attacks embedded in HTTP response traffic . we recommend that you enable HTTP response processing on the minimum number of ports and in only the required directions to achieve your protection goals. Some examples of HTTP response processing deployment: • • You want to protect a bunch of clients on your internal network . You want to protect both internal clients as well as the Web content you are serving to external clients. To minimize the potential performance impact on the McAfee® Network Security Sensor (Sensor). You can enable it for each traffic direction on an interface pair. the Sensor can absorb larger bursts without significant impact.enable HTTP response processing for inbound traffic only. The test sends equal HTTP request and response loads in both directions through the Sensor. customers can consider selectively enabling HTTP response processing to better optimize their network. The things to note about the test are given below. You are serving Web content to external clients. • The test involves only HTTP traffic. • • • 23 . HTTP response processing typically provides little value because all HTTP response traffic is sourced from trusted servers. The test environment was created to illustrate the likely worst-case performance impact. but typically running at significantly lower throughput. Typical real-world deployments do not have equal amounts of HTTP request traffic and response traffic in both directions through the Sensor. The test sends HTTP request continuously at maximum load. Usually. which do not usually transmit hostile content due to the security measures taken. Real-world networks are typically loaded.

For Sensor performance numbers under the following conditions: • • HTTP response processing enabled/disabled and 5 HTTP 1.5 HTTP 1.HTTP Response Scanning Enabled for outbound direction .78 Gbps 1 Gbps 550 Mbps 195 Mbps 97 Mbps 1 Gbps 1 Gbps 680 Mbps 430 Mbps 160 Mbps 75 Mbps HTTP Response processing results for M-series Sensors Refer the following table for M-series Sensor performance numbers with HTTP response processing: 24 .1 get page requests per TCP connection with a 10K response each 2 Gbps 1. the impact of enabling HTTP response processing is not noticed.HTTP Response Scanning Disabled . HTTP Response processing results for I series Sensors Refer the following table for I-series Sensor performance numbers with HTTP response processing: I-4010 I-4000 I-3000 I-2700 I-1400 I-1200 .1 get page requests per TCP connection with a 10K response each sent in one direction.5 HTTP 1. dependent on the traffic being inspected and some environments could see a reduction in performance as significant as the test results indicate. of course.1 get page requests per TCP connection with a 10K response each . size of a response page sent to the client by the sites or applications that are typically accessed. The factors to take into account include: • • • proportion of HTTP traffic to other protocols relative amount of HTTP requests and responses in each direction and. The exact impact is.McAfee® Network Security Platform 6.0 Sensor HTTP Response Processing deployment The net result of all of these factors is that in typical networks.

HTTP Response Scanning Enabled for outbound direction .5 HTTP 1.4 Gbps 2.5 HTTP 1.8 Gbps 2 Gbps 1 Gbps 500 Mbps 200 Mbps 100 Mbps 25 .5 Gbps 600 Mbps 200 Mbps 100 Mbps 5.1 get page requests per TCP connection with a 10K response each 10 Gbps 5 Gbps 3 Gbps 1.1 get page requests per TCP connection with a 10K response each .0 Sensor HTTP Response Processing deployment M-8000 M-6050 M-4050 M-3050 M-2750 M-1450 M-1250 .HTTP Response Scanning Disabled .McAfee® Network Security Platform 6.

