FM 5-20

MAY 1968
....M . . , ~ l
FM !S-20
·'M 5-20
WASHINGTON, D.C" Mal/ t O1988
- - -
CKIoPID 1. INTRODUCTION • ~ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1",,( 8
L DJ:TECTION • +.____ 54 •
a. CONCJ:ALlIENT ._____ ~ , l ~ 14
_on t. Voddeloo • • • __. _. • ••• 2a,z.& 86
D. Arilll...,. __• • . _. .__________ 8li,ze '"
SUPPLY POINTS .____ 82-88 57
"""'''''''' REFERJ:NCES __ __ _ 102

. ..... __ .....- PIll I-JI. II 1_ PIll 1-11. II ••__ ,_.... ...- _ ,., 1-JOlI. II .........
' ........... _1-._ .......
1. PI,I.P'O" gnd SCClpe
a. This IIULnuai pr ovid"" a comprehensive
reference and guide in all aspecto at camou_
nag<!. It de.crihes In detail the pr inciple.. In_
volved in coneeaiing Or disguising troops. vehi-
ciell, weapons, and field installations. The IllKt
cluIpter di.cu98l!111 the p1&n.ning l or and the
operation at decoya and decoy InstallatlOllll.
For technical lnfonnation regarding the
natural and artificial materials and equipment
aVllilable lor both concealment and visual
deception, the reader la relerred to TM &-.-200.
b. InfortIUltion and data presented in this
nual ..... appllcable to both nuclear and non_
clear warfare. It must be remembered that
n the event at a nuclear bunt near a camou-
Raged position. the thermal radiation lIULy ig-
nite the eamouflage if It Ia 01 .. flammable sub-
stance. In addition. radiological decontamina-
tion operations may be hlnderad by the
presence 01 elaborate eamouftBi"e conrlrndion.
Thfl8e are calculated riaka and must be taken
into consideration when planning camouflage
2. Comment
Users 01 this manual are encouraged to submit
recommended chan&e8 Or eemmente to improve
the manua!. Commento should be keyed to the
speeitk: page, paragraph, and line 01 the text
in which the change is recommended. Reasons
should be provided for eILCh conunent to insure
understanding and eomplete evaluation. Com_
menta should be forwarded directly to the Com-
Il1llndant, U. S. Army EJ1i"ineer School. Fort
Belvoir, Va.• 22060.
3, r..pon.lbilltle. for Ccrmouflclge and

a. Individual. The Individual soldier is re-
sponaible for his own concealment. Hia respon-
sibility here is just as great .... hia responsibil _
ity lor hi. rifte, and he must know as much
about camoonage .... he d08ll about his weapon.
Just u trainilli" in markllmanahip tea.ehea the
soldier to hit a target accurately. so does
knowledge 01 camouflage teach him how to ea-
cape becoming a target himself.
b. Command. Overall unit camouflage is the
responsibility of the commander . He must in-
slIre the complete understanding by every man
in hill command 01 the Importance, pri nciple!! ,
and techniques of eamounage. In addition to
hi s responsibiliti"" in the trnininll" and super_
vision of the Individual soldier's concealment
efl'orts, he must plan snd execute camouflage
measUreli lor the operational, administrative,
and logistical areaa 01 his command. Finally.
to insure the etrectiveneaa at all
measures, he is raponsible for the strict en-
f orcement at camou8.&ge discipline.
4. Impartano» of camouflage
is one of the basic weapons of war.
Correctly used, it can spell the difference
between a succeesl ul campaign and defeat; to
the individual it can moon the difference be-
t ween lil e and death. of the type 01
out nuclear Or Inter nal delenae
operations--umounage remains important.
Small semi-independent unitll mullt l urnish
their own securi ty, r econnai88l1nce, and sur-
veilianee. They muat be able to exist l or long
periods 01 time with s minimum of control
and support from headquarten . AI. a
r esult, their success will depend to a large
extent upon their Ilblllty to remain concealed
lrom the enemy. This in t urn will depend upon
the and proper execution at the
principlea of camouflal"e.
5. IntrodudicHI
Before posalble to employ dedi.,. eamou-
nage it is DeeeolSary to know aomethlnll' about
observatiOD. Then are two broad eateror:lO!lll of
observatlon--dil'llCt and Indil'llCt.
6. DI ..d Observation
Direct obeervatloa refera to that prooeea
the observer __ the aubjeet php-
leally. that iA. with bbl or ullllided..
Exampl O!lll of thbl type of observation lnelude
an obeerver elttinll' on a hilltop wlth blnocuIan
or an aerial observer vlewllli' the landscape
frtml an ai rcraft. Direct obeervatlon hae many
It offers immediate InfoMlUltion
on whieh action may be baeed; the picture bI
seen In the true third dimension and la easily
evaluated by the brain; the eye la nonnal1y lUI
accurate a nd leIIJIiti ve receiver; and It all ow.
obaervatlon of movement. It hae four major
dieadvantages: There Is no permanent record
for future direct comparieoD; weather and
time of day may limit It ; the oblerver's ex-
perienee and mlsllion m&ylimlt the lnfonnation
obtained; and human error may result In 111_
complete and Incorrect Infol'1lLation.
7. Indirect Observation
In indil'l!<:t observation the observer ..... a
picture or an imap of the subject, and DOt the
physle&l aubjeet itself. Photography. radar,
infrared, and televlaloll are aaed in Indirect 0b-
servati on. The adVaDtall'ea of Indll'llCt aberva_
t10n are: Sueces&ive photol! of the &n\ll
may detect changes which have taken place; It
reeulta In a pel1llll.Dent record; it lnc_ the
.pectrum for ob8ervation to th<l infrared /Uld
other apectrulWll invisible to the human ey<l; it
ClIn be diatributed to an eclIelonl for thoir

ne<ldl; the photographe may be
.tOOled at length; It I'<lduees diatane<l of obser-
vaOon by enlargement: and radar- will uaually
d<ltect a IIl< object behind a nonmetallie
eereea, aucll all a conventional bl.lrlap-
garnlabed eamounap net. Ita dlsadvantaMw
are: The time required to develop photoi"raphl
and dluem.inate the Infonnatlon; weather may
interfere with llt!r1al photograph; the skill of
the photointerpre\er may limit Infonnatloa 0b-
tained; and there la a lack of the third dlm<lD- 1
. lon. excepton apeelalltereophotography.
a. Aerial Phot ographll. I n modem warfare
aerial photography h.. Il6llUmed a place
extreme Importance• .IIld In reprd to ,
nap deteetion and photography ha..
reached a .\;age where it ill indiBpenaabte.
Military photoi"raphe Ire divided Into three
ca.tell'llrlea: vertical, hill'h oblique, .IIld low
(1) Vmie"l. The vertical photorraph i.
one taken directly ahove the . ubject. It show.
practlealJy no detail In the third dlmenalon
other than Ihadow Ind can be eompared with
a pJan view of bulldlllll'll on a blueprint. Whell
taklDlf' a vertical photorraph, the line of Bip t
on the camera la perpendleular t.:> the Une of
f1l pt of the ain:raft (ng. 1) . In vertleal
photo Interpl'l:!taUon. th<l proeesa of stereo-
vieioll la used extensively. By taking two pho-
t.orrapha of th<l BlIllIe subject and .tereoacople
glaasea. the third dimensi on, depth. beeOIl1<lll
apparent. Thi l Is 01 rreat advantage In exam-
IniDlf' enemy or In inspectiDlf' our

(2) High. oblique. High oblique photo-
rra.pha are thoae taken at an aDlf'le ral8ed floP1
the vertical so that the apparent hori zon
On th<l photo. It aleo mOW'll a partial thil I
dimen.ion by gi ving the side and top view of
the "ubj ect ( fill' . 2) .
(1I ) Low oblique. The low oblique i8 . imi.
lar to the high oblique except that it dOl.'fl not
show the horiwn. This is accomplished by
taking the photoKrnph at an angle I"". than
SO" from the p"'rvendicular to the line of flight
(fig. S).
(4 ) Filnu. There are four t ype" of fi lm
WIed In aerial photography ,
(<I) Bl.Mk and u·hit e. Black lind white
film recoro.. images in tone gradati on between
white lind black. While not reproducing color,
It d<>ell provide a pennanent record of tonal
ditferencell. Select tllteMl are often used to im-
prove the photollTaph or to r ecord only the
light that is known to give the greatest tonal
"ffereD. '" between nat ural b&ckground. and
object bei nll' sought (fill. 4) .
(b) Cowr film. Color film will detert
camouflage which does not match the "010r8
in the background. However, this film IUl-'l
many oPt'rationll l difficult ies and b"st
resultll O)nly under ideal conditiO)ns, CO)lors
tend W blend together at a ltitudes ,
shadO)w density is not ll-'I accurate on this fil m
as on the black and white f,lm, and atmospheric
conditions must be ideal in order to obtai n l\
clea r For t h....e fea.<;<JllS, th is f,lm
ill not widely used (fig, 5).
(c) I nf rared film , Inf ra red waYe" or
rays refer to a portion of the elect l'OmslO1 eti c
spectrum wh ich is invisihle to th e human eye,
Most thinll" in nature, sueh as livinll' , ll'reen
vesretation, reflect these infr ared ,,'aves readily
and in large quantities, :\10st artificial rna_

lIigh Oblique
teri ll1s normally do not ...1I ..,t th....e inf rar<'<i
waveII to the same extent. TblUl. infrared 111m
which ls notllinK more t han blll.Ck and whi te
fi lm that is BeMiti ve to Iuf rar ed wav.... can
result in a picture showinK contr""liI l>clween
natural illla and artillcial materials. The
natural materials will ahow up u a Iill' ht tone
of In'1Iy while the artifi cial materials win ahow
up ILl a dark tone of lITay. Inf rared fil m hill!
another important use. It een be used !A> tAke
phoWgra!.ha at i f til"..., Is a SOUrce of
infrared radiati nn. To counter the detecting
abili ty of this film, camouft all' 1l p&inlil and dyes
have been d""elop€'d that have a hlll'h lnf ranod
....fl ectance, aimila. to All c>L!I1oufl"Il' ''
materi als lire now i."ued with thl. type of
colori nll !<O t h"t infrued fil m Mil no longer
detect di tl'erences between I1Jlt u....1 and arli tl-

cial that 11M I.>een wiUl such
paint and dye (flg. 6) .
( d) CamoujW.Qe detecti<m film. Thi.
film w.... delligned specifi cally to detect green
colored artificial camouflage by r<:o:: ordinll' it &8
bl ue to blu&--I"reen in contrast to a red r<:o:: orn_
inll' or nat ural vegetati on. It combinf!8
advantai"'" ot both and color films.
The st ructure of the film is such \.hat high
infrared reaeeuve VegetatiOll
-c-reccrd as red; low infrared rellect ive objecb
record aa blue or lrfOOn.
b, Radar. Radar detecting devic.... emit radio
sigtl a19, usually in the f orm of pulses of an
ultrahigh t r l.lqUency, which are refl ected from
t he obj ect being vi ewed and r<:o:: eived hack
the point ot transmiuion. By analyzin/C th
Low Obliq u e
minute r ellected si/lTlal• • the characteristics of
the ohj ect under obsen-alion may 00 'I....
tennine<!. Concealment from radar dependll
upon th e r!'duction of thi s refled ion. Thi. can
be accomplished by di ggi ng in ce by use of a
defilade. It is important to ""memlwr t hat
foliage cover alone "",,,not be relied upon com_
plet..1}· to deCeat detection by radar.
r. I Nfra red. There a re two types of infrared
detecl.£lTll : Adi ve (nea r) which req ui res illu-
minati on of the target by ..,me light worce.
slIl' h a8 in!ra rm spot or lloodllghta or the SUD;
snd pa&&i" " (fa r ) which deled .. the heat emit-
ted by the tarlr"t and convem the ai KJl"I to a
visual picture lfTa ph or MUDd rt!<'ord. Conceal·
ment f rom active inCrarOO dependa on the reduc-
n of ,...11...,18""" cont ract between the object
lind ita s ur round i nl(>l . I f t he ohjed a nd ju bl<Ck_
grou nd are of the same rellectance and te xtur e,
total concealment is achieved. Concea lment
from passive inf rared ill dependent upon re-
dueing heat em;"";oo of olJj et"t!I wh ich are hot-
ter than their . urroundinll'll. Therefore. hOme
in. ul at ion or sh ield mu"t be "",-'<1 , Defi lade,
heavy bruah, or even tree COVer will at le""t
atknuate t he heat radiat ion, To what extent ,
depend., upon the deMity or L,ickn..... ,
8, f octoR of Recogni Tion
Rega rdl""" of t he method or observat ion em_
ployed, there are ce rtain factol'll which must
...1...a )." be p nt to h..ll' t he eye lind hrtl;n
identi fy an obj t. Th....e a re k>rmed factoJ'll of
reco&,ni tlon ( fi r . 8 ) .
a. PoRiti01l.. An abject is often identi fied by
it.. posit ion with relat ion to it>< surroundi nl/:s.
A long object on a railroad tl'lU'k is .....umed to
be a train: aimihl.r obj ects on a river and par-
allel to its banks are lUIsumed to be \)oats or
barg"". A llU"lf" struct ure in a IO'oUp or frame
buildin!C" might be a b" rn. Position is nothiIlJ(
more than t he ,...lative space relat i<lnship of one
object to another obj ect or objects.
b. SIw./w . Exper ience Maehes poople t o as-
sociat e an object with its shape or outl ine. At
"' distll nee. the outli ne of object.' ca.n be
recognized IanI/: befo,... the details of makeup
can be det<.' rmined. Trucks, gU118, tIInks. a nd
other common military i t e m ~ of equipment all
have di stinctive outl in.... that help to identi fy
c. Shadow. Shadow may be even more reo
vealing th an th e ohj ect itself . Thill. i. particu-
larly trn.. when viewed fmm the air. Such items

as fll.<:" tory chimneys, utilit y poles. vehicles,
bri dl/:es, and tents ha ,'e rlietlnctive shadow•.
Sometimee it may be more important to break
up or disruj>t th e shadow of a n obj ect than it
is to conceal the object itself.
d. Tc" fur .., Texture r efer. to tl ,e abi lity of
an object to retlect, absorb, and diffuse light.
It may be defined .... th e r elative smoothness or
roughneaa of a surface (fig. 9) , A rough sur·
face, sue,h a.. a field <>f gfll.."", ,...flec\.S litth
lil/ht and casts many shadow. on itself. Can.
s' '<Iuent ly it apl'<""'s very dark to the eye or oa
II photograph. A smooth surfa<:e, such a.. a ~
ai ""trip or the roof of a building, ,...fl ecb
more llght on an aeri al photograph. Thus, all
airstrip. even t hough it might Ix· pa inted tht
same color .... the surrounding terrain, would
show up lUI a li!!,hter ton.. on a photograph.
The almoet total absence of text ure rellulbl .
shine, One of the most revealing br each
ill 'IlIh1 . Ion<! r . 1I
allnct . t.... l1l..... t.<>. ",,".tiOll ulld<>r , ....
........Iion I"f'P.nI leM of il
""", ial<'<l ...ith Uw ,.."...·Ii,," "r
from wi nd ield". ,,· indo m..... killl. and
othrr alm...t te"l u l ..... E" rn
th.. lr ll...... " C fi ..ld 11I1" ,,·h..11 u't"d ill di,....·'
,unlilll hl . rR" " ·11 ....t " lJri l(1lt "hi".. "i mi"' r t..
that "r Kmirror. (S" mt· "u!.J.tanee.•• """h ''"
,·...-t,, 11I 1,1".•t i,·". "·"" rdl".,, "r th e d"jl"l"" "r
textur... "t ill [l ,..-,.. "t a
' . ( ·" /n,,. /'" I" r i, a ll ai,1 t" " " wI"·,,
til...... 1. r ""lra, t L>o.t.......n th.. rol" r or all obj..o:t
Ind it.< I",...kl(r""nd. lI:......t..r the ",mlr""t
in ,""lor. th.. mo.... ,·i. ibl.. th.. object al.I_.....
• "hi l.. ""'''r . Ion.. will W1 ually not identi ty . 11
,"'"I. it iI <of...." .11 aid in Ioc.tilli" the ubj«:t
or confirminlll a tentati.... i....lltifieat ion. A
_nary ....l\IIidfonti".. iI t .... «.ne "r a t'<llo, r.
Thil il u... mooi liratiull oC rolor i ll nryi nll"
......d..... 115uan.\· darker ,ha""" of a .."l"r
" 'ill be .... likel)' It> at1n1rl a ll obaen 'er's at-
I<' lItioll lhllll tI,.. lilll hler. mo,... hrilli "nt ,had.....
f. ."",-n",·"t. Th.. Ia..t Cador oC ......oj(nitioll
is m"wn"'nt lind alth""jl"h thi. (ador ,,'101 ,,11\
reveal" tJ,,· i,l"nti ty of an hy It><,·lf. it i"
ll". m", t iml . "t",,! ""l' f" r r"v,·"li"l( ,·.bu·",·,·.
Eve n t ho"KIt t h other fart" .. "f "'''' ''jl"nit ion
have I....." ' ·""' I.I..lely elin, in..t.-.i, .. n " "f"IIIy " I..
.... I"\·..r " ' 11 1 b.. aUrarlt>d. t.<> Ih.. a ...... ir ....w""
ment i . ,."t r"nt rol led. II.. ",-"" be ron_
r entn>li lla: allentlon " II anme uther 10""
hut h.. ...ill not Ca il t.<> d..t...·l ..... enl ill
another atal thruua:h his prriph.. nl vilion.




9, ' riM.1n
Siti ng. and eOD5truction a re the
three princi pla employed. to elim.inat. the fac-
ton of Good eamo<l ll&¥e is ob-
tainable onl,. thfOUl' h a thorough lindei'''
ItaD.ding of the fKto", of recognition and <:an-
ful nalu&tlon &lid IltiliiW.lon of theae prm.
ci pla (If eor:K*.lmlmt.
... SitiA#. Slt mlf ia nothi... m,," thaDadtd-
mg the m.... advanta.-a pomtion in .. hith
to hide • mAn, . n obj ect, or an &clint,' (ftp:.
10 thrwJh 14) . l'o matter wh.t kind of t.r..
rain It b, ...... a n a PJl&"'ntly f_tu.......
d......rt. the... la . l .... ys lIOIne dj".,.,rnible pat.
wm. natural or manmade, ....hleh can be uaed
to «>nefti or . t Ie. st blur the tactically vital
. ign. of military activity. If these fu tu....
U1! uti lized. " ,ill often be effectl ve
with"ut employment of . rtiflc ial eamouft &ie
cond r uct ic.ll meu ures. Experience hll.8 shown
that a VIllIt m. J"rlty of . n concealment prob-
lem. can be solved by proper siting. There are
ereee iOvem lnlf fado", for aite selecti on.
(1) M;, fflm . Thi. ;.. p..ramounl A certain
IocatioDmay be excellent f rom the conceal ment
.tandpoint, but I f it it impoMible t o
carry oot the ml&o ion, it la pointless.
(2) DUpen;..... The requirement for di...
dktat. the AWl of the aile. A. site la
......... if It ,,"II Dot permit enough disp"nal
for d ectl ft operation.
(S) T.......i" The final point to
borp ill IIlind la '"What, it . ny, disturballCe in
the terraill pattem ,,"II this parti""iar li te
lIectU1tater The ahould be '"nona..
Thia ia 't'ital line" any change in aD exi.atilll"
p&itenI wtll lmmldiately mdicate the pneftlCf
fA. lOme kti't'ity. The foar I"enerali:r.ed ternin
po.tterm.-n1ral. urbalI. wooded, and
,....... 1... c........ . , -".....
F;'-.. 11. En ",plo _, ';Ii"l/ • ...c oi ' _I ,... .. iw.
t.mIiw. 1M ).
rigid routine "f l ueh di.scipli"e, both vi"ual a nd
audio. i.o not followed by only one man, tile
entire ra moullllll' e will fa il. Careleuneu
alld l""n... . mundoubtedly m eal the poa\.
ti on to the Tracb. apoil. and debria
are the ......t common aigna of military .etivity
. hirh indi<'ate t'OlI'CNled obj""lll. Th.more.
_ t ..clta ahoold f olio_ patha, I't*da,
fe_ . or ruotural in the terrain patUrn.
E1poMd mula do not end at a pollitH>n, but
a re ut.ndecl to another tennination. If
practicable. n Jl'lMd tnckt are by
bruminll' out or coveri " g. Spoil and debris
are covered or placed to blend with the &ur_
rnundinp ( lip. 15 t hrouKh 17). A
SOP ll.ti nll rul"" like the un"" mentioned
will hell>• grea t deal in ...i"g camOUnall' e
diacipllne, It ahould ....ill"ll to certai n In-
dividual . the of thi.
di aclpU"". It should list ru les for conduct of
units, vehicle dri ve"" etc.. in
comba.t. In blvou""". or In any other Ilt uatl on
which rna,. b<! apprnpriate to the unit .
(2) No 1eoI important II the atriet ob-
... of bl,a., . ""t rules. At night, ..indo. ...
hatth... entnMea, and otMr openlnp
. hieh llKht U n &h ine muat be covel'ed with
shutlen, ac........... curtai ..... and other aped al
opaque materia1a to tmem,. V'OOnd and
air ot.en'era f rom not irinlf the interior illll-
miruoti on. Fltt!ll can b<! Ht'ht.d lJIll,. in apecially
deaignated and equipped anu. Smoklnr la
forbidden the enemy... i' the diapla,. of
an hllve dl sti nctlve eharac"' I'i.UCll. which a ce
nee......,.,. to preoerve.
( II) R.""ll t............. Thi. terni " i.o 1"e<' ''II''
Jilied from the ai r b,. vi rtue "f Ita peculiar
dlec. ertxo.rd pattern. Thia III • "",ult of the
illere"t tn>- of crope. . Dd veptation found
(II ) U""'" If"ITa..... A picture f rom the
Ur of llrb&ll terrail>ll ;" clLll racteri .... by
fDnn or _ urtiform rn.... of l>ou&inr. inter-
W'O¥ftl with llt f'ft'tA• • nd punrtnatfod by r . .....
fnDylncated tr- ....d IhrubL
(c) W ""","" I""",,,. The picture that
thil terni" p.--nta to the aerial ot-rver ;"
a natural, Irtej'\lla.r work of nature. u"l ib the
almo»t e-netric pattei'll of the manmade rural
u d urban \.errain.
(d) B lIrrnt Urrui.... Uke the ..ooded,.,.i", b.,.ren terrain pre!!ent the a..rial 01>.
""rver with an uneve... lrregulllr work of na_
ture. without the abrupt patt...rna "t t he runl
and urban .re....
b, DWriplilU.
t tl The ....,.,Dd bulc co..dlt lon for the
of auccE'fIS in a..,. camounap elTon
is the . t rid mai ntenaDce of camoul\ dJa..
ci pli lle, by both the unit .. a . hole and the
iIodividual ..\dier. Thill IDeS......oI.u-of any
actirity that clLllnps the ' PPHran« tit an
or ,,"",Ia tile PreM'DCOl of military equip.
...L It II • continuous. muDd-tIl_l""k necea-
tr u d . ppli_ to evfl)' indi vidual. If the

~ - - " -

.... ,; ~ .

