ElectDesignManual2006 | Ac Power | Specification (Technical Standard)

MWD

METROPOLITAN WATER DISTRICT OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ENGINEERING SERVICES SECTION

ELECTRICAL DESIGN MANUAL

ESD-106

JANUARY 2006

TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1 TITLE

MWD Electrical Design Manual

PAGE

INTRODUCTION...................................................................... 1-1 1.1 1.2 1.3 OBJECTIVE................................................................... 1-1 RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE ELECTRICAL DESIGNER.................................................................... 1-1 DESIGN TASKS ............................................................ 1-2 1.3.1 Study Phase ..................................................... 1-2 1.3.2 Preliminary Design Tasks ................................. 1-2 1.3.3 Final Design Tasks (30%)...................................1-2 1.3.4 Final Design Tasks (60%)...................................1-3 1.3.5 Final Design Tasks (90%)...................................1-3 1.3.6 Final Design Tasks (100%).................................1-4 DOCUMENT CONTROL ............................................... 1-4

1.4 2

PROJECT DESIGN ELEMENTS ............................................. 2-1 2.1 GENERAL APPROACH ................................................ 2-1 2.1.1 Design Criteria .................................................. 2-1 2.1.2 Drawings........................................................... 2-1 2.1.3 Specifications.................................................... 2-1 BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING FORMULAS ...... 2-2 2.2.1 List of Symbols ................................................. 2-2 2.2.2 Direct Current (dc) Formulas ............................ 2-2 2.2.3 Alternating Current (ac), Single Phase ............. 2-3 2.2.4 Alternating Current (ac), Three Phase .............. 2-3 2.2.5 Motors............................................................... 2-4 2.2.6 Power Factor Correction ................................... 2-4 DESIGN CALCULATIONS ............................................ 2-4 2.3.1 General ............................................................. 2-4 2.3.2 Load.................................................................. 2-5 2.3.3 Conductor Size, General ................................. 2-5 2.3.4 Conduit Size and Fill ......................................... 2-8 2.3.5 Motor Branch Circuit ......................................... 2-9 2.3.6 Power Factor Correction Capacitors................ 2-14 2.3.7 Transformer Primary and Secondary Conductors 2-17 2.3.8 Voltage Drop.................................................... 2-20 2.3.9 Short Circuit ..................................................... 2-23 2.3.10 Lighting ............................................................ 2-27

2.2

2.3

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2.4

2.5 3

2.3.11 Grounding ........................................................ 2-36 DRAWINGS.................................................................. 2-36 2.4.1 General ............................................................ 2-34 2.4.2 Organization .................................................... 2-34 2.4.3 Legend............................................................. 2-37 2.4.4 Abbreviations ................................................... 2-37 2.4.5 Site Plan(s) ...................................................... 2-37 2.4.6 One-Line Diagrams.......................................... 2-38 2.4.7 Floor Plans....................................................... 2-39 2.4.8 Grounding Plan................................................ 2-40 2.4.9 Equipment Elevations ...................................... 2-40 2.4.10 Control Schematic Diagrams ........................... 2-40 2.4.11 Installation Details.............................................2-40 2.4.12 Electrical Schedules .........................................2-40 PROJECT FILES .......................................................... 2-44

STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES............. 3-1 3.1 GENERAL APPROACH ................................................ 3-1 3.1.1 Types of Electrical Systems.............................. 3-1 3.1.2 References ....................................................... 3-1 3.1.3 Plant Distribution Systems ................................ 3-2 3.1.4 Voltage Considerations..................................... 3-7 3.1.5 Voltage Selection.............................................. 3-8 3.1.6 Voltage Rating ....................................................3-8 3.1.7 Protection/Coordination Philosophy .................. 3-8 3.1.8 Equipment Heat Dissipation Data ................... 3-13 LOCATING ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT ..................... 3-13 3.2.1 Equipment Rooms and Buildings.................... 3-13 3.2.2 Equipment Enclosures .................................... 3-14 SWITCHGEAR ............................................................. 3-15 3.3.1 Low Voltage ..................................................... 3-15 3.3.2 Medium Voltage (4.16 kV through 13.8 kV) ..... 3-17 TRANSFORMERS........................................................ 3-17 3.4.1 Pad-Mounted ................................................... 3-18 3.4.2 Unit Substations............................................... 3-18 3.4.3 Equipment Selection........................................ 3-20 MOTOR CONTROL EQUIPMENT ............................... 3-20 3.5.1 Low Voltage ..................................................... 3-20 3.5.2 Medium Voltage............................................... 3-25 3.5.3 Adjustable Speed Drives.................................. 3-27 3.5.4 Power Factor Correction .................................. 3-32

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.5

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3.6

3.7

3.8

3.9

3.10

3.11

3.5.5 Control Circuit Devices .................................... 3-32 MOTORS...................................................................... 3-33 3.6.1 Basic Motor Types ........................................... 3-33 3.6.2 Design Considerations..................................... 3-33 3.6.3 Low-Voltage Single-Phase Induction Motors ... 3-39 3.6.4 Low-Voltage Three-Phase Induction Motors.............................................................. 3-39 3.6.5 Medium-Voltage Induction Motors ................... 3-39 3.6.6 Synchronous Motors........................................ 3-40 3.6.7 Direct Current Motors ...................................... 3-40 RACEWAY SYSTEMS ................................................. 3-41 3.7.1 Conduit System ............................................... 3-41 3.7.2 Conduit Identification ....................................... 3-42 3.7.3 Wireway ........................................................... 3-42 3.7.4 Cable Tray System .......................................... 3-42 3.7.5 Trench System................................................. 3-43 3.7.6 Ductbank System............................................. 3-43 CONDUCTORS ............................................................ 3-44 3.8.1 Low-Voltage Wiring Systems (600 Volts and Below) ....................... 3-44 3.8.2 Medium and High Voltage Conductors (Above 600 Volts) ............................................ 3-47 3.8.3 Splices and Terminations................................. 3-47 3.8.4 Conductor Identification ................................... 3-48 3.8.5 Conductor Installation ...................................... 3-48 JUNCTION BOXES AND PULL BOXES ...................... 3-49 3.9.1 Indoor Locations .............................................. 3-49 3.9.2 Outdoor Locations ........................................... 3-50 3.9.3 Corrosive Locations ......................................... 3-50 3.9.4 Hazardous Locations ....................................... 3-50 3.9.5 Terminal Junction Boxes.................................. 3-50 MANHOLES AND HANDHOLES.................................. 3-51 3.10.1 Handholes........................................................ 3-51 3.10.2 Manholes ......................................................... 3-52 LIGHTING SYSTEMS................................................... 3-52 3.11.1 General Illumination......................................... 3-53 3.11.2 Recommended Illumination Levels .................. 3-54 3.11.3 Lighting System Design ................................... 3-54 3.11.4 Luminaries ........................................................3-54 3.11.5 Emergency/Standby Lighting ........................... 3-57 3.11.6 Exit Signs......................................................... 3-58 3.11.7 Controls ........................................................... 3-58

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. 3.. 3....5 Instrumentation and Computer Grounding...................5 Power Receptacles.......................13 3........3 Convenience Receptacles .................... 3.2 System Grounding ....6 Lightning Protection System Grounding ..................4 Conductors ......................1.....................1....................................14...................... 4............1 General ............. 4-1 4-1 4-1 4-2 4-2 4-3 4-4 ESD-106 01/06 iv ....................4 Optional Standby Systems........................2 Panelboards....................... ELECTRICAL TESTING ....1 General Requirements. 3...........................................15.................14.................3 Grounding Electrode Systems and Grounding Grids .. 4.................... 3...2 Emergency Power Systems..... 3..1 Plant Communication System.. 4.................... 3..................1 Voltage Selection.............1 CONTROL PANELS ....... 3.......................16........... 3..16......................................... 4........3 Indicating Devices..............13......... 3.. 3......... SPECIAL SYSTEMS ........15.. 3................ 3................. 3....14...................12....................13.................................................................. 4-1 4.............................12..2 Fire Alarm System .....................14.... 4.... 3.7 Computer Power Systems ..1.................. 3..16....12......16.............13..............1 General ...................... 3....................14..... 3. and Lights ......6 Relays and Timers.6 Grounding ................... 4 CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN PROCEDURES ..5 Annunciators..16 LOW VOLTAGE POWER DISTRIBUTION.................16.....5 Engine Generators...16.......12 TITLE MWD Electrical Design Manual PAGE 3-59 3-59 3-59 3-60 3-61 3-61 3-64 3-64 3-64 3-65 3-67 3-67 3-67 3-67 3-67 3-68 3-68 3-69 3-69 3-70 3-71 3-71 3-71 3-74 3-76 3-76 3-77 3-78 3-80 3-80 3-81 3...............................1..... GROUNDING .........................1........................................ 3.............13.............. 3....... 4.... 3...2 Panel Design ...............14 3.........4 Switches.......TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 3.......... 3.....................3 Legally Required Standby Power System................................4 Equipment Grounding........... Pushbuttons........... 3............................12..........14.........................2 Plant Electrical System ...15 3....................................3 Medium and Low Voltage Equipment ........5 Emergency/Standby Generators. 3......................................4 Hazardous Area Receptacles ..................... 3..............................12........................................14...... EMERGENCY AND STANDBY POWER SYSTEMS....1 NEMA Standards ....13.......1..6 Unit Equipment .......13................................ 3.....

..1.....11 Seismic Design Requirements......7 Control Panel Layout ......................................................... Two-Speed Motor Control ................1.................................10 Installation.....................................3 Status Monitoring............................................................. Impedance Diagram .....1 Remote Terminal Unit Outputs .....................3. Additional NEMA Configurations .............................................................3...................1.................. Calculation of Task Illumination .....................2................. 4-15 4..................................... B-1 SAMPLE ELECTRICAL DESIGN CRITERIA MEMO ...... H-1 FIGURE 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-4 2-5 3-1 3-2 3-3 4-1 4-2 4-3 TITLE PAGE 2-14 2-23 2-29 2-32 2-40 3-25 3-52 3-53 4-17 4-18 4-19 Relation Between kVA...................................2............................................................................................... 4-8 FIELD WIRING ...... 4-5 4.............................................................................................. C-1 ENCLOSURE TYPES ....1........2 Control Panels ............. kW.......................................... and kvar ............... 4-14 4.......................................................................... 4-8 4............ 4-13 4............... G-1 STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF ELECTRICAL CURRENT CARRYING CONDUCTORS............................1 Field Signal Wiring.................................F-1 MOTOR TORQUE DEFINITIONS ....... Constant Speed Motor Control ..................... Example Panel Drawing ...................................................... 4-16 4....2.............3 4...........................................................3 Spare Conductors............4 Signal Convertors ..............................................................................8 Wiring and Terminations .... NEMA Configurations of General Purpose Nonlocking Plugs and Receptacles... Zonal Cavity Calculations .... 4-9 4..................... 4-14 CONTROL DEVICE INTERFACING.......................................... 4-8 4..................3.............. 4-17 TITLE PAGE APPENDIX A B C D E F G H REFERENCES .....................3............................... Example Control Station Wiring.... D-1 MOTOR ENCLOSURE TYPES ........................................................... E-1 MOTOR DESIGN TYPES......................... 4-6 4............................2 4.................2 Conduit ....... 4-15 4.... A-1 ABBREVIATIONS....................1....................... Reversing Motor Control.................... 4-9 4............................................................................TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER TITLE MWD Electrical Design Manual PAGE 4........................ ESD-106 01/06 v .....9 Nameplates.............................

.............. 3-65 Annunciator Sequences ......TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 4-4 4-5 4-6 4-7 4-8 F-1 F-2 F-3 F-4 F-5 F-6 F-7 TITLE MWD Electrical Design Manual PAGE Incremental Valve Control .......................... 3-45 Requirements for Fire Alarm and Detection Devices........................ 2-27 Candlepower Distribution Curve ............................F-9 Typical Box Identification..............................F-8 Identification for a Multi-Conductor Cable.................................F-12 TABLE 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-4 2-5 3-1 3-2 3-3 4-1 A TITLE PAGE Motor Circuit Design Data--480 Volt.............F-6 Cable Identification ....... Hydraulic/Pneumatic Operator .......4-24 Examples of Power Feeder Cable Identification for Water Treatment Plant Section ... F-7 ESD-106 01/06 vi .F-11 Typical Duck Bank Identification..................................................................................... Electric Motor Applicator . Three-Phase Motors ............................................................... 3-8 Recommended Illumination Levels....................... 2-12 480-Volt Lighting Transformer Circuit Design Chart (75o C) ..................................... 4-21 Open/Close Valve Control............................................................................................4-23 Variable Speed Motor Control-Three Phase....................................................... 4-22 Variable Speed Motor Control-Single Phase ............. 2-31 Losses in Electrical Equipment...............000 A-ft ........ 4-20 Open/Close Valve Control.................................................................. 2-21 Coefficient of Utilization Zonal Cavity Method .....................................................F-9 Identification for a Single-Conductor Cable ............................... 2-17 Three-Phase Line-to-Line Voltage Drop for 600 V SingleConductor Cable per 10........................... 4-4 Conductor Voltage Level Color Codes ............................................F-5 Examples of Control and Instrumentation Cable Identification for Water Treatment Plant Section ..............

and the more experienced engineer/designer.Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION MWD Electrical Design Manual 1. will provide electrical systems that are safe and electrically suited for the intended application.1 OBJECTIVE The objective of these electrical design standards is to provide a guide that can be used for Metropolitan Water District of Southern California's (Metropolitan) electrical practice. standard legend items and abbreviations. Conduits and conductors for power distribution and instrumentation and control (I&C) systems. Special electrical systems. 1. procedures for making most of the calculations that will be required for a design. Outlined within these standards are procedures for preparing design instructions. descriptions of materials to be used. The senior staff may find the manual useful as a training tool for subordinates. This information. References.2 RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE ELECTRICAL DESIGNER The electrical engineer/designer is responsible for all facets of a project that are related to: Electrical energy for equipment located on the project site. a data table that can be used in making those calculations. and a number of informative memos. drawing presentation formats. Adequate illumination in all areas. a list of the readily available sources is contained in Appendix A. The information contained herein has been assembled from a number of sources. Protective and safety alarm systems. These electrical design standards shall be used as the basis for all designs prepared for Metropolitan. Anticipated users of this manual include the engineer/designer with limited experience. used with engineering judgment in conjunction with appropriate codes. management staff. ESD-106 1-1 01/06 . national standards. Grounding and lightning protection systems. and other reference information.

