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eadacheIsACommonlyOccurringCondit ion that can be caused by intraCranial or extracranial problems, serious NursingProcessDiabetesNeuroAssess mentPhysicalAssessmentParesthesiaH eadacheIsACommonlyOccurringCondit ion that can be caused by intraCranial or extracranial problems, serious NursingProcessDiabetesNeuroAssess
Maricar R. Trinidad Celine S. Udani BSN 135 Group 139
Pneumonia (pneumonitis) is an inflammatory process in the lung parenchyma usually with marked increase in interstitial and alveolar fluid. Among all nosocomial infections, pneumonia is the second most common, but has the highest mortality (Black & Hawks, 2009). Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a disease in which individuals who have not recently been hospitalized develop an infection of the lungs (pneumonia). CAP is a common illness and can affect people of all ages (Wikipedia, 2010). In a study undertaken at the UP-PGH to determine common etiologic agents causing communityacquired pneumonia in adults forty-eight patients (48) were recruited based on set clinical criteria. Streptococcuspneumoniae and H. influenzae were the most common pathogens isolated. There was no difference in the pathogensisolated from elderly and younger patients.The most common predisposing factors for gram negative bacillary pneumonia were COPD, smoking, andthe use of steroids. There was little difference in the clinical manifestations between the elderly and youngerindividuals except for the decreased frequency of fever in the elderly. Anti-biotic usage greatly decreased the yield of specimens. Both Streptococcus pneumoniae and H. influenzae, the two most predominant organisms, were sensitive tocotrimoxazole - an inexpensive first line antibiotic. [Phil J Microbiol Infect Dis 1995; 24(2):2932. This nursing process case presentation presents pneumonia of a 9-month old baby girl. We have chosen this case to know more on how pneumonia affects a pediatric client, if there are differences in adult and in pedia. And furthermore this is our first time to present a case of pneumonia beacause in other clinical duties we choose more complicated case, and this time why not choose pneumonia a disease that we are taking for granted for it was always common to patients we handle in different areas. By this presentation gaining knowledge about this disease we can be more confident to handle more pneumonia patients in our future nursing practice
Past Health History 1. Family History III. Hospitalization 6. Immunizations 3. History of Present Illness C. Foreign travel (when. Self-Concept 5. Family Coping Patterns . Psychological Health 1. Biographic Data Name: Address: Age: Religion: Room and bed: Chief complaint: Attending Physician: Physician s Diagnosis: Gender: II. Accidents . Childhood Illness 2. Medications used or currently taken Medications currently taken are ranitidine. Nursing History A. 5. hydrocortisone. Cognitive Patterns 4. Interaction Patterns 3. length of stay) No foreign travel yet. B. Coping Patterns 2. cefuroxime and salbutamol 7.I. Emotional Patterns 6. Allergies 4. Patterns of Functioning A.
stress management. . They should also make a room for the wisdom and experience for elderly people. Socio-Cultural Patterns 1. gender identity. others. love and self-direction and twelve sub tasks sense of worth. as they took care of him. It includes five life tasks essence or spirituality. exploration of new and familial and social role options. and is able to make a contribution to his or her community . friendship. (Ref: Health Assessment and Physical Examination 2nd edition 2002 by Mary Ellen Zator Estes) Interpretation: Client has regional customs and beliefs. they possess many of the values. exercise. beliefs and customs of the larger culture but have unique characteristics. problem solving and creativity. Environment 5.com) Interpretation: Family is the source of strength of the patient in times of crisis. nature and the universe that transcends and empowers the self. Filipinos hereditary diseases include diabetes mellitus. Hiscurrent health status has affected his daily activities. (wikipedia. Thalassemia. all life. sense of control. According to studies. Religious Beliefs and Practices Analysis: Spiritual health is the connectedness with self. realistic beliefs. higher power. work and leisure. emotional awareness and coping. especially his wife. They also need to support for a more central role of middle generation. self care. They support him emotionally and financially. sense of humor. supporting the older generation without over functioning for them. All kinds of consideration are given to him by his children. Though they are smaller group. Spiritual and religious beliefs can significantly affect health behavior. Economic Analysis: Respect and interest in cultural background will provide a strong basis for communication. can cope with the normal stresses of life. and cultural identity which are identified as characteristics of healthy functioning and a major component of wellness. Spiritual Patterns 1. An example of a wellness model includes one developed by Myers. Cultural Patterns 2. Significant Relationships 3. C. Being a part of a regional group of culture is called a subculture. Recreation Patterns 4. and G6PD deficiency. nutrition. B. Sweeney and Witmer. Families in later life is in a transition of accepting the shifting of generational roles. The family needs to maintain own and couple functioning and interests in face of physiological decline.Analysis: The World Health Organization defines psychological health as "a being of well-being in which the individual realizes his or her own abilities. can work productively and fruitfully.