!'iouro 13, I n "'Ou{,,, urN," '.""iu, mu"""11 obj«t.
,"uot b, ,i,.d I"".U,' t o ,,00 cw" '. patt".,. Ii" ...
lir hts of any Combat and t ransport
vehicle. can he allowed w travel on ly with
their lights turned off or obllcured. Aerial
photographs taken at night by the liJ;ht of
lIares or by the use of imllKe intensification
equipment can pick up breaches in "amouflaJl,"e
discipline, which ar e more likely to occur at
night than in the daylight hou,"". Coru;equently,
t he 8ame 8tandard of camouflage di8ciplin e
m""t /", ndhcred t o by night as by WIV.
( 8) Troops must lJay special attent ion to
,ound eamouflal(e durinl( night movement and
apply all t he pr inciples of !lCoutiIlK and patrol_
ling. During nighttime r iver eros_ings. the
noise from the paddles should be muffled. Re-
veaHnJ( sounds from tank and truck movement
from engineering work can be muflled by
stronl(er "'>unds. e.g.. so "alled sound .creen, .
• eated by the fir ing of machineKUIlII and ar_
. Iery pieee. : til<' r unning of tanks, prime
movers, and t ractor engines along a broad
front; or by t he opel"at i" " of sound pr ojection
. tations which can imitate variou" battle
c. Cons truot ion. The th ird and
lInal princi ple on wh ich !loud eamouflajl:e is
based is camouflage const ruction. When the
terrain and natural veJ(etahon are sucb th at
nat unol conceal ment is not possible, artificial
camouAal((' i. added. Ar tificial or natural
materials used to the object or
individu al with the surrounding t errain.
Camoofl age const ruction should be resorted to
un/y whe n siting a nd discipline cannot produ"e
the desi r ed coneealmen\' :"at ural matRria!s are
preferred over artificial materials, since the
former r ea"",ble the surroundin!,: vejl:etation.
If a rtificial materials are used. they must l.oe
110 arranged as t o blend with t he surronndinlJ'"
to the lD""ate.t ]IOBsible dellTee. They mu st be
of sturdy con,truction to wi tl,atand va ryi ng
weather conditions and be constantly checked
and maintained. The const ruction work mu.t
be wi th the "'ork partie. observing the
str idest diseipline. If ]>o"sihle. all enJ(ineerinl!:
work should he carried out at ni!,:ht, with all
of the nil(ht's activit ies r.amouflal!:ed be-
f ore morning. There should l.oe no dis ruption
of t he terrain Jl'lt tern ; no rle.tnlction of plant s
or trampled llT""ses; nor should there be any
new ma,L. or ope n ditch"" vb ible. Thi.' is diffi_
cult to do, but unl ess strict discipline is main_
tainer! durinl( slIeh r onstrud ion. t here i8 lit tl e
point to the camoul1 al(e effort.
10, Camauflage Methods
There are three fundamental ways of conceal_
ing i"audlatiulla and actidti es, Hiding, hlend-
ing, and di sguising.
u. llidino. lJi rling is th e complete c"nceal-
ment of an object by some fonn of
s('reen. Sod over t he minea in a minefield hid""
the miMS; the overhead canopy of trees hi d""
tlte obj ects beneat h it f r<>m aeri al obs ervation;
a defilade hides object.. from grOllnd observa-
tion; a net hides obj.., ta beneath it; a road
screen hide'S the obstacle behi nd it. In wme
r.a.' ea, the screen it..elf n"l,V L.... invi sible to the
enemy. In other inatanc"" , while viaihle to the
en"",y, a screen con"eal s the amount 'Ind type
---- -- -
. -

TM ! TYH O f
N TO U"'A ,
I N D EfI N I T H Y ,
-- ;:
J'ipu,.. 16. H i . M", lo ...... tho ,,,, (romt<!
ub..,.,·.,., that '''M .. takmg pfa<. at both
(£) .. ..4 ® aM b.....
of activity lwhind it . Figure 18 illustrates two
examples (Of hid ing.
b, Bk ndino. Blending is the arrangement or
a pplk.ati on of eamoutlal'(e material. on,
and around the obj ect 80 that it ap pears to II'
part of the background. For example, the in:
dividual soldier can apply stick f ace paint to
the exposed areas of the skin ; add " urla",
paint, ll11d live vegetati on to his helmet IlJld
d othing so that he ",..ill closely r esemble or
blend into the background. The same things
can be done to equipment a nd structur es to
make them inconspicuous. Blending dimnctive
manmade objects into a natural termin pat-
tern Is necesllflry to maintain a normal a.nd
natural "attern (figs. 19 a nd 20) .
c. DisouiBing. Disguising is the third method .
It involves the simulati on of an objed or
activity of military significance. Clever dis-
KIl i_ will mislead the enemy ll. to ident it y,
strength, lind intention, and will draw his fin
f rom the real target.
- -
" - -
_uldbod _ •
• to
. un thl. _ dbl • •k ...ltlw
F,-" 11. 01 otopplnll" to """"nnoIOo, .
Thl. 1<","" h14... f",m ..",un4 o!>M... ..tlon tho omount ond typo or tum. u , i , , ~ !hi .
Impor tant mol n .oppl, rou'" In Ko.......
F;,. .. lI--(A>nU......t.
11. Introduct ion
a. Individual is the ccncearment
a I<lldler \lUll In combat to surprise,
and outwit hla enemy. He muat bo... how to
YM the JrlUUnd. fu, mU3t adapt hi. d.... to
bIeDd with h.. bacl<P'O'I od. He mUit eantou,.
aeI«t hil routel beh,",n to pill aucll
u .. .-sib" wh.iko he 11 in
motion. The li mple prindpl_ In thll chapter
have been battlft tested. It the IOldler·
.nd them conti nuouoly in tnJnlng he
...mknow what to do in actual battle.
1>, Individull acl ivlti u Ire de-
. Iptd. to deceive two kind. of nelll)' obM...ers
-tTOUnd and a ir . V ....... from the '1'O\lnd a ",
fami liar, but vWon from the alr .... \lIU&Ib'
qui te ..nfamiliar. In n...... warfare the .......,.
pllta much rellanee OIl aerial photllgrapha for
Infonnation .. 1.0 our .....ti vili. and intftlUons.
1t I. important to become famtliar ,.-ith the
" bird'l-f!ye-view" of the terl' all well ... the
rround view In order to learn how to roard
a(&lnst both ki nd. of observation.
e. Eff ective conculment of lbe Individual
pri ma ri ly on the choke of bAckrround
and Ita proper \IlIC. 8ack....,und II sur_
"""Del in.. _II from Ilf'O\I nd a nd the
alr. It ....,. be uythin,-_ portloa of the
j UIlJle. an a"", in a "-nen roc-k)' d<!IIert. a
fal'1ll yard, or a city street. It ia the cont rolling
element in individual CllJn(>utla.« and flOvernll
every concnlment measure, The clothes that
arlO worn mult blend with the predominant
color of the bad [rround. Skill and light colored
equipment a re tolled do_ for the pur-
poM. The Individual IOldier mlllt pl'lll:tiea
blandi.... with the by hidin.. ill
aAadoonI u d avoidi nr oontrasl betr",n ' hi.
lin-.ette and the Il l' muat a_ id
movement . hleh the ilT,mobIle bAcl<.rn>und will
emphuize, To keep the appearance o{ the
background t ree of lism which point to the
prwence of military porsonnel a nd acti viti es,
moat foil.... hidden l'Outee, and c.o""'eaJ.
. poil. traeb, .cjulpment, a nd llIItallati ona.
12. DiI""l,I", the He"-t
'nM OUUi H or the beIIne\ .. ODe of the striu.,
characterial.lea or a aoIdien equi pmml,. and ita
curved familiar . hape can be -...ill' Idmtlra..l
by the enemy. One of the IIl'1t for in-
dividual II the dilruplion, both of
the f onn of the helmet and the atr<>nll' It ral llht-
llned lhado.... It eaata. There an eeveral ....ys
of dolllg thb ( fig. 211 . l mprovh,ed h''';i'!
(Oftr'I ean \It made f rom ein:ular p1..cs
", u bolll, burlap•.or othu cloth , 20 lllChes I.
dlaJnetn. A l .lad> hero .. M'1I"III around the
M..... a draW'ltrinr ia pulle<l th.....[fh It , and
the -...hole _er ia poW tlahtly onto the hel-
met. D10carded ....d hap, beca\IHC of their
appropriate abe make " cellent Improvloed
covera. The oaek la t ucked UP the helmet
end the lin.r then replaced to hold It t1nnly in
plal:e. The cove.... I"l'If&rd..... of what they a n
mad&, ahnuld be pa.l.nted to breal< up the IOIid
eok>r. Two-hw:h allta art art III the _ r to
allo.... rot' the I_rtion of or bo_ N.
....hat killd of helmet _tlare I. uMd.
it II incomplete if the ahado"w beneath the
helmet ia not broken up by arranli nlr a bit of
or ral'll!shing loll that pie>celll of It hanl
over the ri m of the helmet. Small lr re«ular
placea of eloth, . lmllarly arranred, ,.-ill aceam-
1I11.h the _ thing.
13. Canvea fquipnwnl
Are and wuhlnlP will fade C&llvai
equipment. When thi!. 0ttU1'I it mud. be
d.arl\ened ....ith pai nt. mud, ...". rcoal. .... an.
thin, el8e thal will reduce the tonal contraat. ..
111 ~ 4 ,..4',,' 4 4. _ • •4
, ' ''''' .
. . ....... . eli 1 4.)
21 I II" I. ~ • •I• • • 11 . .. 1. ....1...! . ..... 1 .. . ... '.1.
(Jl ~ 4" 4 ~ ,. 4 1; 4
m 1,,1•• ~ . I .... co••• " "" 0 • • •• •• 4 •• ~ k • •
..114 ..I., ~ . I . , 1 " . 1• ••• 1 4,
1' 1 • 4 , " tto ..
....104 n 4 1 1 4• • • •
• ,.u, k_ "-•.
"Woo'" 01. 1'....... _ ....... , _ .._ ........ "'" .......
14. Sloin
Fwt:o. n...... and hands ahouJd be toM<! dOWD
""intin, th..m in a dioru pti"e pattern or by
toninl' tMm down in a" ...."'" color (til'. 221 .
WM n llIl nl' dilll1l pti"" painti nl' the ""lter1lS
ahould eut acn- the n""", Ii ...... eh...... bon...
eye sockets, and chin lines. Burnt cor k and mud
can be used , or in the absence C>f natural rna.
terial s, the t"" .. paint sti ck may he u.. ...J. A
mesh mosquito nettinll'. pro[mrly toned down,
i. an effecti ve way ot breaking up the outlines
ot the face,
15. Weapon Tonedown
One ot the aimplest way. to diatort the g i v ~
away (mtline ot a weapon i. by wrapping it
with burlap garni.hing or st rip. ot clot h dyed
to makh the uackground, Pattern painting ti,e
weapon i. another excellent met hod of distort_
ing the weapon outl ine. The sh iny parts can
be covered. by cloth, pai nt, or mud, Care must
be taken when camoollaging II w....pon not \<,
CIlUse interference in the sight ing and firing ot
it (lilr. 23).
16. Shiny Objeds
ReOection t rom brightly .hining ouject.'! i8t
common urell('h at c"mauOalf\' discipline, A ~
shiny obj ect.'! must be concealed. This incl udes
such items as watches, rings, belt buckl...,
and mesa kit item• . A common breach of m..-
cipline is the wearing of goggles on the helmet.
This is a violation which should he avoided.
17. Camouflage Clot hing
Individual concealment requi res a little
planning and thought and ingeniou s use of
materi al. at hand. This applies to ti'e carnou-
!lage of clothing aJro. In the absence of issued
camou!lage unitortns, th e llOldier can make hill.
own carnoullage sutt, adapting it.'! color and
pattern to the terrain l>ackll' l'Ound. Any color_
;nll' 1><> ",<.'<1, sU"h lIS dye.<, .." k·
oil, or ewn II mi xture of mud lind 1l''''''II.<e,
The imporUlnt thing is to make the dothinll'
look leoss like a unifonn and more like the
t<.>rrain in "'hiah it ia to be won , ( til(, 24) . For
u"'" in SIIOWcover<.'<l terrain ili ere is available
II whit.. Il'I'mumt .. ilrlle<l to blend with II
white or mottl<.'<l white lind blac k l>ar kll' roulI,l.
The ano"'suit d<>l"!l nnt oonc{'al t he aman
patch"" of shlldow thllt sur round a human iiI(.
ure, but this is nnt """ ""-<lIry IInow
country is seldom a ll whi te-it does contain
numerous du k 8po\a and If
anow are lin white with l\lJsolutely no
"had"w8, use is m"de of defil"". anow drifts,
lind natural t old" in the ground. It mu.. ,
remember ed th at d otbinll' . J
cllmouflal(erl equi pment a lone won't conceal,
The ton<.'<lown, the N•.mouftll l(<.'<I helmet . tho
I",inted auit, the covered shi ny objecbl a rt
j u.t th e bejrinni ngll of the Concealment job,
Too often, men have r elied with complete fllith
on 1\ climouftllll'<.'<I helmet lind a climouftlll(ed
auit, th inki llll' them.wlves mir",, "10u.qly in-
viaible, and completely disrell'llrrlillll' an tho
balli c elemenlil of camouft aj1;e. Thill invariably
1",,01. to di AAlltrous rCAulto. ThCfle me""u.....
ma ke it ea..ier to conC<'lll, but only when taken
in oonjunction with the pn ncipl.... or scouti ng
.... d plitrollilllC (FM 21- 75) ,

F",." . U. S.l/......d. ""' .... • ...ilo • • d tAto ""lr<>l ...... •A. ,....... ....
18. SitIng
(;. After the demands of the military ~ i t u a ­
tion and the mission have been met, siting
with proper background 10 the /\rat considera_
tion given to the concealment of a fortitlcatiC)n.
From the standpoint C)f ground obl!ervation,
the emplacement should be oited to avoid
creating a silhouette sgainst the sky or against
a background of contrasti ng colC)r. To avoid air
observation, the emphwement should be located
under t rees , bWlhEll! , or in dark are&ll of the
b. It is equal!}' important that the conceal_
in&" cover chosen 10 not isolated, since II lone
,, ":: - ' >'
'il [ iJ::;:·!;;.s
. '" ..
.5 +l III .=.r. ...
i '95; -
.. .. t
" .. - ._ " .. .,=
';" 1l.! .§ "' ""i f: !
_ 5: " ''''
o .....:l . .....
• " , s" " -I
! ,.2 1: 1:: .. ....
, 0 .

",,",s"''; - I::
, ...
.. ... _ B.,"'''
... " .! :;"';::"' "'
e.g i f - ..
.. --.c.c
:;; 1:: '-' ,;,
i«iili: 2 !: l :
f .. i i ...
._; '- ""
El l '
.. i i

°ll 'l
" . " ...
.. ="' ;"'- 1'" 0
c _ ..
i ' ... ""
: "' .i _, _
's ",, -S
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c " .. 8.$ :,:1'1:
"I " '" ! ! eaE
.c" 'IIi

'-!il - ' • . .
e e II
Ol "
E e !; 1 ! ' 0

';:::,5 :..: .!'
_ " , "'- l: - S
'C' I . .

',,! _ . "" .a""
"" " .. " " "
2" :5_ t:' i" j '"
.. • ._ o :J
'0,3 " ;;·d ' ...... 8
" -s. .I '" .ld. " ea g
"g.... .. e :
: ] ! it
" ii.! ail .. l!i f .s
... of , . ,.
c " .....
=-1): 'Ii: " :t; '" !Ii "
.! ' ,', , ' '1 •.;
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3OS, "
.. 0
....... fl:
- ... ...
, ,",, ;;: ::1
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-0 - "
• ,= _.<: -'
-,>,,= ,,;< 5
.. .. -.. -
.. -'"
._ . " oS
g t " "" .§ §
":: .a "E ." +l
.. .. 1:" ",
" > ::i " .s " ,J::
.2 e E !8:::l
" .<: t ...
.. ::: .. ,,;"
... .. 0 ' - '"
'll . :; ... f':::
c .. ..!5 .. f
.. i>' ;t..!l..8
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ill' ." .. Ill ... ..

0> .. " eo

""' ..

,.c s
I! .. ;
• - " .Ii ....
I • , .• !!'
U c.: III


.. :::
Ell, ..t fazlo<A., 0 j .5 . ",b t lous,I"., ( /I""k . Iaot .u, h
...«>ilI... ... opo,... •• tho "",hi ... ","Ot . , ('<> ft .id....d "'hos fa""'isg
.10<1 "'• • ' ....,li.g . ", pla..."' .d.)
22. Morlan
» ol'ta rs sllOuld always be sited in deFIlade.
Since " m"rtar covering a d,,,,ignat e<l tarll"el
Ill'Wl h"" 1\ wider choice of poIlition t ha" the
other "mailer welll'"n', lIud l eietillleie ean alm""t
Ilways be fou nd lind eollCoolment from direct
grounei observation ill fllir ly I'roPl"r
siti ng in shadow and broken " round .>attern
RI/I ki nl/ .....rtain t here ill the Ill":'''' :'''')" o" e"head
d oorance tor flrinl/, tOll"elhe" with int<:lIi jl"ent
use of natul'IIl "nei II lti 'lcifl l mater ial. " lfer the
requi red mortar concealment fr om the ai r .
23. 1__ling Foctoos
A badly nhid e clln lead to much
mor e t han just II. lost vehide; it may mean
dis""very of a uni t, di!IClMure of an important
tactical " ... ... or romplete cIestrurlIon of lIll III-
rtalllltion. Camoufl age o! ..-<!hld e. l5e'pendl DOt
only on the vehiclea tbemael.vea.
thei r shi ne, shadow. and but equally 00
prevent inlr and concealinll" their al l. revNllnr
tr..cks. (It Ihould not be forll"o\tl!n that enemy
and aer ial observlltl on Is drawn quick.
eo.t by anythin. that mova, and that Ilothln.
n be done to ooncee.l -hiel'" movinll" throa.Il"b
Jndervowth or aloog "'t-<I rnut<es. )
... T.....,h . Track. are "peeially t""·Mlln. to
the aerial observer. They indicate type, lcca-
ucs, strength, .nd even Int.!nt iollS of a uni t.
The gradual tu rns of wheeled v.... icl.. . re di...
t1IlKUiAhable f rom the skiddi!ll" turns of • tnck
laying vehicle. and • aillll"le tnck acrou
an . ...... of low veget&tion Is d Yiaihlot. The
lu t ia "' recially t rue In t he Ntly morning
hour s when there is a heavy dew. Tr ack.
should follow cloooely and. be parallel to hedj-...
f"""", , cultiva ud ftekk, and DUll'!' u tural
teJTain lin.. ill or .wr to nma.ill iboCOOUl picuo,,"
f ....m the a ir. Alao. tnclq allould alway" COIl-
ti nue put the poeilion to a logical terminal ion.
( I ) Complet ely concealed roads r arely
u ist. Even the comparat ively Imall amount of
t imber whieh must be cut down to el. r a
.....d"·.)· throurll • wooded . ...... loee,·. ...1IIt III
the o,·em . d eover that are clearly __ fram
the air. Partia lly oonouled rna"" do exist 1Iow_
ever , a nd they are bettA! r than exposed on...
R""onnai Mll nce I,. rties ahould l"""te them.
Any g. p' in over head eover on such a l'OII.d call
be eoncealed by erectinll" overhead ""..',,,' . or
either a rtl/kial or n.tural materia.. OD abort
. t n1ch.., expoMd t rac kll mal' be erased by
brushinll' leav"" and debr la over them. All eon-
cealed routes should be mar ked in advance of
WIe and Il""&rdt posted to inaure mi" imum dU-
t url>aDu in the area.
(2) If poouible, before a Wlit OttIlpl• •
position. a quartering party should fl nt mUe
a reeonnalManee a nd lay out a cnneealed In<:k_
plan. No vehicle should enter the new a....
until then. Thla plan should be laid <MI t to fit
Into th. ter rai.. pattern ... incolUlpic:1loualy ...
poouible by tal<lnll" . etvantap of I'O&da,
_ riIead cover, and . hado.. can..... Ua__
Many f acton mu.t be ron. iden d ill _ h a
plan: duration of occupation; time allo..M\ for
ent.!rin lr lind leavlnll"; aize, char acter , and tIlls-
alon of oceupylnl!" unit; diat.a_ f rom the
",emy; and .....ther e1'recl on viribilllJr. A
atandard trvk pla:ll ia Impoouibl indi _
vidual kllution is for h iIlIltaila-
li on. In addition to lll.yi nll" <MI t • plan On the
ground IWIf. a plan should te Iketched on
either a map overlay or lI. sketch of the &.rea..
Parking a......,. ahould be indicated ... ",el l u
th... portio... of routo!a to be patrolled by
t ratlic ....
(') Si""" a uoit may have to ",,",up)' •
position wIthout l' rior !llConnai....nce, unit
eamout\l' "e tra ining must Inlute that aU
peoraonne1 are t ra.i ned to follow patterua
a nd utili... all o"emead eover. ...hen pmaible.
Particular . ttention muat be dir«ted to traIn-
inll" of vehtele dri ven . kl that they will follow"
th_ rulea automatically, even i n the abaence
of NCO'a lind ofl!cer ". The officer. and NCO'.
mUl t inatruct all personnel that when the first
vehicle enters a n a rea. "",rds mUlt be . ta-
t ioned at critical pointA to di rl'Ct t r al'llt. Thl.
prev.. unn"".......I')· v.... icl.. ."·n.
,in... M jammiq on . road". y.
(4) In _ COVt'I'N Urrai n. ro.......hnMlt
01 .......11. in • ma jM problt'm. EW' n in Iirht
. 1lO'II", t.ra..b m.aJ«, .Wong shadow lineo ..
f l'Ol'l\ Sharp turns . h<>l lld be
. YO\ded beo:&...... tM .....ultln.. . now ridgn cut
.....ell hMvier I-haoo..1l. Th.. l'Ii nriplet
at.-...l th......pout t hn diacuu.ion .ppl,. to
InlOW' «>WrM teninn. with . bit more emphaala
an following Daw r . l shedow ca.sti ng terrain
Une•. It i. abo important that all ,·ehlel...
keep to the same tn.ckl. Vehiel.... leavinll" the
track or road may achieve ahort perl oda of eoneea lment by dri vinll" directly Into or
.....y from the aun, ....hado1l'1l by th......
tnc'b willllOt .... . ,parfllt until tM. un . t rl b"
them from an . nlrle. Short lenCha of tracka
ma.r to. If they . ... not too dwp, by
t ramp/in.. t hem with .no....'-.
• • 51. .... Siting and t nlCk diociplilM! do midi
. to con<ftl a v.... but .hIDe ea.n nullib thO'
bett alle a nd finest tnck d iol'ipline. Shi llt' ill
alw.Y" IlftI'Mt _t- there • liPt in u'e 10k,..
HnUPt. moonlight. or tha Ii«ht of t1a..... . It ia
CAuoed by windlhield. headlirht . cab .. indow.
wet vehlele body. and even by the light
of the In. ignia. Th...... d..nger spot. must be
conce.led by any mea lUl. The betrayinll" nat ur..
of I hl n. Mould nev..r be unde......timat<'<!. Ev..n
unlkr ....v,. co\.... ...hiny obj.., ta m.y
be rev_led through the of,
e. 54a4<nD. There t wo kind.. of lhadowa
to canaider in <:amoulla One i. the evncuUn..
ahadow eut by object. on th.. Irf'Xlnd. From
the al r . these aPPMr 10 dark that a vftIide
partied. wi thin tillm hu a cood dian« of re-
maininl: undetecled (IiI:. SO) . III the norlherll
hemio.phere, the north aid. lIf a n obj ec1 hllther
than vehide ift the beat ft ide on which to
park; the east and ...... , ides . re danp roua
for hal f . day. The lither kind of . hadow
consider I. that c....t 1>y Ihe vehid e i1llell. Th b
rev tinll . hadow moat he hidden by pArkinl!"
eith in t he or II larvr obi",t h. f'lt.
plained. above, or by pIIrklnll" on the . unny side
of the obj ect (fig.lI l). In addition . th.. ImlIllfr
&hadow . reas eontained. within the vt'hlele
itaelf aueh &II the I hadow lin", lIf the truck body
ia and around the CAb. beneath th.. fendt'ra.
withill the w'-I&. a nd in tM lIpen bad< lIf the
carp must be /;IIo(' ked. out fllr tht'r toll
facilitate ldenti lirati on. I n .nowy ' reM with
little or no eaver, vehid ea ca n be parked. fad
direo::t1r inLo the IUn 100 nodlin' tM •
which u n tht'll ),., fu rther reduced and brolIn
up br large _balk or ho'" dg,. in the
Snow thrown on t he helps ta
diarupt tltia tell. tale ...
24. Co_ fla.. M.a ....
.. Sili d A. is alwaY" the
.,.". in nomouftal'f. the ai m of rood ......ide
aiti ng is to occupy the wl'I1lin ..ithout alterinl
it.s appea.ranc... TlI do thill, '·eh id... should be
parked. under natur al COVer whenever evan,
able. When cover is inadequate, they should be
parked. ItO that the shape of the v.... ic1e will
disappear Into th.. .ur""",ndin,.. Before a
driver ea.1l al tt hia Vt'hiclf to takf advalltap
of the collCalment 01 his au...
rooudiap, he must know hc>w the difterent
tenaina \o<lk from thO' ai r . hl combat 10.-
this knowledp la aa imp::>rtant &II kIlowilll how
to drive the 'f'fhldea.
• • UN 01 N. t. rtd Wbile «wd ail--
in.. and diapenion . re _ two-...un-
they .... not ..nough. Gn.\.er concealmfDt ea.n
be had by aupplementi ng th..... m",,,ureI wi
natural materiaL. to br eak up t he , ltaPf an
, h..dow. of the vehic1l!ll . Thi. mat erial Is . 1-
m08t a lway• • vailabie near a park ing site and
ca n be erede<l alld removed. quiekly. When Cllt
foliaj(e ia used. it ah(,uld be rept&c«l &II 110OII
aa It . tarts to ...ith.... (ti..... 1I2 I nti 33). Alter -
ing the color of vt'hicletl or addi llll" tu t ure to
them are other ....Y'!' to aupplement slti q and
diapenion. Color may be cb&nKed. by applrilll
mud to the bod,. aDd tarpaulill. folloorilla:: Uw
prinei""" ,;Vftl
may be . dded all or in pattenl aha"", by
attac:binl If,o\' M, b ..,. ........ 01 coline IaDd
to the aurf"",e with an adh""ive.
c. Pat"' " Painting. Pau..m painti ng of a
vehicle not a t ureal1. It i., ho....ever, •
able l upplmlent to other cAmou/lall"f meullr....
Addf<l to F.>Od siti ng. dlseipllne,
a nd the """ of neta, it inc..- th.. benefit to
be der ived. f rom auch m..&IIu rn. Vehicle pa].
terns An df6icned. to diarupt the Cllbe &hape of
vehicl... from al l angIee of vie..... to di l rupt
I h.adowa. a nd to tie ill with the . hadow at tM
rear of • vehicle wht'll it it faced. into the
alln. &II wfll .. thO' large dark Ihadow a reta of 4
wiDdo_ ......... and Ullder-.,
- - - - - ~
__. _ . c ~ ... ~ _
( ""..0
J '-
-.~ ~ .
--- -
- ~ - _ . _ ~ - -

