Best Practices Guide

revision 3.0

McAfee® Network Security Platform
version 6.0

McAfee® Network Protection
Industry-leading network security solutions

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This product includes or may include: * Software developed by the OpenSSL Project for use in the OpenSSL Toolkit (http://www.openssl.org/). * Cryptographic software written by Eric A. Young and software written by Tim J. Hudson. * Some software programs that are licensed (or sublicensed) to the user under the GNU General Public License (GPL) or other similar Free Software licenses which, among other rights, permit the user to copy, modify and redistribute certain programs, or portions thereof, and have access to the source code. The GPL requires that for any software covered under the GPL, which is distributed to someone in an executable binary format, that the source code also be made available to those users. For any such software covered under the GPL, the source code is made available on this CD. If any Free Software licenses require that McAfee provide rights to use, copy or modify a software program that are broader than the rights granted in this agreement, then such rights shall take precedence over the rights and restrictions herein. * Software originally written by Henry Spencer, Copyright 1992, 1993, 1994, 1997 Henry Spencer. * Software originally written by Robert Nordier, Copyright (C) 1996-7 Robert Nordier. * Software written by Douglas W. Sauder. * Software developed by the Apache Software Foundation (http://www.apache.org/). A copy of the license agreement for this software can be found at www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0.txt. * International Components for Unicode ("ICU") Copyright (C) 1995-2002 International Business Machines Corporation and others. * Software developed by CrystalClear Software, Inc., Copyright (C) 2000 CrystalClear Software, Inc. * FEAD(R) Optimizer(R) technology, Copyright Netopsystems AG, Berlin, Germany. * Outside In(R) Viewer Technology (C) 1992-2001 Stellent Chicago, Inc. and/or Outside In(R) HTML Export, (C) 2001 Stellent Chicago, Inc. * Software copyrighted by Thai Open Source Software Center Ltd. and Clark Cooper, (C) 1998, 1999, 2000. * Software copyrighted by Expat maintainers. * Software copyrighted by The Regents of the University of California, (C) 1996, 1989, 1998-2000. * Software copyrighted by Gunnar Ritter. * Software copyrighted by Sun Microsystems, Inc., 4150 Network Circle, Santa Clara, California 95054, U.S.A., (C) 2003. * Software copyrighted by Gisle Aas. (C) 1995-2003. * Software copyrighted by Michael A. Chase, (C) 1999-2000. * Software copyrighted by Neil Winton, (C) 1995-1996. * Software copyrighted by RSA Data Security, Inc., (C) 1990-1992. * Software copyrighted by Sean M. Burke, (C) 1999, 2000. * Software copyrighted by Martijn Koster, (C) 1995. * Software copyrighted by Brad Appleton, (C) 1996-1999. * Software copyrighted by Michael G. Schwern, (C) 2001. * Software copyrighted by Graham Barr, (C) 1998. * Software copyrighted by Larry Wall and Clark Cooper, (C) 1998-2000. * Software copyrighted by Frodo Looijaard, (C) 1997. * Software copyrighted by the Python Software Foundation, Copyright (C) 2001, 2002, 2003. A copy of the license agreement for this software can be found at www.python.org. * Software copyrighted by Beman Dawes, (C) 1994-1999, 2002. * Software written by Andrew Lumsdaine, Lie-Quan Lee, Jeremy G. Siek (C) 1997-2000 University of Notre Dame. * Software copyrighted by Simone Bordet & Marco Cravero, (C) 2002. * Software copyrighted by Stephen Purcell, (C) 2001. * Software developed by the Indiana University Extreme! Lab (http://www.extreme.indiana.edu/). * Software copyrighted by International Business Machines Corporation and others, (C) 1995-2003. * Software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors. * Software developed by Ralf S. Engelschall <rse@engelschall.com> for use in the mod_ssl project (http:// www.modssl.org/). * Software copyrighted by Kevlin Henney, (C) 2000-2002. * Software copyrighted by Peter Dimov and Multi Media Ltd. (C) 2001, 2002. * Software copyrighted by David Abrahams, (C) 2001, 2002. See http://www.boost.org/libs/bind/bind.html for documentation. * Software copyrighted by Steve Cleary, Beman Dawes, Howard Hinnant & John Maddock, (C) 2000. * Software copyrighted by Boost.org, (C) 1999-2002. * Software copyrighted by Nicolai M. Josuttis, (C) 1999. * Software copyrighted by Jeremy Siek, (C) 1999-2001. * Software copyrighted by Daryle Walker, (C) 2001. * Software copyrighted by Chuck Allison and Jeremy Siek, (C) 2001, 2002. * Software copyrighted by Samuel Krempp, (C) 2001. See http://www.boost.org for updates, documentation, and revision history. * Software copyrighted by Doug Gregor (gregod@cs.rpi.edu), (C) 2001, 2002. * Software copyrighted by Cadenza New Zealand Ltd., (C) 2000. * Software copyrighted by Jens Maurer, (C) 2000, 2001. * Software copyrighted by Jaakko Järvi (jaakko.jarvi@cs.utu.fi), (C) 1999, 2000. * Software copyrighted by Ronald Garcia, (C) 2002. * Software copyrighted by David Abrahams, Jeremy Siek, and Daryle Walker, (C) 1999-2001. * Software copyrighted by Stephen Cleary (shammah@voyager.net), (C) 2000. * Software copyrighted by Housemarque Oy <http://www.housemarque.com>, (C) 2001. * Software copyrighted by Paul Moore, (C) 1999. * Software copyrighted by Dr. John Maddock, (C) 1998-2002. * Software copyrighted by Greg Colvin and Beman Dawes, (C) 1998, 1999. * Software copyrighted by Peter Dimov, (C) 2001, 2002. * Software copyrighted by Jeremy Siek and John R. Bandela, (C) 2001. * Software copyrighted by Joerg Walter and Mathias Koch, (C) 2000-2002. * Software copyrighted by Carnegie Mellon University (C) 1989, 1991, 1992. * Software copyrighted by Cambridge Broadband Ltd., (C) 2001-2003. * Software copyrighted by Sparta, Inc., (C) 2003-2004. * Software copyrighted by Cisco, Inc and Information Network Center of Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, (C) 2004. * Software copyrighted by Simon Josefsson, (C) 2003. * Software copyrighted by Thomas Jacob, (C) 2003-2004. * Software copyrighted by Advanced Software Engineering Limited, (C) 2004. * Software copyrighted by Todd C. Miller, (C) 1998. * Software copyrighted by The Regents of the University of California, (C) 1990, 1993, with code derived from software contributed to Berkeley by Chris Torek.

Issued JUNE 2010 / Best Practices Guide
700-2379-00/ 3.0 - English

Contents
Preface ........................................................................................................... v
Introducing McAfee Network Security Platform............................................................................. v About this Guide............................................................................................................................ v Audience .......................................................................................................................................vi Conventions used in this book ......................................................................................................vi Related Documentation................................................................................................................vii Contacting Technical Support ..................................................................................................... viii

Chapter 1 Introduction.................................................................................. 1
Pre-installation checklist................................................................................................................ 1

Chapter 2 Recommended Manager specifications.................................... 2
Manager Server specifications ...................................................................................................... 2 Manager Client specifications ....................................................................................................... 2 Determining your Database Requirements ................................................................................... 3

Chapter 3 Cabling best practices ................................................................ 4 Chapter 4 Large Sensor deployments ........................................................ 5
Staging Sensors prior to deployment ............................................................................................ 6 Recommendations for large Sensor deployment .......................................................................... 6

Chapter 5 Troubleshooting issues with Sensor ........................................ 7 Chapter 6 Configuration of Speed and Duplex settings ........................... 8
Duplex mismatches ....................................................................................................................... 8 Troubleshooting a Duplex Mismatch with Cisco Devices.............................................................. 8 Cisco PIX® Firewall ...............................................................................................................9 Cisco CSS 11000...................................................................................................................9 Cisco Catalyst® 2900XL, 3500XL Series (Hybrid).................................................................9 Cisco Catalyst 4000, 5000, 6000 Series (Native) ..................................................................9 Cisco IOS® for Catalyst 4000, 6000 Series ...........................................................................9 Auto-negotiation issues ................................................................................................................. 9 Situations that may result in Auto-negotiation issues...........................................................10 Valid Auto-negotiation and Speed Configuration settings....................................................10 Explanation of CatOS show port command counters ..........................................................11 Gigabit auto-negotiation (no link to connected device) ........................................................12

Chapter 7 Effective Policy Tuning practices ............................................ 13
Analyzing high-volume attacks.................................................................................................... 13 Managing Attack filters ................................................................................................................ 13 Learning profiles in DoS attacks.................................................................................................. 14

Chapter 8 Response Management ............................................................ 15
Sensor Response Actions ........................................................................................................... 15

Chapter 9 Creating Rule sets ..................................................................... 16

iii

Best methods for rule set creation............................................................................................... 16

Chapter 10 Port clustering on Asymmetric networks ............................. 17 Chapter 11 Access Control Lists (ACLs).................................................. 18 Chapter 12 SSL best practices .................................................................. 19
SSL only traffic - throughput........................................................................................................ 19 SSL only traffic - throughput........................................................................................................ 19 SSL traffic mixed with HTTP 1.1 traffic........................................................................................ 20 Supported SSL functionalities ..................................................................................................... 21 Supported Web servers .......................................................................................................22 Supported cipher suites .......................................................................................................22 SSLv3/TLS cipher suites......................................................................................................22 Unsupported SSL functionalities ................................................................................................. 22