and needs to be carefully assessed via the history and physical examinations. Skin color 2. Temperature 2. cries when in pain. Personal Hygiene/ Grooming Pale Clean. Nutritional Status Abnormal 4. (Ref: Health Assessment and Physical Examination 2nd edition 2002 by Mary Ellen Zator Estes) Measurement 1. neat No apparent breath odor Poor nutritional status with body weakness. normal 3. Physical Assessment Actual Findings Norms Brown. Blood Pressure 35. The increased respiratory rate is a compensatory . Pulse Rate 3.4 37. neat No apparent breath odor Healthy appearance normal Analysis General Appearance 1. IV.Interpretation: The patient has religious beliefs and cultural values. Non-verbal Behavior Appropriate to Normal situation/ appropriate response Analysis: A patient who appears ill usually is ill.90 mmHg Average: 130/80 5.4 C 60 100 cpm 12 -20 breaths/ min S: 100-160 mmHg / D: 60. Height Analysis: Hypoxia and metabolic acidosis are common causes of tachypnea (RR>20 breaths). Appropriate to situation. Activities of Daily Living V. Respiratory Rate 4. light brown Clean. These beliefs are influenced by the social environment and also health behavior. Weight 6.
Normal NAILS Inspection Fingernail plate shape Fingernail and toenail texture Fingernail and toe nail bed color Tissue surrounding nails Palpation Blanch test of the capillary smooth Pink. Blanch test return to normal in 1 second. Skin temperature is warm and equal bilaterally. With warts scattered on the face. Bilaterally equal warm temperature and nontender. angle of nail plate about 160 degrees Smooth texture Highly vascular and pink on light-skinned clients. Skin is uniform whitish pink or brown color. (Ref: Health Assessment and Physical Examination 2nd edition 2002 by Mary Ellen Zator Estes) Body Part (Technique used) SKIN Inspection Skin color Uniformity of skin color Texture Actual Findings Norms Analysis Light brown. Skin is dry with minimum perspiration. dark-skinned clients may have brown or black pigmentation in longitudinal streaks Intact epidermis Normal . darker on areas exposed to light. Normal Palpation Skin moisture Skin temperature Skin turgor Dry. depending on the patient s race. chest and some on the abdomen. Normal. Nontender.mechanism to provide the body with more oxygen and eliminate excess hydrogen when the body s metabolism is increased. Convex curvature. Moisture varies from one body area to another. Exposure to sunlight can results in increased pigmentation of sun-exposed areas. angle of nail plate about 160 degrees Smooth texture Intact epidermis Convex curvature.
parietal.Body Part (Technique used) Actual Findings Norms Prompt return of pink or usual color (generally less than 4 seconds) Analysis SKULL AND FACE Inspection Skull size. no discharge or nasal Symmetrical in shape. same color as the face. palpebral fissures equal in size. Can repeat whispered words within 2 feet distance. no discharge or nasal Normal . proportion to the body. Rounded (normocephalic and symmetrical. Symmetrical and bilaterally equal in parts Palpation Skull nodules or masses and depressions No nodules. reactive to light and accommodation. Pupils constrict bilaterally direct and indirect response. palpable conjunctiva. Normal EARS AND HEARING Inspection Normal voice tones Patient can hear normal tone of voice. He has pinkish. with frontal. and symmetry Facial features Facial movement Patient is normocephalic. transparent conjunctiva. absence of nodules or masses Slightly asymmetric facial features. smooth skull contour Smooth. size. Pupils reactive to light and accommodation. masses and depressions. same color as the face. EYES AND STRUCTURES Inspection Cornea Iris PERRLA Bulbar conjunctiva Palpebral conjunctiva Palpation Bulbar conjunctiva Palpebral conjunctiva Has whitish halo on the sides of the cornea. shape. Normal NOSE AND SINUSES Inspection External nose shape. Iris is brown color. Normal skull and face features. Pink. amd occipital prominences). or color and flaring or discharge from the Symmetrical in shape. 3cm size in normal light. uniform consistency. symmetric nasolabial folds Symmetric facial movements.