Perform preliminary calculations to size major electrical equipment. Emergency power systems. Prepare a draft power system study. electrical ductbanks. Work with the process design staff and mechanical engineers as well as other concerned design disciplines to define the electrical load that will be required on the project site and identify the electrical equipment.1 Study Phase Provide electrical support for preparation of draft study. Define the method of electrical service.3.3. Review electrical elements of project description in draft study. Develop a preliminary one-line diagram and written narrative that describes the proposed electrical distribution system. ESD-106 1-2 01/06 . 1. 1. etc.2 Preliminary Design Tasks Prepare the written electrical design criteria that are specific to the needs of the project. Contact the utility that will serve the site to define the interface required between the utility’s system and the site’s electrical distribution system.INTRODUCTION Communication systems. transformers. Obtain a copy of the electrical rates that will apply to the service. Prepare a preliminary electrical site plan showing the location of all major electrical equipment such as switchgear.3 Design Tasks The following is a partial list of design tasks that the electrical engineer/ designer must assume responsibility for during the course of the design. Provide input to preparation of preliminary design report (PDR). Identify and talk to the electrical inspection authority having jurisdiction at the project site and obtain copies of any special ordinances or codes that may apply to the electrical design. 1. MWD Electrical Design Manual The engineer/designer must take an active role in consulting with other members of the project team to identify the needs of his or her design and the needs of other design groups.

Prepare draft schedules for panelboards. electrical boxes. Update calculations for sizing of electrical equipment. lighting fixtures.4. fire alarm systems. lighting plan. conduit. Complete and stamp all electrical calculations. Update all schedules for panelboards. and many of the equipment items supplied in other divisions of the text specifications. Update the electrical equipment list Prepare draft electrical equipment specifications Table of Contents. manholes.3 Final Design Tasks (30%) MWD Electrical Design Manual Update the electrical one-line diagram. the instrumentation system. the I&CSs should be consulted when the control diagrams are being prepared because they define the relationships that exist between the electrical control equipment. Prepare the text electrical specifications required to define the electrical system to be constructed (See paragraph 2. communication systems.3. Update the electrical site plan and sections.3. cable. conduit. Prepare the ladder diagrams required for all panels that will be provided by the I&C supplier. lighting fixtures. 1. Review the Instrumentation and Control System Diagrams (I&CS) to verify that all equipment on the project site that must be interfaced with the electrical system has been accounted for.INTRODUCTION 1. Complete the power system study.3. manholes. Update the electrical site plan and sections. Prepare draft control schematics and wiring diagrams. Specifications). These ladder diagrams should be used during the preparation of the process plans to determine the conduit and conductor requirements of the discrete control systems. Prepare the electrical drawings required to define the electrical system to be constructed (See paragraph 2. Update the electrical drawings required to define the electrical system to be constructed such as the power plan. Drawings). electrical boxes.etc. In addition. grounding plan.1.5 Final Design Tasks (90%) ESD-106 1-3 01/06 . etc.4 Final Design Tasks (60%) Update the electrical one-line diagram. etc.3. cable. 1.

located in ESD-171. follow the change control system procedure. Complete the electrical site plan and sections. I&C and SCADA design. communication systems.6 Final Design Tasks (100%) Signoff of electrical plans and specifications. lighting plan. Complete all schedules. 1. and (2) the only reference guide for engineering consultants who will augment Metropolitan engineering staff.3. Complete all electrical equipment lists. 1. ESD-106 1-4 01/06 . Engineering Administration Manual. Complete all text specifications for electrical equipment. fire alarm systems. grounding plan. etc. Complete all protection relay settings.INTRODUCTION MWD Electrical Design Manual Complete the electrical one-line diagram. To propose changes to this manual. Complete all electrical drawings required to define the electrical system to be constructed such as the power plan. Complete all control schematics and wiring diagrams.4 DOCUMENT CONTROL This manual is intended to be (1) the primary technical reference resource for new employees in this discipline. Complete the coordination of process control schematic diagrams with Mechanical. It is important that this manual be updated to keep it current and maintain its usefulness.

the needs of the project must be evaluated. All of the major decisions should be made during preliminary design.1. An example Electrical Design Criteria memo is presented in Appendix C. 2.1. the text specifications describe the type and quality of materials and equipment and the quality of workmanship. Final design is an implementation of those decisions. The electrical drawings and text specifications are then prepared during final design using the information prepared during preliminary design as a basis for that design. one may think that the electrical text specifications are written for the electrical contractor. the needs of the project outlined in a brief report. subcontractor. for a description of the drawings to be included in a construction package.1 GENERAL APPROACH A design project can be broken down into a number of specific elements that are prepared during several phases of the project. who decides who shall do the work.1. As an electrical engineer/designer. the text specifications provide these descriptions in one place for the general contractor's comprehension and use.Chapter 2 PROJECT DESIGN ELEMENTS MWD Electrical Design Manual 2. specific requirements that are applicable to the project.3 Specifications The text specifications shall describe the materials to be furnished by the contractor and the requirements for the products themselves. 2. and design instructions that shall be used by all of the design team members to assure a complete and consistent product. The drawings are a part of that installation instruction set and describe the location and quantity of materials and equipment needed for the project. See paragraph 2. the requirements for installing the products. During the preliminary design phase. and the design criteria for the project prepared.1 Design Criteria The Electrical Design Criteria is a compilation of general information. if awarded the contract.4.2 Drawings The purpose of a design is to develop a set of instructions and rules that a contractor can use to bid the project and. a preliminary one-line diagram and electrical site plan prepared. The two project phases that are being covered by this design manual are the preliminary design and final design phases. build what the designer had in mind. but this is not the case. 2. and the quality control measures that will be used to check the products and the execution of construction. or equipment supplier. The text specifications are addressed to the general contractor. Moreover. Drawings. ESD-106 2-1 01/06 .

The standard electrical text specifications will consist of sections organized as shown in Metropolitan's ESD-135. Part 2--Products.1. 2-2) ESD-106 2-2 01/06 .PROJECT DESIGN ELEMENTS MWD Electrical Design Manual 2.1 Organization.1.1. 2. It is intended that the engineer will select only those text specification sections that are applicable to the project and then use those sections without changes.3 Project Specifications. 2. Only three parts will be provided for in each technical section: Part 1--General.2 Direct Current (dc) Formulas Basic formulas for dc current include: Voltage (E) = Current (I) x Resistance (R) Power (P) = E2/R = EI (Eq.3. The electrical text specifications will be prepared in Construction Specifications Institute (CSI) narrative format in the indicative mood. These specifications shall also be prepared in the indicative mood.2 2.3. The Standard Master Specifications have been prepared to cover all normal projects that are expected to be designed for or by Metropolitan. Part 3--Execution.2 Standard Specifications. Standard Specifications Sections Catalog.2.2.3.1 BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING FORMULAS List of Symbols E I R X Z P VA W = voltage (volts) = current (amps) = resistance (ohms) = reactance (ohms) = impedance (ohms) = power (watts) = voltampere = watt = angle whose cosine is the power factor = phase = efficiency Eff 2. The engineer shall prepare project specifications in the CSI narrative format for any additional requirements not covered by the Standard Master Specifications. 2. 2-1) (Eq.

2-15) (Eq. in ohms (Eq. 2-4) (Eq.3 Alternating Current (ac). 2-3) Basic formulas for ac current.2. 2-19) ESD-106 2-3 01/06 . 2-12) (Eq.2. 2-9) (Eq. 2-17) (Eq.PROJECT DESIGN ELEMENTS P = I2 x R 2. single phase. 2-5) (Eq. 2-13) (Eq. 2-11) (Eq. 2-7) (Eq. 2-20) (Eq. Three Phase Basic formulas for ac current. three phase. 2-18) (Eq. 2-16) (Eq. 2-6) (Eq. include: Line Voltage (E) = 31/2 x E (Wye-connected) Current (I) = 31/2 x I (Delta-connected) Apparent Power (kVA) = (31/2 x E x I)/1000 Real Power (kW) = kVA x cos Reactive Power (kvar) = kVA x sin = arctan (kvar/kW) Power Factor (PF) = cos = kW/kVA PF = kW/((E x I x 31/2)/ 1000) The voltage drop formula is: Ed where: Ed = voltage drop in circuit sin = load reactive factor = 31/2 x (I x R x cos + I x X x sin ) (Eq. include: Voltage (E) = Current (I) x Impedance (Z) Power factor (PF) = cos Apparent Power (VA) = E x I Reactive Power (vars) = E x I x sin Real Power (Watts) = E x I x PF = arctan (vars/Watts) PF = Watts/(E x I) = Watts/VA The voltage drop formula is: Ed = 2 x (I x R x cos ) + (I x X x sin ) where: Ed sin X = voltage drop in circuit = load reactive factor = line reactance for one conductor. 2-8) (Eq. Single Phase MWD Electrical Design Manual (Eq. 2-14) (Eq.4 Alternating Current (AC). 2-10) 2.

PROJECT DESIGN ELEMENTS X R

MWD Electrical Design Manual

= line reactance for one conductor in ohms = line resistance for one conductor in ohms

2.2.5 Motors Motor (general) formulas include: 1 horsepower (hp) = 746 Watts Torque (ft-lb) = (hp x 5250)/rpm Fan hp = (cfm x Pressure)/(33,000 x Eff) Pump hp = (gpm x Head x Specific Gravity)/(3960 x Eff) Motor (single phase) formula is: Horsepower = (E x I x Eff x PF)/746 Motor (three phase) formulas include: Synchronous Speed: ns = (120)(Frequency)/(# Poles) Horsepower = (E x I x 31/2 x Eff x PF)/746 (Eq. 2-25) (Eq. 2-21) (Eq. 2-22) (Eq. 2-23) (Eq. 2-24)

(Eq. 2-26) (Eq. 2-27)

2.2.6 Power Factor Correction The size of the capacitor needed to increase the power factor from PF1 to PF2 with the initial kVA given is: kvar = kVA([1-(PF1)2]1/2 - PF1/PF2[1-(PF2)2]1/2) 2.3 DESIGN CALCULATIONS (Eq. 2-28)

2.3.1 General Electrical calculations shall be made for all projects and filed in the project notebook. They may be made either manually or by computer programs approved by Metropolitan. As a minimum, the following types of calculations shall be made where applicable and submitted to Metropolitan for review: Load calculations; Conductor sizing; Conduit sizing; Motor branch circuit sizing;

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Power factor improvement; Transformer primary and secondary circuit sizing; Voltage drop; Motor starting voltage dip; Short circuit analysis; Lighting levels; Grounding in substations. Note: All references to the National Electrical code (NEC) for calculations shown in this design manual are based on the 2005 Edition of the NEC. If computer programs are used to make the calculations, the name and version of the software, along with all input and output data, shall be included in the submittal to Metropolitan. All calculations shall be certified by the signature and stamp of a registered professional electrical engineer. 2.3.2 Load Load calculations shall be made using applicable sections of Articles 220, 430, and other sections of the NEC. The following load calculations will be used for sizing: Feeder conductors and protective devices; Transformers; Panelboard and switchboard main busses; Motor control center components; Service entrance devices and conductors. Load calculations must include all loads and should be made by summing all of the loads, using appropriate diversity factors as allowed by NEC Article 220, that are connected to each panelboard, switchboard, and motor control center. The loads for each branch of the distribution system can then be summed back to the service entrance equipment. 2.3.3 Conductor Size, General Conductor sizes must be determined for general purpose branch circuit

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conductors and feeder conductors in accordance with the requirements of NEC Article 220, the size of service entrance conductors as covered in NEC Article 230, the size of motor branch circuit conductors as covered in NEC Article 430, the size of air conditioning equipment branch circuit conductors as covered in NEC Article 440, the size of generator conductors as covered in NEC Article 445, the size of transformer primary and secondary conductors as covered by NEC Article 450, and the size of conductors to capacitors as covered in NEC Article 460. In this section we will look at the general requirements for sizing conductors once the calculated load current is known. Paragraphs 210.19 and 215.2 of the NEC require that branch circuit and feeder conductors have an ampacity not less than the load to be served. NEC Paragraph 220.18 contains additional information relative to branch circuit loads. Once branch circuit and feeder loads have been determined using applicable sections of NEC Article 230 and other applicable articles, conductor sizes shall then be determined using Tables 310.16 through 310.20 of the NEC for conductors zero through 2,000 volts and Tables 310.67 through 310.86 of the NEC for conductors rated above 2,000 volts. The four examples presented below are based on the ampacities presented in NEC Table 310.16 as modified by the applicable correction factors for temperature and conduit fill. 2.3.3.1 Example No. 1. Conditions: Continuous load rated 37 amps served by a conduit containing only the conductors for the load, running through an area having an ambient temperature of 38o C. Conductors shall be copper with type TW insulation. Required ampacity per NEC Paragraphs 210.19 and 210.18: Ampacity required = continuous load x 125% = 37 x 1.25 or 46.25 amps A No. 6 AWG copper conductor having an ampacity of 55 amps would appear to be the correct choice. Where the ambient temperatures exceed the 30o C ambient that NEC Table 310.16 is based on, the allowable ampacity of the conductor must be corrected using the correction factors at the bottom of Table 310.16 as required by NEC Paragraph 310.10. Corrected ampacity of No. 6 conductor = 55 x correction factor (0.82) or Corrected ampacity = 55 x 0.82 = 45.1 amps

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Because an ampacity of 46.25 amps is required, this conductor is not adequate and the next larger size (or a conductor with different insulation) will need to be used. 2.3.3.2 Example No. 2. Conditions: The same load and ambient temperature as above but with six phase conductors in the same conduit. Assume that the conductors used above were No. 6 copper with RHW insulation. Corrected ampacity of No. 6 RHW = 65 x 0.88 = 57.2 amps Where more than three current carrying conductors are contained in the same raceway, the ampacity of the conductors must also be derated by the ampacity adjustment factors contained in NEC Table 310.15(B)(2)(a). Corrected ampacity of No. 6 RHW conductor = 57.2 (ampacity corrected for temperature) x 0.8 (ampacity adjustment factor) = 45.7amps Because an ampacity of 46.25 amps is required, this conductor size is not satisfactory for this application. A larger conductor or a different configuration must be used. 2.3.3.3 Example No 3. Conditions: A feeder with 200 amps of noncontinuous load and 65 amps of continuous load to be installed in conduit in a wet area with an ambient temperature of 30o C or less. Required ampacity per NEC Paragraph 215.2 = noncontinuous load + 1.25 x continuous load or 200 + 1.25 x 65 = 281.25 amps The feeder overcurrent device would be sized at 300 amps since that is the next largest standard rating (see Article 240 of the NEC). The conductor ampacity requirement can be met by either one 300 kCMIL conductor or two 1/0 conductors with RHW insulation per phase. Because the ampacity of one 300 kCMIL RHW conductor is only 285 amps, NEC Paragraph 240.4(B) must be invoked.