Chapter 13 Sensor HTTP Response Processing deployment................ 23
Tests for enabling HTTP Response Traffic ................................................................................. 23 HTTP Response processing results for I series Sensors.....................................................24 HTTP Response processing results for M-series Sensors ..................................................24

Chapter 14 Database maintenance ........................................................... 26
Backup of data and configurations .............................................................................................. 26

Chapter 15 Alerts and Disk space maintenance ...................................... 28
Archiving alerts............................................................................................................................ 28 Scripts for disk space maintenance............................................................................................. 28 Dbtuning.bat .........................................................................................................................28 Purge.bat..............................................................................................................................29 Using File Maintenance Scheduler.............................................................................................. 29

Chapter 16 Manager Disaster Recovery (MDR) best practices .............. 30 Chapter 17 Performance issues ................................................................ 31
Sniffer trace ................................................................................................................................. 31 Data link errors ............................................................................................................................ 31 Half-duplex setting ...............................................................................................................31 Full-duplex setting ................................................................................................................31

Chapter 18 Vulnerability Assessment....................................................... 32 Chapter 19 I-series Sensor capacity by model number .......................... 33 Chapter 20 M-series Sensor capacity by model number ........................ 35 Chapter 21 Comparison Between I-1200/I-1400 and M-1250/M-1450 FE ports ............................................................................................................. 37 Index ............................................................................................................. 40

iv

and encrypted attacks. thus complementing the NAC and IPS capabilities in a scenario in which McAfee Network Security Sensor. accurate. Best practices are provided for the following topics/issues in Network Security Platform: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Hardware and software recommendations for Network Security Platform Cabling best practices Considerations for large McAfee® Network Security Sensor [formerly McAfee® IntruShield® Sensor] deployments Troubleshooting tips for the McAfee Network Security Sensor (Sensor) Sensor Deployment issues . while providing unmatched protection against spyware and known. the supporting documents for this guide and how to contact McAfee Technical Support. network Intrusion Prevention System (IPS) and Network Threat Behavior Analysis (NTBA) for mission-critical enterprise. and scalable Network Access Control (NAC). NAC Sensor. carrier. and service provider networks. and NTBA Appliance are installed and managed through a single Manager. McAfee® Network Threat Behavior Analysis Appliance provides the capability of monitoring network traffic by analyzing NetFlow information flowing through the network in real time. Introducing McAfee Network Security Platform McAfee® Network Security Platform [formerly McAfee® IntruShield®] delivers the most comprehensive. and explains how this document is organized.speed & duplex settings Policy Tuning best practices Best Practices for creating Rule sets Port clustering on asymmetric networks Tips for Access Control Lists (ACLs) SSL best practices HTTP Response processing deployment for the Sensor Database Maintenance Alerts & Disk space Maintenance issues Manager Disaster Recovery (MDR) pairs Performance issues and Vulnerability Assessment v . zero-day.Preface This preface provides a brief introduction to the product. discusses the information in this document. It also provides information such as. About this Guide This guide provides the recommended practices for using Network Security Platform most effectively.

McAfee® Network Security Platform 6. but is not necessarily familiar with daily IPS-related tasks.0 Preface Audience This guide is intended for use by network technicians and maintenance personnel responsible for installing. situation or environment is shown in italics. Parameters that you must supply are shown enclosed in angle brackets. On the Configuration tab. the relationship between tasks. Procedures are presented as a series of numbered steps. Type: setup and then press ENTER. or the commands necessary to perform particular tasks. Menu or action group selections are indicated using a right angle bracket.D> Caution: vi .B. Conventions used in this book This document uses the following typographical conventions: Convention Example Terms that identify fields. The Service field on the Properties tab specifies the name of the requested service. set Sensor ip <A. click Backup. configuring. 1. options. Text such as syntax. tabs. and maintaining McAfee® Network Security Manager [formerly McAfee® IntruShield® Security Manager]. Information that you must read before beginning a procedure or that alerts you to negative consequences of certain actions. and commands on the User Interface (UI) are shown in Arial Narrow bold font. Variable information that you must Type: Sensor-IP-address and then press type based on your specific ENTER. such as loss of data is denoted using this notation. Select My Company > Admin Domain > Summary. buttons. Names of keys on the keyboard are denoted using UPPER CASE. key words. selections.C. and values that you must type exactly are denoted using Courier New font. Press ENTER.

accidents from contact with electricity. or other serious consequences is denoted using this notation. Notes that provide related. Refer to Quick Tour for more information on these guides.McAfee® Network Security Platform 6.0 Preface Convention Example Information that you must read to prevent injury. information are denoted using this notation. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Quick Tour Installation Guide Upgrade Guide Getting Started Guide IPS Deployment Guide Manager Configuration Basics Guide I-1200 Sensor Product Guide I-1400 Sensor Product Guide I-2700 Sensor Product Guide I-3000 Sensor Product Guide I-4000 Sensor Product Guide I-4010 Sensor Product Guide M-1250/M-1450 Sensor Product Guide M-1250/M-1450 Quick Start Guide M-2750 Sensor Product Guide M-2750 Quick Start Guide M-3050/M-4050 Sensor Product Guide M-3050/M-4050 Quick Start Guide M-6050 Sensor Product Guide M-6050 Quick Start Guide M-8000 Sensor Product Guide M-8000 Quick Start Guide Gigabit Optical Fail-Open Bypass Kit Guide Gigabit Copper Fail-Open Bypass Kit Guide 10 Gigabit Fail-Open Bypass Kit Guide M-8000/M-6050/M-4050/M-3050 Slide Rail Assembly Procedure M-2750 Slide Rail Assembly Procedure M-series DC Power Supply Installation Procedure Administrative Domain Configuration Guide Manager Server Configuration Guide CLI Guide vii . but non-critical. Warning: Note: Related Documentation The following documents and on-line help are companions to this guide.

M. contact McAfee for assistance: Online Contact McAfee Technical Support http://mysupport. customers can also resolve technical issues with the online case submit. Note: McAfee requires that you provide your GRANT ID and the serial number of your system when opening a ticket with Technical Support.html page.0 Preface • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Device Configuration Guide IPS Configuration Guide NAC Configuration Guide Integration Guide System Status Monitoring Guide Reports Guide Custom Attack Definitions Guide Central Manager Administrator's Guide Troubleshooting Guide Special Topics Guide—In-line Sensor Deployment Special Topics Guide—Sensor High Availability Special Topics Guide—Virtualization Special Topics Guide—Denial-of-Service NTBA Appliance Administrator's Guide NTBA Monitoring Guide NTBA Appliance T-200 Quick Start Guide NTBA Appliance T-500 Quick Start Guide Contacting Technical Support If you have any questions.McAfee® Network Security Platform 6.M. viii . technical bulletins. You will be provided with a user name and password for the online case submission.mcafee. Phone Technical Support is available 7:00 A. and quick tips on McAfee's 24x7 comprehensive KnowledgeBase. Global phone contact numbers can be found at McAfee Contact Information http://www.com/us/about/contact/index. Registered customers can obtain up-to-date documentation. software downloads. to 5:00 P. PST Monday-Friday. In addition.com. Extended 24x7 Technical Support is available for customers with Gold or Platinum service contracts. and signature updates.mcafee.

1 . Following chapters outline the best practices for Network Security Platform. Troubleshooting Guide. We recommend that you follow some of the best techniques and tips to use McAfee Network Security Platform most effectively. This can save considerable time during the installation and tuning process of the system. built for the accurate detection and prevention of intrusions and network misuse. For more information. Pre-installation checklist There are some important tasks that you should consider before McAfee® Network Security Manager [formerly McAfee® IntruShield® Security Manager] software installation. see Planning for installation.CHAPTER 1 Introduction McAfee® Network Security Platform [formerly McAfee® IntruShield®] is a combination of network appliances and software.

the more high-end your Manager Server should be. Performance may be slow if you connect to the Manager using a browser on the server machine itself. we also recommend that the client hosts used to manage the Network Security Platform solution meet the requirements in the following table: Hardware Recommended Size/Speed Physical memory Processor 512 MB or more 1. 2 . For example.5 GHz or faster CPU Note: You will experience better performance in your configuration and dataforensic tasks by connecting to the Manager from a browser on the client machine. Because Java applets take advantage of the processor on the host from which they are being viewed. which provides a Web-based user interface for centralized and remote Sensor management. The Manager contains Java applets. to manage 40 or more McAfee® Network Security Sensors (Sensors). we recommend larger configurations than the hardware specifications in the release notes. Many McAfee® Network Security Platform issues result from an under-powered Manager Server.2 Pentium processors 80 GB hard disk space (or greater) Manager Client specifications The Manager client is a Java Web application. The larger your deployment.CHAPTER 2 Recommended Manager specifications McAfee® Network Security Manager (Manager) software runs on a dedicated Windows server. Manager Server specifications The following is the recommended minimum hardware configuration for a Manager Server with embedded MySQL database: Hardware Recommended Size/Speed Physical memory Processor Hard Disk 4 GB RAM 2 x 3.