, ~ H. U ... ., _ _ ~ ....
Th. patteI'M m t boP bold to
be .1'1" a t a dista Whit.. or lip t ....r
paint i. a l'l'!iO'd. to u.. undor-nurl_ of u..
v.... to ca u,,", 0....... to n-ftfct liJrht. thua
lilfht..n i.... the darll ahadowa of the undoor·
ca r rialCt'. Thia is U>nn'" ""ount..",hadi ng." A.
" reviou.I ·. tated . patwrn 1,,.i ntinl1 IOlone ,..ill
not "m"" 1 It which.., To I... it mu.t
b<' l' n ,per haekjl"round and
ai ti njl". Ile<-au... today' a m,..t..rn mechanized and
hiKhly m....ile unib have the ca pability of
t ..vel i.... Il"nfIt di.tan<:ft over n ried t..rrain
and Il"l"<>wth. pattern painlinll" el'l"edi\'e one day
Imoy be totally'«1A e the .......t day. In
fact. the patwrn Imoy f\..... prove to be a de-
tri nt b)' rencleri the "ehieloe C"OIlBp...........
In 'here is a daily problem, , -HIid e
cono:"flllment is Imode m h .... itot if the \'ehirle
ia painwd ... ith the "n pattern allO"'"11 in liIl"-
u.... 3-1 Th.. nlltional lin', '-n Mt
oil' the " ..hkle in t he fol1" ... injl" i!1u. l ....t ion. in
order to .h"... the mote d'·lItly.
Whether or ..ot to d iminate Ihem and oll'er
common v.·hieula r mUllt br d.....
l<'nnined by hill"he r lIuthori ty.
d. .... The pri""il",l . r1itlcial material-
to cooc....l veh iclft a re dl1lpe neu. Tho:)"
are .....y to use. quickly .NCted, and quickly
.....".,....... Dra"," IM.'t5 e"". ll'i \'" ........1"1ft. COlt-
....Iment apiMt dinocl ",,-"al ion. but , _
with ..-I; a rtifirial ("llmoul'la!r" mawriBl.. ("II.
f""'<l llfll tly br drt«ted by ph"totmol oh ie 0
....n ·.tion I« a u... Ihey or"'n fIo il In 1>1
properl y with the ......·kjl"rOund. In "" ery ,.
however, properly .u"pendP<l lind . uPI'0rti'<l ,
dr a)""" do the uf II whicle,
even (hough t h.. drllpe net il.<elf may 1.., d...
lected. :>I na a.... n.-.t ..,.."mnl<' nd..t in s now
aN!a&. They ""'<lui.... mai nt .
cannot aupport • ano... looad. and Ilt'COIlle rt.
frozen, blilky. and hard to hantlle.
e. Di,l,l;",l I . , In a deoert" or a ny 0,,",
t..rnon te-rrain, the ],ower an ,.., j«! ;.. to u..
VOUnd, the omaller is ita ..,.,... and the
easier it is 10 from rial ,"_no'ation.
When the .ituation pennitll. ,,'·et)· eil'ort m_
be mad.. to dill: in i mportant ' ·.... id"". :>lot only
. .... th..)· mort' eL. ily ron,.....If'd LuI ....... al...
prut..rt..d from f raJl"ffienb . An n ell""tion iI
nUllle, wit h a . Ia nt ill/I: IIp1'r h ,. nd whiclo
i.. ]IIIrked in the l,iL San,I l(lf ",... u....J to form
a ....'· plm.... 1 fur I'roteeti"n a ..d t h whole thi n,
ia co,· with .. net. The net i••I"I'M KenUT
out to the tid. a..d alaked d n. Finally. tho
"Miele t ....,kB to the p<lI!iti on a 001
or covered.
FVo<... n . ,....,. .......... "'- " h " . ~ . f ...... ..4 ........
f.l• .. ....." ..,. ito "" . wI • __
e..-, ._ _ 01_ .... ......,.. _004 _.. _-
_n._ "_.. ..~ .......
a li.. dfOb and .... ' 10 rN b1""d with reddish deu . 1badll"ounds . O,h.. l i';' l
col".s wulu! in du el" are sand "nd earth yellow. p"""",, break up "ngul'"
lines ,
III Wh". on, . 1... ,hobf ~ b,,, ' ,,, ,,,,,, ,, 0' ond "... Ao """ II, . H",;"
" b ~ . ; , blool onJ whd•. I, , "ow, ".",.., ,; , , ;, 00' "'co..",
2.5. R. _allnt fackl ..
AI 18 the t ue ...ith all other imped.lm..ta of
....rfare. aklilful ...lm""t of artilluy
"''''''PO''' a n add iJnlMasu..bly to the eIemel:lt
of svrprIM all '" thmu to the defNt of the
mom,.. EMm,. obaerven .re tnilled to -reb
for certain "'el'miw lIigM whleh indicate the
presenee of artillel'J'-imperfeo:tly t&moulU.aed
"'Npo1l poAitiOlll,. blut a.... Ih tar. I'Atha OJ'
...hee' t rvka, ....... in the eu.e of • mlulle aiW.
the u rtJ" rom lll" .,an III the t.erraiD
pattern n_itated. by a level ftritllr pad aDd
fv"'inr and exlta, etc. Even thourb
the WN polIa them.oelves . re hidden, auth limo
are dead RiveawaY" of the p.......nce of artillery,
These l ir n. may not of themtelvea IndIcate
the nat ure of the po.ltlun. but they
do at tract enemy a.t tent ion and Invite more
t llretulobaervBtinn.
26. Camouflage M.cnVrM
... COl''''''''''" F'ad on. Camoullage Il1eUUJ"8!l
vary with the . ituation ....d are a lf«ted by the

(I ) There wi.II be litUe opportunity to
camOQllal!'! poaitiona extenllively ...Ilea their
oceupanQ" will be of Mort du...ti on, If it lhould
dev""'p that the "'",pona mnst remalll Ionl!'!r .
their Iocat !..... un then be improved by better
l iti hjl' and hidiq:.
(2) Wh,," the b&«eri.,. a re deployed for
a c:oonl lnlte<l attN:k, the lou\l on l>f each bat-
tery and uf ea.cll pie<:" ahl>uld be t lretully
( 8) In a defenlive lIetll>" . extensive
cllmoull,,1l'll II devel oped, Utmost pr ecautl on
mtllt tlken to deceive Ihe all to tIk.
""'allon of the iu tailatiolL
b. Sitioo#. Th.. eIacl ...-ition for the elemmta
of a battery. ...ithin the uaigned ....,... mt1lt
po , """"ral qualifieationa:
01 'nil field of fire.
IZ) Room f or disp"..ioa of ..._ po.... ve-
hie.. alld other equiPmeDt onranle to the bat-
...". I
(a) Opportunity to establish oommuniea.-
tiou without e.....ti"lr attenllon ptti....
ecan and patha.
HI Opportunity f or a<:<:+Q and l upply
routell . It 11 desirable to have roulM auilable
to the front, llanka. lind rear. Thl l 11 lmporta.nt
In l ituatlona where it may be nec""",,ry to
make l udden changes in position, When per_
IOnnel, ammunition. equipment . and other
aupplies' a", moved into poIIltll>n, they moo
follow .. prepared traflle plan ( para 2SlI (2 )).
e. Nf t.. Wherever natnn l ooncealmeot is
lmpoaibla or difficult., lIuitably p milhed hoi...
neta a nd t hicken wire are quick and e1'I"edi
nwana of co...,.bnent. Care mu.t be takHl
fl>l.lo... the oolT'e<'t methoda in theit nM! (
s-tOOl . Wire nettillll". althoull"h heavi er Uld
bull<i..... hc*il ita f orm better. ia more durable,
and I. Invaluable for poIINona of a relatinl,.
permanent uture. The t wine neta. belli&'
Iipter a nd eaai..r to handle a re better adapted
to mobil....ituatl onl and temporary """iti ona.
Both kinds an be ll"amillhed wilb doth I m lll
and natunl materiall ( fill'll . s.G and 361.
<to Patt ,,", Pai"ti..". Pattern painting or
artillery plecel a n be an etl'ective aid to ece-
eealment alld ill designed f or use in
t.errain. ( ti ll", 87) .
Hq....1 J " ~ ".;..ilo """"". 10<1 by _ 01 ft" ural ",..loon . l,
F;""... 65. T_ ..... p 01 ...._H... "'_ . ..
Not ..pplo......t1 ...........rsl ria.. f o ' _I..... " _ J ..... ",i..l...
"' U _C_li..-t.
F.... n . IV" _ ..".,....,..., _ ...,.......... --.l • _
h ...._ . ~ _ .
,.' : :.-: ".". , .:
"._._........ ...~ ..
_I..... .. ~ ....... -
---_.. -
_. ...... ..
.....- .. ..._.. , ...
__ • 1 .. -..
-_... _.-.
,.. - ... _--

,._ , ~ '",
...~ .
27. Introduction
The measures for concealing aircraft on the
rround follow the same principles of camou_
fiage as those for the conceal ment of any ve-
hicle or it em of eq"ipment. However, the
Can10uftage of fi xed and rotary wing aircraft
poses some unique problema which. must be
consi dered. These are the effects of propeller
and rotor wash ; the size and ohape of the air-
croft; the difficult ground handling character_
istics; and t he delicat e nature of cont rol aur _
l&cell, antennaa, and aircraft skin.
rcraft must be situated in an area with easy
cess to taxiways and r unways. Thi. io an
operlitional requirement wit h which camou_
flage must not Aircraft parked in
line are extremely vulnerable. Paniculer care
should be taken to sel ect parking sites in which
the aircraft may he blended with the natural
vegetati on, wh ile at t he ""me t ime obs" rving
prop"r disper.ion (fig. 38). Good sit ing in it-
self does not eliminate possible detection.
Wher e nat ural overhead cover is non"xi.tent,
improviSllt ionocan he "fI'eetive ( fig. 39).
29, ShiM ond Inoi9nio
Light reflections from the m"tal and plexiglass
surfaces may be observed shining t hrough ,wen
the best of overhead concealrrlent---natural or
artificial. The moment lin a ircr aft is plirked
Prope, dl'p" roion m",n. "'0'" tIl.n j ut .p.ciTlll" porked 01' 0-..1•
• t • di.tonco f rom one •• ohown . I>ovo
Air.....' . p.rking,
)ll iI;,*", obj«&a .._ bo In a .......... ""' I....... to
_ cIunoop f ",.. ..tad
and r amouflal/e begun, all II' la.., plutlc, and
ahiny metal auri""e" must be r., \' ered, Extreme
care must be used when coverfng alrcrd t
surlllr ea, All coven must l"., " "' Ul'ed a. ud it i.
recommend,>d. thllt ""me means for ma. r king
each coVe r be u...-d to pr e,'ent attempUd a ka-
off while aur h coven a nd mater ialt!
a... attachoed.
30. ....nt wittt
Artitidal """'''rial,
In man,. c__ it "'ill be n..........ry to n&o" to
the uM of artilXial camoufl.altt materiaIJI to
""pplement inadequat e ""t ural temi n feaw....

... Slti>do.., ,'{eta. Shadow neta " laced on the
lfn>und, under the craft , will break and diator
the ouUine of th e llh!<dow, even i t t he craft
in t he open (fllt: , 40 ). When aur,h mater ials an'
used, t hey must be tightl y sceured to wen
anchored .tak"" or other sui\lible atUirhm. nll
Otherwise, (I.mou fl alle mate rial. may I... dr• ..,
int o th" rotor blad or proJM'lI...,. " f ai r
d ...... Additionally, ell must be u erd sed 'hoI
or placing a rtillci..l m..1.o' rialJl, .
to p " ...,t to th" ail't"raft a nd not iI
terr , Ith oP'l'rations and maintena..... ...
ill.ll' p"" aM post-llip t in.op«tion..
1>, H A twine or ... ire Jl<'t ha.m1llOll
hunll _ n t.....". I/i'..... additional o\'f'th
prot«-t ion in ll)lll.rael)· ......ooed ,, ",U , T....
- ~ _ . _ ..... ~ ..
_.. _ ~ .. _.._...
-_ ..-. .. _-
._.. __ ~ ... -
"-_._-.. _,..
- ,- _.. ...._..
- - ~ - - ' "
...., - ~ .... -
.._ " ' _ . " ~
-_ ......
.. __"" .
-_ --
..... - ~ _ . ~ ..-
_ ...
_ - ""-
- - - ~ - , -
, -
, -

