Sheraz Ashraf

2007-Civi1-61

M.Ta·amma1 Khan
2006-Civi1-108
Irriga·ion
Irriga·ion is an ar·ificia1 app1ica·ion of wa·er for rain
defici· area for ·he crop produc·ion. I· is usua11v used ·o assis·
·he growing of crops in drv areas and during periods of inadequa·e
rainfa11.
Historv
Archaeo1ogica1 inves·iga·ion has iden·ified evidence of
irriga·ion in Mesopo·amia, Egvp· and Iran as far bac' as ·he 6·h
mi11ennium BCE, where bar1ev was grown in areas where ·he na·ura1
rainfa11 was insufficien· ·o suppor· such a crop.
Sophis·ica·ed irriga·ion and s·orage svs·ems were
deve1oped bv ·he Indus Va11ev Civi1iza·ion in Ra'is·an and Nor·h
India, inc1uding ·he reservoirs a· Girnar in 3000 BCE and an ear1v
cana1 irriga·ion svs·em from circa 2600 BCE. Large sca1e agricu1·ure
was prac·iced and an ex·ensive ne·wor' of cana1s was used for ·he
purpose of irriga·ion.
There is evidence of ·he ancien· Egvp·ian pharaoh
Amenemhe· III in ·he ·we1f·h dvnas·v (abou· 1800 BCE) using ·he
na·ura1 1a'e of ·he Eaivum Oasis as a reservoir ·o s·ore surp1uses
of wa·er for use during ·he drv seasons, as ·he 1a'e swe11ed
annua11v as caused bv ·he annua1 f1ooding of ·he Ni1e.
Tvpes of irriga·ion
Various ·vpes of irriga·ion ·echniques differ in how ·he
wa·er ob·ained from ·he source is dis·ribu·ed wi·hin ·he fie1d. In
genera1, ·he goa1 is ·o supp1v ·he en·ire fie1d uniform1v wi·h
wa·er, so ·ha· each p1an· has ·he amoun· of wa·er i· needs, nei·her
·oo much nor ·oo 1i··1e.
Surface irrigation
In surface irriga·ion svs·ems wa·er
moves over and across ·he 1and bv simp1e gravi·v
f1ow in order ·o we· i· and ·o infi1·ra·e in·o ·he
soi1. Surface irriga·ion can be subdivided in·o
furrow, borders·rip or basin irriga·ion. I· is
of·en ca11ed f1ood irriga·ion when ·he irriga·ion
resu1·s in f1ooding or near f1ooding of ·he
cu1·iva·ed 1and. His·orica11v, ·his has been ·he mos· common me·hod
of irriga·ing agricu1·ura1 1and.
ocalized irrigation
Loca1ized irriga·ion is a svs·em where
wa·er is dis·ribu·ed under 1ow pressure ·hrough a
piped ne·wor', in a pre-de·ermined pa··ern, and
app1ied as a sma11 discharge ·o each p1an· or
Irriga·ion Engineering
ad·acen· ·o i·. Ðrip irriga·ion, sprav or micro-sprin'1er irriga·ion
and bubb1er irriga·ion be1ong ·o ·his ca·egorv of irriga·ion
me·hods.
rip Irrigation
Ðrip irriga·ion, a1so 'nown as ·ric'1e
irriga·ion, func·ions as i·s name sugges·s. Wa·er
is de1ivered a· or near ·he roo· zone of p1an·s,
drop bv drop. This me·hod can be ·he mos· wa·er-
efficien· me·hod of irriga·ion, if managed
proper1v, since evapora·ion and runoff are
minimized. In modern agricu1·ure, drip irriga·ion is of·en combined
wi·h p1as·ic mu1ch, fur·her reducing evapora·ion, and is a1so ·he
means of de1iverv of fer·i1izer. The process is 'nown as
fus·iga·ion.
Sprinkler irrigation
In sprin'1er or overhead irriga·ion,
wa·er is piped ·o one or more cen·ra1 1oca·ions
wi·hin ·he fie1d and dis·ribu·ed bv overhead
high-pressure sprin'1ers or guns. A svs·em
u·i1izing sprin'1ers, spravs, or guns moun·ed
overhead on permanen·1v ins·a11ed risers is
of·en referred ·o as a so1id-set irriga·ion svs·em. Higher pressure
sprin'1ers ·ha· ro·a·e are ca11ed rotors and are driven bv a ba11
drive, gear drive, or impac· mechanism. Ro·ors can be designed ·o
ro·a·e in a fu11 or par·ia1 circ1e.
enter pivot irrigation
Cen·er pivo· irriga·ion is a form of
sprin'1er irriga·ion consis·ing of severa1
segmen·s of pipe (usua11v ga1vanized s·ee1 or
a1uminum) ·oined ·oge·her and suppor·ed bv
·russes, moun·ed on whee1ed ·owers wi·h
sprin'1ers posi·ioned a1ong i·s 1eng·h. The
svs·em moves in a circu1ar pa··ern and is fed wi·h wa·er from ·he
pivo· poin· a· ·he cen·er of ·he arc. These svs·ems are common in
par·s of ·he Uni·ed S·a·es where ·errain is f1a·. Newer irriga·ions
have drops as shown in ·he image ·ha· fo11ows.
Sub-irrigation
Sub-irriga·ion a1so some·imes ca11ed seepage irrigation
has been used for manv vears in fie1d crops in areas wi·h high wa·er
·ab1es. I· is a me·hod of ar·ificia11v raising ·he wa·er ·ab1e ·o
a11ow ·he soi1 ·o be mois·ened from be1ow ·he p1an·s' roo· zone.
Of·en ·hose svs·ems are 1oca·ed on permanen· grass1ands in 1ow1ands
or river va11evs and combined wi·h drainage infras·ruc·ure. A svs·em
of pumping s·a·ions, cana1s, weirs and ga·es a11ows i· ·o increase
Irriga·ion Engineering
or decrease ·he wa·er 1eve1 in a ne·wor' of di·ches and ·herebv
con·ro1 ·he wa·er ·ab1e.
anual irrigation using buckets or watering cans
These svs·ems have 1ow requiremen·s for infras·ruc·ure
and ·echnica1 equipmen· bu· need high 1abor inpu·s. Irriga·ion using
wa·ering cans is ·o be found for examp1e in peri-urban agricu1·ure
around 1arge ci·ies in some African coun·ries.
Automatic. non-electric irrigation using buckets and ropes
Besides ·he common manua1 wa·ering bv buc'e·, an
au·oma·ed, na·ura1 version of ·his a1so exis·. Using p1ain po1ves·er
ropes combined wi·h a prepared ground mix·ure can be used ·o wa·er
p1an·s from a vesse1 fi11ed wi·h wa·er.
Irrigation using stones to catch water from humid air
In coun·ries where a· nigh·, humid air sweeps ·he
coun·rvside, s·ones are used ·o ca·ch wa·er from ·he humid air bv
condensa·ion. This is for examp1e prac·iced in ·he vinevards a·
Lanzaro·e.
rv terraces for irrigation and water distribution
In sub·ropica1 coun·ries as Ma1i and Senega1, a specia1
·vpe of ·erracing (wi·hou· f1ood irriga·ion or in·en· ·o f1a··en
farming ground) is used. Here, a 's·airs' is made ·hrough ·he use of
ground 1eve1 differences which he1ps ·o decrease wa·er evapora·ion
and a1so dis·ribu·es ·he wa·er ·o a11 pa·ches (sor· of irriga·ion).
Rrob1ems in irriga·ion
Compe·i·ion for surface wa·er righ·s.
Ðep1e·ion of underground aquifers.
Ground subsidence (e.g. New Or1eans, Louisiana)
Under-irriga·ion or irriga·ion giving on1v ·us· enough wa·er
for ·he p1an· (eg in drip 1ine irriga·ion) gives poor soi1
sa1ini·v con·ro1 which 1eads ·o increased soi1 sa1ini·v wi·h
consequen· bui1d up of ·oxic sa1·s on soi1 surface in areas
wi·h high evapora·ion. This requires ei·her 1eaching ·o remove
·hese sa1·s and a me·hod of drainage ·o carrv ·he sa1·s awav.
When using drip 1ines, ·he 1eaching is bes· done regu1ar1v a·
cer·ain in·erva1s (wi·h on1v a s1igh· excess of wa·er), so
·ha· ·he sa1· is f1ushed bac' under ·he p1an·'s roo·s.
[22|[23|