Perform regular file maintenance to prevent disk space issues. • • • • Backup of data and configurations For the back up of McAfee® Network Security Platform data and configurations. Do not run scheduled actions concurrently. When scheduling certain Manager actions (backups. Database backups are cumulative and the size of a backup file can become quite large. set a time for each that is unique and is a minimum of an hour after/before other scheduled actions.) As the 'All Tables' and 'Audit and Alert Tables' options can be rather large in size (depending upon the amount of alert data in the database) these types of backups should be saved off the Manager server. simply retry the query. Warning: A database left untuned can. file maintenance. contact Technical Support. over time. If you have any specific questions. if you are using an agent that queries the database. Your configuration tables are saved by default once a week on Saturday. your agent may attempt to interact with these tables during tuning. There is a remote chance that during the transition to the temporary tables. Backing up config tables weekly is recommended. • • • 26 . the SQL query will result in an error. Back up all information. Further information on the impact of online database tuning of the Manager database will be sent to the third-party vendors that are directly accessing this database. lead to data corruption. If a SQL query error occurs. Implement a schedule for backups using the Backup scheduler. Saving the 'All Tables' settings monthly is strongly recommended. • Online database tuning operation causes the creation of temporary alert and packet log tables. Protect backups from tampering by creating a digital fingerprint of the file using a hash function such as MD5 or SHA-1. Make a regular practice of defragmenting the disk of the Manager server. following best practices are recommended: • • • Back up Manager data either within the Manager server (McAfee Network Security Platform\Backups folder) or preferably on external media. and audits. Tune your database at regular intervals using the online tuning tools. see Manager Server Configuration Guide. archives. Also note that there is no change in database SQL query behavior if online database tuning is disabled. Note: For more information on tuning your database.CHAPTER 14 Database maintenance McAfee recommends the following best practices for database backup and tuning: • Perform regular manual backups of your database using the Backup feature in the McAfee® Network Security Manager (Manager) software. including configurations. (Be sure to schedule this at a time when other processes will not be running concurrently. alerts. as disk fragmentation can lead to database inefficiency. database tuning).

Tip 1: For more information on backup methods. Tip 2: For more information on database backup. see Backing up data and settings. This is set within the Backup Scheduler action.0 Database maintenance • • • Test restoration of backups periodically to ensure that a backup was successful and valid. 27 . Manager Server Configuration Guide. This option is enabled by default to occur every Saturday night. The 'Config Tables' option backs up only tabled information relating to configured tasks. The best way to do this is to perform a “test” restore of the backup on a secondary. Manager Server Configuration Guide. Save actual Sensor configurations weekly. Save actual configurations of Sensors (not just the config tables) using the Export option under the Sensor_Name tab. non-production Manager.McAfee® Network Security Platform 6. see Database backup and Recovery. This creates an XML file (no attempt to read this file should be made) that can be imported to any Sensor of the same type in the future.

Note that there is currently a 4 GB size limitation for a single archive file. A best practice suggestion is to wait for 97 days of data and then on a recurring 7-day period run the purge. To do this you must stop the Manager and run the scripts. To tune while the Manager is running. and that you discard alert and packet log information from your database every 90 days to manage your database size. Scripts for disk space maintenance If you have a large amount of data and wish to do your tuning offline. Note: For more information on Disk Space Maintenance. Scripts have to be run off-line (that is. McAfee recommends that you archive your alert data monthly. In order to develop best practices for database maintenance it is important to understand the lifecycle of an alert.bat (force the tuning of the database) scripts.bat The dbtuning. use the online tools. Manager service stopped) to release the lock from the database. it is a best practice to use the purge. but ensure that you do not have another process running concurrently during the tuning.bat utility does the following: • • • • • Defragments tables where rows/columns are split or have been deleted Re-sorts indexes Updates index statistics Computes query optimizer statistics Checks and repairs tables 28 . Archiving alerts Archive your alerts and packet logs regularly. using the Alert and Packet Log Archival feature.bat—this will delete alerts already marked for deletion (from the Alert Viewer) as well as alerts older than 90 days.bat (forces the deletion of old alerts) and dbtuning. see Database maintenance and tuning. Dbtuning.CHAPTER 15 Alerts and Disk space maintenance Disk space maintenance is an important task that must be completed to ensure efficient running of the McAfee® Network Security Manager (Manager). Manager Server Configuration Guide.bat and dbtuning. For more information. Getting Started Guide. see The lifecycle of an alert.