10· Border of dark
Oflen Oarnishinljl
(1. '4*Qf' zone)
60% Black pnithinc;l
40% OCi ve drab
Hoi.. in net
to distort
5hod.....,,. a•• ,..., ... Aage ..ata vami..... d to OPl>"' CI . lI"""P 01 ,,,-.gular pille""• .
If rt.. .. " i , not . "",I ,bl • . dark c1 eth with 'om in .. boo used sucuufully. or
d,'" poteht . eOtl bt p'o6Jcitd by bumini tCl p . br.. .... or ."' .. Nbri. Ie produce aslln ...
..... by pouring c:ro..kC1lH ..,."."p <WI t"- gr_d. lol a" end cloth do ,,",U tI.t od'UM ....
in , th.y <;<Ill ... ......... If "" ,cop'-" .... 10 l....d ond lah olf u ..ets or d .....
co , be 10k.. to -"or "'"' he....l, •.,..i,,11 the wind c ..1 by ",,.,OfOt bled .
rv-... u. s.-.....
III II .....~ ...I eo_ ftopo <5 .oood_ _ , ~ _ . ~ I _ _ ..... . 0
..........., "" .0 _.,., be ~ ,,_ _ _ ._
"..".... if. H _ ..-....., .. 00 .
can be with either artifi cial or nat-
ural rnaterlal.o, or • combination of Ix>th (/\g.
41) .
V",btvll<>. Stffnu. Another technique II
to ;, l eri es of overhead tram
umbrellaa f rom wires Itrung bet....n "
(1Ill'. 42) . Davi. "" of this t )·pe oUltable fe
&mall only.
0- - - - -
1i",,'i1 o' • ..,in'il Migllb ..... oi,..""". ...... 1........ topS Tbo,
al low 8*10• • , ...d ,....,icin'il_ _ , ......i . t oI louolol>, . ,..1. 001, gl, ..
libe" chi 1....1-., .. h..h foli, ge ("" I, ,,.. _ • • be ...d f9Sta<<<I II
i• • hi l-
Drol"., To conceal compld ely againlt
't enemy oUaervd ion, draPM mUlt be 10-
ted near t reea or bmhell. or on Jrround brok....
by low lICrub /fro"o"th. If the terrain II of
trat1&lion. l it ina: should be- in the ahadow lide
fI folds In the vound or within mottled ..........d
pstterns, . uch as are f ormed by rock outerop-
piap. In Iucb, drape nN win llide the
llntity of aircraft bli.t ..-:ill not COftce&l them
-.pletely from enemy aerial photo interpnta-
n . ' 0"""
Proper l>ainti nr helps an aiRran blend with
its surroundi ngs by di!torti1ll' r.h...acteristic . min imlli n&" eolor cont rut. a nd r ...
ducin&" .hine. This i, all it will do, Whll. these
elements of recognition au the r avealln&" ones.
i. more often that the aircraft'l , h&pe.
lhadow, li.nd accompanying evidence of acti vity
&I'll the pri m.ry c.u,e.. of enemy detection.
The value of pattern paintin&" mU8t, therefou.
be rewarded u an &.<let only. wbml I.IMd lu
with camou.tlap prineiplel and
.. I"OOd ,mIlK. diapenioa. track-
nt, d iaclpline. and the .....
a nd natural materiUt. It l ol»wl
J>altern 01 aircraft k of limited
when eoruidoeri n&" a:round tD air ot-........
of 10.. all d medium_level. aiRraft.
.. The paint I hOllld boI l....
IIld of the pnodominaht color found in the
tw'al terrain patl.ema in ..hieb the a lr<
be aited. In tempe...le &0_ a ad j un&"1e
ar M. and partl&lIy snow covered the
color recommend ed is drab. Tn pr'fdom_
inantl}· Inow COVerN terrain, a""h ... the arctic
and IUl tarctie . ..... the crafl ahould be com_
pletely while ..ithout a pattern. In
d_rt ten-alna. b«aw.e of th.. varlalJons. Do
u nci" color ia recoonmendf'd. ool, deoert
....nd, euth yellow. earlh red. or mixtu.ree of
theM l\C)!Iln.,
/.I. DiInopt"" P tltl#'IU. Although the buic
oolor pl"OYid<!ll a high of camoutlaJre. in
lOme eaAeI. dilrup!;i ve patt.el'1lll add a m..1Ti...1
iD.<:1'tiH. The ptl nci pl... of pattO' rn palnlJllK
di3euued in paraea ph ar.. the aame for
ain:raft-irrep lar. JaJve. and bold, and of a
c"lor U> blend with t h.. terrain pattern. (Color
fond bri&"htn_ contl'll"ts not pr ..... "1 In the
bfoc\<&"round become ccnsptc uoue and Ihould
alway, be avoIded.) Black i l recommended for
the disrupUv, pa.ttern color In temperate ZllIlell .
j unillell . u d deserts. except area. ot the dllert
havi n&" Ii&"ht shado... in ...·hir.h c.... ollve drab
II more ell'.ctlve. I n partially In"", caverN
terrain apill oUv.. drab is r«onunended. III
the &rctk alld u tarrlic th.. craft Ihould be
romple"ely white without a ny dianJpti ¥. pat.-
tern. Wben t« eonsidll"lltiOll8 make it
practicable. rotor bladell cn heIJeopten esn be
pai nW--the upper anrf..... oIi" e drab and
nnder aurf_ black. In arctic Llld lWltarrlX:
areal the uppel' lurface IhoIlld be whi te. Fij'-
ure -is iUuatratea _ill'" plttem&. Th_
l imply I Unesti on.-no cDe set rn ahould
be follo",.-1 ...Iiciously ai nce YltI ",y ia a1"'ar-
deeirable in eny eamoullage ........." .....
~ O @ ~
n. Introduction ill. bi , ''''''''' ill ..rticalarly vullM' nWle to>
_ y ......i..1 .. nd ..ttack """-liM
ill ..Itm..,b .. re CO!lI'IPnt raW<:! in a smal ler arna
than usual; and. uupt for th.. ,,",urily ..Ie-
_ nta. th.. m"n ...... rest iDJl:' and 1""", .....rt than
OIl th.. field (or haUl... It ill at such a li me th..t
....moutlaj{<' be ..t its l -t (11K. It) . The
unit mll-.t not only co"...,.1 i......l f Quio:kl)· and
..m..ientl).. but Ill t . ....oid the danren of
bl'1/Ja("h... in arnotlll di""ipli n...
33. SID," of o......lopment of 0 l i...o_
The.... .. .... four . tl&ges in th.. d.......lolom.. nl of ..
camauflaa-e &tandpoint, the mal ntr"anc"""
relativ. ly .imple. Succ..... rul
voivee f Nlq_t 11Ilpecti<ln of in,.tallaliQn•• IIC-
tive patrol measures for dixipline. and ...hl!ll
_ rble, aerial obroervatiol\ . nd phol.olf1"llpha
CritkaI aetivitiN of a uBit i n bivouac an
thoae that caU for the <:<lIIll'J"f'P.ti on of tJ"or>P',
of whkh meain. la the beat U lIo/llple. It iI
h.... that the tracl< plan must be .....
f orced. Ottell It ma,. be ""'_ ry to p""" idl
artiftc:lai O"er Mad cover, ....,h u lldtopo; /If
d rape nets. ""heft uBed, mm be c. ..
fuU,. mal ntaiMd. dlapoo<al pits mll9l
be with special c. re Iflven to tbl
spoil Maintena nce ef nili'M di&ci pli.... iI
another dllllculty. Men t end to re lu at nip;ht
The &lIJn' standard of dhw: ipliM
muat be cbeerved by night ILa by dIIy, sinc.
nilfht photography will ot1ffl reveal I
unit th" t ha. become lax in thl. reapect. 'Vir"':
and taped pathe must be followed. Bla.ckout
wnt r ol mllllt be enforced.
4. Camoudaa:e meuul'ftl
at . blvouae do not end ..heD the unit pn!pa....
to move alit. An evac:uated .ru can be '
auch a of dil!&rRJ" that . erial
win 1"t'Ve&l the rtrmgth alld In- of the •
itt Iquipon.n, aDd even itt drstinatir>n. II il U
importazlt of r:amoullap to the UIlII
Jookin. UIUl.!.turbed.
M .thn nil In larren T_ift
Es.perjenc. on the defiert hu taulChl m
. bout eol'l«lllmmt in alWla h0l'J"e.
venient O\'erh.,.d cover i. ..\dem found.
a,..,.., eomparable to the dl'Ae rt u far
eam.oullap Ia concerned, an unplowed liel
rocky areal , gr ..... lallds, and other wide op
apacel. The delert has taught that eoncealme
In such anu is not impauible ( i'tp;. ( 5)
Cwtain killdll of predominanUy fl llt terra
have l hadowa cu t by f olds In the
ial'ee el'lOUa- h to allo.... lOme col'ICealment
eittill,f . 1_. J udieinua ..... of drape
C&Il n.o.der objerta IncoDJIpir:uo.... Even in
_ ti ally baf"ftn teTrain exee1Jent
i R poaable when the eonl'tguratiOll of
.rrnund Is Il'ftgUlar enoup to produce a
Ihadow patWrIl..
35. li¥auoa In Snow e-..... h rr ..
Althourh conceaiilllf. blvoUAl' in Rna eo
bivoul&C- planninp;, ""'Cupation, maint.<onance,
and eVlCllation. Since it ia often pollaible and
pl'<lloable thal units mUllt mo"e withoot oppor -
t unity for r tannina:, t hi" "tloa:e may be lacki ng.
In thia caM,. the five poinb: liated in
pa,.,.,.raph .. must be satisfwd in the . 1'ftI on
. nd alt er nrival.
• . f'ftquent .,.. d!&lac-
teri.atie of modem mobile .... rf. n. Th ere ia
oeldom time or fllciliti"" for daboraw colllltrue-
t ion; in..teM. bivou&cll ..... quickly enten:<l .nd
qu.ickly evacuated. No lD/lttar how . 'll'i n u...
operatlon or how limited .... Urn, . nd faclJ...
iti.... the eornm. nd"r of • unit mud "b n for
concealment in bivou"". The gener. l .rea at
the bivOlIl( la determined by 1M! tl.ctieal pl.n.
Before ROl nl{ Into thi" area. the quarter ing
party ahou ld become familiar with t he terrain
pattern th roull'h a careful "tudy of mapa and
aerial photoa-rllph9, and be tully IlCqllainted
with the taot k al plan ..nd the camoufl age
Nlquil"fml'flu . There . re live cr it ical pointa for
the party to keep in mind :
(I) Mia ionof the uniL
(2) A ttelIlI routes..
(a ) ElI; i.I;tina: oonee&Iment in thearea.
(. ) SiR of t ho area.
UJ Concealml!l1t af all . !'<lund defense
elenlent of the poo<ition.
II. O«upatiorl. A carefully eoatroll..t
pl.n 2301( 2» mu t be rll(idly adheftd
to while th" units move into pooitlrm. Guld...
poated . t route j uDcl:ion". fully awar. of the
camoufl &£"e plan, enfo,,"e C&D\aUfl alfe dlecipline.
Tum_i na mllat be marked to pre vent widening
of comer. by vehicle3. Foot troop. mU&t foHow
marked pat h" through t h. area. Thil< b a
crit ical period and had camoufl age db clpline
can neglte any f urther effort at coDC....lmenl
There mull be no oonge&ti on of vehlel"" or
IICtivit iet . nd dispenlioo lIhould alltomati e.
,5t,ldorn ...·ill vehic..... be Jey than SO meters
. part in ordi nary terrain or Iesa than 100
meu,.. in d_ rt terrain. The three main COD_
lI' ""ted arua-kitchen, maintenance. and the
comm&D<t peal mlll<1: be dir.peraed.
c. Kerl to the occupatloa ltaee,
tl'le ..... inleuance stalfe la the moot en t ial. If
the occupat ion h.u been &uc:r:eafful f n>m •
!ermin follows eXllctly the Slime principles as
other it presents several unique
problems. A blankd of .now eliminates
much of the ground makinl{ blemdinl{
difficult. in lind color dis_
' p!"'ar or Loecome le:lll marked. Snow cove red
lerrain, however, is rarely completely white,
and by taking advantage of dark in
the lands,'a!,e. communicatiOOl lines, st ream_
beds, evergreen tr""s. bush"", shlldows of snow
drifts , folds in the ground, and the blllck
,hadows of hillsides, a unit on the move or in
bivouac may often blend iL.elf suc-ce.-fully
into the terrain. Good route selection is usually
more important t han ,my other cllmouflage
measur es. Because of the exposed tracks, skis
and snowshoos must not be ulled nellr the IIrea
'nee their marh are more shar ply defined
n foot trach. To avoid tracking up lin area,
sonnet. vehicles, and material should be r e-
st ri ck<! from the oP<'n a reall. Bivouac.. which
have been well concealed in snow terrain for
some length of ti me can be .,. " .i ly identified
when the snow melta, unle.. procautions lire
taken. Compacted snow on much used paths
melts more slowly than the uncompacted
snow, l,.,.ving clear ly visible white lim's on a
<!.a rk background. When t his ",,-curs, the '!I"W
must he br "ken up lind spn .,.d out to qui cken
melti nl{. The beat way w minimize conspicu_
ousne.. of t racks when mnving "r in bivouac
is to follow communicat ion lin es " r other lines
which are a natural Pllrt of the terrain. Tracks
coincidinK with .uch lines lire hllrd to identify.
A turn-olf f rom such lines must be concealed
a nd the t tllcb themselves continued beyond the
point Windswept drift lim' s cast shadows and
should he followed " . much a. possible.
StralKht tracks to an imp"rtant ins le. llation
mus t he avoided.
36. Command Potts
c. Th e post . imply c .pedallzed
kind of bi vouac. with a f _ ad(lltional prob-
lema of w ncealment p""ullar to it.. The eom·
mllnd poIIt i. the nerve cpnt er of II military
unIt and lJeeause of ia I/. much aought t l/. r·
by the eneroy. Command posts han , f unc·
ue...... re<l ui"""en'" ..hieh ........It in e"'-
tioll of cJluad;erlrtle aignll, by ..hieh they mar
be ftAdily iMntilied. Someof th_ aA;
( 11 lin_
wire and r oad.
( 2) Concent nl.t1on of vehi d e•.
(S) H N VY t l'llffic whlch al U_
t llm-iDs.
(4) Nn- acceea routft to a poIoitiooll ...hlch
eoul d bo!.I... .. CPo
(5) Protective wire and other bar rinl
l urrounding the inltalla.ti on.
( 6) Deten. lve weapon. emplscementlJ
a round th. iMtallati o...
The ..ll'" lOiutio1:l to th_ problema u
m""h the ... that for , bivouacs. The
pr illUU'y facton an intellllf"Ilt use of the
te rrain and backsrround, and . trlct e..force-
ment of camoufl all"e discipline.
b. The aite re<luinmenta of a Iarp <:ommll nd
poat are _ Ilt ially the aame IU for a aood
bi vouac: pre]imina17 rectln..u..s.nct and lay.
out, qUllrter illll" parties, rapid eone lment of
elementA, e..moufl"Sl' e dilOCipline, d Il well
policed t rack ptan to prevent vi.l tor. from
viola.ting it. There la " ne important addit lon&l
ro""idenlioon. A luge ill likely
to remain In an a'" for .. ,.-.ter 1eD.Jrth of
ti me tha.. a bivouadted uniL It la for thia
rtlUOII that the aite mU&t be capable of being
conti nlJOul ly occupied while olferl nK a mi ni-
mUm chance of being disclOlled by chanSl' el in
the terra in pattem . It is unwise to \ocate a
hMdquarten in only Iar l" buildi ng within
an extoo....ive a.- of military ope ...tio..... It ill
too obviO\l5 .. for auch • poIot whether
aigna indic..te it I. being used 1.1 a head-
quarter. or not , and i. likely t o draw enemy
fire. If the command poot Ia located in a buil d-
Ing. the"' mWlt he ..nooKh other bui klinp in
th.. area to p",,·tnt pinpointinl" th.. taryet..
c. Communicati ona ...... the l ife blood of a
poet . Command poetl ,ited to take
advantall"e of e][iat in« . oalb a nd telephone
telo-rr;;.ph wi...", ...... to ain<:f' ;;7;
ronununntio,," nHd. not lot c""'ted and the
te. l" can . etI'Ulin unch.nlCf'd. Wh... l>eW" rom-
munication mean. mu_,t be c",/lt.!'d. nat ural
cover and terra in linp" llre u. eel (fi&", . 46
throuSl'h lit ) .
d . After the aite haa t-n ""l...,ted and atlf'.
baa eno:l.f'd to aupl' lemtnt
_ hateve. natural eonrealmf'nt i5 available at
the l ite, eont inued conceal_ nt dependa on
dil d pline. Track8 a. alwa,. must be cont rolled,
vehid"" Ihould, if l-., Ible be park..c aeve. , l
hundred mMe,.,. from the command poaL Secur-
ity weapona and ..mplll<'ement8 mUlt be ron-
cealed; tncb to them. mult be inronapicuOUL
AU apoil must be cea ee..led. P rotlPctin wire
and communicat ion ...i .... must follow terrain
lin.... and be well concealed as poMil.ole.
Night blackout dloeipline mu.t be r igi dly
Rout... to parkins a rea.a for v\alton.
mun be maintained in a«or danee with the
t rack plan.
e. I n open ter ...ln where natunl
il affor ded onl y by small IlCt ub !l"rowt h
rock., ev..r hMd cov'" can be r>l lLa lned b)' usl neb or fl ..ttops. Ev.... in detoert te. ...ill,
broken c round and IIc: rub V"ll"' tation form
i. retrU1ar patt..rna " ' it b which artitlci..l mate-
ri al. may be blended. DilltJli nlt in T1i'd uc...
Madow and ailhoucttes. " ..d siml,hfies dnpinr
of emphlrements or tentlo. In open terrain
disi", •• ion i. partioula . ly importanL Rout ...
bet ween element>. must be ronce..led 0. madt
by ind inct c<>Ur--.l'f" ...r in atnigbt Ii .......
I . H1"adquarten in exi.t inlt civilian atrue-
ture. p........nls the problem or hidina: mo,'..ment
b)' day and cone... ling the evidence of activit,'
at niKhl , when hlae1ol<>ut condit io"" u.ually
prevai l. )liIil.ary mm'ement In .. villa$:e 0. I
/lTOUP of farm bui ldi n,", is not ......ily diJ,.
CO" ered if kept to a minimum_ Al.tmIpta to th appeal"lUlCe or bundin,", by
uve paint ing i. " f t>Ccupat ion ond
"imply reveuls a military Installation. Erec:ltoD
<:>f II small "t ruelnre . imulating • new ganil
or oth1"r auxil iary civilian building ill unliUb
to an>UI<I l uspielon. bl.l t a n)" ma jor . han,..
...iIl be c10Mly """n ned by " DI'mJ" ai r ob<.1"n·e
Wh en bulldinga are parti llll)" detlt royed I
• 1',. ..... U.
'''' 1''' "' 0.' ...........>WI ,... , .
fig. ... 11. 1"To,... I g,.. ! of "no"""'", ..i ....
i"stalla,i"". ..,IlY I... cI<.., ou-
fl ail"" with d"bris 10 bien" with the r<>uj{h and
jll"". ri Ii """ of Ihe sllrrollnri i" j(• . A f"w
hroken t iml... ra. pier•• of lath. pl".I. r, Ilnd
. c;oU" ....'<l rull'" will Ilcoompliah ' luk k lind effec_
t ive ""n'...... I.., e..l . othe r debrt. ulluany avai l-
able incluri.... ru bble, ""np met a l, w"""ked
vehid.", a nri f urn iture_
37. Points
" . The probleln5 in cam<Ml ll• • i" r . upply
l.,inu inrlud. all t he difl\(,ultiell or both
bivOWl< . 1Id "'''''mand t-t conceal",,.,,t. pi ,,,
• numl. ... of pa rt;.,ul>t. r ly lroubleooln" facl.o'"
(lC<"uliar to .apply poi nts al" ..". Sup" l)' points
" alj' In .i.... f rom lar l/." t' rom·...,l ral i<>n" of JIll.
leri al o In T61<r areas U. "m,dl pile.< or all!' pli"
in Ute forward 'ire,,,. F r"m a
viewl,."int , the la l'Jl'e conoentr "tl<,,, "r m..teri
io t h" m"in problem. UUIft' " m" untll " r "'l"i
ment Dr "nkinds are broul(hl " I' 'I" ic kly, mUll
Loe Ilnl""df>d a..d roncea led quit-kly, lind ) -.1
m"'l lit> eui ly f<:>r I'f<t ial r ibut.i
Flaltol'" n effecti ve "olution if the au
point. not too lallE". if t ime a..d .....te .
. re . va ilable. and if t h"y can t... made to
....ith tlw For auppl y poi ntll that tall
be ..y poin\.<. will ofWII dR
th" ,f)..... nl an """-""y att,..,k.
1>. Supply pointll make u"'" " f nlliural en
C-"'.... iCCl i... .. i•., " ,," liM by nmning ., I... g to deslin ch... . x o., ..ode
b, bur,ing cobin o, e c"",,, I.d b, loll.,.. ing •.,.,d'l ed9'" Ill ". _, be I!r Llllg fr_ 11.. I" I . u ,
lIf, .. """ pol., .... necen .,. " Ihey ,h""ld be pl" c"", olong e. iJl ,ng .e. roin li nes. Moin' enonce
cre.., espec iolly mus l be• .,•• 01 trod, ..hi d . c... • •go 10""'" c",","'ond posl
Fit/aro 10. /a , . f , ;" , .
ond eonr.."lmen t whenever I'...."ihl... StArk. of
, upplie" lire di", ,,,,.,,ed to dllmnlle
lrom II oi" lIle IIUnok. New IIeee"a r"n,lll lire
panned 1<, u"" exiatinll" o,'c rhclld cover. In
II\{)re pe1"mll"ent t r"" k. runni np;
thmUlfh shurt upen II ","" rll n be ' nt><....le<l hy
.....rIIead n..ta alunr t rt'<'S. T;" con_
trot i .....lurI... measu to "tlneN I ..ct i'·ity and
lIIO'" I t. ttl , and from the in. tallal ion.
Enoa when nalu..1 cover iOl . , or non_
flimont, nato..1 ter IN l u an IIU'd to
l4vanlalle. Thfon a ... few kindo or ter ..i"
rilich . ilI nut ha, '" to be uoed to .tore
d the.... an I ....· kinds. of terni" for whj"h
re " no lOluLion. In ""h i\-atN lWlda. Ml P.
pli.., elln I", laid out "I""il r " lIi" "ti" " line.
and with .trip-p;lI rni .•h...1 t wine neta
1<, re, ,.,,,lIl,, 1I1-11 ",1i" l1 ,tllhble. Fi ll"re r,2 iIl",,-
tra!.<'11 l", w 111 1'I ,li,'" ";i" loe "t a"kPd ror d""ep_
t iM. The I' lowed f<cld " , ,,ally "111, 11" t roll!' I,' to
"ttemptll lit t·.. m"uflnl(c, b" t ' '' PI.Ii.... <art be
..ta<kl'd ... rallel 10 the r.....,"'.... lid <""<'red
with ...rth <olort"d burlap_ From Ihe a it .
is ..ffect ive CUllCi'a ln.ent_ A""..... roul"'" ...
mad.. . Iunlt th.. f urro", s and "" unnat ural lin....
appea r on t he JIllIt.>r n_
e, C&mO<l nllK\' dhl<iphn.. lTtl'W'u al ...
ply poi nta inc:ludt' t rad < plans lhat ull in a
minimum of ..hanr=s in thP a IOi _ ra....e of
1<'Tn'.;n• ...,nl rol d dt'l,r ;.. "" t hat il dc_ ""I
llttUmutate a nd altra.:t enern)- ..u.-n1.ion. ron-
' ".... ~ • . IIr .... _"', a lO ' Ptlr rHJ (UI,..,j
';__1 . ...!", Io<>p is ..... .<4. Tb o .
__roo .".,.. _....., .._ _ /' .too
___.. e«-t•• f in. ,..... ,._01•• _
--..I. of • ,w, ,.. f.- ,4< CPo
1'..... .:0. SMAll,.. ......... ...... ,.,. ...;...... Qrn..
~ - ' -.... ~ I _ .,. ~ _,....u _,...
"lr ;" _ .." .., . V _ _ ..
.... iIdolt . -. , _ it""" I.
.i_ __,.
F'ip.. 01. r ~ _I'" _ ,-...r....,.u -t.
~ .... _ ~ 19 nVI...... ,.. ...... _..-.. EI,.,.
.,..- " " ~ , .. ..r•• •• ,- .,...r ...... __
..... .-. _iffl f. ,.,.." ...:f;"''l' ~ . ..
r ~ ior r. l"ft""'l _.... • .- _ ..
• d ................"" .
ealment u d rontr<>! of trw:b ....flin' w"'....'"
I\JPpliell. . nd Jnllintenanu "f ca""",II"£f
31,. e-floge of Waler Points
.... Faeton which a id in the con<'e&lme" t of
...u. r pointa a re:
(1 ) Ad!< con<'e1\led r oad net at
poi nt.
(2) Suffldenl nat ural to hide
"",i tinJ{ vehlclea.
( 3) Ad"'Quate concealment-ali:ift <'ial or
""t ural fOf Op" r&tin J{ personnel, etorall"e \anu,
Illd pumpl nll" and puri fi cati "n "'I" ;I,m..., t,
(4) Strict enron ement of camoull"ll"e di&-
d ptiDe.
(Ii) Colltl"ol of apilled water. ad"'Quate
d....inajrP W pfe\'ent "\.llndin« pool. of Wau.f
wilicll rel\ect mud> li ghl
/l , not auffid ently thick tor perle<1
COIll'elI.1ment ill aupp1emented by Datural lIlA-
teriala. llattt> or dn.pes. Concealmeat ia re-
quil't!d tor ter point equipmeat ; the obi""
of wasee in the tanks; and amall open areas
t hat muat he c.roMed by vl'hkl e. or Pl'l'8Oll.I1el
in operaUn/t t he poi nt. Shi ne on water CIOn be
eonc....led by COven; or IOnd the
characteristi c "hal'" of \.anh ca n be di,,\I,rted
by foliage of a rtifici al mater ial! .
e. CllllIoul'la«e di..:ip line " t 1\ ....ter point
f "'l uin. • wa ter supply ..chedole lor W1i nr
unitll . I_ k of a ..chedule. or ... io.>h..ti on 01 a
""hedDle, lMually produces a con<;ent....tlon of
"''''iti nlr vehiel<os ...hich cannot be e<>n«oaled.
T1>e princl ple. &rid methoda of
st .-ed throupout this rnanua1 are
to the of find and f'P!
man"",t In.tallationa. Any is merely
one of dlPKl'H of detailed planrdna Uld extnt
of eamool'laJrf construction proj «ta. Giv", the
ti me, matf,rIal, and labor, tMore b abnost DO
limit to the eonee&Iment that U n be &oeom_
I'li.hed, If the importan...e of the 1I1.lItaUation
jU. l.i nH loch expenditures. If ita importance
not for all-out camo...n" !l"e, ita visibil_
ity can .till be r educed materi ally by t he simple
method of tt>nl'do.... n. Thi s cha puor presents
' UggeotloM for analyzing prob-
lema, prf'l'il r inll" d...ilrfl s, a nd .ul>enoiaiull"
proj""u . TM 5-200 roveD the COl\lltructlon
maleriab and camouft llJl"e teehniq....... .... hich ca.n
be modit\1Pd to Ml it vari ati ona In " fl"'<' i'"
!<ta11. UOlUI.
40. OMi,," QIXI lity of Comollfloe-
The kind and of n.rnouftaln' dosired i.o
doU""inlPd by the l olk>wing l actoN.:
• . Important<! of in5bI.llation (how dillkult
it .....uld be to "'1'1_>.
b. Vulnf'l'a blHty of installation ( diapNllion
a nd au....."ti Lilit y to
e. Pro/.>a.ble ....l'IIIy Irnowledll"" and evaluation
of in. tallatl"n.
d. Exttont and effJciency of alr. warning
fadliti"" lind deleree or ai r sUl ,,,riori ty.
e. ProLable heights, dlrecticns of approach,
and t iml'" of enemy <l b.""rvati on ft . 11.11110k.
j . P robable .....1... of enemy obooern t lon.
g. Ave.... 1l"f' visibility ( rain, fOll". and other
almo5pMr1c conditional .
41. IlHtrictive Fad'on
Facton which may limit camOllfta"
G. PromlnHlt landmarb which o.en·e u
ref.........,. poInu for _ y pilob. PncliWity
of obaeuri n. th_ landmarks Mould be COII_
b. Normal operational d.......nda of ilUltalb.·
e. Area Involved and ti me allowed.
d. Expected lVleful life of in.tRllRl ion.
deci.<lon on short or lonle 1' /1
e. auitable for a decoy.
/. Availabillty a nd lnoes ot eam" ...ft llllt, labor, and eqnipment.
fl . SeNonal change< and ""'I'".-ted mala-
ten.o.noe. determi ned from d ud,. of 'l eAr r0un4
....\her ronditi o.... (rainfall.>eratun
....nJ(S, lJIIowload. and "';nd) . . I
AI . Proboo.ble enemy II'" of aen.l jWw\.op .I>III
of ...... I
i s..., lIr ily requirem....ta. indudinll" """recy
duriTlJ[ oonatnlctlon. I
i . S . t uu of adjllC.... t in.tallllti " "". eal"""ially
with NIIlpect to exillting or planned eamOllft are. 1
Th i. Is important .... hen . ilUltallllt lon. aI'S
under oontrol of another IIU!1lOri t y.
1<. Dell"ree of cOftl' erat ion to be exp"<"te<l fl'Olll
unit. ....h....e activiti es will "If""t . ...cce... of
final ca. mounall"e &Cherne.
42. Pr'OC.cIII"S
Beto... formulati ng II fi nal plan tor a proj
a decision mun be made as to the l>eIIt
45. layout Grid Control
o. A ,,10.11 of the area to camoulla.pd
".llOuld d,....·n at a ....,,1.. of not t- than 16
f....t to th.. inch, a..d gridded al .s-
r.....t, usinJ( th.. m"d ular .y. t.em. Th..
.t-foot i..te-rva.I. or modul... i8 a llnit ...f m o re-
ment for N'l('Ulalinj{ prol'Ortion•. Ita woe the
bU la for a plall will re<iuc.. bUlldinj( c,,",to, offer
the d",,;gner a simplifi ed mo>th"d of dimen"ion_
inJ( eliminal<! the n.-::....lty for murh
..xp..n"ive detalli nli(, and offer II "}'"wn, of re_
petitive module, 4 f ....t in dlmenaion, on which
""l'eda "f the ranloufl "l(e ('an he oon·
. t ructed by an /WleOlbl)' line type of prodoe-
lion. The 4· foot interllll "'"lfCl iM"," th" aising
or ditrenont matu i al" on a common bAai. so
that wh..n ......,.,bled they can "," MLdily IItIed
together to fonn A complete stnJctol'e. 'fh.e
better the componenta f rom di ll"e,..,nl manllrac-
lure", can be fttte<l toJ(oether, the I.... _ill be
the r vtti nlf and n'qllired on the
j ob. Plannlnlf for the 1I..... of modular prodllda
d""" nflIl hamper in e......ti nj( r&mOll_
1l.a,rP COTUI1.nIrtion to m<'l't any ......d. It .impl,.
mean. that d ilnlc" . prod' lffra of buil dinll
prodOJCta. ooil<l and cra1b<m.... aU work 10-
J(l'th..r on a ""mmon basi" ""i nj( " eoordinated
. )'Stern <>1 dlm......ioninj(.
h. Preparation of workinj( drawinll" on a
modular haloi. (flg. 53) i. not e....."tially
different trom that CUglomalily t olluwed in
archit ectu ral practice. However, a new faet or
hAA been ..dded-the di sci pline of grid.
(1 ) TILe ",od1(la,. flrid. Coordi nat ion of
buildi nll prodOJCta in II stnJcture ill bued upon
a ....inch cube represented a 4. inch llrid on
plans_eIevallon. , and aedio 1d......inp.
(2) SIIWIll ntJh dratriftga. At ....... of
Iaa than. 1 Inch to th.. foot, it til not p,..., ticLI
to Mo'" If ri d linft, An a""hit«ta ata1e pennita
dnwingr. to be laid. oot in multi pl... of . incha.
PlAns and ....ationa for
tion are tobe laid oot URing a 4 ioch Irid.
c. ..t t yl..... of work do ""t n, ,,lli<l hy
oonj( ca rried 0" . 1 th.. ""m.. t imlO In lhe "IUlle
d.. One type of work can be- 8uu.l il uW for
another In the c....e of unfo.......... <l ela)'...
44. Sch.-lule of Op&nlfioM
" oclIedu le of 0pen.ti0lla should be In a eamoullage projed..
Thill lIChedulu houJd be planned 110 that:
.. The projt'Ct d.,.." not intnfere at an,. ti me
wi th the functionin&" O)f the inatallation.
:r.t . t.riAls CA.II be ordered and deliv..ri....
uled to a problem.
udl on pr""edure t o follow. 'The f"llowinlf
t SUlfj{elItf, M>me of the poMibilit i.... 'Thlt lInal
choia! depends on th.. situati on u..( ..·mexisl
d the site at \.he ti mlO the work Is Initi ated.
d . Complt'te applied . tep by atep
durin.. eoMtruct ioll or durioj{ a halt ill the
b. Complete applilPd to
oeetiODS of the inet&llatioll durlnj{ operati onsl
acti" itia.
c. Complet. APplieod lin t only
to vita.! parte of illlltallation.
d. n u ty temporary camoullell't me...ll..... to
be I'e1JIACed or alllP11ente.:! by more wtnprehen.
and more venn,,"nent wol1<.
, . SlmultAne<ms development of completely
camnuflal("d Installation and decoy.
/. Gon. trudlon of a day or night d..,oy while
real Installat ion ia toneodown t ......tnwnt.
4.3, h qnflal l .f.,Mee Data and Aich
e materiabo _hieh ahoald be ll'athmod prior
the plan and whlcll m ovld be u-t .. m_
and a idA io c reatilll': the plan a re:
.. MlPdiultl ..,<1. mapa
of the immtdlilte a ..d adj acent &"""'.
b. Aeronautical cbubo.
A controllPd moaaic, at a _ I.. not
..... than 1:26,000 or th.. project a"",; and
a cootrolleod or """, icontrol led moAaic at A
IIaIle not lIJnlIller than 1:50,000 of the "llr _
roundi ng area.
d. Aeri al photogTapha of the proj ect
area with II. mininm m of fiO pe rc..nt nnd
oblique photograph. _ taken from cardinal
direction. or mOllt likely approach Ilngl"".
c. Town p1.ns and counby ma ps.
r t<E CUM
, <,
' ..
. •