Over-irriga·ion because of poor dis·ribu·ion uniformi·v or
managemen· was·es wa·er, chemica1s, and mav 1ead ·o wa·er
po11u·ion.
Ðeep drainage (from over-irriga·ion) mav resu1· in rising
wa·er ·ab1es which in some ins·ances wi11 1ead ·o prob1ems of
irriga·ion sa1ini·v.
Irriga·ion Engineering
Irriga·ion wi·h sa1ine or high-sodium wa·er mav damage soi1
s·ruc·ure.




















Indus Basin Irriga·ion Svs·em
evelopment of Indus Basin Historic Perspective
The Indus River which irriga·es ·he Indus Basin has seven
ma·or ·ribu·aries, five on ·he eas· and ·wo on ·he wes· in addi·ion
·o numerous sma11 rivers which a1so ·oin ·he main Indus on ·he wes·.
The in·egra·ed wa·er resources managemen· is no· a new concep· as
far as Indus Basin is concerned. The upper Run·ab was ·he firs· ·o
conceive and prac·ice i·. The ·rip1e cana1 pro·ec· was designed ·o
in·egra·e ·he ·hree eas·ern rivers bv cons·ruc·ing con·ro1 wor's and
1in' cana1s in 1905-7 and opera·ing ·he 1in' cana1s as an in·egra·ed
svs·em. I· was a marve1 of innova·ive engineering which hera1ded a
new era of efficien· and equi·ab1e use of wa·er resources and made
Run·ab ·he granarv of ·he sub con·inen·. However ·he par·i·ion of
·he sub con·inen· in Augus· 1947 cu· across ·his irriga·ion ne·wor'
Irriga·ion Engineering
wherebv con·ro1 s·ruc·ures on eas·ern cana1s fe11 wi·hin ·he
·erri·orv of India and cana1s remained wi·hin Ra'is·an. Soon af·er
·he par·i·ion, India conveved i·s in·en·ion of diver·ing ·he wa·ers
of eas·ern rivers. This wou1d have mean· s·rangu1a·ing ·he agro-
based economv of a new1v crea·ed Ra'is·an whose 75% of GÐR was
so1e1v dependen· on agricu1·ure as o·her sec·ors of ·he economv were
non-exis·en·.