As a best practice.0 Recommended Manager specifications Determining your Database Requirements The amount of space required for your database is governed by many factors. Manager Server Configuration Guide. Note that an alert is roughly 200 bytes on average. Note: For more information on capacity planning. McAfee recommends archiving and deleting old alert data regularly.McAfee® Network Security Platform 6. Things to consider while determining your database size requirements are: • Aggregate alert and packet log volume from all Sensors—Many Sensors amount to higher alert volume and require additional storage capacity. mostly unique to the deployment scenario. These factors determine the amount of data you want to retain in the database and the time for which the data has to be retained. one year) will require additional storage capacity to accommodate both old and new data. see Capacity Planning. 3 . • Lifetime of alert and packet log data: You need to consider the time before you archive or delete an alert. while a packet log is approximately 450 bytes. Maintaining your data for a long period of time (for example. and attempting to keep your active database size to about 40 GB.

the monitoring ports have been configured. This is another best practice in terms of cabling the Sensors. and only physically introduce the Sensor into the scanning process once the proper scanning policies are in place. In other words. only after the McAfee® Network Security Sensor (Sensor) has been fully configured. or those with congestion problems.CHAPTER 3 Cabling best practices It is a common practice to physically cable the monitoring ports. most administrators cable the console and management ports. use those connections to configure the solution. in the most security-conscious environments. and so on. a private network is often used to connect the Sensor management ports to the McAfee® Network Security Manager (Manager). Also. the latest signature set has been downloaded. 4 .

The same is true for policy updates. more data is passed into the Manager. with versions prior to 3.Depending on the number of VIDS and Admin Domains defined in your deployment. McAfee recommends that you have a good understanding on the best techniques required to accomplish these tasks in your deployment scenario. there is potential to starve Manager resources since the resulting alerts are passed to the Manager. at a much faster rate. it will take approximately 2. For more information on the process of using TFTP to update your Sensor software.Be aware of the time periods in which your scheduled processes (such as database backup or report generation) occur.When the Manager starts. not hours. which helps you to load concurrent images on the Sensor via the Sensor’s CLI. Alert Traffic . the process would take approximately 3 minutes per Sensor. before deployment. establishing connections with all Sensors can be time consuming as Sensors continue to collect alerts. prior to the deployment. see Upgrading Sensor software via a TFTP server.” and so on. So. At this point we would recommend that you utilize a second McAfee® Network Security Manager (Manager) to minimize the time. You must decide the point at which a signature set update process becomes time consuming.Take note of the volume of alerting in your Sensors. as this can lead to process locking. each Sensor must pass its alert data to the Manager when connectivity is re-established. Depending on the policies deployed on your system. As the volume of alerting increases. it is required to account for the startup load on the Manager. Your VIDS names should also be clear and easy for everyone maintaining the network to recognize at a glance. not • • • • • concurrently. Start-up load on the Manager . A reboot can take up to 5 minutes.” “India-Bangalore-sens1. For example. the Manager Resource Tree can become very crowded. CLI Guide. Usability . For releases prior to 3.CHAPTER 4 Large Sensor deployments When you consider large McAfee® Network Security Sensor (Sensor) deployments.Signature Set downloads are applied to Sensors serially. For example.5 hours to complete a signature set update.All Sensor software updates do require a reboot. • Signature Set downloads . This includes having many users logged into the system simultaneously. in a deployment with 50 Sensors. and try not to attempt other tasks during that time period.1. which makes it difficult to locate the resource you require at any point of time. You can schedule this process though you can’t reboot the Sensor automatically. 5 . Concurrent processes .But but any update from the Manager Server causes the process to take place sequentially. compare a worldwide deployment where Sensors are named “4010-1” through “4010-25” as opposed to “UK-London-sens1. this process has been reduced to a matter of minutes. Note that from version 3. Note that the resource names appear both in the Resource Tree of the Manager as well as in Alert data and Reports. It can also lead to confusion if you have not provided unique. recognizable names for your Sensors and any VIDS you create. Sensor Software Updates .1. (where the number of Sensors deployed range from 36 to 70) there are some important tasks which should be considered. one Sensor at-a-time.1. If the communication with the Manager is lost. You can instead use the TFTP method for updating the Sensor image.

• 6 . Note: Very large Sensor deployments mean that the number of Sensors deployed is more than 71. if every Sensor in a large deployment is running it without any customization. Or you might use the TFTP feature to load the Sensor image at one location. and create an initial policy. use the McAfee® Network Security Manager (Manager) in a lab environment to push Sensor software to the Sensor. Recommendations for large Sensor deployment Most McAfee® Network Security Platform customers begin their deployment in their lab environment. As each new batch of Sensors provides you with more data points. McAfee provides a few recommendations for this process: • Spend time creating effective policies before actual deployment. Availability of more information makes the tuning process easier. Device Configuration Guide. For more information.0 Large Sensor deployments Staging Sensors prior to deployment With large or very large deployments. Once they are comfortable with the product.McAfee® Network Security Platform 6. But policies like the McAfee Network Security Platform provided All-Inclusive policy can overwhelm you with data. familiarize themselves with the Manager. make sure that the Sensor is working as expected. see Upgrading Sensor software via a TFTP server. you can tune your policies more effectively. Installation Guide. Here they test the Sensor functionality. and become more aggressive in the number of Sensors you deploy in the next phase. For example. they deploy the Sensor in a live environment. For more information on updating the Sensor with latest software updates. before shipping the Sensor to another. you will have to consider staging your Sensors before you release them to their final destination. see Updating the configuration of a Sensor. and/or if you are planning to release Sensors to various geographical regions or remote locations. Stagger your Sensor deployment in phases. and then box the configured Sensor and send it to its final destination. Large Sensor deployments have Sensors numbering between 36 and 70.

Caution 2: A Sensor reboot breaks the link connecting the devices on either side of the Sensor and requires the re-negotiation of the network link between the two devices surrounding the Sensor. before you remove it from the network. If a kit is attached to the Sensor. without passing to the detection engine. For FE monitoring ports. issue the following command: layer2 mode assert This pushes the Sensor into Layer2 Passthru (L2) mode. Connect a fail-open kit. Caution 4: A very brief link disruption might occur while the links are renegotiated to place the Sensor back in in-line mode. (The layer2 mode deassert command pushes the Sensor back to detection mode. one instinct is to physically pull it out of the path. to troubleshoot a Sensor issue: • All Sensors have a Layer2 Passthru feature. Caution 3: Depending on the network equipment. If you feel your Sensor is causing network disruption.) Configure Layer2 Passthru Mode on each Sensor. disabling the ports will send traffic through the internal tap. Traffic then continues to flow directly through the Sensor.CHAPTER 5 Troubleshooting issues with Sensor When McAfee® Network Security Sensor (Sensor) experiences problems in the in-line mode. then you have eliminated certain Sensor hardware issues. McAfee recommends that you first try the following techniques. the problem could instead be a network issue or a configuration issue. there is no need for the external kit. 7 . providing fail-open functionality. while the device is examined elsewhere. This enables you to set a threshold on the Sensor that pushes the Sensor into L2 bypass mode if the Sensor experiences a specified number of errors within a specified time frame. Check to see whether your services are still affected. disabling the Sensor ports forces traffic to flow through the bypass switch. Sensors with FE ports contain an internal tap. to disconnect the cables and let traffic flow unimpeded. if they are. to any GE monitoring port pairs on the Sensor. (It does not need a reboot if the layer2 mode assert command was used to put the Sensor into L2 mode). which consists of a bypass switch and a controller. • • Caution 1: Note that the Sensor will need to reboot to move out of L2 mode only if the Sensor entered L2 mode because of internal errors. effectively pulling the Sensor out of the path. causing traffic to flow through the Sensor while bypassing the detection engine. this disruption should range from a couple of seconds to more than a minute with certain vendors’ devices.

This is the reason why speed and duplex cannot be hard-coded on only one link partner. one end of the link in full-duplex and the other in halfduplex) may result in performance issues. If your intent is not to use auto-negotiation. Troubleshooting a Duplex Mismatch with Cisco Devices When troubleshooting connectivity issues with Cisco switches or routers. For example.CHAPTER 6 Configuration of Speed and Duplex settings The most common McAfee® Network Security Sensor (Sensor) deployment problems relate to configuration of the monitoring port speed and duplex settings. you may be running into this issue. Following sections provide you the best practices related to these issues. small database queries may succeed. Duplex mismatches A duplex mismatch (for example. This common issue results from disabling auto-negotiation on one link partner and having the other link partner default to a half-duplex configuration. creating the mismatch. Use the following commands to verify fixed interface settings on some Cisco devices that connect to Sensor: 8 . To troubleshoot this issue. while large ones fail due to a timeout. verify that the Sensor and the switch/routers are using a valid configuration. you must manually set both link partners' speed and duplex settings to full-duplex. Sometimes there are duplex inconsistencies between McAfee® Network Security Platform and the switch port. Speed determination issues may result in no connectivity between the Sensor and its network device partners on either side. and loss of communication. The show intfport <port> command on the Sensor CLI will help reveal errors. Symptoms include poor port performance and frame check sequence (FCS) errors that increment on the switch port. Contact Cisco's TAC for assistance. If this action resolves the connectivity problems. manually configure the switchport to 100 Mbps. Manually setting the speed and duplex to full-duplex on only one link partner generally results in a mismatch. if a Web server is talking to a database server through an Ethernet switch with a duplex mismatch. intermittent connectivity. half-duplex. It can also create subtle problems in applications.