or use of accessory muscles. without lumps. flaring. smooth. anteroposteriortransverse diameter ratio 1:2 Abnormal Analysis: Labored breathing and use of accessory muscles are indicative of increased demand for air due to narrowed airway as in asthma. Resonant throughout peripheral lung fields. unlabored. diaphragmatic excurion ranges from 3 6 cm for each hemidiaphragm. or crepitus. thoracic excursion symmetrical. even contour. masses. respirations quiet. Norms Analysis Both nares are patent No swelling and redness present. chest tightness and non-productive cough and without retractions. masses. tactile fremitus present. Normal Normal Normal Palpation Percussion Even color. masses. of different depth: deeper expiration than inspiration. diaphragmatic excurion ranges from 3 6 cm for each Normal Normal . Nasal septum at the middle. tenderness.Body Part (Technique used) nares. and discharge. bulges. smooth. growths. of even depth. or crepitus. regular. regular. Patency of both nasal cavities. thoracic excursion symmetrical. and without retractions. Chest wall symmetrical. tenderness. without lumps. Both nares are patent No swelling and redness present.tactile fremitus present. Presence of redness. (Ref: Health Assessment and Physical Examination 2nd edition 2002 by Mary Ellen Zator Estes) Chest wall symmetrical. Resonant throughout peripheral lung fields. even contour. verbalized difficulty breathing. anteroposteriortransverse diameter ratio 1:2 Breathing is good when head of the bed is elevated 30-45 degrees or when sitting. cardiac dullness. Nasal septum at the middle. Masses Nasal septum THORAX Inspection Actual Findings flaring. with right side slightly higher Even color. swelling. cardiac dullness. bulges and masses. labored. respirations audible as wheeze. uses accessory muscles.
passageway walls oscilate in apposition between closed and barely open positions. no masses. both anteriorly and posteriorly. or nodules found. vocal resonance absent. resulting sound is similar to a vibrating reed. & Hawks.). Philippines: Saunders Elsevier.Body Part (Technique used) Actual Findings than the left. adventitious sounds present: wheeze high pitched (sibilant ronchi). vocal resonance absent. adventitious sounds absent. with right side slightly higher than the left. bronchovesicular sounds over the area of bifurcation. With tenderness. M. No fluid present Abnormal Analysis: Hydrocele: A hydrocele . J. swelling. bronchial sounds over the trachea anteriorly. secretions. H. (2008). Norms hemidiaphragm.. No abdominal scars present. J. Abnormal Analysis: Wheeze high pitched (sibilant ronchi) is indicative of air squeezed or compressed through passageways narrowed almost to closure by collapsing. No pain is felt upon light palpation on the 4 quadrants of the abdomen.) ABDOMEN Skin integrity Contour and symmetry Light palpation for areas of tenderness Symmetrical but prominent. (Ref: Black. Normal Analysis: (Ref: Health Assessment and Physical Examination 2nd edition 2002 by Mary Ellen Zator Estes) PERINEAL Inspection Fluid retention on both testicles and the penis. Analysis Auscultation Vesicular sounds throughout peripheral lung fields. Medical-Surgical Nursing (8th ed. or tumors. Vesicular sounds throughout peripheral lung fields.
or cancer). A hydrocele may be present at birth or develop later in life. 2010.Body Part (Technique used) Actual Findings Norms Analysis is a collection of fluid in the membrane that covers the testis or testes. October). from The Merck Manuals Online Medical Library: http://merck. html) . epididymitis. D. Swelling in the Scrotum. P. injury. However. (Ref: Lui. Retrieved October 8. (2008. the condition occasionally results from a testicular disorder (for example. Usually the cause is unknown. It is most common after age 40.com/mmh e/sec21/ch238/ch238m.