Indus Basin Waters Treatv of 1960
Wi·h s·oppage of wa·er from ·he ·hree eas·ern rivers bv
India, Ra'is·an's 3 mi11ion hec·are of fer·i1e 1and of Wes· Run·ab,
·he food bas'e· of Ra'is·an wou1d have gone barren. This crea·ed a
serious wa·er dispu·e be·ween India and Ra'is·an. However, over a
period of 8 vears of exhaus·ive nego·ia·ions under ·he auspices of
·he Wor1d Ban' from 1952 ·o 1960 ·he famous Indus Wa·ers Trea·v
be·ween India and Ra'is·an was signed in Sep·ember 1960. The Wor1d
Ban' was a1so a signa·orv ·o ·his ·ransboundarv wa·er a11oca·ion.
Irriga·ion Engineering
Under ·he Trea·v, India was given exc1usive righ·s ·o ·he uses of
wa·er of ·hree (3) eas·ern rivers wi·h 1imi·ed uses of wa·ers of
wes·ern rivers and Ra'is·an go· exc1usive righ·s on ·he wa·ers of
·hree (3) wes·ern rivers. Ra'is·an was given a grace period of 10
vears ·o comp1e·e i·s Indus Basin Rep1acemen· Wor's. This Trea·v
·hough ex·ensive1v 1auded in·erna·iona11v as an examp1e of reso1ving
·ransboundarv wa·er issues be·ween ·wo sovereign s·a·es, crea·ed
some serious hvdro1ogica1 shoc's and cha11enges for Ra'is·an. The
firs· cha11enge as s·a·ed ear1ier arose because ·he 1ines of
par·i·ion of ·he Indo-Ra' subcon·inen· separa·ed ·he irriga·ed hear·
1and of Run·ab from ·he 1ife-giving wa·ers of ·he ·hree eas·ern
rivers.
The second cha11enge was ·ha· ·here was a serious
misma·ch be·ween ·he 1oca·ion of Ra'is·an's wa·er (in ·he wes·ern
rivers) and ·he ma·or irriga·ed areas in ·he eas·.
Indus Basin Replacement Works
To overcome ma·or wa·er cha11enges, Ra'is·an had ·o
under·a'e ma·or engineering wor's wi·hin a fixed ·ime period of 10
vears. The ini·ia1 wor's inc1uded cons·ruc·ion of mega roc' and
ear·h fi11 dam on one of ·he wes·ern rivers i.e. Jhe1um River a·
Mang1a, cons·ruc·ion of in·er-river 1in' cana1s ·o ·ransfer ·he
wa·ers of wes·ern rivers ·o eas·ern rivers wi·h a number of
Headwor's and Barrages and 1a·er ·he wor1d 1arges· vo1ume roc' and
ear·h fi11 dam i.e. Tarbe1a Ðam was a1so bui1· on River Indus, ·he
1arges· river of ·he Indus Basin Rivers Svs·em. Wi·h addi·iona1
s·orage wa·er avai1ab1e a· Tarbe1a, addi·iona1 cana1s and con·ro1
s·ruc·ures were cons·ruc·ed in a11 ·he four Rrovinces of Ra'is·an.
Wi·h ·he cons·ruc·ion of Tarbe1a, Mang1a and Chashma Mu1·i-purposes
s·orage dams, s·oring c1ose ·o 20 bi11ion cubic me·ers of wa·er and
wa·er dis·ribu·ion ne·wor' consis·ing of 19 barrages, 60,000 'm of
main cana1s and 1.60 mi11ion 'm of secondarv and dis·ribu·arv
cana1s, ·he Indus Irriga·ion Svs·em became ·he 1arges· con·iguous
irriga·ion svs·em in ·he wor1d.
To fur·her reso1ve in·erna1 con·en·ious issues of wa·er
righ·s and wa·er dis·ribu·ion wi·hin ·he coun·rv, In·er-Rrovincia1
Wa·er Appor·ionmen· Accord was signed in 1991 among a11 ·he four
Rrovinces which de·ermined ·he 10-dai1v his·oric shares of each of
43 cana1 commands. To ensure equi·ab1e dis·ribu·ion of wa·ers among
·he Rrovinces, Indus River Svs·em Au·hori·v 'nown as IRSA was
crea·ed under ·he Ac· of Rar1iamen· ·o ac· as a wa·chdog in ensuring
accord imp1emen·a·ion.
Wi·h ·ransboundarv wa·er sharing Trea·v of 1960 and
In·er-Rrovincia1 Wa·er Appor·ionmen· Accord of 1991 and 10-dai1v
Irriga·ion Engineering
his·oric wa·er share of each cana1 command and ro·a·iona1 wa·er
sharing wi·hin each cana1 command area, Ra'is·an has now we11-
deve1oped wa·er dis·ribu·ion svs·em wi·h proper chec' and ba1ance
mechanism in p1ace.


Irrigation and anal Svstem.
The Indus River forms ·he axis of Ra'is·an, and i·s
·ribu·aries drain who1e of ·he coun·rv, excep· sparse1v popu1a·ed
province of Ba1ochis·an. The Indus River and i·s ·ribu·aries provide
·he 1arges· irriga·ion svs·em in ·he wor1d. This is ·he 1arges·
ne·wor' of cana1 svs·em in ·he wor1d, serving 34.5 mi11ion acres of
con·iguous cu1·iva·ed 1and and a nove1 underground wa·er svs·em
('arez) in Ba1ochis·an. The brea' up is given be1ow.

Irriga·ion Ne·wor'
Main Rivers
Indus 2896 'm
Jeh1um 825 'm
Chenab 1242 'm
Ravi 901 'm
Su·1e· 1551 'm
Irriga·ion Engineering
In·er-river Lin' Cana1s 12
Ma·or Ðams (Tarbe1a, Mang1a,
Warsa')
3
Barrages 19
Independen· Cana1s 43
Leng·h of Main Cana1s 58,500 Km
Tubewe11s 680,477 (R)
Sr.
#
River Heads/Barrages Ðams Cana1s
1
Su·1e·

Su1eman'i

Ra'pa··an Cana1
Eordwah Cana1
Eas·ern Sadiqia Cana1
Is1am
Qaim Cana1
Mai1si Cana1
Bahawa1 Cana1
2
Ravi

Run·nad

Ran·nad Cana1
Abbassia Cana1
Ba11o'i

Lower Bari Ðoab Cana1
Ba11o'i-Su1eman'i Lin'
Lower
Ðepa1pur Cana1
Sidhnai

Sidhnai Mai1si Lin' Cana1
Sidhnai Cana1
3 Chenab
Mara1a


Mara1a RaviLin'
U.C.C.(Upper chenab cana1)
BRBÐ(Bambawa1a-Ravi-Bedian-
Ðipa1pur Cana1)
CBÐC(Cen·ra1 bari doab
cana1)
UÐC(Upper Ðepa1pur Cana1)
Khan'i
LCC(Lower chenab cana1)
Upper
Gogera Lower Gogera
Bura1a
Main LCC Jhang Branch.
Ra'h Branch.
Qadirabad Qadirabad .Ba1o'i Lin'
Trimmu