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Phase and neutral conductor insulation will be RHH/RHW and the ground conductor will have TW insulation.3.8 is for situations where all conductors in a conduit are the same size. Conditions: Three No. Conditions: Three 4/0 AWG conductors with RHH/RHW insulation installed in rigid steel conduit (no separate ground conductor). Conditions: The same load as used in example No. 3. Corrected ampacity = 320 amps x 0.2 amps The results are the same as for example No. 2.2 Example No.3.4 Example No.25 amps.3. Correction factor for 90o C conductors in a 38o C ambient = 0. Because NEC Table C. Following are two examples of how conduits can be sized under different circumstances.8 for conduit size required for three 4/0 AWG conductors with RHH/RHW insulation.4. 4.4. Ampacity of one 300 kCMIL RHH conductor is 320 in a dry location. and all associated notes. 2. 2 AWG equipment ground conductor to be installed in rigid steel conduit. Required ampacity calculated above = 281. 2. See NEC Table 3C. so NEC Paragraph 240.PROJECT DESIGN ELEMENTS MWD Electrical Design Manual 2. one No.91.1 Example No. 4/0 AWG phase conductors. 3 but the conduit is to be installed in a dry area with an ambient temperature of 38o C.4(B) must be invoked. using appropriate conduction areas from Table 5 in Chapter 9 of the NEC.3. 2. must ESD-106 2-8 01/06 . 1. they cannot be used for this example. the conduit shall be sized in accordance with Tables C.12(A) in Annex C of the NEC.3. NEC Table 3C8 would allow three conductors to be installed in a 2-inch conduit.4 Conduit Size and Fill Where conductors are installed in conduit.91 = 291. Table 4 in Chapter 9 of the NEC. 1/0 AWG neutral and one No.1 through C.

Motors.1333 = 1.5 Motor Branch Circuit NEC Article 430. and Controllers. motor circuits.4754 0. Actual nameplate currents should be used if they are known and must be used if they are larger than the minimum. NEC Article 440 contains special provisions that apply to the installation of airconditioning and refrigeration equipment and should be referred to for these applications. the column for 40 percent fill in Table 4 in Chapter 9 of the NEC can be used. and miscellaneous load calculations. therefore. ESD-106 2-9 01/06 . Select conduit with a usable area greater than 1. The full load current to be used for motors with speeds less than 1. covers the provisions for motors. The typical calculations that are required are demonstrated by the following examples. Conduit size required: Because more than two conductors that are not lead covered are being installed.3039 0. Total conductor area: Conductor size 4/0 RHH/RHW 1/0 RHH/RHW # 2 TW Area 0. The following calculations and the accompanying table are based on the applicable provisions of NEC Article 430 and are provided as a guide for performing motor branch circuit and feeder calculations and for sizing components for motor branch circuits as part of a design. motor feeders. which are the minimum values that can be used in determining sizes of motor branch circuits.200 rpm should be obtained from the motor manufacturer. conduit size = 2-1/2 inch (40 percent of total area = 1. Motor Circuits.) 2.in.4754) + 0. NEC Article 430 includes tables for motor full-load currents. 946 sq.8634 sq.PROJECT DESIGN ELEMENTS then be used. short circuit and overcurrent device sizes and settings.in.3039 + 0.3. and controllers.1333 MWD Electrical Design Manual Total Area = 3(0.8634 square inches.

1.25 = 96. For example.PROJECT DESIGN ELEMENTS MWD Electrical Design Manual 2.22 requires that conductors supplying a motor must have an ampacity not less than 125 percent of the full-load current of the motor. In NEC Table 430.52.25 amps Conductor size to be No. Motor branch circuit ampacity shall be equal to or greater than: 77 amps x 1. A special exception is made for motors that are operated intermittently for short periods of time. ESD-106 2-10 01/06 . and the motor disconnecting means. 1 AWG = 110 amps at 60o C Note: 60o C ampacity rating of conductors No. Using this value we can size the motor branch circuit and ground fault protection device. 1 AWG and smaller must be used unless the engineer is sure that all terminals are rated for use at 75o C--see the Underwriters Laboratories. 1 AWG copper with RHH insulation No. Motor branch circuit and ground fault protection devices are to be sized as outlined in Part IV of NEC Article 430 with maximum settings as provided in NEC Table 430. and will be powered by a combination motor starter through a conduit system.5. 1. 460 volts. the branch circuit conductors. NEC Paragraph 430.250. the motor full-load current that must be used in the calculations is 77 amps. All equipment and the conduit system is located in areas with ambient temperatures of 30o C or less. three-phase. Inc. Actual settings should reflect the recommendation of the manufacturer of the motor control equipment that will be provided.1 Example No.800 rpm continuous. Conditions: Induction motor is rated 60 hp. General Information Directory for more details on this subject.3. the following are General Electric's recommendations: Device type Magnetic only circuit breaker Thermal magnetic breaker Time delay fuses Rating 100 amp 125 amp 90 amp Branch circuit conductors shall be sized in accordance with the requirements of Part II of NEC Article 430.

two No. 3/0 = 400 amps). The disconnecting means for motor circuits rated 600 volts. ESD-106 2-11 01/06 .25 x 77) + 65 + (1. plus the ampacity required for the other loads.5.5 Disconnect to be rated 100 amps See Table 2-1 for the conduit and conductor requirements for motors typically found in design projects. In addition. Motor disconnecting means shall be sized greater than: 77 amps x 1.25 x 45) = 355 amps Conductors may be either one 500 kCMIL or two No. as determined by Paragraph 430.15 = 88. 3 phase and 1800 rpm. or less. 2. Motor feeder conductors shall be sized in accordance with applicable portions of Part II of NEC Article 430 and feeder breakers shall be sized in accordance with applicable portions of Part V of NEC Article 430. Conductors shall be copper with type RHH/RHW insulation installed in an area where the ambient temperature is less than 30o C.6(A). there are 45 amps of continuous load and 65 amps of noncontinuous load. shall have an ampere rating of at least 115 percent of the full-load current rating of the motor.3.PROJECT DESIGN ELEMENTS MWD Electrical Design Manual Motor disconnecting means shall be sized in accordance with the requirements of Part IX of NEC Article 430. Conditions: Determine the size of the feeder conductors and thermal magnetic circuit breaker feeding a motor control center that has a total connected motor load of 215 amps with the uppermost 60-hp motor being the largest motor.2 Example No. nominal. Assume all motors are 460 Volt. 3/0 AWG per phase (one 500 kCMIL = 380 amps. NEC paragraph 430.24 requires that the conductors supplying the motor control center have an ampacity not less than 125 percent of the full-load current rating of the highest rated motor plus the sum of the full-load current ratings of all other motors in the group. 2. The required ampacity of the conductors shall be calculated as follows: Total motor load + 25% of largest motor FLA + noncontinuous load + 125% of continuous load or 215 + (.

62 covers the requirements for sizing the motor feeder short-circuit and ground-vault protection.PROJECT DESIGN ELEMENTS MWD Electrical Design Manual NEC Paragraph 430. ESD-106 2-12 01/06 .63 covers the requirements for sizing the feeder protection when the feeder supplies a motor load and other power and lighting loads. NEC Paragraph 430.

Dist.1#12G 3#4/0.1#3G Conduit Size 3/4” 3/4” 3/4” 3/4” 3/4” 3/4” 3/4” 3/4” 3/4” 3/4” 1” 1-1/4” 1-1/4” 1-1/4” 1/1/2” 2” 2” 2” 2-1/2” 2-1/2” 3” Max. and areas are based on conductor insulation Type RHH/RHW. 1 AWG.1#12G 3#10.1#10G 3#4.50 1.810 2.1#12G 3#12.1#10G 3#8.1#6G 3#1. Use thermal/magnetic circuit breakers in all autotransformer type starters.1#12G 3#12.1#12G 3#12. Conduit size is based on NEC Table 4 and 5.5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75 100 125 150 200 Mcp Size 3/M 3/M 3/M 7/M 7/M 7/M 15/M 15/M 30/M 30/M 50/M 50/M 100/M 100/M 100/M 250/M 250/M 250/M 250/M 300 400 Starter Size 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 FLA 1 1.00 9.25 120 155 195 225 300 Conductor Size 3#12. Ground conductor size (1#_G) shown in conductor size column is based on NEC Table 250-95.6 3.1#12G 3#12.1#12G 3#350Kcm.25 4.1#10G 3#6.4 1.25 3.75 17.4 4.75 2.25 6. 5. Maximum distance is based on an allowed voltage drop of 3%.25 1. Three-Phase Motors HP 1/2 3/4 1 1-1/2 2 3 5 7.75 42.051 1.50 50.1#8G 3#3.1#12G 3#12. ESD-106 2-13 01/06 .1#12G 3#12. Conductor size is based on 125% of motor full load current.569 1.963 2.1#12G 3#3/0.8 7.1#12G 3#12. 1 AWG and on 75 C above size No.1#10G 3#6.6 11 14 21 27 34 40 52 65 77 96 124 156 180 240 FLA *1.50 26.1#12G 3#12.00 65.25 96.333 3.8 2. Motor Circuit Design Data 480 Volt.PROJECT DESIGN ELEMENTS MWD Electrical Design Manual Table 2-1.25 33. These distances are calculated using Table 2-3 assuming copper conductors in rigid metal conduit and a PF of 80%.50 13.111 701 485 381 403 485 580 493 577 554 719 577 611 577 615 600 Notes:1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Conductor ampacity is based on 60 C through size No.1#6G 3#2/0.00 81.1#6G 3#1.

1. Power factor correction for this reason cannot be justified unless the serving utility actually has a power factor penalty in their rate schedule. The calculation to determine the amount of capacitance (measured in kvar) shall be made as follows: ESD-106 2-14 01/06 . the power factor is the cosine of the angle that exists between the real power and apparent power phasors.3. Conditions: A load of 200 kVA exists at 480 volts with a power factor of 80 percent. By definition. a 400-amp device would be selected. a three-phase load of 200 kW would be equal to 301 amps at 480 volts if the power factor were 80 percent. This would release 47 amps of capacity for additional loads. but would be only 254 amps if the power factor were raised to 95 percent. NEC Paragraph 240. For the 400-amp device to be used to protect the 500-kcm conductors. Following are several examples to illustrate the required calculations: 2. Power factor = Real power (kW) Apparent power (kVA) (Eq. Article 460 of the NEC covers the installation of capacitors on electric circuits. real power.PROJECT DESIGN ELEMENTS MWD Electrical Design Manual For the above example. 2. Determine the amount of capacitors required to improve the power factor to 95 percent.4(B) needs to be invoked. and reactive power (kvar). To release additional capacity in existing feeder conductors.6 Power Factor Correction Capacitors Power factor correction capacitors are installed for either one of the following reasons: To increase the measured power factor at the serving utilities meter and reduce the power factor penalty being imposed by the utility. 2-29) Figure 2-1 is provided to show the relation that exists between apparent power.1 Example No.3. For example.6. In this section those calculations needed to determine the size of the capacitor required and the size of conductors required to connect the capacitors to their electric power supply will be discussed.

and kvar ESD-106 2-15 01/06 . kW.PROJECT DESIGN ELEMENTS MWD Electrical Design Manual REAL POWER (KW) RESULTANT REACTIVE POWER (kV AR) 1 2 RESULTANT POWER SUPPLIED BY CAPACITATORS (kV AR) APPARENT POWER (kVA) REQUIRED REACTIVE POWER (kV AR) Figure 2-1. Relation Between kVA.

we can use the known real power and desired power factor to calculate the new kvar value in the phasor triangle.PROJECT DESIGN ELEMENTS MWD Electrical Design Manual kvar @ initial power factor = [(kVA)2 .25 Need to use No.600)1/2 = 120 kvar (Eq.366 . the conductors to the capacitor shall have an ampacity not less than one third of the ampacity of the motor branch circuit conductors. Conditions: Load is a 60-hp. but tables are available from capacitor manufacturers to simplify the selection of these capacitors.7 amps ESD-106 2-16 01/06 .800-rpm motor operating at 480 volts.(kW)2 ]1/2 or [(kVA)2 . First.6 = 67. 1 AWG at 110 amps (60o C ampacity) Capacitor branch circuit amps as one-third of motor branch circuit conductor ampacity = 110 3 = 36. 2. Capacitors rated 15 kvar at 480 volts are being installed to improve the power factor.(kVA X PF)2]1/2 kvar = [(200kVA)2 . if the capacitors are connected to a motor circuit. 2.(160)2]1/2 kvar = (28.2 Example No. Second.000 . Capacitor rated amps = 15 (0.4 minimum Motor branch circuit amps = 1. kvar @ 95% power factor = [( kW PF)2 . 2-30) (Eq.(160kW)2]1/2 kvar = (40. Capacitors larger than the maximum size recommended by motor manufacturers must not be installed.25.6.25.6 Required kvar for correction = 120 .600)1/2 = 52. 1. NEC Paragraph 460.4 kvar Similar calculations can be made to determine the size of the capacitor required to improve the power factor of a single motor to a higher power factor. 2-31) Because the real power of a load is not changed when the power factor is improved.3. the ampacity of the conductors must be at least 135 percent of the rated current of the capacitors.48 x 1.8 contains two criteria that must be met when sizing branch circuit conductors to capacitors. three-phase. 2-32) kvar = [(160 .(kW)2] 1/2 (Eq.25 x 77 = 96.95)2 . Determine the size of the conductor needed to meet the requirements of the NEC.73) = 18 Branch circuit amps = 18 x 1.35 = 24.52.

