# Hydraulics Laboratory Experiment Report

Name:

Ahmed Essam Mansour

Section: "1", Monday 2-5 pm Title: Date: Flow over rectangular and v - notches 30 –October-2006

which depend mainly on the shape of the notch. K: a function of the coefficient of discharge and the dimensions of the notch. To regulate flow rate. then the discharge at any time can be found by only knowing the height of water in the upstream of the weir. . 2. by finding out two main coefficients related to the weir or notch. 1. To measure flow rate in the channel. "n". H: the height of water at the upstream. From this experiment the relation between the flow rate and water level up stream is to be determined. 2. If the relationship between the water level upstream and the discharge is known. by only knowing some properties of the weir the discharge can be controlled by controlling the water level at the upstream. where. Coefficient of discharge "Cd". And so. The general form of the equation defining the relation between the water level at the upstream of the notch and the rate of discharge is.Objectives: • To determine the coefficient of discharge for both rectangular and v – notches. Theory: Weirs and notches are placed in the path of an open channel for two main reasons: 1.

Theoretical analysis: This is used to define the velocity of discharge at the notch in an expression with the water level upstream and the gravitational acceleration. . where. Then the velocity of discharge is expressed by.81 m/s). In our experiment we used a rectangular and V – notches. g: the gravitational acceleration (9. and they were theoretically analyzed as follows. h: the water level upstream.

. represent the theoretical results based on calculations. more specifically the actual flow rate would be less than the theoretical value.For a rectangular notch: For a V – notch: The obtained relations between "Q" and "H". but the actual relation would be different.

From our experiment we measured the flow rate "Q" with the corresponding height "H". and a plot of log Q and log H was drawn in order to evaluate the coefficients where the slope represents "n" and the Y-Intercept represents log K as follow. Experiments are done in order to evaluate the exact values of "K" and "n" to be used for the calculation of discharge. 4. 3. 2. . Stop watch. Rectangular and a V – notch.And therefore a coefficient of discharge hade to be added to the equations. Vernier hook and point gauge. 4. with the flow rate increased each time. Apparatus: 1. so that the become as follows. volume and water level up stream is taken. The rectangular notch is clamped to the weir carrier by thumb nuts. The vernier hook is calibrated so that its zero starts from the edge of the notch. A hydraulic bench. Replace the rectangular notch by the V–notch and repeat the procedures 2 & 3 again. 3. 2. Procedures: 1. Several readings of time.

Results: .

04). The general relation between "Q" and "H" was noticed experimentally to be empirical and direct. . 3. 4. Except for a single point at the rectangular notch which was considered as an experimental error. That indicates the "Q" value is more sensitive to "H" for the rectangular weir than it for the V – notch.Conclusions: 1. V–notch: n = 10/3 compared to the theoretical value n = 5/2. 2. Rectangular: n = 5/3 compared to the theoretical value n = 3/2. where an increase in water level at the upstream was accompanied with an increase in the rate of flow. The obtained values of the coefficient "n" was different from the theoretical values for both the rectangular notch and the V–notch where "n" obtained from the plots was as follows. The coefficient of discharge was represented by the value "K" as there where no dimensions available to evaluate Cd. The value of the coefficient "K" for the rectangular notch (K=10.8) was much larger than it for the V – notch (K=0.