Retrieved October 8. December 1).or g/wiki/Hemoglobin) Indicates infection Functions with WBC to fight inflammation and promote healing process.5 11. 2010.wikipedia.50 0.42 14. Neutrophils also known as segmenters are recruited to the site of injury within minutes following trauma and are the hallmark of acute inflammation. or tumor. Hemoglobin.70 Increased .37 0.0 x 109 /L 150 250 x 109 /L Normal Increased Increased Segmenters 0. (Ref:Wikipedia. from Wikipedia website: http://en. (2008.VI. Date 27 September 2010 Hematocrit WBC count Platelet Count 0.87 0. Laboratory and Diagnostic Examinations Results Procedure HEMATOLOGY Hemoglobin Result 143 g/L Norms 120 140 g/L Interpretation Increased Analysis Increased hemoglobinmay be caused by exposure to high altitudes. dehydration. smoking.47 5.9 x 109 /L 266 x 109 /L 0.
01 0.005 AMBER CLEAR ACIDIC/BASIC 4. Handbook of Pathophysiology. 27 September 2010 URINALYSIS Physical characteristics: Color Transparency Reaction pH Specific gravity Chemical tests: Albumin Sugar Ketones Blood in urine Urobilinogen Cells: RBC Pus Epithelial Mucus Threads Bacteria YELLOW SLIGHTLY TURBID ACIDIC 5.030 Normal Abnormal Normal Normal Normal Turbidity may indicate bacterial infection.06 Interpretation Decreased Normal Analysis Decreased immune response.6 8. J. E.003 to 1.0 1. Philippines: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.05 Norms 0. M. Manila. J. J. +++ NEGATIVE NEGATIVE NEGATIVE NEGATIVE 0 NEGATIVE NEGATIVE NEGATIVE NEGATIVE Abnormal Normal Normal Normal Normal Proteinuria..08 0. 8-10 / hpf MANY /hpf MODERATE MODERATE MODERATE 0 0 NEGATIVE NEGATIVE NEGATIVE Abnormal Abnormal Abnormal Abnormal Abnormal May be renal disease Indicates bacterial infection. Medical. (2009). (Ref: Corwin. (2008).20 0.Date Procedure Lymphocytes Monocytes Result 0. (ref: Black. & Hawks. H.00 1.may indicate glomerulonephritis or other decline in kidney function.40 0.Surgical .
nephrotic syndrome. (ref: Black. 4. J. (2009). & Hawks.00 4.2 2. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by the cells of the prostate gland. & Hawks.96 mmol/L 2. liver cirrhosis.1 mmol/L 3. PSA is present in small quantities in the serum of men with healthy prostates. H. (2009). acute and chronic renal failure. MedicalSurgical Nursing. J..00 NG/ML Increased Edematous disorders resulting in sodium deficits: CHF. . J.30 mmol/L 135 148 mmol/L 100 112 mmol/L Normal Hyponatremia Normal 30 September 2010 Total Calcium 1. J. M.8 mmol/L 100..55 mmol/L Decreased 30 September 2010 IMMUNOLOGY PSA 100 NG/ML 0. but is often elevated in the presence of prostate cancer (ref: Black. H. psychogenic polydipsia.Date 28 September 2010 Procedure BLOOD CHEMISTRY Potassium Sodium Chloride Result Norms Interpretation Analysis Nursing.) Fluid and electrolyte imbalances especially sodium also affects calcium concentration.5 5. M.92 mmol/L 123.