3(B).2 amps Calculate required feeder breaker and conductor ampacity: 54.3.7. Following are two examples to show the calculations that are required for three-phase and single-phase transformers. Refer to the Industrial Power Systems Handbook by Beeman or Electrical Systems Analysis and Design for Industrial Plants by Lazar for additional formulas related to the application of capacitors on electrical systems. and less. covers the installation of all transformers. Note 1 to Table 450. The secondary conductors and secondary breaker are sized at the standard rating that is nearest to 125 percent of the calculated secondary full load current as required by the NEC.3.PROJECT DESIGN ELEMENTS MWD Electrical Design Manual Therefore.1 Example No.73) 1000] = 54. Article 450 deals with transformers over 600 volts nominal and transformers 600 volts. 2. Conditions: Assume a 45-kVA 3-phase transformer with a 480-volt primary and a 208Y/120-volt secondary.2 amps x 1. Calculate primary full-load amps: 45 kVA [(480 volts x 1.5 = 81 amps ESD-106 2-17 01/06 . or less with both primary and secondary protection.3(B) of the NEC allows moving up to the next higher standard rating. nominal. The following calculations and Table 2-2 are based on the provisions of NEC Paragraph 450. The calculations most often made during an electrical system design are for a transformer 600 volts. Primary conductors and feeder overcurrent and ground fault protection devices (feeder breakers) are sized for the next larger device above 150 percent of the transformer full-load amps to minimize the possibility of the feeder breaker tripping on transformer inrush (NEC would allow breaker to be sized up to 250 percent of primary full load amps).7 Transformer Primary and Secondary Conductors Article 450 of the NEC. the branch circuit conductors to the capacitor must have an ampacity of 37 amps or greater. 1. Transformers and Transformer Vaults. nominal. 2.

50 27.25 52.1#6G 150A/3P 208 1 1/2" C-3# 3.00 16.ESD-106 Primary Circuit Ckt.50 46.1#8G 1 1/2" C-4# 6. larger conductor sizes based on 75 C ampacities.1#8G 1" C-3# 8.1#6G 2”6. Breaker 30A/2P 40A/2P 60A/2P 80A/2P 150A/2P 200A/2P 250A/2P 35A/3P 60A/3P 110A/3P 175A/3P 250A/3P Table 2-2. Conduit & Wire 3/4" C-3# 10.75 1" C-2# 8. (Conductors sized per NEC 240-4 including exceptions.122 used for other primary side grounds and Table 250.00 31.3(B) allows up to next larger than 125% of sec.1#2G Secondary Circuit Ckt.1 AWG and smaller sized based on 60 C ampacities.1#4G 2 1/2" C-4# 4/0. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ MWD Electrical Design Manual MWD Electrical Design Manual .25 Ckt.1#8G 60A/3P 208 83 125 208 3/4" C-3# 10.5 times primary amps (NEC 450.5 1 480 16 PROJECT DESIGN ELEMENTS 10 1 480 21 15 1 480 31 25 1 480 52 2-18 37.1#6G 175A/2P 240 208 1 1/2" C-2# 1.1#8G 80A/2P 240 104 130.00 260.1#4G 2 1/2" C-3# 4/0. 2) Panel main breaker sized at next size larger than 1.5 1 480 78 50 1 480 104 9 3 480 11 15 3 480 18 30 3 480 36 45 3 480 54 75 3 480 90 ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Rules Used: 1) Feeder circuit breaker at next size larger than 1. (NEC 450.00 81.3#3/0. Breaker Volts Amps Ckt.1#8G 1 1/2" C-3# 6. Conduit & Wire Ckt.25 times secondary amps. 4) Minimum ground conductor sized at #8.1#8G 20A/2P 240 21 26.75 3/4" C-2# 12. Amps 15.1#2G 1" C-4# 10.00 31.1#8G 2" C-3# 1. Amps Ckt.1#8G 1 1/2" C-3# 4.1#8G 25A/2P 240 31 38.00 24.1#8G 50A/2P 240 63 78.66 used for secondary side grounds.00 156.50 103.1#8G 1 1/2" C-4# 2.00 54.00 2" C-3#1/0.1#8G 90A/3P 208 1" C-3# 6.3(b) allows up to 250% of primary amps).00 1 1/4" C-2# 3.50 3/4" C-2# 10.00 1 1/4" C-2# 6.1#8G 30A/2P 240 42 52. 480-Volt Lighting Transformer Circuit Design Chart (75 C) Transformer KVA Phase Volts Amps 5 1 480 10 7. 5) Conduit size based on NEC Chapter 9 Table 3C.50 78.1#8G 30A/3P 208 42 3/4" C-3# 12. Amps) 3) All conductors No. Table 250.1#8G 20A/3P 208 25 2" C-2#2/0.00 117.1#6G 2 1/2" C-4# 2/0.1#6G 125A/2P 240 156 175.25 260.00 135.75 156.

2. The ground conductor in the feeder to the primary shall be sized as an equipment ground in accordance with NEC Table 250.30 using Table 250. Conditions: Assume a 25-kVA single-phase transformer with a 480-volt primary and a 120/240-volt secondary.122.122. 3 AWG copper conductors* Calculate secondary full-load amps: 45 kVA [(208 volts x 1.1 amps Use an 80-amp breaker and No.06 amps Calculate required secondary breaker size and conductor ampacity: 125. 1/0 and larger as required by the General Information Directory 1988.3 amps Use a 150-amp breaker and No.1 amps Calculate required feeder breaker size and conductor ampacity: 52. Calculate primary full-load amps: 25 kVA (480 volts 1000) = 52. 2 are based on the use of 60 C wire for sizes Nos.73) 1000] = 125.66 and 250. 14 through 1 AWG and 75 C wire for sizes No. 1/0 copper conductors* Note: This selection limits the continuous load that can be supplied by the transformer to 43. ESD-106 2-19 01/06 .66.2 kVA ((80% x 208 volts x 150 amps x 1. 3 AWG copper conductors* Calculate secondary full-load amps: 25 kVA (240 volts 1000) = 104..7. published by Underwriters Lab. 2.73) 1000). The ground conductors for the above circuits shall be sized in accordance with NEC Tables 250.1 amps x 1. 1 and No.25 = 130 amps * Conductor sizes for examples No. The grounding electrode conductor on the secondary of the transformer shall be sized as required by NEC Paragraph 250.2 amps x 1.2 amps Calculate required secondary breaker size and conductor ampacity: 104.5 = 78.3.06 amps x 1.PROJECT DESIGN ELEMENTS MWD Electrical Design Manual Use a 90-amp breaker and No.25 = 156.2 Example No. Inc. because many items of equipment are still not rated with 75 C terminals in these sizes.

1 AWG copper conductors*. Rigorous methods of calculating voltage drop can be very involved and complicated and for purposes of ordinary use in designing power circuits for industrial projects.73 for three-phase circuits. Fine-print note No. 1/0 and larger as required by the General Information Directory 1988. 2 to NEC Paragraph 215. approximate methods are generally satisfactory. 1 and No. * ESD-106 2-20 01/06 . To calculate steady-state voltage drop. IEEE Standard 141 (Red Book) gives the approximate formula for voltage drop as: V = IR cos where: V I R X cos sin = voltage drop in circuit. 14 through 1 AWG and 75 C wire for sizes No. 2-33) The voltage drop calculated using this formula must be multiplied by 2 for single-phase circuits and 1. 2.8. 4 to NEC Paragraph 210.PROJECT DESIGN ELEMENTS MWD Electrical Design Manual Use a 125-amp breaker and No.2(A) would allow the voltage drop on a feeder to be 3 percent as long as the total voltage drop to the load is 5 percent or less. Furthermore. published by Underwriters Lab..19 says that branch circuit conductors must be sized so that voltage drop on the branch circuit does not exceed 3 percent.3. circuit current. Steady-state voltage drops are caused by current flowing through an impedance. 2 are based on the use of 60 C wire for sizes Nos. line to neutral = current flowing in conductor = line resistance for one conductor in ohms = line reactance for one conductor in ohms = angle whose cosine is the load power factor = load power factor in decimals = load reactive factor in decimals + IX sin (Eq.3. Fine-print note No. it states that the total voltage drop on feeder conductors plus branch circuit conductors must not exceed 5 percent. the circuit impedance. because many items of equipment are still not rated with 75 C terminals in these sizes. and power factor of that current relative to some voltage must be known.8 Voltage Drop 2. Calculations using the above formula are not required for most designs Conductor sizes for examples No. Inc.1 Feeder and Branch Circuits.

ESD-106 2-21 01/06 . Similar results can be obtained using published tables and graphs available in other reference books and manufacturer's catalogs.8 volts 10000) Calculate percent voltage drop by dividing the calculated volts drop by the system voltage and then multiplying by 100: (10. 1 AWG copper conductors in magnetic conduit at 85 percent PF = 2.3.7 volts drop = 10. Calculate voltage drop on a three-phase circuit from Table 2-3. 2. The factor for No. 1 AWG copper conductors feeding a motor rated 60 hp (77 amps full-load).8 and 0.8. The following calculations were made using Table 2-3 which is a reproduction of Table 3-12 of IEEE STD 141-1993 and the procedure for making the calculations that accompanies Table 3-12. 460 volts through rigid metal conduit with a circuit length of 520 feet. three-phase.PROJECT DESIGN ELEMENTS MWD Electrical Design Manual because the results obtained using published tables give satisfactory results.2 Example. Condition: No.7 (need to interpolate between 0.9 PF) Voltage drop = ((520 ft x 77 amps) x 2.8 volts 480 volts) x 100 = 2.25 % drop Factors are provided at the bottom of Table 2-3 and are to be used to convert the calculated voltage drop to single-phase line-to-line and singlephase line-to-neutral values. Assume that the motor power factor is 85 percent.

83 0.8 4.1 2.00 0.5 3.74 0..3 2.4 1.3 6.9 7.6 4.80 0.80 0.2 3. IEEE Recommended Practice for Electric Power Distribution for Industrial Plants.64 0. 60 Hz) Wire size (AWG or kemil) PROJECT DESIGN ELEMENTS ESD-106 700 0.88 0.92 0.59 0.7 2.6 1.1 1.66 0.80 0.4 1.6 1.76 0.81 0.88 1.85 0.9 1.9 4.74 0.62 0.2 4.7 0.62 0.1 1.54 0.78 1.3 1.7 1.23 0.6 1.83 0.1 2.47 0.45 0.6 2.71 0.88 0.7 2.42 0.57 0.88 0.88 0.3 5.2 5.59 0.80 0.3 1.1 1.55 0.55 0.91 1.26 0.78 Section 2: Copper conductors in nonmagnetic conduit 1.54 0.88 0.4 1.4 8.63 0.4 3.83 0.1 3.0 1.3 5.3 2.79 0.15 0.6 2.94 0.6 1.5 1.1 2.1 3.97 0.70 0.47 0.37 0.3 2.3 3.2 1.1 1.0 1.4 3.45 0.2 7.6 2.3 3.4 8.2 6.6 1.76 0.70 0.75 *Solid conductor.3 1.5 1.1 2.34 0.Table 2-3.3 6.82 0.3 3.71 0.1 1.3 8.1 1.5 1.6 1.7 2.83 0.66 0.76 0.56 0.4 1. three-wire.4 3.577 0.1 4.1 1.2 1.3 3.4 3.99 1.5 1.4 1.9 1.55 0.8 4.97 0. Other conductors are standard.4 1.5 1.66 0.4 8.79 0.3 5.5 13 13 12 11 10 21 20 19 17 15 33 32 30 27 24 52 50 48 43 37 -----0.78 0.8 1.0 4.36 0.6 1.2 4. Inc.33 0.577 MWD Electrical Design Manual MWD Electrical Design Manual Reproduced from IEEE Std 141-1993.1 0.45 0.85 0.5 2.90 0.2 2.90 0.67 0. Three-phase line-to-line voltage drop for 600 V single-conductor cable Per 10 000 A-ft (60 C conductor temperature.74 0.4 13 13 12 11 9.73 0.59 0.87 0.0 1.1 1.8 1.5 1.6 2.2 1.3 1.7 1.4 8.9 7.63 0.70 0.5 3. line-to-line Single-phase.50 0.4 3.39 0.95 0.8 2.80 0.64 0.4 8.57 0.6 2.70 0.98 0.29 0.73 0.71 0.7 1.44 0.95 0.3 2.1 1. with the permission of the IEEE. by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.83 0.0 1. Multiply by 1.0 1.50 0. line-to-neutral Section 4: Aluminum conductors in nonmagnetic conduit 1.3 3.6 5.89 2-22 To convert voltage drop to Single-phase.28 0.68 0.42 0.59 0.9 1.8 1.95 0.92 0.57 0.6 2.3 1.2 7.40 0.7 4.3 3.4 1.49 0.62 0.8 1.52 0.1 2.62 0.1 1.80 0.55 0.95 0.1 2.2 8.4 13 13 12 11 9.72 0.92 1.8 2.0 1.54 0.0 1.57 0.31 0.8 1.4 1.2 1.2 1.3 5.89 0.4 1.70 0.71 0.65 0. © 1994.3 1.3 2. line-to-neutral Three-phase.9 7.76 0.2 7.68 0.8 2.0 0.2 4.2 2.2 1.5 1.52 0.9 3.00 0.4 5.1 2.2 8.3 5.57 0.1 4.7 2.2 5.5 2.7 2.66 0.74 0. three-wire.85 0.73 0.95 0.1 1.00 0.80 0.95 0.80 0.0 2.2 2.2 1.4 3.1 1.48 0.62 0.2 1.7 2.2 1.1 1.3 1.2 6.52 0.1 1.83 0.6 2.92 0.1 1.2 2.0 1.83 0.7 1.80 0.95 1.69 0.88 0.55 0.0 5.90 0.3 8.2 4.50 0.71 0.7 1.9 21 20 19 17 15 600 500 400 350 300 250 4/0 3/0 2/0 1/0 1 2 4 6 8* 10* 12* 33 32 30 27 24 14* 53 50 48 43 38 0.2 1.2 2.76 0.73 0.70 0.65 0.52 0.3 1.35 0.1 1.2 4. .73 0.59 0.43 0.88 1.9 1.7 4.78 0.66 0.1 0.9 21 20 19 17 15 33 32 30 27 24 52 50 48 42 37 ------ Load Power factor Lagging 1000 900 800 750 Section 1: Copper conductors in magnetic conduit 1.38 0.4 3.59 0.88 0.68 0.60 0.4 1.8 3.64 Section 3: Aluminum conductors in magnetic conduit 1.97 0.28 0.71 0.60 0.62 0.00 0.3 1.95 0.85 0.3 1.92 0.69 0.2 2.1 1.2 5.81 0.69 0.6 2.51 0.73 0.66 0.1 2.6 13 13 12 11 9.1 2.76 0.8 1.0 7.2 1.3 1.1 1.71 0.68 0.8 5.6 2.47 0.4 1.90 0.7 2.61 0.63 0.4 3.7 21 20 19 17 15 33 32 30 27 24 53 50 48 43 38 0.