• .



(S) MOOMlar dPla.i&. A 4 i nch lITid ;" u......t
in d....ina: typieaI d<!Uils at a _Ie of 3 i....,...
Or I I,Ij inth" 1 f ool. TM vid i. the
bull of «IOrdination and not Me , nly .
di_nsion of md eri all.. MatfrialA an' shown
all arlual lize and "ith locaW on, or relaW
to, • !(rid li ne by • "'f 1K'<! dimet'L'lion. Di·
mm.iom on r;rId linea &r1' . ho...·n by &lTOWIi ;
t ho. .. not on Ifri .t lin"" by dots,
46. Marking Ih Area
Attn the lAyout plan is determi ned, .. gTid of
16-foot "'10'" 14 modol....) Is l ra""fer ..... to
the JrI"OUod. Li nee rnuUd OQ the lrf'Ound must
not va ry mo.... than I foot from the deoIiJr1l to
maintain the of the d....ign. V.riati DIII
in _ I.. mak.. i t di ffic1.l l t to matrh patt<1nlJ, at
. id.. ....11. alld roor. and "'"""'"_ U-
rAll markO!<i On the w.inlf a tftI,nit
court m&rker. chalk li n. , or any otheT mark-
ing device. With the lI'rid Ii..... u 1l\I id.... til ,
pattem OIltJinefl . .... then drawn.
47. Disciplina
Camoufl a"e di"dpline l. vl lal durinlj' all COlI·
. t ro<1ion pkuM , t any si te to be
EIJed.ive d;.",;pli.... ""lui _ COMtaot ...
visi on when eonsbuction ia deo.irn«\ for
I'(e area. for building" "houl d 00
'. ited to the area to be occupied by the build·
ing. Buil,ling locations ean be .hifted . Iij(htly
to avoid cutting do","!! tr..... that will make .ub-
""Juent camoufl age """,ier . Scra p lumoor, pack_
ing box,,", empty p>lint caM, and other forms
of reru>;e nnd debris, as well as the spoil f rom
excavations should be di sposed of or camoo-
flal'(M as soon"" po.sible. Parking a"" a re
best disper.ed lind concealed and waitinl':
poinla lind turnarounds . hould be marked.
Equipment not in use and stockpi1€'8 of supplies
must be ..d or removM f rom th e site.
WorkiIlll" equipm.ent must be llCreened for "ecu-
rity. Ttl prevent ""alTing the earth "round
•mall eoner ete slr uct ures. 8uch lUI pilllJOxes,
raJ.Nt platform" Can be u"'-'.l f or eoncret<.> mix"
inl'(, suppii"", and spoil, AU personnel mu"t be
familiar with the plan"" it concerns thei r own
individu"l act ivit i,,,, 54 lind 55).
48, lnspe<;tion
During eonst rudion, materials shoul d be con-
8tantly d, ....ked for suitabili ty, quali ty, rolor,
and proper applieation. The pai nts 81wulrl be
ehecked for color and t ype; cotton net.. anrl
wire nett inl( "hould be insp';,d .ed h.-forc U'l"
with particular attention given to t he I'(arni.h,
The overall eonstruetion plan shoul d be che:-ked
frequent ly on the ground and al80 by "erial
rhotoJ'(TIlphs for inrl irect analysi s. F re·quent
niJ'(ht inspections are v"luable w di ' cover an y
of the pr inei ples of l;oo<l eamoufl age.
49. Camo uflage of Buildi ngs
The b"sie methods of eoncealment-blend inll',
hidinll', 'Inri ,lecei vi nll' __ ean he applierl eit her
to existing or to new construdion.
Concealment is much easier, how'-"\·er. when the
camouftltj(e ""h eme is incorporated in t h,- dt'--
signs for new eomtrnction.
a. DiBrupting Shape and SIw.dow. The shape
and, to a limited degree, th e shadow of build-
ings eRn be di. rupt ed by pattern paint inl; the
IYii'''' H , Carol... and wid..p,<a<i I. cau..d loilu.. 10 •• Iobh, h a ''''/fie plun , iod..m m_
i..,. .... 01 ","'h"''''''''Q ' 9"'P"I ' "'' a"d ' ao <a"«"" ,,'d h 1....,. II" u oad oI""';"Q ' 0 fo<ililot< """. tn.<-
"'". A" , " f".c.d ''''/fi< p14" , ,,' "p d.. tho ,,' OQ' " 'auld . ... .. , h af ' h. ' '''oali'Q ..,a"
n Ihi> pic,.....
r,..'l u{·. ti", h..,lt"ht and 1n tum ti1.. . hlld" ", (fIt"!'
Buildi ngs of metal or 0"..., h"u"lnll" m.·\( ,
mllwri..l. ma y he ..on...... I,'<I f " ,m " ull,r a n"
i " frllr"l dt'teo:'tors by pili nll" dirt in " Il"nuhml
. 1" 1/1' up to the eav'-"I ",,,l pilld nll" ,q ,pr" , i.
nULwly 3 inr h'll of soil on the root. IThe n",:"-
l ure ..."nw"t of the ""il UM'" in t hi. ma"""r
mu.,t l.oe kel,t at approximately th 01.. "" thlll
or th.. lI urroundinll:" !!Oi18. or II ·uo...·.. <l ilf.. , ·
" OU' e ", ill I"" c"""W to n<'ll:"att> the ..o"'·.... ln'
nlu... )
c. SeNNI'''". Bui ldi ngs eIlO I"" conc""kd by
... .....,.. or p m i...."'" n<.'ttinlf'l ( fill>'. ( .0 Ihruurb
62). \ \1Ine cnn«al rneot rrom c"-
;.. ..... Iui nd the nettinll" . hou ld 101"'" lI:"m.
ually to the r;round. Di8rupti l" UcI'1\ll Ilt&J"
I... 1 1...; ov.r netti nll:". ro<.r ral"'"-'"l111 For .nth roo" . tc.prr th.u
:vi ' , the TH"Uinll:" mu st _ v"r tM buildin...
d. The naWI"I' ..nd oi or builoJ.
inp ca n t". dioi!UiHod in man" ....) l fip _ gs
Ihroult"h 70 ) .

F ...... u . W.w.. . "' __ . , , .. .. ....._ J ..,.. tA. """" ••_ . , ... , ..
....... do.. po".......... u.. , I U • • • • /lI .. ,.......- _01 ..... .... __ t, ... nd t..6.0,
"' 11.118, o.e roof, aM the groum\.
''''Tll''' lrr<'11ul" r pattern. of t wo or th ...... N,1"...
airnulati nl!' the ] ()(,1l1 terrain patt..rn elln I....
a ppli•• 1 in " way"" to Im'ak t h" atr,Lilo[ht
edll"". fi"",,",,' the J"<)<,r 1"'11 ",,\.'1 more li l'(ht tl", n
any othPr »Rrt of th,. buil dinl':. the l,,,tt prn
. hould he clJ,rker lind the roof should he tex-
t ul'<'<l h.·f" .... 1"'; 111/ l' ainl>'<l. The dark l' " tt.-rna
" n \Jl.. roof " " carriO'<\ down onto til. wa ll
. urla.... to b"",k t he li ne of t he structure I fip..
Sf; and l,7) . Th.. It' rou nd ('an "" . prnJ'<.'d .... ith
bhu:k bi tum;n" u. .... uL< i,m to ....,ak th"
ahadow; e... tll1t ul'l'd m. ria'" BUTh a>; cill_
d..rn. ,Ial(, or .....1 ...""her ....t u""" """ (,.. . 1' <1
matllke around . building in an iTn'lnlLar t-
tl'm to oboo:u"" the .hadow; or thx,k .hnlbt ry
Or tftftI a.n t. I'lant.ed. if I'l'lIICtieabI... to
th .id of • buildinlf. oilhouetuoo. . ddO'<!
to 1M v... or t he buildinp will distort tMit
ohape (fiJI'. rJl ).
b. D i ,Ul ;"g. Ir til. tfon'ain I _ita, • nt'W
I'\nlctUI"l' can t". parti.11y dUll:" in. in ord. r to
Fig..... .,. A"",h. , ..<th.d .f hnaJ<iMg ide><tilvift g . /tad. ..,. ;., '" .. , ,,,.h
.ilho""",, 01 P1M"",<>d ., . ,h... rigid """ .,.,.,1. 1. ' h. " " ~ • •.
Fig..... 5>, H.... .. a q".M..t ht hl. ..dod "' t. tho " ,..,. iM' M.. o.,nbi"" Ii.,.
of diggiKg i", 'u,,,";"g, a" d <••• ";"g ",ith .. ft.,.

, . •-;r - -.

, ..
r ig.... 86. flo. I.... a ' ,od. d br "",.,. ... • • If'••• ...... "".. ",._ 1• • ••"'... ,.....
h iLliop , ..... a_I .."....... ,;.. . I
J';'." . , . .\'<1..-.. ...,.,. ." -.l .... oIU'_.........,.. •.,....
-.oI ,
! ~ ~
~ N O $11)(
#"ill. ... or. ()" ......11 6";w,,,,, ,,,. ot..".. 0/ _ _ I .. ~ <I.,..•• _I.... tAo •• ,tioo" -"k'."
. ..."" lAr t."";,,,. •0 ' of ,A. ..... OM ,_... , ~ , / • • _I 1_'" _ t• .... . l 'I.
,.,..0001 1M. _/ , I . h OW , ""'... -." , ,t. ., <lor- . ..... __ I ~
' ''''' or. , , .. 01 • " .. _ Iilo• • ..-.l -U h ;ld;", r . Slsdoo<o ..." ,r_ "_
, ~ . h ;I</,. , _ /0 I ...., •• ,...,.., . T Ao ,... OW" of tit. _.f.I./t ..._of ••r ,.ano,,,, ..
_...... _ •• •/ .r"" ~ _ ••. All ..... _ .ONI ,..t" _ <I_I, Ie _do<ool ............ .." .....
..... 1_._ I. 1./,.., "'Ii ,.. r-l ..... _
~ ' ; g . , . u . II."" ....." . a••••. IX''''''' . a••••. d.d " ",iI. , IM /I' " ' M" . ", ,. M,ba . M' " ' f'''' ...~ . It
. _, g_" ., 11.., • • iid"' g. " . '0<1"';. , / Ib 1__1• . It_ I Ii ...., ..i ' ~ -..
, .- ...., /A hrl.l" .., ~ 011 ,,;, "i., I• •,,,,.1. ,. oI"1ri., ' i"_,•. I I ,... ...
,. , 1 • • "' 'Y. , _ ... IA, .. 4 _1 1.1•• •~ .... . , 01.., -..I ... , ~ .;u 4;'..,.. tAo
011__. " ;.-u. _iNli., ._ • _I ' ......,...-4 ;0'. ,...J• • ....1/ la.l.- _ ._MIo..,
~ " / ..-. .II _ i ..... H_ '''' . u /... • ...1 • •• .., , ..jHf"" ... . N 4..,._ • ••-u " """" ' .
" ••ro 6,' . 81,.","",,, CO" •• "",d. l<> _/0"'" 10 • • """,_ t<> ... , 10"'''• • 0 .....critl. ' . p" .
",...".", .f Ii", ..,. 0>0<1 , .,.".. •• , lop, pl."..., .,. "", ..rial. H..., a q" """ 1 hi ..
b.",••It,red 10 ..."".1. "<fi". ""'i.., .., .
il... tr"". ot vari . u, p<l int.'l around tho 1<0' oon..".] . If,,,tiv,ly f""m ... vi ew.
l "_." 6ri, S"v",'ol . q«liv. r", dis."i... " tId 0""" "1"" ,,, of Uti".
A, fr."", ""y. ...d wi'" I••",,, Ol orni , hod ...i... to , im" tat.. • tr......<...d no" t n' - ..."t.
I';V"," II_ Cnnt in""".
I = 1'"-:-
• ...--01_-
MON • • _to _ <Or I • I-lDclo 1umbo. oU' Jl'd"io<! fh... ....... ut ""'t b7 with t.Joo "'- ploeM .. II><\ li Wo ",ob tononea.
I . r TOmOUppor Iowa. '" Lu<otlon <>t t.IN t<'OOO
Ft,..... "-ContinU«!.
f'i guro "" U' o" "d "W'" of 0 ",moufl"g,rl m, ..Aa ll of" mu.ition, in IJ ri..b.",. Au. ',"ii. (19;.'1. TA.
fal .. """I ' "u 'iu"" ou ' Ao buUdi.g a"d lu mina'" at ;"",,1",", Th,. it 0" oxe<U". 1
. x ompl. 0./ "o muuf!"yi"y 0 i", ' oIlal"''',
F;yu", S . . Th, .. " ro" 0 , A"",. Ih , 'NPic,JI oNm . !";"u' 0. , UI.. prop" d;"p. ,,"'"
0./ bon .,to, ;n wood,,! ,'""bin,d .. ' on,dolt". of "",f•. and pdtt<,.,. pain lmg .. ,how>..