Rangpur Cana1
Hava1i Cana1
Trimmu Sidhni Lin'
Ran·nad
Barrage

4 Jeh1um

Mang1a

Upper Jeh1um Cana1 up
s·ream
Khan'i Headwor's
Rasu1


Rasu1 Qadirabad Lin' Cana1
Lower Jeh1um Cana1
5 Indus
Jinnah

Tha1 cana1
Chashma

Chashma Jhe1um 1in'
Chashma reservoir ban'
cana1
Irriga·ion Engineering
Taunsa

Kachhi Cana1
Ð.G. Khan Cana1
Muzaffargarah Cana1
Taunsa Ran·nad Lin' Cana1
Guddu

Ra· feeder
Ðeser· Eeeder
Begari Sindh Eeeder
Gho·'i cana1
Su''ur

Nara Cana1
Mirwah Cana1
Rohri Cana1
Abu1 Wah
& righ· side cana1s are
Ðadu Cana1
Rice Cana1
Khir·har Cana1
Ko·ri
(Ghu1am
Muhammad
Barrage)

Ko·ri Baghar feeder
Rhu1e1i
Rin·ari
A'ram Wah

Terbe1a

Righ· Ban' cana1
Lef· Ban' Cana1
Warsa'

Righ· Ban' Cana1
Lef· Ban' Cana1.
Ka1abagh dam
(proposed)

Tha1 reservoir
Sehwan
reservoir
(proposed)

Irriga·ion Engineering

Schema·ic Ðiagram of Indus Basin Irriga·ion Svs·em
S·ruc·ures Over Rivers

River Indus

Tarbela 4th Extension Proiect
Loca·ion
Tarbe1a Ðam
Exis·ing Ins·a11ed Capaci·v
3470 MW
Tunne1-4 (A1readv cons·ruc·ed)
Rurpose Irriga·ion
Irriga·ion Engineering
Tvpe Concre·e/S·ee1 Lined
Ðiame·er 45 f· ·o 36 f·
Leng·h 2997 f·
Ðam (A1readv cons·ruc·ed)
Heigh·
485 f· (147.82 m)
Leng·h
9000 f· (27434 m)
Spi11wav (A1readv cons·ruc·ed)
ins·a11ed Capaci·v
960 MW
Ten·a·ive Rro·ec· Cos· (Mi11ion US$) 500


hazi ariala (Proposed Active Barrage)
The barrage across ·he Indus River, 1oca·ed near Ghazi,
downs·ream from Tarbe1a, consis·s of severa1 ma·or componen·s: ga·ed
head regu1a·or, s'imming p1a·form, unders1uices, open f1ume s·andard
bavs, dividing is1and, righ· and 1ef· guide ban's, fuse p1ug
emban'men·, separa·ion dv'e, cune··e, road bridge over ·he barrage,
con·ro1 bui1ding, wor'shops, offices, and M&E ins·a11a·ions. A
·a'ing over cer·ifica·e (TOC) for wor's essen·ia1 for impounding was
issued on 16 June 2003, and ·he TOC for wor's no· essen·ia1 for
impounding was issued in November 2003 (effec·ive from 22 Augus·
2003). Impounding of ·he barrage pond commenced in Eebruarv 2003,
and ·he maximum 1eve1 was reached on 20 Mav 2003.
The power channe1 is 52 'm 1ong and 1ined wi·h reinforced
concre·e. The capaci·v is 1,600 cubic me·ers per second. Seven·v-
nine s·ruc·ures of differen· ca·egories are on ·he channe1,
inc1uding bridges, superpassages, cu1ver·s, in1e·s, and escapes.
Loca·ion and river 6-mi1es Ð/S of Terbe11a Ðam near Ghazi
/ Kha1u Vi11age, on River Indus.
Ðesign discharge (cusecs) 35,000 ·o
60,000
No. Of under
s1uices
-
Wa·er wav Inc1uding wa·er
S1uices (f·)
- Cres· 1eve1 -
Number of bavs - No-of off-·a'ing
cana1s



Kalabagh Barrage (Jinnah Barrage)
Irriga·ion Engineering
The Ka1abagh dam was a mega wa·er reservoir ·ha· ·he
Governmen· of Ra'is·an was p1anning ·o deve1op across ·he Indus
River, one of ·he wor1d's 1arges· rivers. The proposed si·e for ·he
dam was si·ua·ed a· Ka1abagh in Mianwa1i Ðis·ric· of ·he nor·h-wes·
Run·ab province, bordering ·he Rrovince. The proposa1 is ha1·ed due
·o po1i·ica1 reasons. However ·here is a barrage a· ·he same
1oca·ion which is a1so 'nown as Jinnah barrage. Ðe·ai1s of which are
men·ioned here.
Thal Canal
The amoun· of wa·er ·ha· i· carries is 2.534 MAE. I·
is divided in·o 2 differen· divisions.
Thal canal main line lower
I· is a main cana1 1oca·ed in bha''ar. And 1eng·h in
mi1es is 100.50.I·s au·horized head discharge is 4100 .I·s
au·horized ·ai1 discharge is 228 .I·s Gross command area is
3534. I·s Cu1·urab1e command area is 2966.
Thal canal main line upper
I· is a main cana1 1oca·ed in 'a1abagh. I· is
ca·egorized in ·he zone of sarghodha. I· is a perennia1 cana1.
And 1eng·h in mi1es is 31.532.I·s au·horized head discharge is
9000. I·s au·horized ·ai1 discharge is 9000.00. I·s Gross
command area is 2460861. I·s Cu1·urab1e command area is
2115931.
hashma Barrage
Chashma Barrage is 1oca·ed on ·he Indus River near ·he
vi11age Chashma in Mianwa1i dis·ric·. The pro·ec· was bui1· be·ween
1967 and 1971. I· is one of ·he manv ma·or engineering wor's ·ha·
form a par· of Indus basin ·rea·v of 1960 be·ween India and
Ra'is·an.
According ·o ·he pro·ec· repor·s, 34 vi11ages were
disp1aced wi·h ·he popu1a·ion of 22,400 peop1e during ·he mid 60's.
The ins·a11ed capaci·v of power s·a·ion is 184MW. Chashma Barrage is
·he 3rd 1arges· wa·er reservoir of Ra'is·an.
Loca·ion and river Indus Number of bavs 52
Year of Comp1e·ion 25
·h
March,
1971
No. Of under
s1uices
11
Maximum In·ensi·v of
Ðischarge
300Cs. Rer
f·.
Cres· 1eve1 -
Leng·h be·ween
abu·men·s
3556 f·.
No-of off-·a'ing
cana1s
2