Treatment of acute severe asthma and in routine management of chronic bronchospasm unresponsive to Hypersensitivity to its content. peripheral with hyperthyroidism. M.9 mmHg 42. J.Surgical Nursing. Blood Transfusion.0 meq/L 45. .35 7.5-5 mg Anti-asthmatic and COPD prep. Medications. H.2 ml/dL 8. (ref: Black.Date Procedure Result Norms Interpretation Analysis Medical.) Respiratory acidosis uncompensated is an indication that there is a problem in the released of CO2 causing it to be contained in the blood. Medical.) 2 October 2010 ABG pH PaCO2 PaO2 HCO3 TCO2 BE O2 Sat FiO2 7. Metabolic acidosis also follows due to increase in HCO3. fine tremor diseases of skeletal muscle. RESPONSIBILITIES Small increase in heart Special precaution on patient rate..Surgical Nursing.9 mmHg 79. J.8 % 36. IV Infusions. (2009). CV vasodilation.45 35 45 mmHg 80 100 mmHg 22 26 meq/L 15 20 ml/dL + 2 to 2 meq/L 95 100 % Acidosis Increased Decreased Increased Increased Abnormal VII.215 103.0 meq/L 92. Treatment Given GENERIC/ CLASSIFICATION INDICATION CONTRAINDICATION BRAND NAME Salbutamol Q1 2. This causes the O2 Saturation to decrease. ADVERSE EFFECTS NSG.0 % 7. & Hawks.
resp. hepatic function assessment. DM GI symptoms Take on an empty stomach ½ hour before meals Chloramphenico l Anti-infective Ampicillin 350mg IV q6 Anti-infective Hypersensitivity to penicillin GI disturbances Special precaution on patient with prolonged treatment requires renal. . Prophylaxis and management of asthma Primary treatment of status asthmaticus or other acute asthma where in sensitive measures are required Latent. cough. healed and active TB History of hypersensitivity or toxic reaction Neck pain. infection WOF withdrawal symptoms during transfer from systemic corticosteroid therapy to budesomide Hydrocortisone Hormones Acute adrenocortical insufficiency Diseases which does not respond to other standard antimicrobial agent Respiratory infections Fluid electrolyte Special precaution on patient imbalance. HPN.conventional therapy. dermatologic with CHF. Budesomide Q6 Anti-asthmatic and COPD prep.
This exchange of gases is accomplished in the mosaic of specialized cells that form millions of tiny. In larger organisms. birds and mammals this often consists of the nose. Its principal function is to transport oxygen from the atmosphere into the bloodstream. and a large. whereas in reptiles. which provide an enormous surface area for gas exchange. the pharynx. whence it could rapidly be distributed to all the circulatory system. birds and mammals a more complicated musculoskeletal system is used. such as single-celled bacteria. respiration occurs in a series of steps. In the mammal. only a small proportion of cells are close enough to the surface for oxygen from the atmosphere to enter them through diffusion. by increasing volume and thus decreasing pressure. The lungs also have non respiratory functions. air flows into . drive ventilation by periodically altering the intrathoracic volume and pressure. air was driven into the lungs by the pharyngeal muscles. the diaphragm (in addition to the internal intercostal muscles). the most primitive being the lungfish. internalized respiratory system that centralized the task of obtaining oxygen from the atmosphere and bringing it into the body. and to release carbon dioxide from the bloodstream into the atmosphere. and the terminal branches of the respiratory tree. Air is brought into the animal via the airways ² in reptiles. Oxygen from the air inside the alveoli diffuses into the bloodstream. this process of gas exchange can take place entirely by simple diffusion. exceptionally thin-walled air sacs called alveoli. both across thin alveolar membranes. The drawing and expulsion of air is driven by muscular action. Two major adaptations made it possible for organisms to attain great multicellularity: an efficient circulatory system that conveyed gases to and from the deepest tissues in the body. the larynx. the bronchi and bronchioles. In small organisms. RESPIRATORY FUNCTIONS Energy production from aerobic respiration requires oxygen and glucose and produces carbon dioxide as a waste product. in early tetrapods. and carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood to the alveoli. Anatomy and Physiology ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE LUNGS The lung is the essential respiration organ in air-breathing vertebrates.VII. the trachea (also called the windpipe). a large muscle. A network of fine capillaries allows transport of blood over the surface of alveoli. The lungs of mammals are a rich lattice of alveoli. creating a need for an efficient means of oxygen delivery to cells and excretion of carbon dioxide from cells. this is not possible. In air-breathing vertebrates.