SO. l ood. Dnd Parking A .
R.-b can be romplEUly ( ollC lfd for Mm_
paratiVi'ly _ha rL . tn-khlOl only. How"""", inter_
MdiollS, tnom. c; ..,18. short road• • and
.. . rNa, ..h.n th..,. ..... IaDdmarb, can
be madto inco....I.;.,UOUlI bJ.' teduri"«.
""......., inlt. tn.noplantint 11'HII. n'I, ,,,atinll'
roads. Dr by makiOll' deeoy .-dA. Tonf'do"" o
I*i nti .... the distil fmm .. lIkh •
road ran ........." . How .,Il«ti, thio mf'thoct i.
d<'[><'TIdlo on haw ,,"'-1,- the lfoxtu and color
usN ma\.ch. tbo8e of .....t It i. dim.
cult to t h., proper ton.. v•.1u" by 1",,; "1-
inll' \ ... tu . ;n j!" t he _u,(,.,." ",-ill .."I,. (fi lt.
71) .
51. Ra ilhead. , Railways, a rM:! Rolling Stock
An of the uvNl1inll' cha rncterl ><tica " f ti,,, activ-
iti"" lind col\l<t ructinn """",i..W wilh. II rail_
I'U<Id . ", u tTfJll'\e1y diftkult to camourlall'e. Th"
railwaY" th......lvell . .... ......"I{ll iuod l>y thei r
10.... l*rall elli n.... gradual co"" ligh t roIo......
b&l\aAt in th.. roadbMs. and th hin.. from
ma.inl ilW t ...."b. The nlilh...ts lW'<l«IIiud
by aiM .nd th" aUrndanl. ti vil }", Cam·
....,1'1 ..,. """"'0"", at '-. an ...u.. thf' i.,<tal-
I&l.ion ,pPI'. r unprofttabl. to 0.. ",O'Il'ly. WhIM>
th...... i • • cboicc, thc site s hould providc "'.
muoh natu ral ovcrn...d MV" r ... p.....",I.. for
spur trw b , buck ""rbI. RrNa, wan-
boIl_ . a nd .......... rout.... Th.. rai lhnrl iw
ahou kl he- at -... ;nu,l1TI<'dial<! IM' ;nl. nol
thc f"Ild of thc rail li nc. (Fa" .. tradul lfoa<Iinlf
to a dftooy ...ilh...d ia pro<.hlr til.. bNt ooIut;'-'"
for """fllSina- u... ......... anti ..., .
tarl. ) Th,. j unction with th,. """i nli ah"..loI
bIO inc......I.;.,UOUS lU. ... S i!ir t ....h·
nlq u a.-
Addinll CItra balb... t to c,w... Ii"".
b. Ma ki nj{ ou(.(>r ffl!t"e11 of ball.....t ifr11(Uhu .
r . I'I""i 1111 fllW IICr""n. h.. ,u,<I on 'i,l"'"
of rail•.
d. n..ttin!t" " Y" r , i<l ; "II". Iwt wf'<'n
h uil rlin!t" (,., conceal loadi nll: plntf" I1TI", "r "ver
ace..... rou\.<olo (,., . tornj{e a r..a•.
e. Enf in.. a t rack plan for \·.... kles will
k....p vi.i b a;lfJIa of unmal...l ....Ii" il i'" "I a
, . of . uppli.... • U,"'" in v... "I ,,"n.
fl . Di _ in.. can. oti v ".-It;.
c........nd Pl>l;..... Thi. i• • n l I' ·.ul....
.nd is _ uti&! .. nUwr camotlll.lf" ... i ....
1. E.te';Qr , jew 2. Inter;or .i.,w
Figu, . rt. T'orkiwg 0",0 ........ ,,1 from 00."""';0....
52. Bridges
While .. br idge is diflkult t n hi,le, t here are
• number of "a",nulla....-,> !.ricks w!li"h may
deeeive the enemy "," W its location lind, moat
imporumt, its con dition. SimulatPd ' Tah' ,., can
be pai nted on til ,- d,,,,kinll: and NIWl'€d. After
an attack, they "an he eXl" ,,,-><I . Decoy t;, nk8
and other doco}' vehid "" can he plac ed to ,imo_
late a trllllk c ti,LUP aft<>r th e "t t.;,,·k. Portions
of the &i de ra:ilinl( he removed. Fo r t his
pe of der"l,tio" to 1)(" "onvi nri nll". i t mil'!
appear that an alternate r iver croII"ing ette is
he inJ{ prepared. Ap pro"d,,,,, muat be well worn
on I ~ > ' l h banks. If there is a line of near_mw
craters n,.i.e the bridJ{c, one or mol1' of them
"" " uld be filled. If a. bridll:e has be<.-n a.ctually
,b"""Ift'<l, it mar be made to app<'>l r repain'd
and w<llble by filling II. lI"'P wi th wi re fnun....
wor k covered with dc>th. Then it aJ(ain I...:omeg
a IOlrieal cro..sinJ( and proud .. the actual cn:wc-
inJ(. If a riv"rl>ed is 5uitable and til e water . low
and muddy, bridlrC8 may he constructed with
the deck .ubmerl"ed ju,t below the surface.
The .hpe &nd oh&do... of a detltroyed bri dge
may be u!Oed 00 hel p cono:eal a ponton bridge
eonstnJcl.ed al onpide. ]f a decoy i5
built at a 10lfiea\ place, lIOIYIe di oL"U1u a way.
tM n ped.ient hu a r;re&ter chaDa! of eocaping
det«'tion . I n a=rtain <:UelI it may be p"".ible
00 rubIMr lte a POlltoll wil.leh hu pneu-
matic: llQ&to by ai r from the 1'I<>o. ts.
By th l• ...-..... the bridge call be hiddell durilll:
daylijrht houn and refloated for ..... at ni"'L
S3. Wi.. Li.,..
A well canloul'l aged .tructure b of little v.lue
jf a conapieuoo. line of communic.tion wire
terminate- at the Installati on. It I. di"""trous
to ..Uow unconcealed cable unee to end . br uptly
at what 10 mellnt to appear aa an Innocent hill
but II II' t ually en Important command post. A
decoy muot continue put the Insto.Ualion to a
l(>J"ical t . nnl....tion or the real Ill'l mllal be
camOIlI'lI&"'d. Imitation U..... can be made of
rope. wire. cord. or other Ii milar materi als.
The p","Da! of a line can be cotlU*led to a
j[n!I.t eXUnt by carefully Iocatl nl" it along ter-
rain linea. lrngularly aiJ'ld IUPl'OrUnl" poIeo.
with the 1..", left OIl, let at IrrefIl lar interYaia
....d atanered to eonf'orm kI the lITOund pat-
tern. are lesa eomopicuoul than Ii.... ft«1Ilarl y
l paced and a1illed. Spoil taken f rom the pole
holm must be earned a way or hiddl!'l1. Care
m\lllt be taken durin&" rnainte....."" to avoid
mak inj( a n obviolla pat h alonJfthe line of pula
504 , Pipel i.,..
Pipeline. Ihould be laid along leCond..ry rot«Is
whenever p"""ible. When cro"'-I:oont ry 11lyinll'
i , necaasary. terraill feato...... Mould be fllll y
Util iled, To elimillate the . h. dow of the pi I\(!.
di rt or debria blended with the bac q rouoo
Mould be banked gently along both lid"" or the
pi pe. A tonedown color a pplied 10 the pipe
blend it wi th the backVO\l ud. Tanu a nd
pumpinj( f!(Iwpment mould be f«e..ed in pil.3.
di l p"ned. and by natura! cover or
"",to. Falae pip"lin... il)' . ;muIaW b)'
the a. of ditdlinl" equ ip nt : &fter....,h day'.
wor k. "" 'eral po1el :U>ould be Jeh .t the end of
the ditch to . imulat e a .act of unlaid piP'".
55. Airfj aldl
a, The lin t . tep in the camoul'l"l«! of a n II
fiel d or Iandill&' lite. as in al l eam<>Uflll.f[ e opera-
liD.... ia a thorough stuo!y of the terrain by air
oleerYaUon and aerial Photoll'nplw. After tile
ground formation. predominant colo"., . nd
patterna of t he a na are . nall"'ed. t he c. moo-
ll.,;e deme can be planned..
b. D10pened parki ng rite. ohould be lon.ted
within dart< and b....vily terlnJ"l'd paN of the
a,... avoid,nl' sites .... the . ireraft would
be In aharp eoIltrast to thei r wrroundinp or
clOOle to an UIl\llltlW or iooiated ter rain fll'lll.ture.
UB!' . houl d be made of overl>ead con«alment.
clomps of buohes. 'lCnlb Il'l'Uwth. f(lld, in the
gT<lund . Alld other . hadow-eaotl nll" lrl"'el'\llar.
Itie• .
c, Cireul. ti nl' traffic should be confi ned. if
poMible. 10 "'tilting road. a nd plIthl for mow ·
ment withill the &reIII and for -«_ to """urity
outpoata. New route.. eh(luld be kept to a min-
Imum. Advanlaj'e Mould be taken of o""rhead
and vehi c.... shonld be . ited c.......
kI and alona natllraJ terrain 11_
d. The rreater t he tnlfic . t . n airlleld
more dilllc\llt it to eamoutllll'e 1"\lII'
oral'S and taxi.....ys. Sod .irlle1d1 d<> Ilot ordi-
naril y preo.ellt too p-ee.t a unl_he.vy
u..e hall c,...W worn pathl and Itri ps. If th is
d""," happen it lilly be to extend the
path or a\ri p Into an already n fOUd or
t rail. thereby con«aling ito actual pUI'J'O'l". Ia
thi . ....pecl. oooperation on t he ,,,, rt of the
pilota by reot ri cting their landing!!. takeoff's,
and tUl'Tl&round. W dellignated lire.... i. vitally
n8CeM&l'}', Hurd runway" and taxiwaYI may
be textured lind painted to blend with t he bacl<-
ground . nd road. can be l imulated I.CI'OlIIl
t hem.
e. The <:UI!oul'lage of revl'tmellia ia di ftkult
I.«anoe of thei r canl&inN shadow. It they are
partially dul' into the sidee of hillll. the probll'lll
i. Iimp/ifWd. The mono the , lu. I>" and
the more vadllll the . 10....... the e&lioo t the)' . ...
to eamoul'llll' e. E.o.rtJ....on. revl'trnellta .....y blI
......sed to I'i"" thlMIl tnto .... . nd color and to
ronual n.....· &poiL Fllrther impron ment ......
be m. .... by plantiDg small ahnl '" or " ' Mll •
. eak up the form and . hadow, If ti me ",ud
.,iliti es permit, tree planting i. an effeetiV('
mea. ,\u rt'.
, . The operational struct.ut'f!ll asaoei &ted with
airfields are M any other buildi njt or
position and a re cw ered in other parbI of the
g. Panels and other landing aida an! dis-
played only when When r,ilot.s are
fam iliar wit h t he landin" area t he aida are
removed and only for viaiti nl< ai r_
craft. Field llghtinll' muat be concealed to pr....
vent ground or oblique lU.' r ial oboervation.
Ught emitted f rom airfield lill' hti nlt' IIdu"",
can be conl...!;..1ed by u.e of the roml>at hOXHl
a ttached to all lbtures for this llul"J>O!'e. Fix_
teree may be blendEod into the terrain .' . tloom
by use of natu ral material. or by pai nting and
t.erlurinll' to makh the terrain color.
56. loca t ions
Decoys must be located In logical positi ons,
far enough away from actual target.. to pr e-
vent enemy tir e on the deooy from hitting the
real illlltalla:tlollll. In all eases the locat ion of
r ea.! installations must be u refully oonsidered.
The distance depends 00 the sl'e of the installa-
tion, the type of enemy observation. and fire
expected. Decoy br idsres, depot.., railheads, and
airfields may be 3 to 8 kilometers f rom the real
objael Decoy artillery batteriea may be leas
than 1,500 meters from the act ual 1>"8i t ion or
separated f rom the position by much !,:relIter
distances depending upon the type battery
being simulated, the t ype warfare, and the
mi.sion of the unil To deceive the enemy, a
docoy si mulati ng a large rear area illlltal lati on
should have approximately the same r elation-
. hi p to nearby landmarh as the target il qelf,
since landmarh " ill be used ll.$ enemy refer_
enee points.
57. Theory of Decoy Deception
a. Direct and indirect ""ria.! study must be
made of each installat ion th at is w be . imu-
lated. There i. no standard to folklw as every
installati on ha. its own peculiar
even two of the liollJIle type will have indivi dual
and unique charact eristics.
b. A decoy In.stalla.tion must be 80 con_
structed that its di""l""ure a pp8lI n; to be the
result of poor camoutlage. There are various
methods of doing this, sUt h as exposed part.a
of a decoy, exposed tracks. incomplete oo"",elll-
ment of shadows of docuys, or the improper
use of surface texture and oolor, If a decoy
draw. attention f rom a real in.tallation for
but a moment, It serves its purpose. A decoy
position which has been discovered to be such
by the enemy may later be occupied as an
actual pos it ion.
c. To be effective, the decoy installation must
incl ude feat ures normally aAA<oc iated with t he
real lI15tallati on and mun be properly main-
tained. For ins tance, decoy planes on an air_
field mu. t be moved f rom time to ti me; in the
ea.e of decoy trucks, a few reo.l truch should
be used to make track. ; in every ease. indi_
cation of norma! act ivity should appear .
d, Deeoys intended to divert attention f rom
r eal object.s or illlltallations are effettive only
when the real objects are completety carom
58. Signoturel
<I. The chan<cteristic telltale signs of mili_
tary activiti es are called si!,:nat url'S. Track,
are th e most important ann ol..,.ious si!,:naturE
of any military activity, with their distinctive
f eatu r es easily differentiated from similar d·
vil ian acti vities (fig. 72) .
b. The vari ous tYl'eIl of t l"8Cks may be . imu-
lat ed in the followin!,: ways;
(1) FQot trtU'h, The deaired tracks should
be made by actual f oot traffic. or
may be scattered to Il'ive the effect of mon
extens iv" use. Tracks in a llre,umahl,v ".:-c upled
po;sition must be constantly increased in w.....
and "idth.
(2) Wlleeled t'ellitle trod,s. The best
method of providinJ( wheel t racks is to run
several vehidea through the area to create the
m\lllion desired. Chains or 101(., m"y be dra,,1(ed
to "reate .. J(reater flClIl'ring of the ground.
(3 ) 1,pJl i cl , tmr h . It is desira1l
to use an actual t racked vehicle to make th..
, . ..t EELEO
-. .,.....1lO .......
....-' '''''''''u " "'''''' '',,£'00_
IlUAl. C• • , ...
SHU. _ _OS 0100 E. ro ' 00' .......... ... .u as "". _• .
. .....n .1OO c"""".. . 1 ..,' ,,_, ......
_ CU C ... ....., c ","lIn !\fU . (>0."""'''''''(0a.
__ OU . """ n CUltIl(
0100 1001 . 1 n u ""
.. HHUO ",",'''-(
,,_ T""o
QQU I . ....T ""
"",-.. I
C" OU coooT" , .....OOC. ..,.""
. ...... . ".0 CAM'
• ..,11 IUT U O·
......L. _0.
. ".CU O, •
z.. uc. U• • u,
"'" ",-,e"T.. -
""' .. ..II[ OCOO
_ 0W". u..
• • • OU
.. .. '''''Cl c. • snl"
H' ," _O T" ( U ' . [
0011 . ... ..H' ....
c•••OT CO 011'" "OCH
. 100 ".""'cc, .Dl. co...,
[A.' ...... .. '"' 0
lOOt .....L ,"-0«1 _ ......... . .. '" Dull ... _ _r""'"L' W" U <
... _.lIt.IICn _ _ . suc. as .' C w,lt. 001 _ " ELD! ""
""'. -"," ",TO ' "OIl''''' .....
Ii...e they lOon im...-ible to duplieate
........teIy by any other _ No. Such l.rIcb do
net -.d to boo fftl e..ed All fnqu_ Uy ... the
ether two tn-.
c. Spel l il UI.....ny eo""pKcuOUl n.... r all dug
pclitionl. If. ho.".l!'VeI'. the quality of the cam·
oul'I ll¥'" di!lCipline of . uTround; nll' trool'" il ll'ood
and they di.po.e of their spoil, thb .ame prac-
tice mu .t lie {ullowed with the oimulaWd unite.
On the other hand, i f the camoulla«e di""ipli ne
i.I n<Jt li,'ood and . poil appelill"ll a round the dug
IID6itiono, It mu.t be ....producfld at tlle decoy
pollitKm. The '-t .... y to produce tlle apr-r-
"""'" of opoil ,. It> the ....rtll f rom a ..... 1
n co""tKm. althoup the "'leavali on nHd not
be All nor the l poil pi.... All high All in tlle
_ ui pcaiUon. The In.mpling of ttle IlI'OODd
by rlrinr poorti... II","",. aDd
ecm{lllCtl the IlI'OOnd AO ttlat the lfl'ft."u fl't frl
011 al l but bare ..,.k Dr oa.nd ill to make the
nd ....TT'DIIDdIna' the snptaument
tel" hI toM than ita nzroundtnp.
a. Shelten. Judi ... dUgWb Dr 110*. Jhow
All dad J pob in a light ..- of 1n<b and
.........plin• . Spoil ill .... p.--t. Airina- bIaA-
kft:J and .iml lar items may aJ.... be vlaible.
Tentirljf or ahacluI a re <llIoIlil1 inlprovNil.
an lL>&X"iated r...lure of ellPl'}'
""",,upied . it.e. IN! u.uall y di."loIoNI by
t rllcl<o IlOnverJrinll' and beooming more marked
"" ti me p. ....... .
I . Buried cable i . frequently an .dj und of nt head' luartero and may aIM t.. """""
d ated with rado.r It appeara All
a tnw: k. .....a ny st rai ght with . nlfll b r t urns.
a Dd lig ht i n lone. With the \IUIlIP ..{ tlme
its viJIibi lity _.-.eooll/Chtly.
g. Barbed -.rI re i_ a feature of .m-t aD
infant ry COInbat JXlfIi ti...... The -.rIre lbelf ( aft-
not be _II on aerial phot.ogn.plv., bIl t i t. p...
en« 1nII)' be rev""liN! by t he tract. WId tnIIl-
plin. of the wiring party. After _raJ 40)'1 u.e
""'_lion of t h "'; re IJ di.dDMd by a fai nt If'I)'
line under the wire which darker and more
pronounced u time PAMf\II of the ac_
cumulation (If Ullt:r&mpled Caps In
the ...i .... are ottom the mealUl of dillCl""inI ita
p.........,., b!al.uae of tracb ...hich convef'P a nd
diverre ....ithout apparent f.ot>ol(napltic re&lIOn.
• . )fi nel'!elda. like wi,. n>ay a bo be loc.aW
OIl aeli al photo,raph,. by an otherori"", un,",,_
p1a.inable coo.... l'I'oce.,f but they will
mono commonl,. be identi tled by 1M "'Plar
patterns of exea.....tiona ....ltich abow li P ... Ilpt
patch.. EVl'n minHWld.o ....hich are n<Jt laid
to a gndant p&lUrn tend to abow np OIl an
aerial phott>lTaPh. not ..... ,,_ one mine holoe
ill riaible In itlO!lf but a number of patch.. COfItO'Tltr&ted in .,.... l pot dra.....

59. Commo.. o.fech
FoDowiol 1& a n.t of the defeda that most
fnlquenUy _ a deceptloo to fai l. It will be
noted that they are of C"!eral application and
that any one of th.... mal' .......der wurthl......
the mOl!t perfect der oy.
o. Rell'llJari t y of t rack..
b. Lack of 1Itm" aaaociated with military oc-
cupati on,
e. Flatoee.s (no relief) ,
d. Failure to fa. it hfully simulat e a \.articular
type of lnatall&tlon.
• . Abaence of motor tran_porta-tion an<l I"" k
m movemml
J. No daily change In a ppearance.
fl . l ""Ornd taetkal po8itionl ng.
l. Unl"eNONble . pHd of bui ldup or ......0....1.
L of rM.I ai r defl!'Mell.
t- Failure to. imutate a nK Iry compon<'Rt
of . particular inatallatioa.
60. DKoy f"..Jcj fo,li lKat.....
II, E"' pla.r....11lU '''Ld ' " t.......,,II>........u . In aim_
Watinl" any dug-In peraonnel or weapofUl
emp1aetmenb. auch .. fOIhoJes. t.....nd •.,.. &lid
mortar or maclUnt!I"\lD tt. ... .....
aatiAfa<:tory I lmull.lJons are made by actually
dial"&" Into the ll'Ound. H<>we"oou. it is not
n-=-ry to dig the daoys .... deep u their
r MI counter l' a rtll, A deplh of at le.A I
u<ually . ufficient to provide enuujI' h "I"'il f
II I'l ra\>el: &round the empl&<' f'rnent lind IA>
rl'8te the proper illUll ion of d"Pl h to the iii r-
II\IUl I nd ..u l ..1 photo inte rp, m r. A d ,.,n!«'.
illualon of depth may ),. obt.ained by partially
tilling tho- I h..11ow l'lII pla<'fln<' nt with '<1,nLw •
hnl"h, ha)", or Thi3 b...ks up the
t lon of lirht from the bottom of t he ern",-
ment and .PJM!&nL f rnm the ai r 1.<, 1... much
than it actu..ll,. is (tI.o;a. 711 and 74) .
b. Pi llbo,u'" ..'d ..t the
moo<t lib l.,. I""",Ueoo of al' p,..,.,h. Th.
. nemy b o.... thi.a ..nd <an I.('<' urate ly "._
thetr genenlloeati on. H.,...-p,·u . if .. pillbox io
....11 camnulliged. b\<'Rdf'd into j tr. !IUlTl:lllnd_
Inp, or du srul.aed .... a rock. bul h. nt
oUler obj ect which will make it inronapicuom
In Ita partieular settit\l', the ..........y II r' ""<'Rted
f rom apotti nlt: it accurately. To further <l l......t
th. eMmy from th... resl piln><»: , d..::oy pilI.
bon .. may be oon.rtructe<i and in_utflCi ently
ca.rooullall'OO 10 that the ('an II" ot them
with little difficult y (til<. 75) .
r. Alltimrr lulni!rd m,.t"cl",". Anli m...11
nlted nh-t...c1." are often h.,all'd on rev.r
ArOun<l curves, and in or hel,;nd n..tura
"cn-....n. to conceal t h<.'!l1 from IhO' fnemv li nd
to lDl; n l urpri . e. Decoy anti m" 'hllnizL'<'! <l itehea
lire ntten effecti ve in luri n,<r ... nemy t.,nh inlo
reIll camoun.." ed ditches. Such" ditch need be
only ahout 2 feet d...p to r ff'" le Ihe prnl'er
llluslnn of det>th and i. COl18t ructed in the Mme
ma.Ilnoor ... "re . •·iJnlre 7(, IIh,.t "'"....
a d<lMpti <m lICheme u.' I'ml am:! decoy an_
t imechllni..... ditch... and pilll",....... wlI"riher.
0«0" dl1lgon"1 teeth a"" abo ..t!'ri ve In p id.
in.. the enemy into .......u t ral" , They may bot
UAed in eonjunction with real I nd de<:oy an-
t imechani..... ditch"". Obstac..... lik.. dnLj[OQ'.
teeth d101l1d nat be aimll!aW in 1.-. not
covet'ed by I ntimerha.nit ed l'iT'l' ( ti ... 17) ,
d. A . imulated minefi.eld may \w
... d'ri"" UI oblo:t&C'\e a .......1 fiel rt 1"",..,""
the t"!lf'I'Il)" must check ...:h . imulati nn to bot
« nai n It i. nnt a rea.I on.... Surh .. minefield iI
el!ectl..a apirn;t aerial oW",abnn. Si mple
wal'l to c.....t.e a decoy minefll"kl are: dimn..
up the gmund in a &ta.odard miM'fiel.d
a minefield ma rk ing f..nee: and crea"
SH"- LIOW '''N(''
"-"I> • • HUEI> TItNOl
A ,i"oU ,,,",A a, it ... b. ;"g "od
Ii> . b,.".A jil/;"9 """'eo 'A, <ompl. ,«!
I _ Tlmc;.. w" ..
I Il\JS.. TO SIMlIU.n 01' '''''
. _00'''-1'0' VIIW Of
OfCOV 11' ..eM
a, ; , ,' " " h. d o"d fill«l witA
'"'ft<A app. ar mu,A dark" tila" tho ...
n An"'h" ","Aod 10 .'",. Ia', U" '"'Tlft,A"".t ... W pia.. b.rlup or <lot h ;n Ii> , ""tim, d".;,.. d aM
,A... fi ll ;. Ih• • ."""v,",d por';,," wi'k ...... ' . aU, ,."i,,', or .<rap.. uf Ita,k "", ..""I , NM. 'Au' ' h,
,imulat.d I'a,up.' " lor""o bU .. !A. «Ig.. of a lorg. p;u , al burlap oml c-r<oH"U 'h . illlUw"
01 til, ,"ouwd 01 a I'm'o,,,, piling .aNd ,,"a... ' A, .au... Th. . ..."""u"d POT';"" 01 th• • li t 'Tlftck
io in IA;, figu," " '.,,. oil "",I d",k ""io"d ,Mvau, "'"p'.
1'.. . .. 74. II d. _ ,,;II" • ......1...... 001 . , .......04 h . ,., p _ • • 041>• • • • • • d ."....)'<d
,..;. , ' " 1• . S. od • ...f olio' _ . b . ...,,..i.1 ,. g;," it ............I,b ,u......
i nll" the zill"Ull" JVl.t v r ruo of Il"ap.
t hroull"h . min..tlel d.
61. Arti l"ry
G. n..-..,.. .rtillf.ry i n atrOrda.....
...ith ..... lJa,.k ••rinci..,w of . n milital')' A;mula-
tion. mIlA tlD<I fonn to poIIilionin.. ""'Iui_
......nLo ot 1' ......1 nt<'...... rto.. &om<>ti......
th.. ramoufta of th_ detoy """ition. is di!fi·
rult. In "I"'n ....... th.. ...... ot "ultahl,· p l'.
nWlf'd n.u ;. df'si r.bif'. It nf'to ..... not
.. . ramooft a lt.. is nbtai by "I'OJIf'r1y
J'O"itinnin.. ..arh pi ...... or t 10 I>lf' nd
....ith our_l nd, n.. Il"I""Und f ...l u"", For n -
am,,,,,. i n "rrhar"". l'lI<"h pif'o.. of "" ui, lmr"t
rna)' l>f' pl, K' f'd "" h .... Ii tr... hAA I......n rrmovrd;
in hooll"rrow ....unt ry equi p""'nt TJ\IIy I,.. I'I""ffi
i n "1"'1.0 ill Ihe hrdll"r . prot...·ti nll"
a" i n<l uRtria ) or a l"rll"" In.tallat ioll which
cann"t hI' oft I'll no "' l iR made
to concral t hr llO. il ion. !hI' tJ,... ,ry I..;nll" that
t h...." ,,·ill l... cautiouRin at lNkinll' II h..av_
d..r.." df'<\
10. " lacin.. I " , nd ... .........
......n"'ry _ip t in n 1,. ,oart " r
lh.. j"h 01 .. roo:ti" artillf'ry l-.ilion.
Tnt.. mllAt I... rnadf' "round """ilion all i"
. .....1<'ry 1 " ,_ il i. I....
t ka that moot ott.n di.. ,,,,,,iIKon to
th rial ""-......1'. With..." t I tu. a .......110"
poIIitinn IoMlta t. b : ""'1"00\"'1'. il orould rarrly
be . potW if tl1e WelillOn we ....' ",,'11 "amou_
e. Drocoy I_ itio". may boo rJmulal<'d by di.. _
gin.. i n a oh.lln.... pi t of thr co.......-t dialMter
" nd , tor a ""rtieular . rtill....' · ..i ...... an
pili".. t AI""I al'Ollnd it lilt • •oaral ",1 or
formin.. a pt'! of hay. stra... . empl,. .. ra
old I... rrrb. or dirt on t hO' If ..... nd a ...... nd
thf' cI..n.oy. E ",·itho",t the " ... of Ai mulaW
!fUM or "'lui ..",,,,,I. a d...,..,. artillery f"'"Jti<>ll
r",,, l-... . imutaW , ...rledly m...... ly by "",kin..
bI&lIt marks and ..",u.-rin.. drbria. Tn . no.
t...-nin. b1a:ot marb apl..... . blark••nd in r lorar
th..y a ppear 1<. dArk ..ray. '"'-
a "ery M" .·i.....i " ... On.. or It... 1 1 .nd . im.
l' l t ......,.. ot .i mul.ti"ll" . n _rtill y ... ...ilioD
i. to 1>1,.,.1' partially rarnonft"Kl'<'I . in, ul" W
W""'llOn. in ,·"raW p<JlIition. "'"<'U'
pilod r enl w"","",", F IIIRh .innll""... may
II<' i"du'lo..-l wiU' ""'h . imulati"" " ' ,,' ,,"""
with !hI' ... me l"t'lfUl ari ty a. the ....111 "' ....1,..,"".
62. Bivo......
n. Wh.... . imlll"t;"1{ I,;, ·......... il muoJ I .....
.........1"'"'<1 that ear.h arm or ..-n ·i.,.. 1$ ,.
diotinrti,·...,,, ,",'hiorh 1 t "'1.....
d ........ tn makO' thO' d..-oy M."· j i".. to tht
.........y .ir ""-n·..... ",.. si", ulat ion or h",'""""
i . of rtkulat importa....e in .....1' a,...,.. h<-ft
....... n · nd t ...1 mo,":nll" unlt>\ 1
....."W. F:.......y .ir eee ;. Jl"rt