Chashma Jhelum link

Chashma reservoir bank canal

Irriga·ion Engineering
Taunsa Barrage
This barrage is si·ua·ed on Indus River near Taunsa a· a
dis·ance of 180 mi1es from ·he Jinnah barrage. The pro·ec· was
designed ·o ensure irriga·ion of ·he cu1·iva·ed 1ands in ·he area of
·he Muzaffargarh and Ðera Ghazi Khan cana1s, and ·hrough ·he Taunsa-
Ran·nad Lin' Cana1 ·ha· supp1emen·s ·he wa·er supp1v ·o Ran·nad
headwor's cana1s.
Loca·ion and river Indus Number of bavs 53
Year of Comp1e·ion 1959 No. Of under
s1uices
12
Ðesign discharge
(cusecs)
7,50,000 Cres· 1eve1 6
Wid·h b/w
abu·men·s (f·)
4346 No-of off-·a'ing
cana1s
4
The cana1s which origina·e from ·his barrage and ·heir
de·ai1s is given here under;
achhi Canal

han Canal
I· is a main cana1 1oca·ed in Ð.G Khan. I· is
ca·egorized in ·he zone of Ð.G Khan. I· is a nonperennia1
cana1.
Zone (Bund) Ð G
Khan
Gross Command Area 947874
Head discharge
(cusecs)
8900 Cu1·urab1e Command
Area
901981
Tai1 discharge
(cusecs)
5514 Leng·h in mi1es 69.046

uzaIIargarah Canal
I· is a main cana1 1oca·ed in Ð.G Khan. I· is
ca·egorized in ·he zone of Ð.G Khan. I· is a nonperennia1
cana1.
Zone Muzaffargarh Gross Command Area 906490
Head discharge
(cusecs)
8901 Cu1·urab1e Command
Area
838380
Tai1 discharge
(cusecs)
2776 Leng·h in mi1es 74.14

Taunsa Paninad Link Canal
I· is a main cana1 1oca·ed in Ð.G Khan. I· is
ca·egorized in ·he zone of Ð.G Khan. I· is a nonperennia1 cana1.
Zone (Lashari) Ð G
Khan
Gross Command Area 2150000
Head discharge 12000 Cu1·urab1e Command 2000000
Irriga·ion Engineering
(cusecs) Area
Tai1 discharge
(cusecs)
- Leng·h in mi1es 38.20

uddu Barrage
I· has been cons·ruc·ed on Indus River a· Guddu, 90 mi1es
ups·ream from Su''ur and ·en mi1es from Kashmor. The cana1s ·ha·
branch ou· from here irriga·e abou· 31 1a'h acres of 1and in Su''ur,
Jacobabad and Shi'arpur areas. I· is 1oca·ed near Su''ur in
Ra'is·an. The maximum f1ood 1eve1 heigh· of ·his barrage is 26f·
(8me·ers). Guddu Barrage supp1ies wa·er for irriga·ion ·o 2.9mi11ion
acres of agricu1·ura1 1ands in ·he Ðis·ric·s of Jacobabad, Lar'ana
and Su''ur of Sindh and ·he Nasirabad Ðis·ric· of Ba1ouchis·an.
Loca·ion and river Indus Number of bavs 64
Year of Comp1e·ion 1962
No. Of under
s1uices
-
Ðesign discharge (cusecs) 12,00,000 Cres· 1eve1
236
S.R.Ð
Wa·er wav Inc1uding wa·er
S1uices (f·)
3900
No-of off-·a'ing
cana1s
4

Pat Ieeder
esert Feeder
egari Sindh Feeder
hotki canal

Sukkur Barrage
The Su''ur barrage is a barrage across ·he Indus river
near ·he ci·v of Su''ur, Ra'is·an. The barrage enab1es wa·er ·o f1ow
·hrough wha· was origina11v a 6166 mi1e 1ong ne·wor' of cana1s,
feeding ·he 1arges· irriga·ion svs·em in ·he wor1d, wi·h more ·han 5
mi11ion acres (20,000 'm) of irriga·ed 1and.
Loca·ion and river (Su''ur)
Indus
Number of bavs 54
Year of Comp1e·ion 1932 No. Of under
s1uices
12
Ðesign discharge
(cusecs)
15,00,000 Cres· 1eve1 177.00
S.R.Ð
Wid·h b/w
abu·men·s (f·)
4725 No-of off-·a'ing
cana1s
7

Irriga·ion Engineering
Lef· Side Cana1s
ara Canal
irwah Canal
#ohri Canal
bul Wah
Righ· Side Cana1s are
adu Canal
#ice Canal
hirthar Canal

Kotri Barrage (hulam uhammad Barrage)
The Ghu1am Muammad (Ko·ri) Barrage (1955), 4.5 mi1es (7
'm) above Ko·ri, con·ro1s ·he Indus f1oods, genera·es
hvdroe1ec·rici·v, and irriga·es abou· 2.8 mi11ion acres (1.1 mi11ion
hec·ares) in ·he region. Whea·, co··on, and rice are cu1·iva·ed.
Loca·ion and river Indus Number of bavs 44
Year of Comp1e·ion March,
1955
No. Of under
s1uices
-
Ðesign discharge
(cusecs)
8,75,000 Cres· 1eve1 48 S.R.Ð.
Wid·h b/w
abu·men·s (f·)
2984 No-of off-·a'ing
cana1s
5
otri aghar Ieeder
Phuleli
Piniari
kram Wah
SL (Sidhnai ailsi ahawal Link) Canal
Zone (Baghdad)
Bahawa1pur
Head discharge
(cusecs)
5338
Gross Command Area 1229174 Tai1 discharge
(cusecs)
5123
Cu1·urab1e Command
Area
1048805 Leng·h in mi1es 30.40