When auto-negotiation leaves one end of the link in. 3500XL Series (Hybrid) • • • interface FastEthernet0/2 duplex full speed 100 Cisco Catalyst 4000. 9 . view the output of the show port mod/port command. intermittent connectivity.0 Configuration of Speed and Duplex settings Cisco PIX® Firewall • interface ethernet0 100full Cisco CSS 11000 • • interface ethernet-3 phy 100Mbits-FD Cisco Catalyst® 2900XL.McAfee® Network Security Platform 6. Generally these errors are not fatal—traffic still makes it through— but locating and fixing them is a time-waster. Auto-negotiation issues Auto-negotiation issues typically do not result in link establishment issues. full-duplex mode and the other in half-duplex (also known as a duplex mismatch). and loss of communication. 6000 Series (Native) • • set port speed 1/1 100 set port duplex 1/1 full Cisco IOS® for Catalyst 4000. 6000 Series • • Router(config)# interface fastethernet slot/port Router(config-if)# speed 100 • Router(config-if)# duplex full When troubleshooting Network Security Platform performance issues with Cisco switches. This can cause performance issues. errors and re-transmissions can cause unpredictable behavior in the network. for example. and note the counter information. 5000. Instead. autonegotiation issues mainly result in a loss of performance.

auto-negotiation should properly negotiate speed and duplex.McAfee® Network Security Platform 6.3u auto-negotiation specifications and all additional features are disabled. due to speed mismatch.0 Configuration of Speed and Duplex settings Situations that may result in Auto-negotiation issues Auto-negotiation issues with the Network Security Platform Sensor may result from nonconforming implementation.3u for 10/100 Mbps auto-negotiation (such as auto-polarity or cabling integrity) can also lead to hardware incompatibility and other issues. Vendor-specific advanced features that are not described in IEEE 802. hardware incapability. Valid Auto-negotiation and Speed Configuration settings The table below summarizes all possible settings of speed and duplex for Sensor and switch ports. Generally. Network Security Platform Configuration 10/100 port Speed/Duplex Configuration of Switch Speed/Duplex Resulting Sensor Speed/Duplex Resulting Catalyst Speed/Duplex Comments 100 Mbps Full-duplex 1000 Mbps Full-duplex No Link No Link Neither side establishes link. but switch does not see Fast Link Pulse (FLP) and defaults to 10 Mbps halfduplex. 100 Mbps Full-duplex 100 Mbps Full-duplex 10 Mbps Half-duplex AUTO 100 Mbps Full-duplex 100 Mbps Full-duplex 100 Mbps Full-duplex 100 Mbps Half-duplex 1000 Mbps Full-duplex AUTO 100 Mbps Full-duplex 100 Mbps Half-duplex 10 Mbps Half-duplex 1000 Mbps Half-duplex No Link No Link 10 . and no operational issues should exist. Neither side establishes link. or software defects. if the switch used with the Sensor adheres to IEEE 802.3u. • • Problems may arise when vendor switches/routers do not conform exactly to the IEEE specification 802. due to speed mismatch Duplex Mismatch 1 Correct Manual Configuration2 Link is established.

or a connected device generating frames that do not end with on an octet and have a bad FCS. duplex mismatch. 11 . Increasing speed and moving the link partner to full-duplex should minimize this occurrence. These are the result of collisions at half-duplex.0 Configuration of Speed and Duplex settings Explanation of CatOS show port command counters Counter Description Possible Causes Alignment Errors Alignment errors are a count of the number of frames received that do not end with an even number of octets and have a bad CRC. This is an indication of a half-duplex configuration. These are the result of collisions at half-duplex. This counter should be zero unless there is excessive traffic through the switch. or port). This is an indication of excessive output rates of traffic. This is an indication of excessive input rates of traffic. In some switches. This is also an indication of the receive buffer being full. The counter should only increment in situations in which the switch is unable to forward out the port at a desired rate. bad hardware (NIC. good FCS value. Xmit-Err Rcv-Err This is an indication that the receive buffer is full. bad hardware (NIC. Situations such as excessive collisions and 10 Mb ports cause the transmit buffer to become full. duplex mismatch. cable. the Out-Lost counter has a direct correlation to the Rcv-Err. cable. UnderSize These are frames that are smaller than This is an indication of a bad frame 64 bytes (including FCS) and have a generated by the connected device. or a connected device generating frames with bad FCS. FCS FCS error count is the number of frames that were transmitted or received with a bad checksum (CRC value) in the Ethernet frame. Single Collisions Multiple Collisions This is an indication of a half-duplex configuration. Multiple collisions are the number of times the transmitting port had more than one collision before successfully transmitting the frame to the media. This is also an indication of transmit buffer being full. Single collisions are the number of times the transmitting port had one collision before successfully transmitting the frame to the media. or port). This is an indication that the internal transmit buffer is full. These frames are dropped and not propagated onto other ports.McAfee® Network Security Platform 6.

The two devices that cause the late collision never see that the other is sending until after it puts the entire packet on the network. duplex mismatch.3z1998). configuration issue. Late collisions are detected by the transmitter after the first time slot of the 64-byte transmit time occurs.1Q (dot1q). it just happens later than it does for a normal collision. Both ends of the link must be set to the same value or the link will not connect. IEEE 802. Excessive collisions are the number of This is an indication of over-utilization frames that are dropped after 16 of the switch port at half-duplex or attempts to send the packet resulted in duplex mismatch. The Gigabit auto-negotiation negotiates flow control. Gigabit auto-negotiation (no link to connected device) Gigabit Ethernet has an auto-negotiation procedure that is more extensive than that which is used for 10/100 Mbps Ethernet (per Gigabit auto-negotiation specification IEEE 802. Excessive Collisions Carrier Sense Carrier sense occurs every time an Ethernet controller wants to send data and the counter is incremented when there is an error in the process. dot1q. Runts This is an indication of the result of collisions. You must either enable or disable link negotiation on both ends of the link. The reason for this occurrence is that the time to propagate the signal from one end of the network to another is longer than the time to put the entire packet on the network. 16 collisions. disabling Gigabit autonegotiation forces the link up.McAfee® Network Security Platform 6. duplex mode. Its detection is exactly the same as it is for a normal collision. Giants These are frames that are greater than This is an indication of faulty 1518 bytes and have a bad FCS hardware.0 Configuration of Speed and Duplex settings Counter Description Possible Causes Late Collisions A late collision occurs when two This is an indication of faulty hardware devices transmit at the same time and (NIC. or switch port). These are frames smaller than 64 bytes with a bad FCS value This is an indication of faulty hardware (NIC. cable. and remote fault information. If either device does not support Gigabit auto-negotiation. They are only detected during transmissions of packets longer than 64 bytes. or an Inter-Switch Link Protocol (ISL) configuration issue. or an ISL value. cable. 12 . or switch port) or a duplex neither side of the connection detects mismatch. a collision.

see Consolidated View. not “signature. where appropriate. at the beginning of the tuning process. Note: As you interact with Network Security Platform policies. An appropriately tuned policy will reduce false positives. you encounter the term “attack”. In almost all cases. For instance. Managing Attack filters When a particular alert is declared as false positive. Typically. the next decision is whether to disable the corresponding attack altogether OR apply a particular attack filter to that attack that will disable alerting for a particular IP address or range of IP addresses. have the McAfee® Network Security Platform 'Default Inline IPS' policy loaded on all interfaces. Though each network environment has unique characteristics. the following best practices can make tuning more efficient and effective.1. but to tune these into segment-tailored custom policies. anomaly profiles. thresholds. and 13 . all McAfee® Network Security Sensors (Sensors) on initial deployment.0 Effective Policy Tuning practices CHAPTER 7 Effective Policy Tuning practices As of McAfee® Network Security Manager (Manager) software version 2. System Status Monitoring Guide. or correlation rules. Many of the top alerts seen on the initial deployment of a Sensor will be common false positives seen in many environments. it will be evident that your network or security policy will affect the overall level of alerts. or more generic detection methods that aid in detecting unknown exploits for the vulnerability. Rather than disable the alert altogether. to use this or another McAfee Network Security Platform-provide policy as a starting point. The “Default Inline IPS’ policy can be changed at the Root Admin level. If. for instance. where each method is used to detect an attempt to exploit a particular vulnerability in a system. then there might not be a need to alert on AOL IM setup flows. For more information. These signatures and checks may contain very specific means for identifying a specific known exploit of the vulnerability. it is a best practice to implement the latter. These tailored policies can be either cloned versions of Network Security Platform pre-configured policies or custom-built policies that employ custom rule sets. Analyzing high-volume attacks Take attacks that are generating the most alerts (use Consolidated View in Threat Analyzer) and investigate their legitimacy.McAfee® Network Security Platform 6. McAfee recommends. an SMS server may be generating the alert Netbios: Copy Executable file attempt during the legitimate transfer of login scripts. AOL IM is allowed traffic on the network.” Network Security Platform defines an attack as being comprised of one or more signatures.