a' cg80

aBo 8

" .., !>ITCH
0..... /)IfCH CONCI" "D
tl", ","to. CONa",ro

DKO't" ..,to.
"", "r< 11. II", ;. n ro", ..{ d""v"n', , ..' h ""d " Onh,."hooi..d "i/ck. A ..1 rool dl' ck
.. ,," 'k, I"".o",,,od, "",,,,.d >vi" "./t;OU, . 1"lk , ,,"d . "..-1.
Dlu ly ......fu l in s","uti ni. injl" . ....... h.... ind IhO'
front (or illditati oM of bu il<l ul > of troo"" or
"'luil'IT"'nt which "'<>\l ld indira tf> ( UIU.... altMb.
Rat bi VOl.l.a<'ll gen..ral ly Ioratod in a.......
tllat provide Ul.. '--t c........m-.t for pon.mnO'l
"'luipmoont from and ground .x-r_
on; di' I""' n.ion ; communications f ...iliti....;
l'ro\.erlion from attMk in th.. vid nity of nat,..
u....l olostacl....; and wate r s uppl>·.
b. I'-rom thO' ai r, th.. ,,'hich
....."" r-<li ly idfontify a bi voua<" a.... t"", 8 .
"Miclfto It)· and .h .... or " 'hich will idmti fy
thO' uni l ), I'llthS. trails, and \n.oh and liUn
r.aUlOt'd 1:». po"'r ca moullag<' di ..,ipli"". Hi\"OU&C$
ate more difficult t o conceal in snow.-eovered,
barren or desert areas, than in other type, of
terrain, because tracks and trails are almost
impos,ible t o conceal or obliwrate. Decoy biv-
ouacs in this type of terrain can be realistically
simulated by making many additional t racks
which do not lead to a real ins tallati on, or by
digging shallow trenches and emplaeements in
the an(lWor sand and filling them with grass ,
leaves, ele. Brush piles with paths radiating
from them resemble command p"'ts or supply
or llItlmunition storage areM. A good way W
make a decoy bivouac ill to examine aerial
photos of a reptellentative I'$l installation and
duplicate the track plan and some of the cam_
<:>Ufi aged objects in a simulated fashIon but in
somewh at more cOMpicuous manner.
63. Command POits
a. &>me of the signs which indicate to the
observer the possible pr esenee of a command
post a,--
(1) Convetl!ing wire lines and vehicle
t rackll. Also, there may be variOUll types of
a ntenna ar rays for radio communicatione.
(2) Concentration of vehicles.
( S) Heavy traffic causing widened t urn_
(4) !'-' ew vehicle tracks w a position
which could house a command post,
( 5) Protecti ve wi re, foxhQles, and other
barriers surrounding the installati on.
(6) Defensi ve weapons emplacements
around the installation•

b. When it is impossible W conceal r-om the
air the fact that a COIIlIIllUld ])06t is in a certain
area, then a d"""y command ])06t may be ron_
at ructed in the vicinity. In this instance it is
obvious that the decoy must l()()k more like the
real thing than its genuine counterpart , in
()rder to make wnstruction of any decoy worth-
while. of th e genui ne b look like a
decoy may be feasibie. Certain characteristic
signs of occupancy ,hould be made at the decoy
including CI'Olls.-eountry traeklI simulati ng those
made by a wire_laying detail , antenna arrays
to simulate r adio communicati ons facilit ies,
smoke and occasional lights, a f ew poorly earn-
ouflSKed tent.., new t racks from day to day, and
vehicles in the area all well a, other sill'M ...
activity. ..
64. Troop Concentrations
troop concent r st ion points " re !(en-
erally identi fied by a collecti on of bivouac
areaa, motor pools, suppl,' points, Qr entrench-
ments, with other associ "ted acti vit ies .
65. Motor Pg,lcs
Around a motor Qr heavy equipment park there
are innumerable scars, t nl("ks, slit trenches,
and a continual shift inll' ()f equipment. I n
lati ns: these ins tallati ons, al l such characwr_
istics must be faithfully reproduced. other
items th at may be required for deceptive dis-
plays are ref use pil,,". tent:., bivouac"
latrines, and command posts. In desert Qr o\Jler
barren terrain, motor parks or whick con·
cent rati ons are best prot ecwd fr om enemy at-
tack by dispersion over a wide area, Here the
value 01 decoy, is mOllt appurent bec.1u,,, real
vehicles and equipment are extremely diffic'ult
to conceal or camouflage. Decoy vehide co
centrations are exceedingly valuable in dn
ing the enemy's attack and
66. Tonic Concent rations
Decoys of armored par kll and bivouacs should
follow the same general t echnique, a, de""ri bw
in paragraphs 62 and 65. Distine,bve t rack,
made by tanks and other t racked vehi eles both
locate a nd ident ify the un it.
67. AIrfield.
There are two disti nct types ()f d...·oy airfield"
day fi elds and night field.<! . The day decoy field
consists of prepared runways, bu ildinj(l<, artl'"
road" huts storage. and the auxili!try features.
The ni ght dec()y fi eld enti rely of lil'hts,
and should n<>t be visible during the day. r\ 0l'
mally t he day and nil'bt dt'<'.oy fl eld, a re ' ep-
arate installati ons.
a, Offset Distance. The di,tance I>ei-ween thl
decoy airfield and its real counterpart .houl4
be from 6% to 121,'f! kilometers, but all;ail
depend. on the type of wariare, However
decoy situated more more than 12 kilom
.,... is li kely to
• lin enti ri!'lr Mpande a i.-n. 1d and caWle
enm1)' air attackers or oIl<wrvera to _ n:h
f urthu for the eamouRaged mU lIekI.
IJ. o",....,li..- P I'¥'....qMYiI • • • S" tftTaill
..,.;0. aMqual.e drail\aK'O! mIlA for 1M
d«or lirlo.ld.
t. P....! i />. ;. ,1 V....,., ;.. Rrblt i"" to
...rh . M far &I pouible. II. dl!'<'(l)' lirfteld
tJr...,\d be 10 aito>&W that ita relatioJl to impor_
tant land........ and , ,... ...
lake., Ii....... raill"O"'s. hl ys, wooded
'"""""', and cul t i vatf:d lIi!'lds i. <'Jmllar to that of
the I"NoI . imeld. In "me ea&eO It may be praoe-
uC1I1 to lOIT1e of th_ .........)' land-
markll. in dummy fashion, at the same time
.... the r onlltrlJt'ljo" of the d"""y airfteld ia pro-
" . .....inK.
d. Rela/ I,m of Drcoll to Probabk of
Kll r ... ApprD<u !l , M II. rule II. d""""y &l rtleld
should be wated I" the path of til. ..-t Ilk*,
.pp......,h an HIeltly would follow to t.M "",I
llirid. The dee<ly will then be Hell. br .-D1
olwonvf'n th y th.. I'MI fteld. It i.
ti my ro-NbIe, 110........... . u..t in Ill"" CUM
('O"..;.J.,ntion in lJ'OIIitioooi-.: ...., have to
1lw tuni.. « " ill t 1M ' of pl"Olft-
i Mtlt Ia" dmarlc. , indieaw II. mUoeh mono
d....irllhle lilo! In lOl'tIe od1er direcUoD trl'llll tM
rNI fitol d th." 01 probable enemy ...,..
5iu 01 D....... AirM/d. A Ib.y l'irid
sh".. ld bll ahlIut the 1Aln" size ... the re&I tMld
or Ihe ata nd.rd size of lIimila r kno"' n opera-
ti on. 1 l\eld... Thi. I. importa.nt beau.... memy
.."riMI l,hoto,: Mll' h interprelenl il4i act u. l
size tOI' coml", n soD with thei r knowleda'e of
the nul fi eld ' '' ' Iheir knowl"d,n of our normal
. ized Ilj .t\... Sub3tanti &i di veJ"lI'tnU In &lu
may faU"" the fi eld W be and prob-
ably idt'ntl ll..t , Ul'on further nconn&iaaanee.
as .. (Ilke, the d""oy ia id"nWled ...""h.
air . UKke" ....iII be briefed on how to avoid
I. Ain:.../ 1 Att.....I.,. If the _ y ill able to
dalld 011" _ diolalln' f rom Ule ..... ,'ftUd a ir .
field . nd ot.erve it, a complete at-nee of &ir
tr&fl\c " ollld the dft,eption. If intelli-
re indicate. that aoeh • aiilLatioD II prob-
,-. should be tak.... to Jive " ...iaimum
indicati on of air acti vity poaaibly thl'<lugh Ul"
u.... of light plan"" which .,.,..1<1 ...,..rate from
" rou, h. t.r1p.
fl . Cooult'l<rlioa.. After the . il.c for the .....,.".
air6eld Ie .... fded. eonstnIctiOli II euritd out
i ll the followina: order:
(1) R-... SlDce it b the' ru n.... )'&,
taxiwaya, aIId hard.al4inds that make the deeo,.
look lib .n . irllel d, they recti lin t pri ori ty
in COft&tnoctloa. A pn>per\y .......,...1 layout
with eamul aUtlltl Oll. to sharp, eftr. alrsirht
Ii...... of the promi ......t falll"", ia vahl&ble.
U_111. the laY<"'t can be c:oMtrvo:Wd aimw-
taneoualy by bulldozing and l'O\I. h gradin• . A
thin layer of e" ,. hed rock, u ndo or IlT&vf'I ia
n "" rive aubsti w l.c for l rading.
A well del\ned dik:h will *",,,,,tu"t.e the l'>Utl lnCll
of taxl W. YI , ru nways, and h.r dau.ndl. For
dl:'Ceivin. thl d t obI"rver. thl moat important
Item hi deooy ai rfield oollIItruction I. tJ,,, ..,_
eenluatlon of th_ prominent feat". ... "nd "ny
prominen t atnocturetl. rather th. n detailed
,...,Ile... or a11 1_tllretl of the' ...... insta llation.
So more dl!t4il I. neo:essafJ th/UI that required
to produce the effect of " <:amoulland .ll"lIeld.
GI"Ilde variaUolUl may be pennitied; ""'" a:rad-
IlII' is .-roequi rM.
( 2) A"ffa . "" ""'.t.. RO&Ib 1t&d.
ilia: to the aJrlWld f rom m.a.ill hlgllw. ya, aM
.......-ic:. l"CI&dA """nfd,i nr the with
the bomb atonre area. PI' atoraP . . ... mai..
buildifllfl.. h.ave d OOle priority ... t'" actual
run..,... ",_ roads may be rormed in the
same manner .. the run..... ya " nd taxiw"y_,
(3) (1(" .tom,,, tut4 oollll> .t<J",.g" "ffll.
Th""" t wo f..,mties . re impor1,.oon t. Th" . .....
ollne tanka m.,. be .i mul.ted by •
lumber frame work covered with burl ap or by
. uitable u .1vajtt mlllen ll!. Bomb SWIlll" pita
mlly be lndiea.ted by aemiel reular Pllra.peto of
ell.rth pu&hood UI' by II bulldowr In • lolric.l
position. a lona: the Itrvice ,.,..;I.
(4) Cp lt'04 /olt'1'J' " ,, " h i/di" g. Control
to....en aod other pt()Jllinenl lItnIctu..... .-xl-
atM ,.; th a il1\1'Ida ..... " "'a1ly , imulattd in
dUIlllllJ fo"" in the eonatr.rUoll 01 ai r_
fOtl dl in ..... r area.s. in
a decoy of a . irtleld. th""" lItfllCWl"fI
. re Iotldom _ted, li n"" lentil or tniltn onH-
.... n ly Itrve .. the operation>n . t for_

(5) C" ''''''' fI.. A deo:oy .irf\..ld 8hould
th e ...1lW! all doea • .-I
fteld-simulated terrain patternJ on " ' n.... Y*"
. nd dianl ptive pattern paintl ne on bull dinp..
Ilflol"ll doinr thia. it is adviaabl.. ""udy t he
rNl aiJ1\o.ld b1 ...riaI obMt'vlItion and photo-
lfTllPhs ift om..r to deUmli..... tn.. ..xtl1lt to
whid! thO' domy airliHd should be
61. Suppfy ,on.
• . Suppl,. poinb vary in Nw.Dd .......
.........dinr Upoll. their partkular fllnclioa. Tbey
do. h_ er. ""are rommon
of ertenIllve tra.eking. lIcl:lvltJ'. ud location
adj annt \<) l ranaportatlon ar" tenll auell lU h&r-
oon, rallroads. . ..d road neta. Vn lMl unllluaJ
m...",, 1'e'\ . re they . re IIsually . Pll.....nt
to even l:&IIu.l aerial observ.Uon.
b. A decoy supply point be near
enough to appear to be tile flllli in. taUation
a nd far molIrh . ...ay to allo,," tor
In marbrnanahip of any attacker.
P romi.... nt Jandmarb mm be notN and the
decoy 10clatMI In thO' ....... to th.....
that the 1 inatallation ........Id be. In .o1lW!
..- til 1Idmarlu may be si mulatM. 1-1«111"11
78 allows thO' rei"';' aah ip of _raJ <Woy
points to • .-Iw.pp)y poinL
e, Th.. domy mnot &pPMr to • ton-
vincilllr .-ll nft of the sam.. pa" , m II thO'rMl
inatallau.... In addition, troopa must. be .....
tailf'd to th.. decoy site .. maintaift thO' appear_
u oo
.:; .\"";
.. '\' .....
\...:- "
anc<1 of ...ti vity. t.....,b . .... n1 on ..
ground. mo.....m..nt of • • nd f . l....JIII
pli.....r.. -..UaJ for th decoy.
If . t an poealble, it ia deoi rabl.. to rout.. IUld
t hl'Ollp thO' d«oy a Ut.rall\c lo or from
th.. ""I point. If ............f. 1 detO' rti- Is _
"'""ti.l, th'- _re ",-ill ,;rNtly .....ha ... th..
deeoy'a of au<:eeNI. In the illtemlt of
• eonvind llr dL<play it m.y .Ia<> be
dellirablcll to k>e.ate incidental real illltaJ1atiofll,
lOCh .. . salvage yard. to cl«oy.
I.. Ute IaUO'r <:aIIIe. tN .-ribi lit;r of aUMk on
the decoy should bf' and
protecUn mea...urea tak..... For nl/(ht d_1'-
tiM, certai n typea of Digllt liJlltin«, . uch u
. imulated buiklln« li /(hb. Mo inr thrw..h
lent openInp,. nd deeoyli .... . 1'11 ry
69. 011 R..ft i•• clnd T(lnk Fc,"".
o. onrelln..ri u.. so difficult t o ennce,, 1tIIat
..... for cam<>uft aj(e and d"""y
strucUon .re not lr"'neraUy j
deo:o:l)'B of th_ a re, er. quil.f'
In poaitioniIIK oil ref\n..." """'ora,
it i_ v..ry important to fOO,.... til t ........ ..
la)'O'llt ..... to pla.ce tMm i. aunou.d'np
ilar to tll _ . t the real i....tallat w-
IJ. Tallk f. nna .re of\en i"..ludt<i in rrii....
en.. but Jna7 bf' ....parate. If til")" ea.ll te
errtetin ly deo:o:l)'B . ... W'Orthwhi\e.
Cono!.nllction of a doeMj- tank fann f'I'Cl llires
• ,"",t dPaI of t'ft'ort and in,.....ity i f the_
II.... ooo.os cO...•.., K>
c:I lIt<D't _ aQ.<OS
CJ II.... IOoOoC