River Jeh1um
angla am
Ðam Tvpe: Ear·h fi11
Heigh·: 380 f·. (above
Irriga·ion Engineering
riverbed
Leng·h: 10,300 fee·
La'e Area: 97.7 sq. mi1es
Ca·chmen· Area: 12,870 Sq mi1es
Gross S·orage
Capaci·v: 5.88 MAE
Live S·orage Capaci·v: 5.34 MAE
Main Spi11wav
Capaci·v: 1.01 mi11ion cusecs
Year of Comp1e·ion: 1967
Hvdropower Genera·ion:
1,000 MW from 10
uni·s of 100 MW each
No. of peop1e ·o be
disp1aced bv raising
of dam: 40,000

&55er Jehlum Canal u5 stream hanki Headworks

Rasul Barrage
This barrage is 1oca·ed on ·he River Jeh1um a· Rasu1 (
Mandi Bahauddin). This barrage has f1ood capaci·v of 24070m
3
/sec.
Wa·er is diver·ed from ·his poin· ·o ·he 538-cumec Rasu1-Qadirabad
Lin' (RQ-Lin') Cana1 for u1·ima·e ·ransfer ·o ·he Su1eman'i Barrage
on ·he Su·1e· River.
Loca·ion and river Jeh1um Number of bavs 42
Year of Comp1e·ion 1967 No. Of under
s1uices
6
Ðesign discharge
(cusecs)
8,50,000 Cres· 1eve1 703
S.R.Ð.
Wid·h b/w
abu·men·s (f·)
3209 No-of off-·a'ing
cana1s
2

#asul Qadirabad Link Canal
I· is a main cana1 1oca·ed in Rasu1
Ðivision. I· is ca·egorized in ·he zone of Sargodha. I· is a
perennia1 cana1. I·s reduced dis·ance is 145256.00. And 1eng·h
in mi1es is 29.051.I·s au·horized head discharge is
19000.00.I·s au·horized ·ai1 discharge is 19000.00.

Lower Jehlum Canal
I· is a main cana1 1oca·ed in Rasu1 Ðivision.
I· is ca·egorized in ·he zone of Sargodha. I· is a perennia1
cana1. I·s reduced dis·ance is 196830.00. And 1eng·h in mi1es
Irriga·ion Engineering
is 39.366.I·s au·horized head discharge is 5500.00.I·s
au·horized ·ai1 discharge is 3705.00.I·s Gross command area is
1728349.00.I·s Cu1·urab1e command area is 1485776.00.

River Chenab
aralla Barrage
The Mara1a headwor' is si·ua·ed a· ·he Chenab River near
·he ci·v of Sia1'o·, Run·ab, Ra'is·an. Two ma·or wa·er channe1s
origina·e a· ·he Mara1a headwor's, ·he Mara1a-Ravi Lin' Cana1 and
·he Upper Chenab Cana1. Rroposa1s are under considera·ion ·o bui1d
Mang1a Mara1a Lin' Cana1 ·o overcome anv shor·age of wa·er in
fu·ure.
Loca·ion and river Chenab Number of bavs 66
Year of Comp1e·ion 1968 No. Of under
s1uices
13
Ðesign discharge
(cusecs)
1,100,000 Cres· 1eve1 800 S.R.Ð
Wid·h b/w
abu·men·s (f·)
4472.33 No-of off-·a'ing
cana1s
2
arala #avi Link
Zone Lahore Gross Command Area 165598
Head discharge
(cusecs)
22000 Cu1·urab1e Command
Area
154987
Tai1 discharge
(cusecs)
20000 Leng·h in mi1es 63.463
&CC(&55er chenab canal)
Zone Lahore Gross Command Area 19600
Head discharge
(cusecs)
16850 Cu1·urab1e Command
Area
12449
Tai1 discharge
(cusecs)
11373 Leng·h in mi1es 26.659
BRB(Bambawala-Ravi-Bedian-ipalpur anal)
Zone Lahore Gross Command Area -
Head discharge
(cusecs)
7260 Cu1·urab1e Command
Area
-
Tai1 discharge
(cusecs)
2380 Leng·h in mi1es 107.40

4 CBÐC(Cen·ra1 bari doab cana1)
4 UÐC(Upper Ðepa1pur Cana1)
Irriga·ion Engineering
Zone (Khudian)
Lahore
Gross Command Area 367499
Head discharge
(cusecs)
2380 Cu1·urab1e Command
Area
336782
Tai1 discharge
(cusecs)
317 Leng·h in mi1es 41.673

Khanki Head Works
Head Khan'i or ·he Khan'i Headwor' is ·he o1des· head
wor' of Ra'is·an. I· is presen· a· river Chenab in Gu·ra· Ðis·ric·.
I· is used ·o con·ro1 wa·er f1ow and f1ood f1ow in river Chenab.
Ano·her use is ·o provide wa·er ·o ·ribu·aries Such as Lower Chenab.
Loca·ion and river Chenab Number of bavs 6
Year of Comp1e·ion 1891 No. Of under
s1uices
48
Ðesign discharge
(cusecs)
800,000 Cres· 1eve1 726.5 -727.0
S.R.Ð
Wid·h b/w
abu·men·s (f·)
3928.75 No-of off-·a'ing
cana1s
1

Canal Lower Chenab
Cana1 Lower Chenab origina·es from Head Khan'i.
I· provides wa·er ·o ·hree mi11ion acres (12,000 'm) of
agricu1·ura1 1ands bv one main dis·ribu·rv Lower Chenab and 59
minor dis·r·ribu·eries. I·s bridge is in shamb1es now a dav
and is posing serious ·hrea· ·o ad·oining popu1a·ion of
100,000. In 1as· 118 vears ·here were 11 occasions when wa·er
was 730 foo· higher in i· ·han sea 1eve1 a· ·imes of high
f1oods. There were 16 occasions in 1as· cen·urv when f1ood
f1ow was 400,000 and 600,000 m¨/s in i·.
Zone Eaisa1abad Gross Command Area 3700000
Head discharge
(cusecs)
8143 Cu1·urab1e Command
Area
3400000
Tai1 discharge
(cusecs)
- Leng·h in mi1es 40.058