DoS SYN flood alerts reported outbound on a firewall interface to the Internet). DoS detection can also be implemented using the Threshold Mode. During this period it is not unusual to see DoS alerts associated with normal traffic flows (for example. Learning profiles in DoS attacks It is a best practice to let the Sensors learn the profiles of the particular segments they are monitoring. and so on) can be viewed per Sensor. It is also a best practice to document all your tuning activities. see Managing Attack Filters and Attack Responses. Note: For more information on attack filters. see Managing DoS Learning Mode profiles on a Sensor. so that the filter can be applied to any Exploit or Reconnaissance attack. thus its Web traffic increases in parallel). it may issue false alarms or fail to detect actual attacks during a time period when it is adapting to the new network traffic conditions. Every attack filter created is globally stored. The Report section can be used to assist the documentation process. since the Sensor can automatically adapt to it. 14 . The learning process takes two days. IPS Configuration Guide. After a profile has been learned. Implementing this mode successfully is critically dependent on detailed knowledge of the segments that the particular Sensors are monitoring. This is Learning Mode operation. There is no need to re-learn a profile when network traffic increases or decreases naturally over time (for example. It is a best practice to have the Sensor re-learn the profile when there is a network change (that is. If the Sensor does not re-learn the new environment. This involves setting thresholds manually for the type of segment characteristics that are learned in Learning Mode. we recommend that you create an attack filter for the SMS server and apply it to the attack. before tuning DoS attacks. For more information on Sensor learning modes. you move the Sensor from a lab or staging environment to a production environment) or a configuration change (that is. The IPS Sensor configuration report will deliver reports that list attack filters that have been applied and attacks that have been otherwise customized.0 Effective Policy Tuning practices cancel the possibility of finding a real attack of this nature. an e-Commerce site that is getting more and more customers.McAfee® Network Security Platform 6. IPS Configuration Guide. the particulars of the profile (number of SYNS. ACKS. you change the CIDR block of a subinterface) that causes a significant sudden traffic change on an interface.

alerts. IPS Quarantine: Sensor will quarantine/remediate a host as per the configurations in McAfee® Network Security Manager (Manager) and the Sensor monitoring ports. Developing a system of actions. such as scans and low-impact well-known exploits. a better understanding of the potential attack purpose can be determined. Proper configuration of responses is crucial to maintaining effective protection. 15 . Remember that response actions are decoupled from alerting. Thus. If the Sensor is monitoring the network outside of the firewall in in-line mode. see Sensor Actions. if you are monitoring outside of a firewall in in-line mode.CHAPTER 8 Response Management When McAfee® Network Security Sensor (Sensor) detects an activity which violates a configured security policy. Pay particular attention to this with the Recommended For Blocking (RFB) category of attacks. but disable alerting. Note 2: For more information on IPS Quarantine. see IPS Quarantine settings in the IPS Sensor. it is important not to set the policies and responses so fine that they disrupt the flow of traffic and slow down the system. since McAfee® Network Security Platform can be customized to protect any zone in a network. Sensor Response Actions There are multiple Sensor actions that are available for configuration per attack. and logs based on specific attacks or attack parameters (such as severity) is recommended for effective network security. These include: • • Dropping Alert Packets: Only works in in-line mode. Note 1: For more information on other Sensor actions. causing the attack to be blocked without your knowledge. Other suspicious traffic intended for the internal network. are best logged and analyzed as the impact is not immediate. For example. a preset response from the Sensor is integral to the protection or prevention process. knowing what needs to be protected can help to determine the response type. lest you enable blocking for an attack. IPS Configuration Guide. preventing DoS attacks and attacks against the firewall is crucial. while scans and probes can be logged and researched to determine compromise potential and the source of the attack. In this case. IPS Quarantine can be enabled per attack in the Policy Editors. Will drop a detected attack packet and all subsequent packets in the same flow. IPS Configuration Guide. Critical attacks like buffer overflows and DoS attacks require responses in real time.

application. Each include rule added. Sendmail as the application. protocols. After this. The first method is general-to-specific. thus focusing the rule set on the environment where it will be enforced. and benign trigger probability options. Next. create the first rule in the set with the Exploit category. create another include rule for Exploit. Best methods for rule set creation There are two best practice methods employed for creating rule sets. IPS Configuration Guide. Unix as the OS. protocol. Each rule in a set is either an include rule or an exclude rule. For example. create one or more exclude rules to strip away specific operating systems. • General-to-specific rule creation. start with an include rule for all Exploit category attacks. severity. Windows 2000. An include rule (which should always start a rule set) is a set of parameters that encompass a broad range of well-known attacks for detection. 16 . • Note: For more information on rule set creation. For example. Collaborative rule creation.CHAPTER 9 Creating Rule sets A rule set is configured based on attack category. et cetera. Proper creation of rule sets is essential for eliminating false positives and ensuring maximum protection on your network. applications and protocols. that are rarely or never seen in a zone of your network. operating system. WindMail. severities. broadens the scope of the detection. and SMTP as the protocol. Follow this with multiple exclusion rules that strip away protocols. Start with an include rule that covers a broad range of operating systems. see Managing Rule Sets. The second method is collaboration: Create multiple include rules within one rule set for each category. applications. Each criterion must be matched in order for an alert to be triggered. and so forth in the same manner. These best practices can assist while creating rules sets in the McAfee® Network Security Manager (Manager). et cetera. operating systems. et cetera. An exclude rule removes elements from the include rule in order to focus the policy's rule set. combination that needs to be detected.

All of the ports that make up the interface are configured as one logical entity. and a complete transmission may be received on one segment. keeping the configuration consistent. but depart on another. see Port clustering (interface groups). enables multiple ports on a single McAfee® Network Security Sensor (Sensor) to be grouped together for effective traffic monitoring. Interface groups normalize the impact of traffic flows split across multiple interfaces. It is a best practice to implement a port clustering configuration when dealing with asymmetrically routed networks. Once configured. referred to as Interface Groups in the Manager interface.CHAPTER 10 Port clustering on Asymmetric networks Port clustering. an interface group appears in the System Configuration tool's Resource Tree as a single interface node (icon) under the Sensor where the ports are located. Getting Started Guide. Note: For more information on port clustering. 17 . Thus keeping state of asymmetric transmissions is essential for successfully monitoring the traffic. thus maintaining state to avoid information loss. Asymmetric networks are common in load balancing and active/passive configurations.

are not supported. and RPC services. IRC. Protocols such as H. However. that use dynamic ports. TFTP. There is a limit on the number of ACL rules that can be supported by a McAfee® Network Security Sensor (Sensor). An alternative option for denying protocols that use dynamic ports is to configure IDS policies to drop the attacks that are detected in such transmissions. with the exception of FTP. IPS Configuration Guide. 18 . Protocols or services. such as instant messaging and peer-to-peer communication. but not its constituents. you can explicitly deny these protocol instances by denying the fixed control port. or negotiate ports that do not follow a standard. you can configure explicit permit and deny rules for RPC as a whole. such as statd and mountd. you can configure ACLs to explicitly deny these protocol instances by denying the fixed control port. and so on. The following table specifies the rule limit for ACLs: Sensor ACL rule limit • • • • I-4010 I-4000 I-3000 I-2700 I-1400 I-1200 1000 1000 1000 400 100 50 Sensor ACL rule limit M-8000 M-6050 M-4050 M-3050 M-2750 M-1450 M-1250 1000 1000 1000 1000 400 100 50 Note: For more information.323 and Netmeeting.CHAPTER 11 Access Control Lists (ACLs) Note the following points while working with Access Control Lists or ACLs: • You cannot set explicit ACL permit rules for protocols that negotiate ports dynamically. see Access Control Lists. For RPC services. which negotiate the data channel separately from the control channel. Network Security Platform detects use of and attacks in such programs as Yahoo Messenger. are not supported. However. KaZaA.

throughput • • • • Session resumption for 4 out of 5 TCP connections 5 HTTP 1.1 get page requests per TCP connection with a 10K response each 1024-bit RSA 128-bit ARC4 I-2700 I-3000 I-4000 I-4010 Max.1 get page requests per TCP connection with a 5K response each 1024-bit RSA 128-bit ARC4 I-2700 I-3000 I-4000 I-4010 Max. Throughput 300 150 Mbps 400 200 Mbps 800 400 Mbps 800 400 Mbps 19 .McAfee® Network Security Platform 6. SSL only traffic .0 SSL best practices CHAPTER 12 SSL best practices Note that there is a performance impact when using the SSL decryption feature. Refer the following sections for the SSL throughput measurements and test methodologies. Throughput 325 85 Mbps 600 155 Mbps 800 200 Mbps 1200 310 Mbps SSL only traffic . SSL Connections / Sec.throughput • • • • Session resumption for 4 out of 5 TCP connections 5 HTTP 1. SSL Connections / Sec.