_ I
• _uhj "'d to periodic oU""ITatlon by the enemy.
..I..... ,.""tion of a d<,<'o,\' " 1\d",. ,·" n,iru,"t ;on (>U-
viou"ly rob, the decoy of it.< value. The camou_
fl"!l"e of th e ft',,1 farm and erection of the decoy
may 1''',.0:-''''<1 simultanoously only if enemy ob-
....rvatinn j, impr obable. If a"bjed to J",riod i,'
obscrvation, the docoy should not be rew al",]
until i t i5 w mpl eted , ink rim camoufl.." e l><>in"
required, and the r oo] f arm ..hould not he cun-
"""led before the decoy is revealed. Redud; (>n
or visibility of the rt'al installation by dark
paint ann ""n,,· camouflage may of coune pr....
eMe any activity_ Fi gur e 79 d"l'icts a dt""y
1,.:"," brm (A) on one side of a ri ver ,md two
deocoy l",,,lrnarh "'TO'" the r iver wh ich cor_
resp.mrl VI th",e at tit" ft"d ;,,,tallali on about
3 kilomete", away.
70. RClilhead$
SidiUI(>l ior unl oad!u" aUl'pHe" . Ii road net . lind
atoras;re apace are e.,"ential facmti.." for a rail ·
head. ""here poosil.>le, railheads are ....tal.>li"h.d
in ar eas affording the """t cuVer and
/i';pro 79. v . "". 'ank farm aft<! land""" ko. Not", t haI of Ih, lo. k. 0"' "",h
pa;K"d 'roof. and .;m"Ia<,d 'roado '" ,h, of 0 ho.. ,iwg d,v,lop.., . t. Th, ;, ",,,,,_il og.d
i" th ,om. manK.,- "" ,.. " 01 mnk fo rm, bM' ,. "'0"' ob. iouo, 0 ..a«loHght "'0. ",aT
OK tho oppo. ;t. "". 01 "0" ffilm ,h. ,,«I (• • taUo,jon. A! , d o' a ,imMI<tt.d (H) ha. b• •n
boil' aM. tho ..u"hli/lht ( I') ha. ,"ov,d f'om th, ",ul . it, to tho d,,,,, V ,it• .
ment and may be supplemented by camouflage,
air defense facilities and other defensive meas-
ures . Supplies are unloaded from ruilway cars
onto trucks and ea.rried to a storage point .
Since this is standard practice and known to
the enemy, a decoy breakdown point is es-
sential in diverti ng enemy attacks. It should
be more exposed and obvious than the real one.
71. Towns
In flat, barren country or in country with
vridely dispersed llIllaU settlemenm, it may be
desirable, at times, to construct a decoy of the
more obvioua feat ures of an enttre settlement .
This might be nece&'!!ary in the construction of
a decoy of an important inatallation located
near such a settlement. Figure 80 shows a
decoy town.
72, Night Decoy InltollCltionl
a. Introduction. AU night decoys employ the
same basic equipment; lights, firea, and pyro-
technics. All have the common purpose of con-
fUlling the enemy and diverting him Crom vital
targets to areas oClittle or no importanet. The
effecti veness of night decoys is dependent upon
t he following factors: poait i<)ning, weat her and
visibility, pr oper construction, proper opera-
tion and control , maintenance, and C&lIWuflage.
A decoy may consi.g.t of a 3ina-le or multi ple
installstion, vaI)' ing in size f rom a small .g.i mu_
la.ted st reet light to a complicated instalJa.tion
composed of hundreds of flremaking and light-
ing devices which, when ignited, will simulate
a burning supply depot , factor y, airfield, town,
or city. There are three types of night decoy
install ations.
(1) Type I civil decoy, are t hO<le repre-
sentative of brea<:hes in blackout discipline in
factorie<!, warehC>\lSea, dock areas, freight
yards, toWIlS, and cit ies.
(2) Tl/pe II air field MOO1/S are thoBe rep-
r esentative of runways, marker lights, obstruc-
tion llghts, wind indicators , and ai rcraft on
the ground.
(8) Tl/Pe III field force Mews are those
representative of bla<:kout breaches of supply
points, convoys, quarters, and shelters.
b. Faetpr3 of Ef!edivet1"s",
(1) Air defeme. Aircraft flying over
strange terriwry at night are str<)ngly at-
tracted by any light, and perronnel are often
willing to accept any r easonable resemblance
of the tar get as t he genuine one. Effectiveness
of decoys is proportional to the pr essure under
which the attack is made. If the air defense is
unable to simulate speedy delivery, the chance
of sueceesfu l deception is greatly diminiahed.
(2) Enemv pirot. The determining f ll"tor
in the design of a. night decoy is im appearance
to the enemy pilot. He must be able to reason-
ably identif y the target either by vision or by
radar and he must be pernuaded that it is the
target he is seeking.
(3 ) Parent tat'lJe/ camouflage. A decoy of
a real target will be successful only if the real
target Is succe8l!fully hidden. Since night de-
coys use light to attract the enemy they are
succeasful only when the surrounding territory
is completely blacked out. All measures which
make the real target more difficult to locate
than the decoy will incre&'le the effectiveness
of the deception. Fires started by bombing
the real target must be extinguished Ill! soo
as po!!sible. If 1I fire exists at the target as the
result of the attack, further deception opera_
ttcne are not worthwhile against successive
waves of attackers unless an equal <) r more
convi ncing fire at the decoy is started which
will have an equal or better chance of enti cing
followup attackers.
c. Site S elecl ion. The success of a decoy in-
stallat ion will be largely influenced by the ade-
quacy of the site. In the selection of a site the
foll owing f""tursa should be considered :
(1) The site must be a plall8ible one. The
installation mwrt be in an area where one
would expect the target to be l.-.cated.
( 2) The site .hould provide close similar
r eference points, discernible at night , to those
surrounding the target. To the aerial observer,
heavy f <) ream, bodies of water, and open coun-
try al'f! distinguishable from each other. Varia-
ti oM in grad e up to R percent are not dist in-
(3) The sit e should pennit the decoy.-
be ori ented in the same compass bearing as
tar get.
( 4) Where l""",ibl... it i_ d.... ral;l" to
cll ",- II si te J<x"aW<i /lkJllIl' the prolmble line
(1'» The rol lA! muat ptv\; de .... a retl sum.
ci<>nt f,.r Ih.. li l", tt.-rn un .. n
A th......-qUlln--r "".1.. ,,' ill Ml If",.. if the f ull
ocal" cannot hoo u..... .
(6) ThO' should I... within .. .....,.. ,n_
able d",tance of thO' ""augh to t...
.....f u--\ with it. ""t not on c.... that t.he . ,...
" poor 1I<>mbi ...,...rvy ov"",",p11 the tatw<'t
i or oth,.,. vilala __
(7) I"-.i ble the .t-.y
to ado<luat.. .......5 and "",,·., r h......
( II ) If Il ni llM "'''-01' only. th......... . hould
provide ......y r OI><"..II]m..nt duri nj{ dayli, ht
d. Sit, P rr pGru fio... l n . ......"' ri nj( t l>• • i t. ('Or
nill'ht d.....,)· installati on. it i. ftW'I'l tial that
indicatioM o( and\'.... 'II the
&JI lIN"'''''' of the be k"1't to • min-
imum. S ormal ..,ti viti fll a""h as furn;.... a nd
If'"llli n« Mould boo continued ..h P<*ible.
Th_ p...... utio.... not only ...n -.. to'> 1' /11 l IMo
.......y from. Iotatinll' and mappi n« ni ll'lI t .s-.y
oj """ duri n.. thfo day. but lI .... hoPlp to
",,"al .....,.....,.. Th.. COftWottion .iIl , ..d l.
i tatftl if tM- fol lo";nll' ill f oi l, ;
(1) F",t"bli..h locati on o( a ll devices, pay-
1II1( partirul"I' attention to servke ronds and
pl'ilvisions (or llervicing the equipment.
( 2)\'e tr<.'<'S or brush may
constitute a ftre hazar<!, lakinl( care not to ,.;,ar
the l" nd>;("lIl' e,
(3) Cut wred" to minimi.e the spread of
the fire, estab!i..hing an 8_foot band o( bare
earth, 20 to 30 reet in diameter, around ea.:h
tiremakin/( unit.
Mnt..r;" la, The type a nd amount o( equip-
m...nt in lIillht decoys wi ll depend upon the
nature a nd sra le of the targ"t to be lloi mulated,
materiala avai lable, and the deslgnerl!l ingenu_
ity. In all lnstanees the ch_pest, least critical,
anil most readily obtaillllble ma.terials that will
nerve the pUl"jlO8e should be used.
/. Opel'<ltWn.
(1) I n the operation of nlilrt decoY'!, pro-
vi!!oion mullt be made (or territorial
control and fol' local control. The central con-
trol, receives immediate informal ion
(rom ...11 00"""'" dnrin/( nn att.u:k on Ihe a rea.
determines whieh decoy aite should be fired and
Kives the order to the loeai controller con-
rern"", ".-ho pMSO!'S it on to the detachment!<
in charJl"e of the eites. In the event of a break-
down in communicati o,,-" , the l<X' al controller
munt have authori ty to ad on his own initia-
t ive.
(2) The number of men required to oper_
ate a ni/(ht docoy varies with the size of the
dl'Coy. The amaller aites req uire 3 men and the
larKer dial,la,Vs about 20 men.
Sucr"""ful operation of a niJl"ht doc,(l,V
will require on the part of the operator an
undel"lltand;nJl" of the problem and con.iderable
inJl,"enuity. Variety and "life" fire essential.
Th....., a re obtained by varyinj( the
of the I&ll1 Jll1 uned, particularly in "bad black·
out" effecta. "" thai as a h""tile ... ireraft ap-
pl'OfICh"" closer to a aite. the lower powered
lillhti nll comi'!< within his range ur vision.
u'ennore, screens may be erected to obaeure
obller..,...t ion from oertain directions, and .ky-
lights may be tilted at variillla angl"" so \h&t
a.s an aircrnft drd...... a sue the l' l<twrn of the
decoy ill. alwaY'! ch&nging in a life-like manner.
Time switches may alao be used to switch auto-
matic...lly on and off certain devices . ueh .
the open d",,1' light. thus introducinll "Ii,-
wit hout ... prohibit ive outlay in e...ble for sep-
arate cireuitll.
(4) SlIInrlard ization I...youts for construe-
tion of not Pl"MTlisaible because no
two decoya should contain any familiar pattern
or re/(ulari t y. Rather, the d.....i/(Tler have
to employ whatever oornrtruction the immed iate
problem requires. Night decoys should be
checked and rechecked from the air by an
experi enced o:>!>se....-er. Visibility conditions
to th""", under the enemy will
observf! the dewy sho:>utd be chosen. The layout,
background, dummy construction, and adjust-
mentll of light intensi ti es should be checked
under a number of· different Il.tm05pheric eon_
dltlona and . t di fferent ai titud"" .
fl . Rill", to Empha!ize.
(1) Do:> not t urn on the decoy liSl:ht!< while
under enemy obBervati on.
(2) Be sure 1;0 switch olf pri mary tight..
when the enemy a pproachea.
(3) Do not switch tightll 011 and nff I
attract attenti on.
(4) If enemy fails b.! bomb, do not swit<:
primary ll/(hts back on until the enemy is well
out of ranI(".
(5) Do not light large fires until . ure t hai
the attaek is a rai d in force : do not set oil
decoy fo:>r a u uiunee raider .
(6) Do nnt liJl,"ht fires later than I ho:>ur
before dawn.
(7) R«nove firing plugll duri nll the <lay_
ti me to prevent lil(htninJl," (rom stal1.inJl" the

(8) If electricity faila use the stand-by
h. Mainl"""''',.-e, On tI niJl"ht decoy mai nte-
nance will consillt o:>f the following:
( I) Rebuilding and reruelinK fire devices
after s ra id. Sufficient material should always
be on hand to operate the dewy for three con-
secutive nights.
(2) Repairing damage after raids and
eradio:a.ti nll" bomb
(3) Cleaning and checking generator. t

(4 ) ChecklnJi" ...11 wire a nd contact.-.
ca ll}'.
l r.) Lifti nJl,' a nd wtree i f required
by t h., u.... of thot Am.
i . C""'()fI.fldf/'. In d-rt or a rctie wrrain,
or in "P"11 ('OlInby ...h...... nildll deeoys ins talllo·
lion 1nIIJ' be d;""em ible d,"iq the day, the
ra....... lhon of t ...... dootor. tw-omes important
un'-' the ....,. is ....... day.......,.. In an,
"'""t. u..........,. lilf\lti"" and ti .... _ ill
ha..... to beo Simple do/YXel ilia, be
c.,•.-fl'l"d 'rith ... lIatlop .... Mt.
may bf. rowrftl ...ith dummy
buildinr;!' or the hutall&tioto may be INl<H into
... day aftd nill'ht in wl\irh ...... ttrtai ll
lill'htinll" 8IuiJl"'ent may remain n P<>Nd. Sornoo
simolat<>r niPt deooyl in open Wr'ain
...1"" h/I'"" th. of ni!1ht time
McOy li re in ... fl at IU"Nl may
prod u,,", ..nmllrh lilflll to N'\'H.1 th# 'MI" nature
of th.. Me. It the d«oy Lt !lOt ... dual
day ;I.Ild Ili lril! dKGY, it will boo neusMry to
refill and corw:""l bomb en.ten or in
the an'll of thO' nl lf\lt d« o)", of
"Cable attach up"n innocent COIInt,.,., evi dent
j ill!' day n'C'Ml". will immedi ately
..ntify thO' . i te . 1 ... IIllTht decoy to the enemy
ob6<.'n,.,r .
73. Smoh Operation.
Smoke h..... tim"" functioll8 in deception opel"ll-
li"ns :
II. Smoke be u..oo in ronjunclion ", ith
th"".. i" . tan..tions or .itua_
tions that would ....nnal ly »roduce lll'OOke• • urt.
u bctori ..... J>m'·.. r I,lan.... and dee<»" danuolt"e.
b. Lilt"ht """,. e mllA' be .-I in w nj un<:tion
with ni l("ht dl'roY. wh the vi. ibility . nd lil("ht
ronditioruo .... aueh to decoy. In
this s ituation, ..... ite .moke mal' be u"'<l to
. imllla.te It"round hue or 1hi8t.
e. Smoke may I» UHd to -';: rH'!I the .ite of
all," act,.iYi ly, Smok. rnay .1100 be WIed to aimu-
!at. ..,ti\·it y . ithoat the aid of aimulated ron-
strudion. The nature of dflroy_,uMd
adivity may be di...IOMd, apparently unin_
tmt>onally, by ",,&tin.. it to ......... oI.her _tirny
or dis play. This method of efferli" de.eepl,ioa
well ad"l'l<ffi to river pr..p..r" ti on,
h<o....h ..... " " It conc..ntrAtion, lind fi5. ..mloly
"olntlO. Th.. ......... ",: onomy. and with
" 'hirh t hia Iype or d""oy c. n Imp;"
....... ted u. IIMqU&l1ed by otht't vi.U&l method..
i f il ill !>"'I...rt y .......t and ita
n ur ch.a.....trriati.... . ... th'"
of y is alrnnot.l imJ>O""i ..... to .......t ity. 1'11..
IIlIO' nr lOHiou. limi laUon.. Si ron..
or ....pidl,. d umlrin.. wind.o ""'. .. III.. II '" of
........edift'lrll lt, in "r the <>peBti... ......._
...nnel . MI 0....""", nl " f n.. <'<lui r"
meonl requ;nd. For of """"'e ...noe<ti n..
o.........UoM. _
74, o-c.y DoIl'109"
e. Simu1&ted i . lUI ....1'.".;allY valu.
abl.. and "ractieal m""," of Mr"""" <>n for in•
stalJati ..... whkh . ... imJ>1'1lI.1k. 1 to rollC'Ml.
Simulated dam8.6t' th"'- ......1 may In.
duce th.. enemy to st<>" (>I" I_ n th.. nllmber
u d fon:.. or hb at:UIcko on wlLat hot i. led to
bel i..... ill a cri ppled iIll'ltAllation. De<-oy dllma....
ma,. be II -t effectively on t>i l ...., n.l l-
I'OIld .ldinJlll, hanll"anl, l"' ..'..r "I. nlll . " rldll""l.
wharvt!ll, ....reh<>U""'I, water to.... ..".. and oth...
larlfe inatanation...
b, Damall"e from bombs lind Ii ...... i" the WlUal
tyl''' lIimulated. Simulate<! <l"m" ll"" ill lH'''I", red
In a<lva ne..; ....lvaged material a nd d..brla ar..
n..tJy lltacked to ronrO.1m with exilltinll" pa.1-
terno and a re ""aUen<! immediately "ft". an
er>emy att..o.ek to .simulate bomb hila on the
. t r ....t"Tft, Shallo.. h"j.... mlly II(> dUIf or l,bI. vd
to si mulate bomb erate... and "l,rayed 'Wio.
......... oil or bl..... pai nt 1.0 a ppear d....I>; th_
e01' t'Rd unti l the attuk i. in or
until after the attack. Dllrinll" th.. au...r k. ""'"
pared'1n!li . nd amoke pymtechn..... may be
....... and t1. ..... ill'll ited. After an atta.<k, th..
ill revuled. If dee.ptlon or
thili kinel ill to he ..If..... t".... . ;11 _ ntial.
Penonnel Mould be tn.iJ><'<! and orplliPl! to
f otlnw a ..·..11 rHl..........cI drill in 0... ...·..nt thai
the natu of the lIu.........ftdin__ ""'" is _ h that
ac1ua1 bml b c",1en . ..'a)' f rom the i ....tai·
Iation may compromi.<t' the dec-elotioll.. !".ome
proriaioa may be l"e'quind to COIK'SI 0- real
cno, ..... Clip. ll;.!) .
,..,..... ... v.-, _ _ . ... . - ...
1. Depa.I"..... of the A.rm'( .-.It.....
DA P..n 108-1 ladn of Arm:r Motio: PletIlN&. FfIm StriPS. Slidfl' . T_ and Phono-
- ...
DA Pam 81O-Mrw. Jruln_ 1'vt&iD.lD.& to AdmiIliJtr&ti... TniDint'. Maintoma-, &lid
2.,h_1It of the A.rmy It-e' I, lion.
AR lI2O-6 DlctioualT of Ull.ited St.-toes Army Tel'mL
AR 82<1-60 Allthoriud Abb.....utiON.
3. fieW Mo_I•
.... ...
.... ..,
.... .....
FM s-es
FM 21...50
FM 21_16
4. Technical Manual
TM 5--200
ChemieaJ. Bioi oPW. and Radiological (CBR) Oper. tio....
ED£i:eer ()per. tioDi and Or.-ni...tiONl.
Eqineoer Field D. ta.
Eqineer and Lofiatleal Data.
Military Trainlnll.
C.mouflall"e Materi..1•.
" ..







7a (2 )

7a( 2 ).
( 3 )
N.l ur..1 m. lo. I.I.
... i.rr. .....1 <Io........ n. . . . _
".to ,
Ai",rArt >'O. "". I" .nt ._• •••••• _
Mtllt.ry ..n".,. b....."t •• _••• _•••
V. hId , _ ..oJ "",nt • • _••• •• • _.
"""",uflop di .. lptl .. _•• • • • • _
NiKht d.. i" .tall_tlo"a • • • • _• • • _.
Ohtiqu. p hoto:o;.aph,
P. n.hromot l, film • ••• • • •••• • _• •
P&<k;ng _. . . btl
P.....iv. I"f d.t«tl"" dovl..... • 7.
Indir ",t oboerv.tion __• • _••• _• • • _. . 7
Individual _. . . eh 4
Individual • • moullo!r" faeo pain' ••• 22
In!.ooed d,t<.tinjf d"i... 7<
Infrared film _•• • • • • • • • _••• _•• 70 (1)1<)
In./norod " lI, <lont '._ 1a(4 ) «)
In. taUal ion" t...p ..01• • • • _.. Ch 9
lnlrenohm.nt , imutot lon GOo
Layout grid oontrol •• __•••••• • ••• • • 15
Low Obli G pholog'oph• • • • •_• • _. . 10( 3)
llI_hln."" pl..,,,,,,,,,,,t ••••• __. _. 21
:\l"'bod. af _. . . . . . 10
. im" lotion •• _..... . . .. . . .
)lndol • • • y,,,,", ••••• • • • • ••• •••••• 4S
:\lorta n . _•• • • • • • • • ••• ••• • •_. _ 22
I"' rk. ";mui. tian
)1o""",, "t. a f. cto. of • Sf
OLo,,,,.\ioo ,
Di.... t __• __•• • • •• • • • __•• _•• •_. 6
Indi....,t ._• • • • • • • • • _••• • • _. __• 7
0 """",,1• • imo l.tion ••• • • • • • • __•• _. llOe
Oil ....ftnor ie••imulation . _• •• _. . . ... 69
lI","moc" fo r Ai<t' oft "".....1.... "' •
11.1.-\ .am"""OV •.• _• • • • • • _•• •
_. __._•• • • • • • • • •• _• •• _.
H;"h ohI1G'" photovaph• • • • • • . • • __
... .......
F",,"'r.. or ""'OJ(fIi' ioo _. _... g
Fa< ior....T<'<! ,lo-t..ninKd.....i"". l e
Fiold rort iftc.lion• • • _._
I'ilo... .__ _.. . • • • •• • 70(41
foe LI""k ..01 whi 'a film • • • •
F ix«l In..... lI. li o.. ••• •••• C/l9
Fool t.r&<ko . imo laol" n . _•••••• • • • _ 58h(l)
Foxhole ""....... • __ ••• ••• • • • _. .. 20

" 00

i s


4, 15
Vamag< . imui. t ion •••• • _•• _• •• _. . . 74
Deception • • _•• _••• _• • __• __• • __10" e h 10
Dt<oy in,t. U. lion> •• _•• _•• _•• __.__ CillO
In_ ion film • ••• • • _•• __• • _• • _• • •
Digging in:
BuilJinR , on.lruotlon _• • _•• _•••
V.h..," ",no,. tm.nt
Dinol oboo",a,ioo ._•••••••••• _•••
c. ",o. n. I<'" ,1...'Clio. ft lm _• • ••• _• •• 10 / 4)( 011
C. m<lUn"Ka di. d pli . . _•• _... . . . . . n
{'''' ,,,-., "'I.i l"'''-.' ._.... .. . . . 13
CloIhlOJt •• . _• • ••• _ • • _.. ....... 17
Cnlor. a r....'or or ......,"'.i.;.,n llt
C""". fil m ._. 74(4j(bj
Cnmm• • d po" . :
Simol. , ion
C<>mmand ..... pon.iLilitlu (or cam·
ooR ••••• • •• • • _•• __
Conculmen!. deIi.l t i..... _• • _• ••••• _.
Con,troction, pd n<"ipl. or ""..... 1·
"" nt . _•• __• • _•• __• • _• • __._
Con"roct loll o! fi. ld !ortl n'. ' i"" , . _.
eov.•• foe fo.hol _• • _• • __. _
Bar"", 1e,,"I. :
Bh'ouao " ",ocalm. ,, ' •••••••••• :u
!'at t.",. . __ ..•. __.. _... _. .. 9<> (3) (d)
C""....lm. " t •••••., _•• _• • _• • __ 32-:J5
1'l ;m
._._•• _•••••• _• • __._ 62
Black and white .., ••• __•• __• __• • 1G(4 ) (4)
kou, di . <ipli •• • • • • _. 9b( 2}
ding . _• • _• • ••• _••• _•• _• • __ l Ob
01.,.. . _••• _•• • • •
" uildinK' ._._+_•••• •__. _.. 49
Plaenn, nto,
• • •••• _••• _•• __• • •
I Simulation ••••• ••• - • • •••• - •• •
... ..
Adi,... Infr. ...... ,IP,..ninR d• • i.... . . . _ 7e
A.rial I, hol"l't,"phy •. ••., • • •• • •• • • ••10. 9b/ 21
Ai",r.n •• ._ •••••••• _• • •_ Ch 7
Airfi. ld.,
{' '''..... . I.....t
Simol.l ion •
Artillery :
('... ..... Im.n' _••• _• •• _• • • • • __•
Simolali,," •• _. _•• • _• •• • • ._
Ao<lio .am""R. p di ..,i pl, _.
'" ..







" ..

- _ U I
- ( I)
M l1)
ToO )

...... . 1%
Mi ll.
T _1tIo _k . ... loClwo _. __ "'131
T _. • •• ._ t300lU
T"'" . . . . . __
T_ oiorooloUo. _. ._ ••• _ _
T .._ "
t' __ ...-- _
c_ ,",""" ,..1_ "(ll l . 1
V........ •__ •. •_._ ___ :I2-:U
V_ inl I I 1 a l.pInt ... n ; . 0 1
W.Ior, poIoU _. __ • • •• :Ill
W.. • ._ 1.
WMrIod ..hlolt I......k ....."I . IMHo
Wlft llM • U
Wood<;! ..rrain p.l... rn. «)
""illo., .. _
F l..-till........
hi of • . ._
._._. __ ...._
SIlio _. • • • __
_. _-------_.__ ._--
s- _ nou.; ... _••
S- __ io, _. _•••
I.·••r -.. ..... __ . __ , •••• _
SOP ,., ...-lIap
Sooad _ ..... dioocipli..
_... -- ---- _._.. .. .
S'- ofdo. . .......... nl or. bi. _
SIo_ ph.otoenpn, _
polnta ' • •
SImulation .
T.nk to"" . lm" l. li on . . .
Tonk olmut. tion .
T...ral. 1'0110..... _•• •
Tni'll.., • t _ 01 .........itiOll _
Too<o ... ._. • __
Tradl lFd 1101 n_n__ n_n__
T Io,d,ll... __ •• ._ •• _ ._. _. _







" ..





t3oo ll)
p.lnllnt '
Ai.... n _
ArUlloorr •• •
Ilft_ . . • _
Ai. .. _. _.. _. . . . __ .. _ •• •• __ •• __ . _. _
W.._ • __._ . • • _
""'-_ i -..l . .
P' 1 as"', __ . _
Pil . . __ . .
P;....i . ••• __
.. ..... _._.
Prinri of • _
QIoanrri " • __•• _ ••
Radar _ • _
!\.oil• • d. : lmon, . __•• • • _
. _. _••. •
Ro1\n. ri • • . _• • • • _
R. v..",.nl. , . , _
footon _. _•• fIO'Iltl o,., • f. ctor of ....
op;u"n . • ._ __ ..
RNpo...l'ollltlH for ....... 11. •
a- __. . __________ to
Roll i.t _k 11
Ilu.ral "". ....... .... ..(lH.1
80. • •
.sr.-.I.., _. .. •.. _. • • • 1111
- ,
A r_ of .........1.... ••• _
Aiftntl __• . _
8ooild'" _1 _ _ ....., _
. _
S......... . ,...- 0' _.i...... _._._.
SIoi..: •__• • • .
Ai ......f1 _ 1 _
...........\ _.
Fly Ord8l" of the Secret ary of the Anny:
N. j o. G",<trd. U",W S ti l t . A.....
Till Adj ......t cnllt'l'llL
G• • • ""I. UNil«1 Sf"v. A.....r.
Chi. ! o! St"6.
To be distributed in
Princi ples and Field
..ith DA . ' onn 12- 11

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