&pper ogera ower (ogera Burala)
Zone (Bhaga·)
Eaisa1abad
Gross Command Area 15445
Head discharge
(cusecs)
2250 Cu1·urab1e Command
Area
12737
Tai1 discharge
(cusecs)
515 Leng·h in mi1es 77.513

ain Jhang Branch (Rakh Branch)
Irriga·ion Engineering

"adirabad Barrage
Loca·ion and river Chenab Number of bavs 50
Year of Comp1e·ion 8.5.1967 No. Of under
s1uices
5
Ðesign discharge
(cusecs)
900,000 Cres· 1eve1 684.50
S.R.Ð
Wid·h b/w
abu·men·s (f·)
3373 No-of off-·a'ing
cana1s
1

Qadirabad aloki Link Canal
Zone (Hafizabad) Gross Command Area -
Head discharge
(cusecs)
25000 Cu1·urab1e Command
Area
-
Tai1 discharge
(cusecs)
20900 Leng·h in mi1es 79.483

Trimmu Barrage
Trimmu Barrage, cons·ruc·ed in 1939 some 90 'm from Mari
Shah Sa'hira ·own, a· ·he conf1uence wi·h ·he Chenab, has maximum
discharge capaci·v of 645,000 f·¨/s (18,000 m¨/s).
Loca·ion and river Chenab Number of bavs 37
Year of Comp1e·ion 1939 No. Of under
s1uices
14
Ðesign discharge
(cusecs)
6,45,000 Cres· 1eve1 477.50
S.R.Ð
Wid·h b/w
abu·men·s (f·)
3025 No-of off-·a'ing
cana1s
3

#ang5ur Canal
Havali Canal
Trimmu Sidhni Link
Zone (Sidhnai)
Mu1·an
Gross Command Area -
Head discharge
(cusecs)
12500 Cu1·urab1e Command
Area
-
Tai1 discharge
(cusecs)
10000 Leng·h in mi1es 43.60

Puninad Barrage
Head Ran·nad (Ran·nad Barrage) is a river head in Run·ab,
Ra'is·an. Ran·nad River is formed bv successive conf1uence of ·he
five rivers of Run·ab, name1v Jhe1um, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Su·1e·.
Irriga·ion Engineering
Jhe1um and Ravi ·oin Chenab, Beas ·oins Su·1e·, and ·hen Su·1e· and
Chenab ·oin ·o form Ran·nad near Uch Sharif. The combined s·ream
runs sou·hwes· for approxima·e1v 45 mi1es and ·oins Indus River a·
Mi·han'o·. The Indus con·inues in·o ·he Arabian Sea. A dam on
Ran·nad has been erec·ed; i· provides irriga·ion channe1s for Run·ab
and Sind provinces sou·h of ·he Su·1e· and eas· of ·he Indus rivers.
Loca·ion and river Chenab Number of bavs 47
Year of Comp1e·ion 1932 No. Of under
s1uices
-
Ðesign discharge
(cusecs)
7,00,000 Cres· 1eve1 325.00
S.R.Ð
Wid·h b/w
abu·men·s (f·)
3400 No-of off-·a'ing
cana1s
2

bbasia Canal

Zone Bahawa1pur Gross Command Area 117663
Head discharge
(cusecs)
1394 Cu1·urab1e Command
Area
111333
Tai1 discharge
(cusecs)
587 Leng·h in mi1es 44.915

Paninad Canal
Zone Bahawa1pur Gross Command Area 1293941
Head discharge
(cusecs)
10484 Cu1·urab1e Command
Area
1186537
Tai1 discharge
(cusecs)
4274 Leng·h in mi1es 57.267


River Ravi
Balloki Barrage

Loca·ion and river Ravi Number of bavs 35
Year of Comp1e·ion 15.5.1965 No. Of under
s1uices
-
Ðesign discharge
(cusecs)
2,25,000 Cres· 1eve1 624.50
S.R.Ð
Wid·h b/w
abu·men·s (f·)
1646.5 No-of off-·a'ing
cana1s
2
Lower ari oab Canal
Zone Mu1·an Gross Command Area 2130937
Irriga·ion Engineering
Head discharge
(cusecs)
9292 Cu1·urab1e Command
Area
1845974
Tai1 discharge
(cusecs)
1000 Leng·h in mi1es 132.14

alloki-Sulemanki Link Lower (e5al5ur Canal)


Sidhnai Barrage
Loca·ion and river Su·1u· Number of bavs 15
Year of Comp1e·ion 28-02-1965 No. Of under
s1uices
4
Ðesign discharge
(cusecs)
1,50,000 Cres· 1eve1 454.00
S.R.Ð
Wid·h b/w
abu·men·s (f·)
712 No-of off-·a'ing
cana1s
2
Sidhnai ailsi Link Canal
Zone Mu1·an Gross Command Area 4071
Head discharge
(cusecs)
630 Cu1·urab1e Command
Area
3724
Tai1 discharge
(cusecs)
630 Leng·h in mi1es 4.132

Sidhnai Canal


River Su·1u·

Sulemanki Barrage

Loca·ion and river Su·1u· Number of bavs 24
Year of Comp1e·ion 1926 No. Of under
s1uices
16
Ðesign discharge
(cusecs)
3,25,000 Cres· 1eve1 560.00
S.R.Ð
Wid·h b/w
abu·men·s (f·)
2223 No-of off-·a'ing
cana1s
3


Pak5attan Canal
Zone Mu1·an Gross Command Area 1046326
Head discharge 5508 Cu1·urab1e Command 961158
Irriga·ion Engineering
(cusecs) Area
Tai1 discharge
(cusecs)
24 Leng·h in mi1es 113.47