This can be accomplished using the Maintenance scheduler. Purge.bat The purge. Alerts and packet logs can be deleted that are older than a specified number of days. with all Alert and Packet logs. or if they have been marked for deletion via the Threat Analyzer tool. which may affect long-term and overall database performance. all alerts and packet logs older than 90 days are deleted at the weekly maintenance scheduler time. These include Diagnostic files.0 Alerts and Disk space maintenance Purge. any incident reports that have been generated. By setting the value to 90 days. DoS files (profiles) and Data Mining files (for Trend Reporting) among others. as in 90 days—is entered in the “Scheduled Deletion” column for the Alert & Packet Log Data option. and audit and fault logs. see Setting a schedule for file maintenance. Note: For more information on setting the scheduler for file maintenance.bat immediately after the purge is completed. Apart from the database data.bat utility enables on-demand deletion of alerts and packet log data from your database.bat also offers to automatically start dbtuning. Maintenance of this data can be accomplished automatically using the File Maintenance scheduler. Manager creates a group of administration files that must be maintained regularly. If automatic File Maintenance is used to delete alert and packet log data it is recommended that a large value -such as 90. Manager Server Configuration Guide. Using File Maintenance Scheduler Databases can be substantially overloaded.McAfee® Network Security Platform 6. 29 . This allows for long-term analysis of alerts and logs without overloading your database with millions of alerts. It is a best practice to schedule the deletion of the oldest of these files on an on-going basis.

If you return to the user interface of the primary Manager. however. depending on the quantity of McAfee® Network Security Sensors (Sensors). Manager Server Configuration Guide. you can press the Retrieve Configuration button on the Manage MDR page of the secondary McAfee® Network Security Manager (Manager) soon after MDR creation. In most cases. Note: For more information on MDR. to force the Managers to synchronize. see MDR communication. the details on the Manage MDR page validate the information seen on the secondary. we recommend you wait the 15 minutes and allow the new MDR pair to synchronize automatically. If you have only one or two Sensors. 30 .CHAPTER 16 Manager Disaster Recovery (MDR) best practices A newly created MDR pair does not synchronize for the first 15 minutes after creation. This is by design because. it takes approximately 5 to 10 minutes for the newly formed pair to finish MDRrelated tasks and become stable.

check for a duplex mismatch. If the link is operating at full-duplex. In half-duplex environments. runts. and data link errors. Duplex mismatch is a situation in which the switch is operating at full-duplex and the connected device is operating at half-duplex. and collisions are normal. or runt counters are incrementing. For more information. FCS. alignment. a one percent ratio of errors to total traffic is acceptable for half-duplex connections. and alignment errors. Data link errors Many performance issues may be related to data link errors. Sniffer trace analysis reveals every packet on the wire and pinpoints the exact problem. FCS. intermittent connectivity. and thus a Sniffer trace analysis can help pinpoint switch and McAfee® Network Security Platform performance or connectivity issues when the issues persist after you have exhausted the other suggestions in this document. The result of a duplex mismatch is extremely slow performance. Generally. cyclic redundancy checks (CRC). duplex mismatches. Other possible causes of data link errors at full-duplex are bad cables. Excessive errors usually indicate a problem. Sniffer trace A Sniffer details packet transfer. which are caused when the frame is not completely copied to the wire. 31 . performance degradation may be noticeable. If the FCS. CRC. alignment. a faulty switch port. alignment errors. or software or hardware issues. Half-duplex setting When operating with a duplex setting of half-duplex. Full-duplex setting When operating at full-duplex. resulting in fragmented frames. resulting in a collision. Collisions can cause runts. it is possible for both the switch and the connected device to sense the wire and transmit at exactly the same time. the collision counter is not active. some data link errors such as FCS. and runt counters should be minimal. and that it is useful to monitor (“span”) ports rather than spanning VLANs when troubleshooting switch connectivity issues. If the ratio of errors to input packets is greater than two or three percent. link up/down situations. Note that it may be important to obtain several Sniffer traces from different ports on different switches. or vice versa.CHAPTER 17 Performance issues Most performance issues are related to switch port configuration. and loss of connection. see also Configuration of Speed and Duplex settings (on page 8).