For instance.9 Short Circuit The proper selection of protective devices and coordination of their trip settings is based on short circuit calculations. The calculations required to complete a detailed short circuit analysis are very complex and beyond the scope of this design guide. The calculations required to determine the voltage drop on an electrical system because of motor starting are too complex to be covered in this design guide. the IEEE Std 141-1993.75 percent (based on published data). the transformer impedance is assumed to be 5. Calculations to determine an approximate value of symmetrical short circuit current in a power distribution system are shown in the following example: 2. either made by hand or using an approved computer program. These calculations should be made based on the largest motor at each load center to determine if the voltage drop on motor starting is of such magnitude that it will cause adverse impacts on other equipment in the system. and the motor load on the transformer is approximately 75 percent of the rating of the transformer.9. In those situations where an approximate value of short circuit current is needed for preliminary design purposes. a detailed calculation. shall be made during final design.PROJECT DESIGN ELEMENTS MWD Electrical Design Manual 2. The current flowing during a fault at any point in an electrical system is limited by the impedance of the circuits and equipment from the source or sources to the point where the fault has ESD-106 2-23 01/06 . a 20 percent voltage dip could cause control relays to drop out since many of these are only designed to operate at voltage levels 10 percent below rated voltage.3. because they are very complex and are based on much of the same information required to do the short circuit analysis.500-kVA transformer at 480 volts three-phase through a single motor control center. the following abbreviated method can be used to determine a very conservative value. The Industrial Power Systems Handbook by Beeman. Electrical Systems Analysis and Design for Industrial Plants by Lazar. 2. In every situation where this method is used.3.1 Example.3 Motor Starting. These calculations are often done as part of a short circuit analysis using a computer program such as ETAP.3. The fault current available from the utility on the source side of the transformer is unknown. Conditions: The load will be served by a 1. and many other references contain detailed procedures for performing short circuit analysis. The Industrial Power Systems Handbook by Beeman and Electrical Systems Analysis and Design for Industrial Plants by Lazar both have very complete sections on this subject.8.

2-34) ESD-106 2-24 01/06 . For these simplified calculations we will assume that the only sources are the transformer and the motors connected to the system. The basic formula used to calculate short circuit currents is: Short circuit current = volts (ohm's law) total impedance (Eq.PROJECT DESIGN ELEMENTS MWD Electrical Design Manual occurred. Figure 2-2 shows that the motors are connected in parallel with the transformer as impedance with an infinite bus as the source of the fault current.

PROJECT DESIGN ELEMENTS MWD Electrical Design Manual ESD-106 2-25 01/06 .

75)) has been used.32* 100) or Is.Note: Published transformer impedances are subject to a ±7.806.(0.PROJECT DESIGN ELEMENTS MWD Electrical Design Manual A point-to-point calculation of short circuit current available at any point can be made using this formula and it is the basic formula used in the perunit method to calculate short circuit current values in electric power circuits. the lower limit of 5.c.4 (Eq.c. rms sym = base kVA transformer)) (1. The reactance of the utility system must be assumed to be zero and the following simplification can be made to determine short circuit current let-through by a transformer: Approximate transformer per-unit Z = (%Z)(base kVA) [(100) (transformer kVA)] (Eq.75 . ESD-106 2-26 01/06 .075 x 5. then: per-unit Z of the transformer = %Z / 100 (Eq. 2-35) If we let base kVA = transformer kVA.c. To be conservative in these calculations. we can simplify the above formula to: Is. rms sym = Transformer FLA Transformer FLA = 1.5 percent tolerance.914 amps *. 2-38) (0.4 (5. rms sym = 33.500 kVA amps (%Z 100) (Eq.73 x kV x (per-unit Z of the (Eq. 2-37) Because we have let base kVA = transformer kVA and transformer kVA (1.32 percent (5.rms sym = 1806. 2-39) The resulting short circuit current let through by the transformer in our example would be: Is.48 x 1.73) or FLA = 1.73 x kV) = Transformer load current for three phase transformers.c. 2-36) The basic formula for calculating short circuit current when the per-unit method is used is: Is.

Two methods are available for calculating the lighting levels in a space.PROJECT DESIGN ELEMENTS MWD Electrical Design Manual The motor contribution to a fault by a single or group of low-voltage induction motors can be taken as approximately four times the motor fullload current since the reactance of a low-voltage induction motor.3. ESD-106 2-27 01/06 .10.1 Example No.c.355 x 4 = 5. motor FLA would be 1. The ceiling will be lay-in ceiling tile and the walls will be painted an off-white. A point-to-point calculation made as above for a transformer would result in a multiplier of 4. 2. Is. therefore. Conditions: Design a lighting system for a room 15 feet x 25 feet having an 11-foot ceiling that will be used for general office work. is approximately 25 percent. this value can be very conservative and must be used carefully.420 or 39. Motor load of 75 percent of transformer rating was given. including the leads.75 = 1.c.914 + 5. The first is the lumen or zonal cavity method and the second is the point-by-point method. 1--Lumen or Zonal Cavity Method.420 amps The total short circuit current available at the point of the fault would be the total of the contribution from the transformer plus the contribution for the motor load or total Is.3.10 Lighting Lighting calculations shall be made using the recommended procedures established by the Illuminating Engineering Society and outlined in the IES Lighting Handbook. 2.355 amps. The luminaries will be cleaned regularly and lamps will be group-replaced when the first failures start to occur. rms sym = 1. The zonal cavity method is used to calculate the average footcandle level within the space and the point-bypoint method is used to predict the illumination for a specific visual task.806 x .334 amps rms sym Because neither the serving utilities' source impedance nor the impedances of the interconnecting conductors and equipment are included in this calculation. rms sym = 33. The following examples are provided to demonstrate these two calculation methods.

PROJECT DESIGN ELEMENTS Basic equations: Footcandles = total lumens striking area square feet of area MWD Electrical Design Manual (Eq. For this example. so that figure will be used for this example (Table 2-4). Wall reflectance. Effective ceiling cavity reflectance. a ceiling cavity ratio must be calculated before the effective ceiling cavity reflectance can be determined. which is made up of a number of factors. Effective floor cavity reflectance. The CU for a specific luminaire must be obtained from the manufacturer's catalog. If the luminaire is suspended. 2-41) where: CU = LLF = coefficient of utilization light loss factor. 2-40) Footcandles = lamps x lumens per lamp x CU x LLF area (Eq. and RSD lamp lumen depreciation luminaire dirt depreciation room surface depreciation LLD = LDD = RSD = The coefficient of utilization (CU) of a luminaire is calculated by the zonal cavity method and is a measure of how a specific luminaire distributes light into a given room. and surface reflectances. RCR or room cavity ratio. The ones to be included in most calculations are the LLD. 70 percent will be used. LDD. which it is for this example. several values must be determined. The wall reflectance of materials can again be obtained from the IES ESD-106 2-28 01/06 . the ceiling cavity ratio is equal to the ceiling reflectance. Reflectance values for various surfaces are available in the IES Lighting Handbook. room size and shape. The CU takes into account luminaire efficiency. Most CU tables are based on a floor cavity ratio (pfc) of 20. If the suspension length of the luminaire below the ceiling is zero. mounting height. To determine the CU for a specific application. candlepower distribution of the luminaire.

5) (2 (15+25)) = 4. 7834 S/MH = 1.55 and 0.U. For 3-lamp: multiply above C. 2-42) The work plane height is the level at which most tasks will be performed and is assumed to be 30 inches for this example. Coefficient of Utilization Zonal Cavity Method 4-Lamp pfc 20 pcc 80 70 pw 70 50 30 70 RCR 0 76 76 76 74 1 70 68 66 69 2 65 61 57 64 3 60 55 50 59 4 56 49 45 55 5 51 44 39 50 6 48 40 35 46 7 44 36 31 43 8 40 32 27 40 9 37 29 24 36 10 35 26 21 34 Test No.s by 1. 70 percent will be used. For this example. For 2-lamp: multiply above C.5 times the area of the walls divided by the area of the work place.5) (11-2. 50 50 70 64 58 52 47 42 38 35 31 28 25 50 74 66 60 54 49 44 39 36 32 29 26 30 74 64 56 50 44 39 35 31 27 24 21 30 70 62 55 49 43 38 34 30 27 24 21 From the table of coefficients of utilization.s by 1. RCR = (2.work plane height) x perimeter of walls area (Eq.3. The room cavity ratio (RCR) must be calculated and it is equal to 2.16.09.53 (15) (25) Table 2-3.5) (room height . RCR = (2.U.PROJECT DESIGN ELEMENTS MWD Electrical Design Manual Lighting Handbook. the resultant coefficient of utilization must be interpolated between 0.523 Before the calculation to determine the number of lamps required can be ESD-106 2-29 01/06 . The resultant CU = 0.50.

Footcandle level desired must be determined. Values for LLD. 2-41) and solve it for the number of lamps required: 100 = lamps x 3150 x 0.6 fixtures Figure 2-3. provides a form to be used in making lighting calculation. Zonal Cavity Calculations. this affects the coefficient of utilization. and a number of other factors that cause light loss in the space can be found in the IES Lighting Handbook but for most calculations dealing with lighting in noncritical areas all of these factors can be combined into a single factor. Assume 3150. there are still several decisions that must be made. or something similar. LDD. this affects lumens per lamp. assume four. which was calculated.75 15 x 25 No lamps = 30. which is the basis of the CU table. LDD must be determined. shall be used to document all calculations. RSD.4 At four lamps/fixture = 7. ESD-106 2-30 01/06 . an LLF of 0. For this calculation. LLD must be determined. the level required is assumed to be 100 footcandles. Footcandle levels are recommended for a number of applications in the IES Lighting Handbook. It.523 x 0. For this calculation. which is often referred to as the light loss factor (LLF).PROJECT DESIGN ELEMENTS MWD Electrical Design Manual performed. For this calculation. Lamps per luminaire.75 has been assumed. Put all of the numbers into a basic equation (Eq. RSD must be determined. The recommended level for general office work falls between 50 and 150 footcandles depending on the level of difficulty of the task. Type of lamp to be used.

of fixtures Option A Option B 25. CALCULATING FOOTCANDLES Footcandles = no. Length 2. Height 10. 1. CALCULATING NUMBER OF FIXTURES Floor are x desired footcandles 30. Light loss factor (LLF) B. etc. Fixtures fc 26. No. Eff reflectance E. ROOM DATA Room dimen. Mft. 34. 5 x line 9 x (line 1 + line 2) line 1 x line 2 = 5 x __x (__ + __) __ x __ = __ ft ft sq ft ft % % % Floor Cavity Room Cavity Ceiling Cavity Reviewed By: _________________________ C. Floor 8. Ceiling 6. Ratio 11. Fixtures fc CEILING: 28. 5 x line 14 x (line 1 + line 2) line 1 x line 2 = 5 x __x (__ + __) __ x __ = __ 5 x line 11 x (line 1 + line 2) line 1 x line 2 = 5 x __x (__ + __) __ x __ = __ fc 5 x cavity height x (length + width) Cavity ratio = Length x width ROOM: 27. Eff. Ceiling ht. Lumens per fixture 21. fixtures = lamps per fixture x lumens per lamp x coeff. Desired lighting level by a given no. Width 3. Option A Option B floor area Line 25 x line 19 x line 21 x line 22 line 3 Line 26 x line 19 x line 21 x line 22 line 3 = = = __ ___ x __x __ x __ __ x __ ___ x __x ___ x ___ __ x __ = __ = __ Figure 2-3. Surface Reflect. No. of fixtures = 5 x line 14 x (line 1 + line 2) = 5 x __x (__ + __) __ x __ line 1 x line 2 G. FOOTCANDLES No. Reflectance 14. Zonal Cavity Calculations ESD-106 2-31 01/06 . D. Height 12. Height 15. CALCULATING CAVITY RATIOS 24. FIXTURE DATA ft 17. Of util (cu) 22. FLOOR: 29. Ratio 13. Of utilization x maintenance factor 33. of fixtures required to produce a give number of footcandles 23. of tootcandles produced F. No. Wall 7. Of utilization x light loss factor 31. CAVITY DATA 9. ft 19. 5. Fixture mounting ht. Ratio 16. Lamps per fixture % ft % 20. Cat.PROJECT DESIGN ELEMENTS MWD Electrical Design Manual Project Name: _____________________________________________________________________________ Date: _______________ Room Name: __________________ A. 18. Floor area 4. of fixture x lamps per fixture x lumens per lamp x 32. No. Coeff. Coeff.

indirect glare.94 This is well within the 1. then the layout would need to be revised using a luminaire with a different number of lamps or different characteristics.523 x 35 = 105. installation of eight luminaries would require two rows of four luminaries each. or the S/MH ratio calculated was not less than that of the luminaire being used. If the luminaries required could not have been fit into the space in a reasonable layout. The footcandle level calculated tells us the quantity of light that reaches the work surface. In areas where seeing tasks are critical.5 ft mounting height = 0.8) 2 or 3. See the IES Lighting Handbook and other lighting design and application ESD-106 2-32 01/06 . and veiling reflections.5 feet Between luminaries in the row and (25 . or the footcandle levels that resulted from the selected layout were not acceptable. For this example.PROJECT DESIGN ELEMENTS MWD Electrical Design Manual The next task is to lay out the luminaries in the room to determine if they will fit in a logical arrangement. Since the luminaries are being installed in a lay-in ceiling. Other factors that affect visual comfort and ability to see include direct glare. these must also be evaluated. Spacing across room = 15 2 or 8 feet Between rows and (15 . 8 ft spacing 8.4 (15) (25) The maximum spacing of the luminaries shall also be checked against the mounting height above the work plane (S/MH ratio) to determine if it is within the ratio of the luminaire being used. spacing can only be in multiples of 2 feet.(3 x 6)) from the wall to the end luminaries The footcandle level that results from the number of luminaries to be installed should then be checked: Footcandles = (8 x 4) x 3150 x 0.5 feet between wall and closest luminaire (all dimensions are to centerline) Spacing length of room = 25 4 or 6 feet 2 or 3. reflected glare.3 S/MH ratio of the luminaire used in the example.