The bronchi continue to divide within the lung. The oxygen-rich blood returns to the heart via the pulmonary veins to be pumped back into systemic circulation. while the left lung contains a cardiac notch. The connective tissue that divides lobules is often blackened in smokers and city dwellers. The lobes are further divided into lobules. In combination with other physiological measurements. the vital capacity can help make a diagnosis of underlying lung disease. with three lobes on the right and two on the left. The individual alveoli are tightly wrapped in blood vessels. where oxygen diffuses into blood and is exchanged for carbon dioxide in the hemoglobin of the erythrocytes. The bronchial tree continues branching until it reaches the level of terminal bronchioles. As oxygen requirements increase due to exercise. which lead to alveolar sacks. in situations like these only a small portion of the lungs are actually perfused with blood for gas exchange. A person's vital capacity can be measured by a spirometer (spirometry). Both are separated into lobes. Lungs are to a certain extent 'overbuilt' and have a tremendous reserve volume as compared to the oxygen exchange requirements when at rest. and it is here that gas exchange actually occurs. ANATOMY In human. The medial border of the right lung is nearly vertical. give rise to bronchioles. the two are not identical. and after multiple divisions. a greater volume of the lungs is perfused. Vital capacity is the maximum volume of air that a person can exhale after maximum inhalation. Deoxygenated blood from the heart is pumped through the pulmonary artery to the lungs.the airways down a pressure gradient. Another name for this inspiration and expulsion of air is ventilation. Though similar in appearance. allowing the body to match its CO2/O2 exchange requirements. the trachea divides into the two main bronchi that enters the roots of the lungs. like individual grapes within a bunch. and by reducing volume and increasing pressure. hexagonal divisions of the lungs that are the smallest subdivision visible to the naked eye. Alveolar sacs are made up of clusters of alveoli. The cardiac notch is a concave impression molded to accommodate the shape of the heart. This is the reason that individuals can smoke for years without having a noticeable decrease in lung function while still or moving slowly. 1:Trachea 2:Pulmonary artery 3:Pulmonary vein 4:Alveolar duct 5:Alveoli 6:Cardiac notch 7:Bronchioles 8:Tertiary bronchi 9:Secondary bronchi 10:Primary bronchi 11:Larynx Human lungs are located in two cavities on either side of the heart. the reverse occurs. During normal breathing. . expiration is passive and no muscles are contracted (the diaphragm relaxes).
Many respiratory illnesses are the result of bacterial or viralinfection of the lungs. which makes it hospitable for bacteria.The environment of the lung is very moist. .
Segmenters Infect type II alveolar cells Impaired type 1 alveolar cells Impaired gas exchange Pneumococci spread through the pores of Kohn Producing inflammation and consolidation aggravates Dyspnea/ Orthopnea Asthma (Bronchocon striction) Alveolar sacks cannot exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide Tachypnea Decreased Oxygen saturation in the blood PaCO2. Chronic disease states such as Prostate Carcinoma stage II Streptococcus pneumoniae. Hx of asthma. PaO2. Advanced age (74 yrs old). pH.VIII. most common bacterial agent Resides in the nasopharynx Impaired surfactant production and lung injury and repair Attachment to the respiratory epithelium Infection Fever Inhaled into the alveolus WBC. HCO3 Change on the level of consciousness . Pathophysiology Risk factors: Cigarette smoking.
C. Analysis The patient became susceptible to pneumonia due to the following direct risk factors: She s a 9-month old baby. Predisposing Factors 1. Contributing factors such as the surroundings or the environment the child lives in. .Exposed to second hand smoke. B. Environment 2. her age.The family of the patient doesn t have enough financial income.Age -9 months . history of asthma.Sex female . Their budget is only enough for their daily living.Sex female Nationality Filipino Exposed to second hand smoke History of asthma ENVIRONMENT AGENT Streptococcus pneumonia D.History of asthma Economic . and exposed to second hand smoke.Nationality Filipino . Host .IX.Age 9 months .Streptococcus pneumonia 3. Ecologic Model HOST . Agent . Ecologic Model A. . Hypothesis The patient acquired his pneumonia via the community where he is mostly exposed.