To avoid confusion. and render VA integration ineffective. To prevent this: Create ACLs to exclude all traffic from the Vulnerability Manager server from attack inspection. This will help increase the probability that a relevancy status of "Unknown" really means that the attack is not relevant. If you have configured Network Access Control (NAC) or IPS Quarantine. IPS Configuration Guide. If the scan traffic between the Vulnerability Manager server and the hosts being scanned passes through a Sensor monitoring port. This prevents the Vulnerability Manager server being denied network access. it may correctly draw different conclusions for each. then add the Vulnerability Manager server to the NAC Exclusions list. Given the frequency with which new attacks appear. see Configuring ACL rules. See the NAC Configuration Guide for information. For information on ACLs. see Integration with McAfee Vulnerability Manager. if Network Security Platform uses an initial scanner report to analyze one alert and an updated scanner report to analyze the next. reports can become obsolete quickly. Replace old reports with new reports on a routine basis (weekly or monthly). This will help ensure the assessment is accurate. 32 .0 Vulnerability Assessment CHAPTER 17 Vulnerability Assessment McAfee® Network Security Platform recommends the following while performing Vulnerability Assessment: • • Always use the latest signatures available for your vulnerability assessment (VA) software. • • • Note: For more information on vulnerability assessment using Network Security PlatformMcAfee Vulnerability Manager integration. For example. scan all hosts you expect McAfee Network Security Platform to protect. consider acknowledging (or purging) all existing alerts each time you replace reports. Integration Guide. the Sensor may consider it as attack traffic and take the corresponding response action such as quarantining the Vulnerability Manager server. Replacing an old report with a new one might result in similar alerts having different relevance values. Where possible.McAfee® Network Security Platform 6.

000 64 1 Gbps 500.000 50 For more information on computing ACL.000 128.000 10.000 1.000 100 300 254 100.000 6.000 100.000 187.000 100.500 300 250.000 400 32 64 64 40.000.000 16.000 100.000 25.000 3.000 50. 33 .000 32.000 750.000.000 3.000 2.000 64 2 Gbps 1.000 100 83.CHAPTER 19 I-series Sensor capacity by model number The following table lists McAfee® Network Security Sensor (Sensor) limitations by category and by Sensor model. Concurrent SSL Flows Number of SSL keys that can be stored on the Sensor Virtual Interfaces (VIDS) per Sensor VLAN / CIDR Blocks per Sensor VLAN / CIDR Blocks per Interface Customized attacks Attack filters Default number of supported UDP Flows Supported UDP Flows DoS Profiles SYN rate (64-byte packets per second) ACL Rules (refer to note below) 2 Gbps 1.000 NA NA 100 Mbps 40.000 3.000 NA NA 1.000.000 254 100.000 750.250 25.000 128.000 254 100.000 64.000 100 16 32 32 20.000 25.000 1.000.000 6.000 60.000 500.000 1.000 5.000 50. see Viewing ACL descriptions using Effective ACL rules.000 5.000 1. IPS Configuration guide.000 375.000 128.000 64 200 Mbps 80.000 64 600 Mbps 250.000 5. Maximum Type I-4010 I-4000 I-3000 I-2700 I-1400 I-1200 Aggregate Performance Concurrent connections Connections established per sec.000 25.000 5.000 254 100.000 1.000 30.000 1.000 1.000 120 64.000 1.000 100.

c. b. The number of customized attacks can increase due to: • • • Modifications done to attacks on a policy by users Recommended for blocking (RFB) attacks User created asymmetric policies Example: How numerous customized attacks are created in asymmetric policies. a. • The All-inclusive with Audit rule set has 2204 exploit attacks. Set the Outbound rule set to "All-inclusive with Audit rule set". You will see that: • The File Server rule set has 166 exploit attacks. Set the Inbound rule set to "File Server rule set". 34 .0 I-series Sensor capacity by model number Note for customized attacks The signature set push from McAfee® Network Security Manager (Manager) to a Sensor will fail if the number of customized attacks on the Sensor exceeds the customized attack limit. Create a new policy.McAfee® Network Security Platform 6. The total number of customized attacks for this policy is 2204 – 116 = 2038 customized attacks.