Table 2-4.3. Conditions: Referring to the luminaire layout for Example No. Candlepower Distribution Curve 4-Lamp Angle 0 5 15 25 35 45 55 65 75 85 End 3429 3396 3293 3061 2649 1982 1229 681 314 94 45o 3429 3401 3328 3133 2814 2051 1110 425 218 90 Cross 3429 3460 3401 3245 2906 2188 1247 662 306 78 Basic equations: Footcandles (horizontal plane) Fc(h) = candlepower x cos distance2 Footcandles (vertical plane) Fc(v) = candlepower x sin distance 2 where: (Eq. Point-to-point calculations are typically used to determine the footcandle level. calculate the footcandle level on a desk located at point No. 2-44) ESD-106 2-33 01/06 . 2-43) (Eq. 1.10.PROJECT DESIGN ELEMENTS guides for additional information on these subjects. 2--Point-by-Point Calculation. Illumination on the task is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source of illumination. 1. either horizontal or vertical. MWD Electrical Design Manual 2. For this calculation. use the candlepower distribution table (Table 2-4) and assume that no light is reflected from the end wall. on a specific task location from a point source or multiple point sources of light.2 Example No.

5 FT 0 ACTUAL DISTANCE OF LIGHT SOURCE FROM TASK POINT VERTICAL HEIGHT OF LIGHT SOURCE FROM WORK SURFACE WORK SURFACE R 4 FT HORIZONTAL DISTANCE OF LIGHT SOURCE FROM TASK POINT Figure 2-4. (Figure 2-4) H 8. calculate the horizontal footcandles on the work surface 4 feet horizontal from the luminaire. Calculation for Task Illumination ESD-106 2-34 01/06 .PROJECT DESIGN ELEMENTS Candlepower (CP) = MWD Electrical Design Manual the candlepower of the source in the direction of the ray height above task (H) from task (D) actual distance Cos = Sin = horizontal distance from task (R) D Using the above data.

14)2 = 14.904) 9.2 fc To determine the total footcandles on the task.5 9. Use 2420 for candlepower.88 x 2) = 96.27o Use value for candlepower at 45o with respect to the luminaire and interpolate between 35o and 45o values (Table 2-5).5 11.2 x 2) + (14.4 = 0.3o Use candlepower from Table 2-5 at 25o = 3245 Fc(h) = (3245 x 0.763) (11.42 = 33. The next pair of luminaries are close enough that their contribution must also be checked. Calculate footcandles contributed by one luminaire horizontal distance F = (42 + 62)½ = 7. All of the contributions would then be totaled. Fc total = (33.16 fc The IES Lighting Handbook contains a table to simplify these calculations.14 = 0.PROJECT DESIGN ELEMENTS D = (H2 + R2)½ = (8.52 + 42)½ = 9. Contribution from the luminaire on the opposite side of the point will be the same as calculated above.763 = 40.22)½ = 11.52 + 7.2 ft D = (8.904 MWD Electrical Design Manual = Arc cos 0. the same calculation must be made for each luminaire that could contribute to the illumination level.763 = arc cos 0. the table provides the angle to be used to enter the candlepower distribution table and a multiplier to be used with the resultant candlepower to calculate footcandle contribution on the task by ESD-106 2-35 01/06 .14 ft Cos = 8.88 fc The footcandle level on the task is the sum of the contributions from the four closest luminaries. If you know the mounting height above the work plane and the horizontal distance from the task. Fc = (2420 x 0.4 Cos =H D = 8.094 = 25.

PROJECT DESIGN ELEMENTS the luminaire. 2.11 Grounding Grounding system calculations shall be made for substation and other areas where step potential will be of concern. in footcandles. One-Line Diagrams(s). if awarded the contract. Grounding system calculations shall be in accordance with applicable sections of ANSI/IEEE Standard 80. Equipment Elevations. As previously shown in Figure 2-3. Connection Diagrams.2 Organization The drawings are generally divided into the following groups and appear in the order shown below: Electrical Legend and Abbreviations. 2. MWD Electrical Design Manual This method is seldom used within a building except where a single workstation may exist within a larger space where a lower average level of illumination is required and a higher level is required at the workstation. Facility Lighting Plan. for the spaces being illuminated.4. 2. The drawings are a part of that instruction set and describe the location and quantity of materials and equipment needed for the project. It is the basis used by luminaire manufacturers in their computer programs for laying out area and roadway lighting systems. ESD-106 2-36 01/06 .3. Control Schematic Diagrams. Site Plan(s). The subject is too complex for presentation in this design guide.1 General The purpose of a design is to develop a set of instructions and rules whereby a contractor can bid the project and. a form can be used in making these calculations.4. This form shall be used with data provided by the manufacturer of the lighting equipment being specified to determine the lighting levels. This procedure is often used with outdoor lighting systems to determine the lighting levels on parking lots and roadways. Facility Power Plan.4 DRAWINGS 2. Facility Grounding Plan (if needed). the text specifications describe the type and quality of materials and equipment and the quality of workmanship. build what the designer had in mind.

The detailed site plans should be used to show all equipment wiring and general lighting and the overall site plan should be used to highlight the locations of switchgear. Where a design requires the use of a symbol that is not present on the legend. Electrical Schedules. Often. Generally.4. Unless a word is used often. and the ductbank system.4. If it is used on only one sheet. the symbol shall be added to the legend if it is used on more than one sheet of the design. 2.4. including all manhole and handhole locations. All abbreviations used on the drawings shall be included in the abbreviations list. The standard legend symbols shall be used wherever practical to reduce confusion and time spent on inventing unnecessary new symbols. motor control centers. ESD-106 2-37 01/06 . exterior raceways and circuits. 2. and ANSI Standard Y32. 2. that is. it should not be abbreviated. they are based on the standard legend symbols contained in NEMA.3 Legend The legend is a list of the symbols to be used on the design drawings. MWD Electrical Design Manual A general description of each group or kind of drawings is given on the following pages. The overall site plan can also be used as a key to the detailed site plans and detailed plans for buildings and structures. transformers. The detailed site plans should always be at the same scale used for process equipment layout if possible.4 Abbreviations The abbreviations used on the electrical drawings shall be listed on the electrical legend sheet to minimize possible confusion with similar abbreviations that are used on the sheets prepared by other disciplines. and references to the drawings for buildings and structures that need to be shown in more detail. exterior lighting. locations of manholes and handholes. detailed site plans at a larger scale shall also be provided. ICS. but when the scale of the overall site plan is less than 1 inch = 40 feet. The single site plan shall always be provided. 1 inch = 20 feet or larger. it may be described on that sheet.PROJECT DESIGN ELEMENTS Installation Details.5 Site Plan(s) The electrical drawings usually include a plan view of the overall project site that typically shows the following data: relative location of buildings and structures. the large size of a site requires a scale so small that additional site plans at a larger scale are required to show the detail required for the design.

Type and location of surge arresters and capacitors. Generator--size.PROJECT DESIGN ELEMENTS MWD Electrical Design Manual 2. and power factor. trip rating. Function lines to show interaction between components in the system such as protective device trip functions and restraints. Power sources. and special features of over-current and short circuit protection devices. motor control centers. with appropriate ratios and ranges. including instrument transformers. Motor sizes. connections. Identification of all loads. and distribution panelboards. ESD-106 2-38 01/06 . Frame rating. including voltage and available short circuit currents. switchboards.6 One-Line Diagrams One-line or single-line diagrams are a symbolic representation of the major electrical components of the electrical system of the project and their interconnection. Voltage. Instrumentation. voltmeter. Key interlock systems. Identification of all distribution system equipment. All applicable information shall be included on oneline diagrams as follows. voltage. and grounding methods of all transformers. Size and type of motor control devices. Power ratings. phase. impedances.4. enclosure. and main bus ampacity ratings of switchgear assemblies. short circuit. voltages. and ammeter. instrument switches. Protective relay types and sensing connections.

the major components and feeders shall be shown on a single drawing. and all conduit and conductor requirements associated with the above-named equipment is shown. by definition. All panelboards and equipment from which the above luminaire. The electrical facility power plans show the general location of equipment to be wired and connected under the electrical specifications.7 Floor Plans Two types of building floor plans are used to depict the electrical requirements for buildings and enclosed structures: the facility lighting plan and the facility power plan. and power connections receive their power supply shall be shown on the drawings. special system equipment. and in still other cases a code is used. outlets.4. In some cases the conductor and conduit requirements are called out by the symbol used. and "homerun" designations are shown on electrical drawings. Lighting. or the drawings that show them must be referenced. and show the necessary conductors and raceways associated with the work. The code definition can be either a small circuit callout list located on the drawing or a more complete circuit and raceway schedule for the entire project. separating of floor plans by the kind of work involved is often a preferred method of design that makes the floor plans less crowded and easier to read. Conductor and conduit requirements. Although the entire electrical design can be shown on a single drawing when facility lighting and power requirements are minimal. and miscellaneous power requirements that are directly related to the building or structure are shown on the facility drawings.PROJECT DESIGN ELEMENTS MWD Electrical Design Manual When the electrical distribution system is too large to be shown on a single drawing. connections to HVAC equipment. For facilityexpansions. 2. ESD-106 2-39 01/06 . the power plan shall show the interface with existing facility power system. Additional one-line diagrams shall be provided for individual motor control centers as required to show all the loads supplied from them. definitions. Symbols used on the drawings are usually not to scale but. general purpose outlets. tell the contractor how a particular device is to be connected to the electrical system. general purpose outlets are located. special purpose outlets and power connections are located and identified. Luminaire types are identified and located. The circuit codes and circuit names must be developed for each specific project. in other cases the specific requirements are shown on the drawings.

contactors.11 Control Panel Drawings. their intent is to determine general space requirements for the assembly so they need to be laid out using the dimensions of the equipment being specified. Major panel components and their layout. 10 The purpose of the electrical control schematic diagram is to illustrate schematically for the equipment supplier and contractor how a system is controlled. secondary unit substations and switchgear shall show the arrangement of components of the assemblies. Control Schematic Diagrams 2. that are to be installed as part of the I&C and electrical systems. The control schematic diagrams contained in the electrical drawing set are for I&C panels. branch circuit protective devices and controllers. and future designated space requirements.PROJECT DESIGN ELEMENTS MWD Electrical Design Manual 2.. terminal board compartments. Control logic that is provided in a remotely located control panel supplied with equipment shall be shown as a terminal connection. However. Control panel drawings provide the following information to the contractor: Panel size. If the grounding plan is for a facility expansion where electrical service will be provided by the existing facility.4. Each control schematic diagram shall show all devices that are to be located on the panel starter or contactor and all field-installed devices. etc.4. The abovegrade grounding should be shown in plan form. The type of grounding connection welded type for below-grade and above-grade or bolted type of above-grade shall be shown using appropriate symbols as defined in the legend sheet. 2. The front elevations typically show main service and feeder circuit protective devices.4.4. show the interconnection of the facility expansion ground grid with the existing facility ground grid. The set of drawings should show the below-grade grounding such as the ground grid including locations of all ground rods. All interfaces with remote equipment shall be clearly shown using appropriate symbols and clearly identified so that the contractor can easily make the interconnections in the field. metering. ESD-106 2-40 01/06 . fence or specific equipment require bonding. 2.9 Equipment Elevations Two-dimensional drawings of control pads. The elevation drawings are usually nonscale drawings.8 Grounding Plan The grounding Plan should be a separate and complete group of drawings. switchboards and motor control centers. indicating which steel columns. motor starters.

Show further views as needed.g. Show conduit and tube entry points..W.g. Annunciator schedules shall include point location (row-column). (Partial views may be used for details.. Show future instruments and controls in phantom. MWD Electrical Design Manual The following format and content guidelines shall be followed in preparing control panel drawings: Show full views of the front of the panel. Use drawing scale for location of other components.) Show front and side views as a minimum. and annunciator window inscription. building and room names where the panel is located. title (e. Show the mounting of the panel (installation detail). LP-XX). Note any special features on the drawing (e. tag number. alarm tag number. Show smaller panels (wall mount) as manufactured item (e.. scale (1 =100 or 1 =50 ).g. Show overall panel dimensions (H. and nameplate or service legend inscription in the schedules. Preferred mounting of freestanding panel is 3-1/2-inch-thick concrete pad secured with anchor bolts and holddown clips. Show location key plans for each panel and include the sheet number of the mechanical plan where the panel is located. Include schedules for panel face mounted devices and annunciators..g.D). Hoffman or equal). panel name (e. Show only outlines of instruments and devices. Include device number (as noted on panel drawing). special enclosure).PROJECT DESIGN ELEMENTS Panel installation. ESD-106 2-41 01/06 . Dimension the location of only critical components. and north arrow. LP-XXX LOCATION PLAN).