Fordwah Canal
Zone Mu1·an Gross Command Area 465024
Head discharge
(cusecs)
3447 Cu1·urab1e Command
Area
430112
Tai1 discharge
(cusecs)
2993 Leng·h in mi1es 8.97


astern Sadiqia Canal
Zone Mu1·an Gross Command Area 616035
Head discharge
(cusecs)
6820 Cu1·urab1e Command
Area
547472
Tai1 discharge
(cusecs)
5106 Leng·h in mi1es 49

Islam Barrage
Is1am Barrage, 1oca·ed abou· six mi1es nor·h-wes· of
Hasi1pur ·own, was cons·ruc·ed across River Su·1e· during 1922-1927
as a componen· of Su·1e· Va11ev Rro·ec· for feeding Bahawa1 Cana1
(5,400 cusecs) and Qaim Cana1 (558 cusecs) on ·he 1ef· ban' and
Mai1si Cana1 (4,883 cusecs) on ·he righ· ban'.
I· was designed for a maximum discharge of 300,000
cusecs. Af·er ·he imp1emen·a·ion of Indus Wa·er Trea·v, ·he head
regu1a·or of Mai1si Cana1 a· Is1am Barrage was abandoned and ·he
cana1 s·ar·ed receiving supp1ies from ·he new Sidhnai-Mai1si Lin'
Cana1 cons·ruc·ed in 1965. Simi1ar1v ·he capaci·v of Bahawa1 Cana1
was reduced ·o 1,000 cusecs bv shif·ing 1ower areas of ·he cana1 on
·o ·he new Mai1si-Bahawa1 1in'.
Loca·ion and river Su·1u· Number of bavs 29
Year of Comp1e·ion 1927 No. Of under
s1uices
4
Ðesign discharge
(cusecs)
3,00,000 Cres· 1eve1 435.50-441.00
S.R.Ð
Wid·h b/w
abu·men·s (f·)
1621 No-of off-
·a'ing cana1s
3

Qasim Canal
Zone Mu1·an Gross Command Area 55804
Irriga·ion Engineering
Head discharge
(cusecs)
483.00 Cu1·urab1e Command
Area
52797
Tai1 discharge
(cusecs)
61 Leng·h in mi1es 7.43

ailsi Canal

ahawal Canal
Zone Mu1·an Gross Command Area 57469
Head discharge
(cusecs)
500 Cu1·urab1e Command
Area
52023
Tai1 discharge
(cusecs)
386 Leng·h in mi1es 2.40

ailsi Svphon
I· is 1oca·ed near Mai1si, from Mai1si ·o Khair Rur
Tamavwa1i. Mai1si Sidhnai Lin' Cana1 (as i· is named) passes under
river Sa·1u· here. Canan1 origina·e a· Sidhnai headwor's on River
Ravi near Abdu1 Ha'eem and irriga·e / dis·ribu·e wa·er ·o par·s of
Ðis·ric· Vehari, Lodhran and Bahawa1 Rur.
Loca·ion and river Su·1u· Number of bavs 24
Year of Comp1e·ion 10-12-1964 No. Of under
s1uices
-
Ðesign discharge
(cusecs)
4,29,000 Cres· 1eve1 415.50
S.R.Ð
Wid·h b/w
abu·men·s (f·)
1601 No-of off-·a'ing
cana1s
-





Summarv.
The na·ura1 geo-agricu1·ura1 pa··ern has made in such a
wav ·ha· ·he Chenab mee·s ·he Jhe1um near Trimmu, ·he Ravi mee·s ·he
Jhe1um downwards, and ·he Su·1e· mee·s ·he Jhe1um a· Ru·nand, and
s·i11 down, ·he combina·ion of ·hese rivers mee·s ·he Indus a·
Mi·han'o·. Then ·he Indus f1ows down in·o Sindh. There are ·hree
barrages in Sindh whi1e a11 o·her wa·erwor's are upcoun·rv.
Ano·her fac· is ·ha· in Run·ab a11 rivers and wa·erwor's
are in·erconnec·ed bv channe1s and 1in's as under:
Irriga·ion Engineering
1. C-J 1in' (Chashma-Jhe1um 1in') connec·s ·he Indus a· Chashma wi·h
·he Jhe1um above Trimmu.
2. U-J-C 1in' (upper Jhe1um Chenab Lin') connec·s ·he Jhe1um from
Mang1a ·o ·he Chenab above Khan'i headwor's.
3. R-Q 1in' (Rasu1-Qadirabad 1in') connec·s ·he Jhe1um a· Rasu1 wi·h
·he Chenab a· ·he Qadirabad barrage.
4. M-R 1in' (Mara1a-Ravi 1in') connec·s ·he Chenab a· Mara1a wi·h
·he Ravi a· Shahdara).
5. Q-B 1in' (Qadirabad-Ba11o'i 1in') connec·s ·he Chenab a·
Qadirabad wi·h ·he Ravi a· Ba11o'i.
6. T-S 1in' (Trimmu-Sidnai 1in') connec·s ·he Jhe1um a· Trimmu wi·h
·he Ravi a· Sidnai.
7. S-M 1in' (Sidnai-Ma1si 1in') connec·s ·he Ravi a· Sidnai wi·h
Ma1si ·ha· passes ·hrough ·he Su·1e·.
8. The BRBÐ 1in' is abou· a 100-mi1e-1ong channe1 from a branch of
Mara1a across ·he Ravi ·owards ·he Su·1e·.
9. B-S I & II (Ba11o'i-Su1eman'i) are ·wo 1in's which connec· ·he
Ravi a· Ba11o'i wi·h ·he Su·1e· a· Su1eman'i.

Refrences

h··p://www.wapda.gov.p'/h·m1s/
h··p://irriga·ion.pun·ab.gov.p'/
h··p://www.wi'ipedia.org/
h··p://www.goog1e.com.p'/
h··p://www.au·hors·ream.com/
h··p://www.answers.com/

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