5 Gbps 750.000 30.500.000 200 Mbps 80.000 187.000 100 32 16 100 3.000 150.000 3.000 18.000 64 64 64 64 NA NA NA 1.000 300 64 32 300 254 254 254 254 254 64 32 254 100.000 2.CHAPTER 20 M-series Sensor capacity by model number Maximum Type M-8000 M-6050 M-4050 M-3050 M-2750 M-1450 M-1250 N-450 Aggregate Performance Concurrent connections Connections established per sec.000 3.000.000 262.000 187.500 35 .000 10.000 NA NA NA 25.000 4.000 200.000 3.144 400.000 1.000 65.144 Sensor Default number of supported UDP Flows Supported UDP Flows 400.000 128.000 25.144 50.000 VIDS Attack filters per 262.000 1.000 20.000 262.000 100.000 100.536 10.768 5.000 100.500 60. SSL Flow count maximum 10 Gbps 5 Gbps 3 Gbps 1.000 400.000 Attack filters per 128.000 40.000 66.114 100.000 4.000 2.072 25.000 600 Mbps 250.000 20.500.000 100.000 100 Mbps 40.000 NA NA NA Number of SSL 64 keys that can be stored in Sensor Virtual Interfaces (VIDS) per Sensor VLAN / CIDR Blocks per Sensor VLAN / CIDR Blocks per Interface Customized attacks 1.000 1.000 60.000 36.000 750.000 100.000 100.000 2 Gbps 250.000 120.000.000 1.000 262.000 100.000 100.000.000 131.000 375.000 32.000 75.000 3.

000.500.000 1.000 1.000 300 600.000 NA NA 5.000 1.000 5.000 2.000 2. 36 .000 1.000.000 100 200.000 5.000 5. M-1250 and N-450 Sensors.McAfee® Network Security Platform 6.000 120 250.000 400 100 50 400 Note: SSL decryption is not supported on M-1450.0 M-series Sensor capacity by model number Maximum Type M-8000 M-6050 M-4050 M-3050 M-2750 M-1450 M-1250 N-450 DoS Profiles SYN rate (64byte packets per second) ACL Rules (refer to note below) 5.500. The number of supported SSL flows on a Sensor directly impacts the number of TCP flows that can be processed simultaneously.000 1.

Warm reboot . Traffic is disrupted till then.inline failopen Port Speed/Duplex Auto negotiation Sensor Power off . Full/Half only for 10/100 Supported and can be configured from the the Manager Ports fail-close and traffic is disrupted. traffic disruption till the Sensor is up Ports fail-close and traffic is disrupted.) Ports are enabled and in the down state till the Sensor starts rebooting. Dongles required Dongles required on both A and B ports to fail-close External tap is supported. Ports remain enabled fail-close.Does not require external passive Failopen Kit open Kit Supported with ports configured in fail.inline failopen (CLI reboot or reboot due to error and watchdog on) Warm reboot . and no traffic is disrupted. No negotiation with peer devices. Ports are not admin disabled and traffic is disrupted 10/100.inline fail-close Does not require external passive Fail. Sensor Power off .inline fail-open Ports fail-open. Dongles not required Dongles not required for both ports to fail-close SPAN Inline fail-close Inline fail-open (Default) Inline fail-open (Active Fail-open Kit) Link Failure . put into bypass. Ports are admin disabled. Full/Half Not supported Ports fail-close with dongles connected. put into bypass. Ports remain enabled fail-close. fail-open (bypass) with no dongles Ports fail-open (bypass).Supported with ports configured in failclose (no dongles) close (no dongles) Ports fail-close and traffic is disrupted. No traffic is disrupted. and no traffic is disrupted 10/100/1000. no traffic disrupted (must not have dongles connected.CHAPTER 18 Comparison Between I-1200/I-1400 and M-1250/M-1450 FE ports Operating Condition/Mode I-1200/I-1400 M-1250/M-1450 TAP Internal and external tap are supported. traffic disruption till the Sensor is up 37 .inline failclose Link Failure . no support for internal tap. No negotiation with peer devices.inline failclose (CLI reboot or reboot due to error and watchdog on) Ports are admin disabled and put in bypass before the Sensor reboots.