Design Calculations. copies of all written correspondence and memorandums. 2. On very large projects. Conduit and cable schedules. he or she shall prepare a new detail using materials that are equivalent to those used in the standard detail and then have the detail reviewed for constructability and compatibility of materials. There is no single correct way to prepare and present them. separate drawings for the schedules may not be required.PROJECT DESIGN ELEMENTS Refer to Figure 2-5 for an example of a panel drawing. it is better to include all of the schedules as a supplement to the specifications so they can be found and handled more easily. field notes. installation. If the engineer/designer encounters a unique situation that requires a special detail. and copies of all design calculation prepared as required by paragraph 2. On small projects. Distribution panel schedules. Pull box and junction box schedule.5 PROJECT FILES Each engineer/designer shall keep a project file that contains all information received and/or originated by the individual during the performance of his or her duties on the project. The project files shall be kept in a notebook with identified divider tabs.3.4. Special electrical device schedules. or connection of equipment and/or materials that are better shown by a drawing than by wordy specifications. where possible. 12 Installation details illustrate specific requirements that an engineer/designer has in mind for construction. The electrical drawing package usually includes some electrical material or equipment listings in schedule format. Details should.4. MWD Electrical Design Manual Installation Details 2. Thedetails to be used shall always be referenced on the plan drawings by either notes or symbols. 13 Electrical Schedules. ESD-106 2-42 01/06 . They shall be located throughout the drawing set where they are required. Many installation details are provided in the standard drawing package and should be used whenever possible. The use and presentation of schedules shall be reviewed for each project. telephone conversation record of all phone conversations. The project file shall contain a copy of the project instructions and all addenda to it. include notes to indicate the area and/or circumstances where they apply. Typical schedules provided are: Lighting fixture schedule. 2.

24” 8” FULL LENGTH PIANO TYPE HINGE 1 2 3 4 5 12 13 8 15 16 17 21 22 23 24 30 31 32 33 24 24 29 20 27 25 6 7 11 18 19 9 10 30” 14 FRONT SCALE 1 ½“ = 1’-0” SIDE SCALE 1 ½“ = 1’-0” Figure 2-5. each individual shall purge the file of the project instructions and other memos that were originated by other team members and submit the purged project files to the project manager for inclusion in the overall project file. Example Panel Drawing ESD-106 2-43 01/06 . Any memos. and similar items prepared by the individual shall be left in his or her project file so that originals of all material prepared or used on the project are contained within the overall project files.PROJECT DESIGN ELEMENTS MWD Electrical Design Manual At the completion of the project. instruction sets.

and special systems such as telephone. and handbooks prepared on the basic subjects covered by this design guide. First. many of which have been used in the preparation of this design guide are contained in Appendix A. ESD-106 3-1 01/06 . and fire alarm. Second. standards.1. A brief list of some of the more applicable references.2 References There have been a number of codes. paging. This chapter discusses many of the basic decisions that shall be made during a design. reliability and continuity of service is of utmost importance. 3. and outlines the materials that shall be used in implementing those decisions. identifies reference sources that shall be used to help make those decisions.1 Types of Electrical Systems Electric power is distributed through a network of conductors and electric circuit protective and control equipment from its source of supply in the serving utility to the utilization equipment located on the premises. This assembly of conductors and equipment is called the electrical distribution system and is the main subject of this design guide. 3. other subjects covered include motor controls.1.Chapter 3 STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual Note: All references to the National Electrical Code (NEC) are based on the 2005 Edition of the NEC. safety of personnel and preservation of property are important factors in the design of electrical systems. the specific requirements of each project must be analyzed and the electrical system designed to meet those needs. The latest edition of each of these references shall be used. Any approach to providing the required design shall include several considerations that will affect the overall design. lighting.1 GENERAL APPROACH Because no single electrical system is adaptable to all projects. 3.

the distribution transformer is switched to the alternate source. less expensive installation cost than using relatively long.3 Primary Selective System If pairs of substations are connected through a secondary tie circuit breaker. The first step is the analysis of the plant process to determine its reliability need and potential losses and costs in the event of power interruption. low-voltage feeder circuits. This system provides better voltage conditions. This system is satisfactory for small industrial installations where process allows sufficient down time for adequate maintenance and the plant can be supplied by a single transformer. In general.3. the result is a secondary selective system (see Figure 3. a more complex system with an alternate power source for critical loads may be justified.3 Plant Distribution Systems A variety of basic circuit arrangements is available for industrial plant power distribution.3. 3.1.1. Cost is somewhat higher because of duplication of primary cable and switchgear. lower system losses. Selection of the best system or combination of systems will depend upon the needs of the plant process. which in turn supply the load through radial secondary systems.3). system costs increase with system reliability if component quality is equal. Other plant processes may sustain long-term damage or experience excessive cost by even a brief interruption. A single primary service and distribution transformer supply all the feeders.3. It is the simplest and lowest cost way of distribution power. The advantage of a simple radial system may be applied to larger loads by using an expended radial primary distribution system to supply a number of unit substations located near the load. Each unit substation is connected to two separate primary feeders through switching equipment to provide a normal and an alternate source. Switching can be either manual or automatic.1.1 Simple Radial System Figure 3-1 shows a simple radial system where the distribution is at the utilization voltage. Upon failure of the normal source. 3.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual 3.2 Expanded Radial System Figure 3-2 shows an expanded radial system. ESD-106 3-2 01/06 . therefore. but there will be an interruption until load is transferred to the alternate source. highamperage. Some plant processes are minimally affected by interruption.1. 3.

and main secondary disconnection means is possible with only momentary power interruption. A key interlock system would be required to avoid typing two substations together while they are both energized.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES 3. Primary power is distributed at 4160 volts to the substation and secondary power is distributed at 480 volts from the substation to motor control centers and switchboards. Maintenance of primary feeders. the result is a secondary selective system (See Figure 3. essential loads on that substation bus can be supplied over the tie circuit. the system operates as two separate radial systems with the secondary bus-tie circuit breaker normally open.3.4 MWD Electrical Design Manual Secondary Selective System (Double-Ended Substation with Single Tie) If pairs of substation are connected through a secondary tie circuit breaker.1.5 Secondary Selective System (Individual Substations with Interconnecting Ties) Figure 3-5 shows modified secondary selective system with only one transformer in each secondary substation. Adjacent substations are interconnected in pairs by normally low-voltage tie circuit. Under normal conditions. If the primary feeder or transformer fails.4). ESD-106 3-3 01/06 . To allow for this condition.1. Operation of the system is somewhat complicated if the two substations are separated by distance. the following should be considered: Oversizing both transformers so that one transformer can carry the total load Providing forced-air cooling to the transformer in service for the emergency period Shedding nonessential load for the emergency period Using the temporary overload capacity in the transformer and accepting the loss of transformer life. supply is maintained through the secondary tie circuit breaker. When the primary feeder or transformer supplying one secondary substation bus is out of service.3. transformer. The double-ended substation with single tie configuration is the preferred method of power distribution in the Metropolitan’s water treatment plants. A key interlock system is used to prevent parallel operation of the transformers. 3.

STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual BUS DUCT PANEL FIGURE 3-1 SIMPLE RADIAL SYSTEM FIGURE 3-2 EXPANDED RADIAL SYSTEM ESD-106 3-4 01/06 .

STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual FIGURE 3-3 PRIMARY SELECTIVE SYSTEM ESD-106 3-5 01/06 .

STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual SECONDARY UNIT SUBSTATION FIGURE 3-4 SECONDARY SELECTIVE SYSTEM (DOUBLE-ENDED SUBSTATION WITH SINGLE TIE) ESD-106 3-6 01/06 .

STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual SECONDARY UNIT SUBSTATION SECONDARY UNIT SUBSTATION FIGURE 3-5 SECONDARY SELECTIVE SYSTEM (INDIVIDUAL SUBSTATIONS WITH INTERCONNECTING TIES) ESD-106 3-7 01/06 .

indicates a three-wire.000 volts but less than 100. a three-phase four-wire system supplied by a wye connected transformer is indicated. A single-number. Table 3-1.4 Voltage Considerations ANSI/IEEE Std 141 refers to ANSI C84. three-phase system where the voltage designates the nominal voltage between any two phase wires. The nominal voltage of the systems covered by this design guide will be in either the low or medium voltage class. single-phase voltage. The table uses a system voltage nomenclature that describes how the nominal voltage is supplied.800 volts and less are also used to supply utilization equipment such as large motors. indicates a twowire single-phase system where the voltage indicated is the nominal voltage between the two wires. such as 120/240. such as 480Y/277 volts. such as 120 volts. The first number indicates the nominal phase-to-phase voltage and the second number indicates the nominal phase-to-neutral voltage. Medium voltages are used as primary distribution voltages to supply stepdown transformers to low-voltage systems and are greater than 1.000 volts and less. ESD-106 3-8 01/06 . A two-voltage designation where the smaller number is first. three-phase voltage.000 volts. Medium voltages of 13.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual 3. The standard defines three voltage classes: Low voltages are used to supply utilization equipment and are 1. If the two numbers are reversed with a Y between.1. A single-number. such as 480 volts. High voltages are used to transmit large amounts of electrical power between transmission substations. and are higher than 100. indicates a single-phase three-wire voltage in which the nominal voltage between phase conductors is 240 volts and the nominal voltage between either phase conductor and neutral is 120 volts. Standard Nominal System Voltages and Voltage Ranges in Chapter 3 of ANSI/IEEE Std 1411993 lists the standard and nonstandard nominal system voltages within all three of the voltage classes.1 for nominal standard system voltages and their associated tolerances.000 volts.

6 Voltage Rating Most electrical utilization equipment has a nameplate voltage that matches the nominal supply voltage for which the equipment is designed. The three-phase 208Y/120 volt utilization voltage is preferred except where only very small loads are involved because it also allows small three-phase loads to be supplied and it balances the loads on the 480Y/277 volt system. Small dry-type transformers rated 480-120/240 or 208Y/120 are then provided to supply 120-volt lighting and convenience receptacles. to minimize damage to the system components.160 volts three-phase the preferred distribution voltage unless very large motors are involved. In a case where the load on the plant site is small and located in a concentrated area. 208-volt. Where double-ended unit substations with tie breakers are used. 240-volt. Where individual loads of 500 kVA or more must be supplied. Power distribution voltage within a plant site is often dependent on the supply voltage available from the serving utility. This would make 4. three-phase. service from the utility at 480Y/277 volts shall be specified. If there are large motors that could be supplied at a higher voltage. Motors are the exception. Motors designed for connection to a 480-volt threephase system are rated 460 volts three-phase.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual 3. 4. and 4. Table 3-8 in Chapter 3 of ANSI/IEEE Std 1411993 also contains information on the effect of voltage variations on the operation of motors and other equipment.160-volt systems. 3. Protection of personnel and equipment shall be given first consideration and then coordination of devices within the system to limit the extent of service interruptions. 3. four-wire.1. and to limit the duration of outages that result from the operation of the system protective devices. Similar differences are found in the ratings for motors designed for operation on 120-volt. ESD-106 3-9 01/06 . Larger sites where the loads are spread out and a number of unit substations will be required shall be supplied at a higher voltage.7 Protection/Coordination Philosophy The primary objectives of electrical system protection and coordination are to prevent injury to personnel.1. loads shall not be connected phase-to-neutral on the 480-volt system to simplify the ground fault protection scheme. the distribution voltage shall be selected to supply the large motors without additional transformation.1.5 Voltage Selection The preferred utilization voltage for industrial plants is 480Y/277 volts.160 volts should be considered for the utilization voltage for this equipment. See Table 3-7 in Chapter 3 of ANSI/IEEE Std 141-1993 for the nameplate voltages of motors as specified in NEMA MG1. Three-phase loads can then be supplied at 480 volts with single-phase loads such as high bay lights supplied at 277 volts.

It must be used in conjunction with a switch for normal circuit interruption. Low-voltage power circuit breakers (LVPCBs) b. A. it is nonresettable.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual 3. Solid-state trip units are preferred because of the wide range of adjustments through use of interchangeable trip rating plugs. There are a variety of devices that fall within these two broad categories. A fuse may be defined as a device that protects a circuit by fusing open its current-responsive element when an overcurrent or short circuit passes through it.1. The electrical system components shall be protected against overcurrent. and phase to ground faults. The NEC defines a circuit breaker as a "device designed to open and close a circuit by nonautomatic means and to open the circuit automatically on a predetermined overcurrent without injury to itself when properly applied within its rating. 1. Low Voltage Circuit Breakers. A fuse is also direct-acting in that it responds to a combination of magnitude and duration of circuit current flowing through it. 2. There are two basic types of equipment available to perform these protection functions: the fuse and the circuit breaker. phase to phase faults. ESD-106 3-10 01/06 . Low-voltage power circuit breakers are open-construction assemblies on metal frames with all parts designed for accessible maintenance. It combines both the direct sensing and interrupting elements in one self-contained device. Low-voltage power circuit breakers b." Low voltage circuit breakers have contacts to interrupt the circuit that are isolated from the thermal or solid state elements. Fuses. Molded-case circuit breakers Types: a. and in this design guide we will only review a few of them.1 Protection Equipment. repair and ease of replacement. Insulated-case circuit breakers (ICCBs) B. tripping selectively and accurately. They are intended for service in switchgear compartments or other enclosures of dead-front construction. which determine that an overcurrent condition has occurred. it is single phase. Classifications: a. Molded-case circuit breakers (MCCBs) c. and it is not capable of being used to interrupt a circuit during normal operation. Low voltage circuit breakers are divided into two basic classes and three types.7. Tripping units are electromagnetic overcurrent direct-acting type or solid-state type.

The air magnetic contactor type has been the standard of the industry for a number of years.and 15-kV systems are available in either of two types of construction. Vacuum interrupter circuit breakers are currently the standard for 5. Insulated-case circuit breakers are partially field-maintainable. Application. 3.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual Molded-case circuit breakers are switching devices and automatic protective devices assembled in an integral housing of insulating material. and 3. Current-limiting—provides high interruption rating protection.7.1. Recent changes in technology have resulted in the manufacture of vacuum and SF6 interrupter circuit breakers. Medium Voltage Circuit Breakers. They are integrated with protective relays as may be required for the application. These breakers are generally capable of clearing a fault more rapidly than power circuit breakers and are available in the following general types: Thermal magnetic—employs thermal tripping for overloads and instantaneous magnetic tripping for short circuits Magnetic—employs only instantaneous magnetic tripping where only short-circuit interruption is required Integrally fused—combines regular thermal magnetic protection against overloads and lower value short-circuit faults with current-limiting fuses responding to higher shortcircuit currents.and 15-kV class circuit breakers.200-. Circuit breakers for 5. plus it limits let-through current and emergency to a value significantly lower than the corresponding value for a conventional molded-case circuit breaker. C.and 15-kV. The frame size of this type of breakers I larger than the same size for molded-case breakers. The trip unit can be interchanged. Molded-case circuit breakers are generally not designed to be maintained in the field as such are sealed to prevent tampering. The interruption duty of this type of breaker can be faster than that of molded-case breakers but not fast enough to be a current limiting type. and are installed in switchgear assemblies. 2. They are available in 1.000-ampere ratings at both 5. Insulated-case circuit breakers utilize characteristics of design from both power and molded-case types.2 ESD-106 3-11 01/06 .000-. and the breaker can be designed to fix-mounting as well as with drawout configuration.