SSL Connections / Sec. SSL Throughput HTTP 1.2700 Max.1 Throughput Total Throughput 200 50 Mbps 860 Mbps 910 Mbps 400 105 Mbps 475 Mbps 580 Mbps I-4000 Max. SSL Throughput HTTP 1.1 Throughput Total Throughput 100 25 Mbps 475 Mbps 500 Mbps 200 50 Mbps 350 Mbps 400 Mbps I-3000 Max. SSL Connections / Sec.0 SSL best practices M-2750 M-3050 M-4050 M-6050 M-8000 Max. SSL Throughput HTTP 1.1 Throughput Total Throughput 400 100 Mbps 1740 Mbps 1840 Mbps 800 200 Mbps 860 Mbps 1060 Mbps 20 . SSL Throughput HTTP 1. SSL Connections / Sec.McAfee® Network Security Platform 6.1 get page requests per TCP connection with a 5K response each 1024-bit RSA 128-bit ARC4 I.8 Gbps SSL traffic mixed with HTTP 1. SSL Connections / Sec.1 Throughput Total Throughput 400 100 Mbps 1550 Mbps 1650 Mbps 800 200 Mbps 780 Mbps 980 Mbps I-4010 Max. Throughput 550 250 Mbps 1300 600 Mbps 2700 1200 Mbps 4500 2 Gbps 8500 3. SSL Connections / Sec.1 traffic • • • • Session resumption for 4 out of 5 TCP connections 5 HTTP 1.

8 Gbps Supported SSL functionalities Following SSL functionalities are supported. SSL Throughput HTTP 1. SSL Connections / Sec. SSL Throughput HTTP 1.1 Throughput Total Throughput 220 100 Mbps 1.1 Throughput Total Throughput 440 200 Mbps 2.0 SSL best practices M-2750 Max. 21 .1 Throughput Total Throughput 880 440 Mbps 4 Gbps 4.4 Gbps M-8000 Max.7 Gbps M-6050 Max. SSL Connections / Sec.35 Gbps M-4050 Max. SSL Connections / Sec.McAfee® Network Security Platform 6. SSL Throughput HTTP 1.1 Throughput Total Throughput 1750 800 Mbps 8 Gbps 8.2 Gbps 1.1 Throughput Total Throughput 110 50 Mbps 500 Mbps 550 Mbps M-3050 Max. SSL Connections / Sec. SSL Throughput HTTP 1. SSL Throughput HTTP 1. SSL Connections / Sec.5 Gbps 2.

McAfee® Network Security Platform 6.0 SSL best practices Supported Web servers SSL decryption is supported for the following web servers: • • Microsoft Internet Information Server (IIS) Apache Supported cipher suites The following SSL cipher suites (as named in their respective RFCs) are supported: SSLv2 cipher suites • SSL_CK_RC4_128_WITH_MD5 • SSL_CK_RC4_128_EXPORT40_WITH_MD5 • SSL_CK_DES_64_CBC_WITH_MD5 • SSL_CK_DES_192_EDE3_CBC_WITH_MD5 SSLv3/TLS cipher suites • • • • • • • • • SSL/TLS_NULL_WITH_NULL_NULL SSL/TLS_RSA_WITH_NULL_MD5 SSL/TLS_RSA_WITH_NULL_SHA SSL/TLS_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_MD5 SSL/TLS_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_SHA SSL/TLS_RSA_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA SSL/TLS_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA SSL/TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA SSL/TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA SSLv3/TLS cipher suites Unsupported SSL functionalities The following SSL functionalities are not supported: • • iPlanet Web servers Diffie-Hellman ciphers (McAfee recommends that you disable acceptance of DiffieHellman requests on the SSL Web server to ensure that Network Security Platform is able to decrypt the traffic) Compression in the SSL records (a negotiable option in SSLv3 and TLS) PCT (Microsoft's extension to SSLv2) • • 22 .

we recommend that you enable HTTP response processing on the minimum number of ports and in only the required directions to achieve your protection goals. and do not wish to serve attacks embedded in HTTP response traffic . Usually. the Sensor can absorb larger bursts without significant impact. changes in aggregate Sensor performance will depend on the proportion of HTTP traffic to other traffic on the link being monitored. Therefore. which do not usually transmit hostile content due to the security measures taken. The test results reflect performance at sustained load. When not running at maximum load. In these environments. • • • 23 . there is significant amount of request traffic in one direction and response traffic in the opposite direction. The test environment was created to illustrate the likely worst-case performance impact.CHAPTER 13 Sensor HTTP Response Processing deployment HTTP response processing is disabled by default.enable HTTP response processing in both directions. the combined HTTP request and response traffic processed by Sensors in real deployments is typically less than that shown in the tests. The test sends HTTP request continuously at maximum load. The test sends equal HTTP request and response loads in both directions through the Sensor. • Tests for enabling HTTP Response Traffic The test results provided in the next two sections illustrate potential impact of enabling response processing traffic. customers can consider selectively enabling HTTP response processing to better optimize their network. The things to note about the test are given below. Real-world networks are typically loaded. Typical real-world deployments do not have equal amounts of HTTP request traffic and response traffic in both directions through the Sensor. occasionally peaking at maximum capacity. Some examples of HTTP response processing deployment: • • You want to protect a bunch of clients on your internal network . You can enable it for each traffic direction on an interface pair. You want to protect both internal clients as well as the Web content you are serving to external clients. In these deployments. • The test involves only HTTP traffic.enable HTTP response processing for outbound traffic only.enable HTTP response processing for inbound traffic only. You are serving Web content to external clients. Since HTTP requests are typically <= 1/10th of the response size. To minimize the potential performance impact on the McAfee® Network Security Sensor (Sensor). HTTP response processing typically provides little value because all HTTP response traffic is sourced from trusted servers. but typically running at significantly lower throughput. Changing the HTTP response processing setting does not change the Sensor performance for any other protocol. expected to occur in deployments protecting large Web server farms.

The factors to take into account include: • • • proportion of HTTP traffic to other protocols relative amount of HTTP requests and responses in each direction and.McAfee® Network Security Platform 6. the impact of enabling HTTP response processing is not noticed. HTTP Response processing results for I series Sensors Refer the following table for I-series Sensor performance numbers with HTTP response processing: I-4010 I-4000 I-3000 I-2700 I-1400 I-1200 . For Sensor performance numbers under the following conditions: • • HTTP response processing enabled/disabled and 5 HTTP 1.78 Gbps 1 Gbps 550 Mbps 195 Mbps 97 Mbps 1 Gbps 1 Gbps 680 Mbps 430 Mbps 160 Mbps 75 Mbps HTTP Response processing results for M-series Sensors Refer the following table for M-series Sensor performance numbers with HTTP response processing: 24 .HTTP Response Scanning Disabled .1 get page requests per TCP connection with a 10K response each .5 HTTP 1. dependent on the traffic being inspected and some environments could see a reduction in performance as significant as the test results indicate. The exact impact is. size of a response page sent to the client by the sites or applications that are typically accessed.1 get page requests per TCP connection with a 10K response each sent in one direction.1 get page requests per TCP connection with a 10K response each 2 Gbps 1.HTTP Response Scanning Enabled for outbound direction .5 HTTP 1.0 Sensor HTTP Response Processing deployment The net result of all of these factors is that in typical networks. of course.

McAfee® Network Security Platform 6.1 get page requests per TCP connection with a 10K response each 10 Gbps 5 Gbps 3 Gbps 1.1 get page requests per TCP connection with a 10K response each .5 Gbps 600 Mbps 200 Mbps 100 Mbps 5.HTTP Response Scanning Enabled for outbound direction .HTTP Response Scanning Disabled .0 Sensor HTTP Response Processing deployment M-8000 M-6050 M-4050 M-3050 M-2750 M-1450 M-1250 .5 HTTP 1.4 Gbps 2.8 Gbps 2 Gbps 1 Gbps 500 Mbps 200 Mbps 100 Mbps 25 .5 HTTP 1.

Make a regular practice of defragmenting the disk of the Manager server. lead to data corruption. Do not run scheduled actions concurrently. contact Technical Support. database tuning). your agent may attempt to interact with these tables during tuning. file maintenance. Implement a schedule for backups using the Backup scheduler. alerts. Also note that there is no change in database SQL query behavior if online database tuning is disabled. • Online database tuning operation causes the creation of temporary alert and packet log tables. simply retry the query. • • • • Backup of data and configurations For the back up of McAfee® Network Security Platform data and configurations.CHAPTER 14 Database maintenance McAfee recommends the following best practices for database backup and tuning: • Perform regular manual backups of your database using the Backup feature in the McAfee® Network Security Manager (Manager) software. including configurations. If you have any specific questions. the SQL query will result in an error. Your configuration tables are saved by default once a week on Saturday. Note: For more information on tuning your database. Database backups are cumulative and the size of a backup file can become quite large. Further information on the impact of online database tuning of the Manager database will be sent to the third-party vendors that are directly accessing this database. and audits. (Be sure to schedule this at a time when other processes will not be running concurrently. following best practices are recommended: • • • Back up Manager data either within the Manager server (McAfee Network Security Platform\Backups folder) or preferably on external media. Tune your database at regular intervals using the online tuning tools. When scheduling certain Manager actions (backups. Saving the 'All Tables' settings monthly is strongly recommended.) As the 'All Tables' and 'Audit and Alert Tables' options can be rather large in size (depending upon the amount of alert data in the database) these types of backups should be saved off the Manager server. see Manager Server Configuration Guide. Warning: A database left untuned can. • • • 26 . Backing up config tables weekly is recommended. Perform regular file maintenance to prevent disk space issues. Protect backups from tampering by creating a digital fingerprint of the file using a hash function such as MD5 or SHA-1. There is a remote chance that during the transition to the temporary tables. Back up all information. set a time for each that is unique and is a minimum of an hour after/before other scheduled actions. archives. if you are using an agent that queries the database. If a SQL query error occurs. as disk fragmentation can lead to database inefficiency. over time.