OFF indicates down and traffic disrupted. Always on (green).0 Comparison Between I-1200/I-1400 and M-1250/M-1450 FE ports Operating Condition/Mode I-1200/I-1400 M-1250/M-1450 Resetconfig Restores to default configuration (inline fail-open) and reboots Normal is green and indicates up.disabled and down (applicable for inline fail-open only) 38 . OFF indicates bypass and no traffic is disrupted OFF indicates down.inline failopen Port link LED interpretation . OFF indicates bypass.up Red .enabled but down Gray .1A/1B and 2A/2B 1A/1B through 4A/4B Auto MDIX support The Manager port configuration panel . Always on (green).inline fail-close Front panel LED for Not present Normal/Bypass operations .up Red .link status color coding No support(Supported in I1200 and not Supported by default (not configurable in I1400). I-1400 .inline failclose Port link LED interpretation during reboot/Sensor power down .disabled and down The color codes are: • • • • Yellow .inline fail-close OFF indicates .SPAN Front panel LED for Not present Normal/Bypass operations . normal operation. OFF indicates down and not necessarily bypass OFF indicates down and traffic is disrupted Options to either restore defaults or to retain the current port configuration are available Green indicates up and inline. OFF indicates down and traffic is disrupted Port link LED interpretation . OFF indicates bypass. Always on (green).enabled but down Gray .TAP Link Events Port density Green indicates up and inline.not active Green . No support to control fail-open/bypass Has support to control failoperation open/bypass operation I-1200 .inline fail-open Front panel LED for Not present Normal/Bypass operations . normal operation. normal operation.1A/1B.bypass and no traffic disrupted.McAfee® Network Security Platform 6. Front panel LED for Not present Normal/Bypass operations . traffic is disrupted.not active Green . Configurable through CLI through CLI) The color codes are: • • • • Yellow.inline fail-open Port link LED interpretation during reboot/Sensor power down .

bypass The Manager port status at Link failure .Inline/Bypass status color coding Not present Four separate bypass buttons.McAfee® Network Security Platform 6.SPAN Red Gray Red Red Red Red 39 .inline Yellow . one button per port pair: • • Green .inline failopen The Manager port status at Link failure .inline failclose The Manager port status at Link failure .0 Comparison Between I-1200/I-1400 and M-1250/M-1450 FE ports Operating Condition/Mode I-1200/I-1400 M-1250/M-1450 The Manager port config panel .

.............................. 26 staging sensors.......................... 37 Response Management.........ix V vulnerability assessment best practices............................P performance issues............... 7 interface groups .... 35 H half-duplex setting ... 8 T technical support................. 10......... 5. 6 Layer2 Passthru ................................ 32.................................... 35 HTTP .............................. 11.......................................................................... 7 M Manager Disaster Recovery (MDR) best practices 34 .. 16 R rule set creation best practices ... 33 full-duplex setting ....... vi D data link errors ...................................................... 17 sensor troubleshooting issues ... 8 conventions ................. 35 speed and duplex settings .................................. 28 I in-line mode............................................................. 35 Index A auto-negotiation issues .................................................................... 4 connectivity issues ............................... 23......... 35 database management best practices .. 19 B backup of data................................... 9.................. 33 duplex mismatch ............................................................................................................. 7 sniffer trace ............................................................................................ 25.... 20 L large sensor deployment.......................................................................................... 30....................................................................................... 15...................... 8 SSL best practices .......................................... 24................................................... 30 S Sensor capacity by model number....................... 6 C cabling best practices....................................... 13 policy tuning practices............ 37 F File Maintenance Scheduler........ 27............

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