such as bronchitis and pneumonia in infants and children under 18 months of age who breathe Secondhand Smoke. Children who breathe Secondhand Smoke have more inner infections Children who breathe Secondhand Smoke are more likely to develop asthma Children who have asthma and who breathe Secondhand Smoke have more asthma attacks There are an estimated 150. dementia. and possibly adenoviruses. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common bacterial cause of pneumonia in older adults.org/html/second_hand_smoke. weakening lung defenses and causing inflammatory changes that allow for bacterial overgrowth. in which the patient breathes in food. S. Secondhand Smoke especially hurts Children!(http://www. Asthma not also makes the person susceptible but it also aggravates the condition. bronchitis. Guleria. primarily recognised as a causative agent of community-acquired pneumonia has recently been linked to asthma.. Older adults are particularly susceptible to pneumonia due to waning immunity and age-associated anatomical and physiological changes that make the lungs more vulnerable to infection. T.000 to 300. Chand Chawla. parainfluenza. the therapeutic role of their biphasic nature in reducing asthma symptoms needs further attention in clinical research (Nisar. Research have also linked asthma and pneumonia. N. and poor oral hygiene are also at risk for aspiration pneumonia.. long-term care facility. Legionella pneumophila. Common viral pathogens that cause pneumonia in older adults include influenza.smokehelp. Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M pneumoniae). These result in 7. An infection with M pneumoniae may precede the onset of asthma or exacerbate asthma symptoms. R... liquids. &RanjanBiswas. N. gastric contents. Older adults with dysphagia often related to stroke. and HAP is pneumonia that develops 48 or more hours after patient admission to an inpatient facility (e.000 case every year of infections. Being a Filipino also contributes to his susceptibility because of cultural aspects and way of life. Use of macrolides in reducing asthma symptoms only in M pneumoniae-infected patients supports the use of macrolides in patients with asthma having M pneumoniae infection. As macrolides are both antimicrobial and antiinflammatory drugs. The role of immunoglobulin E-related hypersensitivity and induction of T helper type 2 immune response leading to inflammatory response in M pneumoniae-infected patients with asthma have also been proposed.g.2007).000 hospitalizations. Chronic infection with M pneumoniae has been suspected to play a part in some patients with asthma. respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). other common causes include Haemophilusinfluenzae.html) y y y y y Children who breathe Secondhand Smoke are more likely to suffer from pneumonia. Conclusion and Recommendations Children are also susceptible to pneumonia especially they are exposed to second-hand smoke. and other lung diseases.. hospital. . Chlamydia pneumoniae. and Klebsiellapneumoniae.. E. or exogenous chemicals. skilled nursing facility) or 48 72 hours after patient intubation.500 to 15.CAP is defined as pneumonia acquired outside of hospitals or long-term care facilities. Staphylococcus aureus. Kumar.
H.. Bacterial pneumonia following cytotoxic chemotherapy for lung cancer: clinical features. treatment outcome and prognostic factors.. Yoo. 87(3). T. J. S. J. (2008).. N. Park. Buckley. T. Retrieved from CINAHL Plus with Full Text database. Medicine.. 100-104. C. Shin. (2009). (2010). Philippines: Saunders Elsevier.. K. S... &Kontoyiannis. K. S.Nursing interventions should not only concentrate on the airway. Jacobson. Retrieved from CINAHL Plus with Full Text database . L. Nisar.Pneumonia in Older Adults. (2010).. M. Kim. References: Black.. Cha. Miceli. Chand Chawla. R. 152-159. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases.Legionella pneumonia in cancer patients. breathing and circulation of the patient but also on the possibility of spreading the disease and preventing it from happening.. 734-740. Lee. &RanjanBiswas.Mycoplasma pneumoniae and its role in asthma. J. 83(976). (2007). J. S.. et al.. &Schub. & Hawks. M. Guleria. Retrieved from CINAHL Plus with Full Text database.Retrieved from CINAHL Plus with Full Text database. N.Surgical Nursing.. Kumar. Tarrand..Medical. D.Postgraduate Medical Journal. Manila. 42(10)..
Prioritized List of Nursing Problems .X.
Nursing Care Plan .XI.