The best way to do this is to perform a “test” restore of the backup on a secondary. see Backing up data and settings. Tip 1: For more information on backup methods. Save actual Sensor configurations weekly. The 'Config Tables' option backs up only tabled information relating to configured tasks.McAfee® Network Security Platform 6.0 Database maintenance • • • Test restoration of backups periodically to ensure that a backup was successful and valid. non-production Manager. Tip 2: For more information on database backup. This creates an XML file (no attempt to read this file should be made) that can be imported to any Sensor of the same type in the future. Save actual configurations of Sensors (not just the config tables) using the Export option under the Sensor_Name tab. see Database backup and Recovery. Manager Server Configuration Guide. 27 . This option is enabled by default to occur every Saturday night. Manager Server Configuration Guide. This is set within the Backup Scheduler action.

and that you discard alert and packet log information from your database every 90 days to manage your database size. In order to develop best practices for database maintenance it is important to understand the lifecycle of an alert. see Database maintenance and tuning.bat The dbtuning. To do this you must stop the Manager and run the scripts.bat and dbtuning. A best practice suggestion is to wait for 97 days of data and then on a recurring 7-day period run the purge.bat (force the tuning of the database) scripts. Dbtuning. it is a best practice to use the purge. Note: For more information on Disk Space Maintenance. Note that there is currently a 4 GB size limitation for a single archive file. Manager service stopped) to release the lock from the database.bat—this will delete alerts already marked for deletion (from the Alert Viewer) as well as alerts older than 90 days.bat (forces the deletion of old alerts) and dbtuning. For more information. To tune while the Manager is running.CHAPTER 15 Alerts and Disk space maintenance Disk space maintenance is an important task that must be completed to ensure efficient running of the McAfee® Network Security Manager (Manager). Archiving alerts Archive your alerts and packet logs regularly. see The lifecycle of an alert. using the Alert and Packet Log Archival feature. use the online tools. but ensure that you do not have another process running concurrently during the tuning. McAfee recommends that you archive your alert data monthly. Manager Server Configuration Guide. Getting Started Guide. Scripts have to be run off-line (that is. Scripts for disk space maintenance If you have a large amount of data and wish to do your tuning offline.bat utility does the following: • • • • • Defragments tables where rows/columns are split or have been deleted Re-sorts indexes Updates index statistics Computes query optimizer statistics Checks and repairs tables 28 .

By setting the value to 90 days. or if they have been marked for deletion via the Threat Analyzer tool. 29 . Purge. Apart from the database data.bat utility enables on-demand deletion of alerts and packet log data from your database.0 Alerts and Disk space maintenance Purge. These include Diagnostic files. and audit and fault logs.bat The purge. Manager Server Configuration Guide. This allows for long-term analysis of alerts and logs without overloading your database with millions of alerts. Maintenance of this data can be accomplished automatically using the File Maintenance scheduler. This can be accomplished using the Maintenance scheduler. Manager creates a group of administration files that must be maintained regularly. If automatic File Maintenance is used to delete alert and packet log data it is recommended that a large value -such as 90.bat immediately after the purge is completed. all alerts and packet logs older than 90 days are deleted at the weekly maintenance scheduler time.McAfee® Network Security Platform 6. Using File Maintenance Scheduler Databases can be substantially overloaded. any incident reports that have been generated.bat also offers to automatically start dbtuning. see Setting a schedule for file maintenance. Alerts and packet logs can be deleted that are older than a specified number of days. as in 90 days—is entered in the “Scheduled Deletion” column for the Alert & Packet Log Data option. Note: For more information on setting the scheduler for file maintenance. with all Alert and Packet logs. It is a best practice to schedule the deletion of the oldest of these files on an on-going basis. which may affect long-term and overall database performance. DoS files (profiles) and Data Mining files (for Trend Reporting) among others.

the details on the Manage MDR page validate the information seen on the secondary. Note: For more information on MDR. In most cases. Manager Server Configuration Guide. we recommend you wait the 15 minutes and allow the new MDR pair to synchronize automatically. it takes approximately 5 to 10 minutes for the newly formed pair to finish MDRrelated tasks and become stable. If you return to the user interface of the primary Manager. see MDR communication. 30 . If you have only one or two Sensors. however. depending on the quantity of McAfee® Network Security Sensors (Sensors). to force the Managers to synchronize.CHAPTER 16 Manager Disaster Recovery (MDR) best practices A newly created MDR pair does not synchronize for the first 15 minutes after creation. you can press the Retrieve Configuration button on the Manage MDR page of the secondary McAfee® Network Security Manager (Manager) soon after MDR creation. This is by design because.

Collisions can cause runts. resulting in fragmented frames. cyclic redundancy checks (CRC). Generally. duplex mismatches. Other possible causes of data link errors at full-duplex are bad cables. Note that it may be important to obtain several Sniffer traces from different ports on different switches. and alignment errors. Sniffer trace A Sniffer details packet transfer. some data link errors such as FCS. If the FCS. a one percent ratio of errors to total traffic is acceptable for half-duplex connections. and data link errors. or runt counters are incrementing. or vice versa. In half-duplex environments. Duplex mismatch is a situation in which the switch is operating at full-duplex and the connected device is operating at half-duplex. Half-duplex setting When operating with a duplex setting of half-duplex. see also Configuration of Speed and Duplex settings (on page 8). If the ratio of errors to input packets is greater than two or three percent. and thus a Sniffer trace analysis can help pinpoint switch and McAfee® Network Security Platform performance or connectivity issues when the issues persist after you have exhausted the other suggestions in this document. The result of a duplex mismatch is extremely slow performance. runts. the collision counter is not active. and collisions are normal. link up/down situations. FCS. performance degradation may be noticeable. Excessive errors usually indicate a problem. or software or hardware issues. 31 . FCS. a faulty switch port. Data link errors Many performance issues may be related to data link errors. intermittent connectivity. alignment. If the link is operating at full-duplex. Sniffer trace analysis reveals every packet on the wire and pinpoints the exact problem. Full-duplex setting When operating at full-duplex. it is possible for both the switch and the connected device to sense the wire and transmit at exactly the same time. which are caused when the frame is not completely copied to the wire. resulting in a collision. and that it is useful to monitor (“span”) ports rather than spanning VLANs when troubleshooting switch connectivity issues. alignment. For more information. check for a duplex mismatch. and loss of connection. and runt counters should be minimal.CHAPTER 17 Performance issues Most performance issues are related to switch port configuration. CRC. alignment errors.

if Network Security Platform uses an initial scanner report to analyze one alert and an updated scanner report to analyze the next. then add the Vulnerability Manager server to the NAC Exclusions list. Integration Guide. If the scan traffic between the Vulnerability Manager server and the hosts being scanned passes through a Sensor monitoring port. see Configuring ACL rules.McAfee® Network Security Platform 6. Replace old reports with new reports on a routine basis (weekly or monthly). consider acknowledging (or purging) all existing alerts each time you replace reports. To prevent this: Create ACLs to exclude all traffic from the Vulnerability Manager server from attack inspection. If you have configured Network Access Control (NAC) or IPS Quarantine. Where possible.0 Vulnerability Assessment CHAPTER 17 Vulnerability Assessment McAfee® Network Security Platform recommends the following while performing Vulnerability Assessment: • • Always use the latest signatures available for your vulnerability assessment (VA) software. Replacing an old report with a new one might result in similar alerts having different relevance values. This prevents the Vulnerability Manager server being denied network access. See the NAC Configuration Guide for information. To avoid confusion. For example. • • • Note: For more information on vulnerability assessment using Network Security PlatformMcAfee Vulnerability Manager integration. reports can become obsolete quickly. and render VA integration ineffective. This will help increase the probability that a relevancy status of "Unknown" really means that the attack is not relevant. it may correctly draw different conclusions for each. For information on ACLs. scan all hosts you expect McAfee Network Security Platform to protect. IPS Configuration Guide. Given the frequency with which new attacks appear. see Integration with McAfee Vulnerability Manager. This will help ensure the assessment is accurate. 32 . the Sensor may consider it as attack traffic and take the corresponding response action such as quarantining the Vulnerability Manager server.

500 300 250.000 64 2 Gbps 1.000 50.000 500.000.000 64 600 Mbps 250.000 60.000 750.000 400 32 64 64 40.000 3.000 25.000 375.000 100 16 32 32 20.000 10. Concurrent SSL Flows Number of SSL keys that can be stored on the Sensor Virtual Interfaces (VIDS) per Sensor VLAN / CIDR Blocks per Sensor VLAN / CIDR Blocks per Interface Customized attacks Attack filters Default number of supported UDP Flows Supported UDP Flows DoS Profiles SYN rate (64-byte packets per second) ACL Rules (refer to note below) 2 Gbps 1.000 NA NA 1.000 100.000 254 100.000 1.000 5.000 50.000 2.000. 33 .000 187.000 120 64.000 100.000 1.000 1.000 128.000 25.000 128.000 6.000 100 300 254 100.000 254 100.000.250 25.000 100.000 1.000 32.000 5.000 NA NA 100 Mbps 40.000 1.000 64 200 Mbps 80.000 1.000 254 100.000.000 3.000 50 For more information on computing ACL.000 6.000 25.000 750.CHAPTER 19 I-series Sensor capacity by model number The following table lists McAfee® Network Security Sensor (Sensor) limitations by category and by Sensor model.000 128.000 100.000 5. see Viewing ACL descriptions using Effective ACL rules.000 100 83.000 30.000 64. IPS Configuration guide.000 1.000 3.000 64 1 Gbps 500.000 1.000 16.000 5. Maximum Type I-4010 I-4000 I-3000 I-2700 I-1400 I-1200 Aggregate Performance Concurrent connections Connections established per sec.

Set the Outbound rule set to "All-inclusive with Audit rule set". • The All-inclusive with Audit rule set has 2204 exploit attacks.McAfee® Network Security Platform 6. b. The total number of customized attacks for this policy is 2204 – 116 = 2038 customized attacks. 34 . Set the Inbound rule set to "File Server rule set".0 I-series Sensor capacity by model number Note for customized attacks The signature set push from McAfee® Network Security Manager (Manager) to a Sensor will fail if the number of customized attacks on the Sensor exceeds the customized attack limit. You will see that: • The File Server rule set has 166 exploit attacks. Create a new policy. a. c. The number of customized attacks can increase due to: • • • Modifications done to attacks on a policy by users Recommended for blocking (RFB) attacks User created asymmetric policies Example: How numerous customized attacks are created in asymmetric policies.

144 50.000.000 100 32 16 100 3.000 100.000 40.000 262.000 300 64 32 300 254 254 254 254 254 64 32 254 100.000 Attack filters per 128.000 100.000 750.000 3.000 66.000 600 Mbps 250.000 32.000 1.000 64 64 64 64 NA NA NA 1.144 Sensor Default number of supported UDP Flows Supported UDP Flows 400.000 18.000 187.5 Gbps 750.000 150.000 187.000 100 Mbps 40.000 200 Mbps 80.000 2.000 65.114 100.000 100.500 35 .000 3.000 4.000 375.000 1.000 3.000 NA NA NA 25.000 100.000 1.000.000 25.000 2 Gbps 250.000 3.000 100.144 400.500.000 1.072 25.000 100.000 20.000 120.000 36.000 10.000 4.000 262.000 200.000 20.000 2.000 131.000 100.000 VIDS Attack filters per 262.768 5.000 60.000 30.000 262.000. SSL Flow count maximum 10 Gbps 5 Gbps 3 Gbps 1.000 75.000 400.500.000 100.CHAPTER 20 M-series Sensor capacity by model number Maximum Type M-8000 M-6050 M-4050 M-3050 M-2750 M-1450 M-1250 N-450 Aggregate Performance Concurrent connections Connections established per sec.000 NA NA NA Number of SSL 64 keys that can be stored in Sensor Virtual Interfaces (VIDS) per Sensor VLAN / CIDR Blocks per Sensor VLAN / CIDR Blocks per Interface Customized attacks 1.500 60.000 128.536 10.

000 1.000 400 100 50 400 Note: SSL decryption is not supported on M-1450.000 300 600.0 M-series Sensor capacity by model number Maximum Type M-8000 M-6050 M-4050 M-3050 M-2750 M-1450 M-1250 N-450 DoS Profiles SYN rate (64byte packets per second) ACL Rules (refer to note below) 5. 36 .000 2. M-1250 and N-450 Sensors.000 5.000 100 200.000 120 250.000.000 2.McAfee® Network Security Platform 6. The number of supported SSL flows on a Sensor directly impacts the number of TCP flows that can be processed simultaneously.000 1.000 1.500.000.500.000 5.000 5.000 NA NA 5.000 1.000 1.

traffic disruption till the Sensor is up Ports fail-close and traffic is disrupted.inline failopen Port Speed/Duplex Auto negotiation Sensor Power off .) Ports are enabled and in the down state till the Sensor starts rebooting. and no traffic is disrupted. Ports are not admin disabled and traffic is disrupted 10/100. traffic disruption till the Sensor is up 37 .inline fail-close Does not require external passive Fail. Warm reboot . Ports remain enabled fail-close. Full/Half Not supported Ports fail-close with dongles connected. fail-open (bypass) with no dongles Ports fail-open (bypass).inline fail-open Ports fail-open. Ports remain enabled fail-close. put into bypass. Dongles required Dongles required on both A and B ports to fail-close External tap is supported. Traffic is disrupted till then. Ports are admin disabled. Dongles not required Dongles not required for both ports to fail-close SPAN Inline fail-close Inline fail-open (Default) Inline fail-open (Active Fail-open Kit) Link Failure .Supported with ports configured in failclose (no dongles) close (no dongles) Ports fail-close and traffic is disrupted.CHAPTER 18 Comparison Between I-1200/I-1400 and M-1250/M-1450 FE ports Operating Condition/Mode I-1200/I-1400 M-1250/M-1450 TAP Internal and external tap are supported.inline failopen (CLI reboot or reboot due to error and watchdog on) Warm reboot . put into bypass. no traffic disrupted (must not have dongles connected.inline failclose Link Failure . No traffic is disrupted. Full/Half only for 10/100 Supported and can be configured from the the Manager Ports fail-close and traffic is disrupted. No negotiation with peer devices.Does not require external passive Failopen Kit open Kit Supported with ports configured in fail. Sensor Power off .inline failclose (CLI reboot or reboot due to error and watchdog on) Ports are admin disabled and put in bypass before the Sensor reboots. no support for internal tap. and no traffic is disrupted 10/100/1000. No negotiation with peer devices.

OFF indicates down and traffic is disrupted Port link LED interpretation .link status color coding No support(Supported in I1200 and not Supported by default (not configurable in I1400).not active Green .up Red . OFF indicates down and not necessarily bypass OFF indicates down and traffic is disrupted Options to either restore defaults or to retain the current port configuration are available Green indicates up and inline. Front panel LED for Not present Normal/Bypass operations .enabled but down Gray .inline failopen Port link LED interpretation .McAfee® Network Security Platform 6. No support to control fail-open/bypass Has support to control failoperation open/bypass operation I-1200 .inline fail-close Front panel LED for Not present Normal/Bypass operations . Always on (green).inline fail-open Front panel LED for Not present Normal/Bypass operations .1A/1B.SPAN Front panel LED for Not present Normal/Bypass operations .up Red .inline fail-close OFF indicates . traffic is disrupted. normal operation.1A/1B and 2A/2B 1A/1B through 4A/4B Auto MDIX support The Manager port configuration panel . OFF indicates bypass.inline fail-open Port link LED interpretation during reboot/Sensor power down .TAP Link Events Port density Green indicates up and inline.not active Green .enabled but down Gray . OFF indicates down and traffic disrupted. OFF indicates bypass.disabled and down (applicable for inline fail-open only) 38 . Always on (green).0 Comparison Between I-1200/I-1400 and M-1250/M-1450 FE ports Operating Condition/Mode I-1200/I-1400 M-1250/M-1450 Resetconfig Restores to default configuration (inline fail-open) and reboots Normal is green and indicates up.inline failclose Port link LED interpretation during reboot/Sensor power down . normal operation.disabled and down The color codes are: • • • • Yellow . Always on (green). I-1400 . Configurable through CLI through CLI) The color codes are: • • • • Yellow. OFF indicates bypass and no traffic is disrupted OFF indicates down.bypass and no traffic disrupted. normal operation.

SPAN Red Gray Red Red Red Red 39 .Inline/Bypass status color coding Not present Four separate bypass buttons.0 Comparison Between I-1200/I-1400 and M-1250/M-1450 FE ports Operating Condition/Mode I-1200/I-1400 M-1250/M-1450 The Manager port config panel .bypass The Manager port status at Link failure .inline Yellow . one button per port pair: • • Green .inline failclose The Manager port status at Link failure .inline failopen The Manager port status at Link failure .McAfee® Network Security Platform 6.

..... 8 conventions ................. 8 SSL best practices ................................................... 10........ 13 policy tuning practices....................... 6 Layer2 Passthru ......................... 7 interface groups ......................................... 30................................. 20 L large sensor deployment........................................................................................................................................ 5....................................... 35 speed and duplex settings .... 35 Index A auto-negotiation issues ............................ 7 sniffer trace .................................................. 4 connectivity issues ................ 15..... 8 T technical support............................................. 7 M Manager Disaster Recovery (MDR) best practices 34 .. 26 staging sensors............................................................... 23............................................... 28 I in-line mode.......................................................... 33 duplex mismatch ...................... 35 database management best practices ............................................ 27.. 25.... 19 B backup of data.......................................................................................... 9... 37 F File Maintenance Scheduler..........................P performance issues................... 32................................... 17 sensor troubleshooting issues ... 35 H half-duplex setting ... 24................................................. 33 full-duplex setting .......... 35 HTTP .... 6 C cabling best practices......................................................................................ix V vulnerability assessment best practices....... vi D data link errors .................................... 16 R rule set creation best practices ......................... 37 Response Management............ 11............................... 30 S Sensor capacity by model number..........................................

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