Low Voltage Systems. Fuses shall be used in combination with circuit breakers where current limiting protection is required.000 amps and larger shall also be 100 percent load rated.16-kV distribution systems in water treatment plants and as primary protection for medium voltage transformers. A. Motor branch circuit breakers installed as part of a reduced voltage starter or to feed an adjustable frequency drive unit shall be thermal magnetic type. Breakers 1. Branch and feeder circuit breakers 225 amps and smaller shall be thermal magnetic type. Transformer secondary and service entrance circuit breakers rated 400 or 600 amps with subfeed breakers rated 225 amps or more and all similar breakers larger than 600 amps shall be low voltage power circuit breakers with solid state trip units. Adjustable magnetic trips shall be specified for all frame sizes where they are available. Larger branch circuit breakers shall also be the thermal magnetic type with adjustable magnetic trip units. Protection for low voltage systems shall be provided by the use of a combination of low voltage circuit breakers. Motor branch circuit breakers installed as part of a combination motor starter shall be magnetic-only type. Feeder circuit breakers from 225 amps through 800 amps shall be molded case with solid state trip units. Feeder circuit breakers larger than 800 amps shall be molded case with solid state trip units and 100 percent load rating. ESD-106 3-12 01/06 . Transformer secondary and service entrance circuit breakers 600 amps and less with no subfeed breakers rated 225 amps or more shall be molded case thermal magnetic type with adjustable magnetic trip units. Provide adjustable magnetic trip units for all sizes for which they are available.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual Circuit breakers shall be used to provide overcurrent and short circuit protection on the 4. Circuit breakers shall also be used on the load side of all transformers.

the need for reliability must be balanced against the cost of providing the electrical system that provides the level of reliability desired. Low Voltage Ground Fault Protection. The system shall preserve the safety of the general public and be capable of safe operation by plant personnel. The second consideration should be the preservation of property. Low voltage motor control center main circuit breakers shall be insulated case circuit breakers with solid state trip devices. Safety of life is always the most important consideration. Protection for medium voltage systems shall be specified to be metal clad switchgear with vacuum interrupter type circuit breakers. Next. Medium Voltage Systems. and minimization of equipment damage must be considered first. If the impact of a short outage has little affect on the cost of plant operation. Coordination is the selecting or setting. 3. Although maximum effort needs to be made to select and set protection equipment to provide coordination. Ground fault protection on transformer secondary and service entrance circuit breakers and feeder breakers shall have adjustable time delays and shall be zone selective interlocked to minimize outage to the zone nearest the ground fault. additional expense to provide a fully coordinated system is ESD-106 3-13 01/06 . All medium voltage main and feeder circuit breakers shall be equipped with time and instantaneous phase overcurrent and time and instantaneous ground overcurrent as a minimum. of protective devices to minimize the portion of a power distribution system that is affected by a fault within the system. all feeder breakers rated 400 amps or more that are downstream of a circuit breaker equipped with ground fault protection. C.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual Secondary unit substation main and feeder circuit breakers 800 amp frame and larger shall be insulated case circuit breakers with solid state trip devices. protection of personnel. and overcurrent ground relay with instantaneous trip attachments as a minimum. Motor branch circuits shall have thermal overload relays with instantaneous overcurrent trip attachments. undervoltage and phase sequence relay. Ground fault protection shall be provided on all transformer secondary and service entrance breakers rated 600 amperes or more.7. B.1. or both. This protection for motor branch circuits may be provided by a solid state motor protection module that also incorporates optional modules to monitor motor and bearing temperature.3 Coordination.

Both the basic design of the equipment and the requirements of the NEC shall be taken into account when locating electrical equipment. The cost/benefit ratio of each situation shall be reviewed and an economic balance struck.2 LOCATING ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Electrical equipment is designed for a variety of environmental conditions.15 0.40 1. then the additional expense of a fully coordinated system may be justified. NEC Table 110.34(A) defines the working space required in front of equipment rated above 600 volts. in Chapter 10 of ANSI/IEEE Std 141-1993 contains a list of energy losses for a number of types of electrical equipment.00-4. Note that these are minimums and do not provide comfortable working space. and it is important that the equipment selected be suitable for the location where it is to be installed. 3.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual probably not justified.02 0.0-35.005-0.00 14.13-0.01-0.02-0. An estimate of the electrical losses shall be developed and added to the cooling requirements of the space where the electrical equipment is installed.34 0. 3. Range of Losses in Power System Equipment. NEC Table 110.90 0.1. Should a short outage adversely affect the cost of plant operation. Table 10-1.2.8 Equipment Heat Dissipation Data Heat is generated in electrical equipment due to the electrical losses that occur within the equipment. Table 3-1 Losses in Electrical equipment Component Medium voltage switchgear Transformers Medium voltage starters Low voltage switchgear Low voltage motor control Cable Motors 1-10 hp Percent Energy Loss (full load) 0. 3.26(A)(1) defines the working space required in front of equipment rated 600 volts and less.0 ESD-106 3-14 01/06 .1 Equipment Rooms and Buildings Article 110 of the NEC contains a number of specific requirements that pertain to the location of electrical equipment. Table 3-1 shows energy losses for the equipment that will be most often found in water treatment facilities.4-1.

except padmounted transformers and metal enclosed outdoor switchgear assemblies. ESD-106 3-15 01/06 . not air conditioned. shall be located in dedicated spaces that are only accessible to qualified persons.00-12. B. NEMA Types 4 and 4X. switchgear assemblies.00-15. Group A.00 4.00 Note: Use high end of range except when more accurate data are known or provided. Major electrical equipment such as transformers. NEMA Type 12. Class I.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES 10-200 hp 200-1. ANSI/NEMA 250 defines the types of enclosures and the conditions for which those enclosures were designed. and motor control centers shall be installed in dedicated rooms or buildings.500 hp MWD Electrical Design Manual 6.00 Static variable speed drives 6. Appendix D also describes each NEMA enclosure type. The most often used NEMA enclosure types are as follows: NEMA Type 1.2 Equipment Enclosures Electrical equipment enclosures shall be designed for the conditions that they will be subject to when installed. It also contains specific requirements for construction of transformer vaults. Smaller equipment such as individual motor starters and panelboards shall be installed in mechanical spaces that are ventilated and dry. See Chapter 16 of the Switchgear and Control Handbook for a complete list of the NEMA enclosure types and their intended uses. All equipment rated above 600 volts.2. 3. NEC Article 450 contains a number of specific requirements that are applicable to the installation of different types of transformers. switchboards. Rooms containing motor control centers should be ventilated.00-7. or D. NEC Article 408 contains additional requirements that pertain to the location of switchboards and panelboards. NEMA Type 7. NEMA Type 3R. C. so that the ambient temperatures around both the motors and their controllers are similar.

accessories. Where corrosive atmospheres are also anticipated. 3. ESD-106 3-16 01/06 . 316 stainless steel or reinforced fiberglass NEMA 4X enclosures shall be installed.2. NEMA 1 enclosures may be used in electrical rooms. C37. 3.2.3. C. protective.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual 3. interconnecting wiring. C37. NEMA 7 enclosures for use in Class I Group A. and the power switchboard. Equipment enclosures in hazardous locations shall be classified for use in the hazardous classification that applies.1 Indoor Locations.3 Hazardous Locations. F.20-2.2.1 Low Voltage Two types of low voltage enclosed switchgear are used in power distribution systems: the metal-enclosed low voltage power circuit switchgear. 316 stainless steel or reinforced fiberglass NEMA 4X enclosures shall be installed. and D locations (gaseous hazards) and NEMA 9 for Class II Groups E.20-1. NEMA 4 enclosures shall be used in process areas where washdown of the area can be expected. If the atmospheric conditions are not known.20-3.100 for additional information on switchgear.3 SWITCHGEAR Switchgear is a general term covering switching and interrupting devices alone or in combination with other associated control. Enclosures installed outdoors must be designed to meet a number of conditions. and regulating equipment. B. 3. Both medium voltage and low voltage enclosed switchgear will be reviewed in this design guide.2. offices. See Chapter 10 of ANSI/IEEE Std 141-1993 and ANSI/IEEE C37. and G locations (explosive amounts of dust) are the two most often needed. and C37. then NEMA 3R or NEMA 4 enclosures could be used. NEMA 4 enclosures shall be installed in indoor damp and wet areas that do not have corrosive atmospheres. metering. A power switchgear assembly consists of a complete assembly of one or more of the above-noted devices and main bus conductors. Enclosures installed indoors in dry industrial type areas shall be NEMA 12. If it is known that no corrosive atmospheric conditions can be expected. supporting structures.2 Outdoor Locations. and NEMA 3R can be used for disconnect switches and similar equipment where it is located away from process equipment. 3. and enclosures.2.2. and laboratory areas where flying dust and debris would not be present.

Both types are constructed in accordance with applicable provisions of UL 891 and NEMA PB-2. but higher ratings are available. Metal-enclosed low voltage power circuit switchgear shall be used where the available fault current exceeds 50. and the feeder and/or branch circuit protective devices are all 225 amps or less. The standard short circuit rating for group mounted switchboards is 50. The branch devices are either molded case circuit breakers with or without solid state trip units.6. Switchboards with group-mounted circuit protective devices shall be used where the main bus rating is 800 amps or less.20-1 and meets the requirements of UL Standard 1558. Power circuit breakers both with and without current limiting fuses are available.000 amps RMS symmetrical. Where the main bus rating must be greater than 800 amps and feeder breakers of 400 amps or larger are required. The standard short circuit rating for switchboards with individually mounted drawout circuit breakers is 50.000 amps RMS symmetrical. See Metropolitan's Standard Specifications Sections Catalog for more detailed requirements of this equipment. the fault current available is less than 50.3. Circuit protective devices shall be applied in a manner consistent with applicable portions of Section 3.3. See Metropolitan's Standard Specifications Sections Catalog for more complete and detailed requirements for this equipment. The main device is either a molded case circuit breaker. switchboards with individually mounted circuit ESD-106 3-17 01/06 .1. Protection and Coordination Philosophy.1 Metal-Enclosed Switchgear. Circuit breakers are equipped with solid-state tripping systems and offer a wide range of adjustability. Both the main and feeder circuit protective devices shall be drawout type in individually mounted configurations. or a bolted pressure switch.000 amps RMS symmetrical.1. The main circuit protective devices in group-mounted switchboards are either fixed or drawout-mounted. The groupmounted configuration is normally used for small boards and in commercial construction. Metal-enclosed low voltage power circuit switchgear is constructed in accordance with ANSI C37. a molded case circuit breaker with solid state trip units.1. 3.000 amps symmetrical at 480 volts or 65. Power switchboards are available in either group-mounted or individually mounted configurations. See additional requirements defined in Metropolitan's Standard Specifications Sections Catalog. or fused switches. but higher ratings are available. It features individually mounted air break power circuit breakers in drawout construction. an air break power circuit breaker.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual 3.2 Power Switchboards. but the branch devices are all fixedmounted.000 amps symmetrical at 208 or 240 volts.

metal-enclosed low voltage power circuit switchgear shall be used.000 amps RMS symmetrical or less.20. Metal-clad switchgear shall be an assembly of drawout vacuum circuit breakers.160 volts. The lower voltage may be either a low voltage class such as 480 volts or a medium voltage class such as 4. ESD-106 3-18 01/06 .4 TRANSFORMERS Unit substations and pad-mounted transformers are both available to transform medium voltage primary power to lower utilization voltages. Metal-clad switchgear shall also be provided where large motors are served directly from the medium voltage distribution system. The breakers shall be operated by a motor-charged.8 kV) Two types of medium voltage switchgear are available: metal-clad switchgear and load interrupter switchgear. There are several basic differences between these transformer types that must be kept in mind when selecting one for an application. 3. The mechanism shall be front accessible and will be charged normally by a universal electric motor and in an emergency by a manual handle.2. Metal-clad switchgear shall be provided as the service entrance equipment for all medium voltage distribution systems that require more than one main device and more than two feeder devices downstream of each main device. Each compartment in the assembly shall be isolated from all other compartments by grounded metal barriers. Both are available for either indoor or outdoor installation. Each circuit breaker shall contain three vacuum interrupters separately mounted.3. Where higher fault currents are available. The circuit breakers shall be horizontal drawout type on rails. Metropolitan standard is metal-clad switchgear with vacuum circuit breakers.2. The detailed requirements for metal-clad switchgear shall be as specified in Metropolitan's Standard Specifications Sections Catalog. metering equipment.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual protective devices shall be used if the fault current available is 50. auxiliary equipment. and insulated copper bus bars enclosed in a rigid metal assembly and constructed in accordance with ANSI C37. spring-stored energy mechanism.2 Medium Voltage (4.1 Metal-Clad Switchgear.16 kV through 13. 3. 3.3.

They offer flexibility and provide a pleasing installation. The substation transformer may be installed along or with either the primary or secondary switchgear assembly where proper bushings and terminal cabinets are provided and where the switching and protection functions are provided by remotely located equipment. Provisions are available for live or dead front primary termination on radial or loop feed systems. A metal-clad nonfused interrupter switch shall be provided where transformer protection is provided elsewhere.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual 3. Each of the three parts need to be looked at individually because there are several options available for each.1 Pad-Mounted Pad-mounted transformers are intended for use with underground power distribution systems.4. They are oil-filled and are not suitable for indoor installation. They are constructed for a 65o C rise over a 30o C ambient and have no provisions for increasing overload capability. Several options are offered for the primary switch of a unit substation.1 Primary Switch.2. 3. and a secondary switchgear assembly. ESD-106 3-19 01/06 . a metal-clad switchgear assembly shall be bolted to the high voltage throat of the transformer to provide both transformer protection and flexibility in the distribution system. 3.4. Secondary connections are spade terminals mounted to the tank wall. Their tamperproof construction allows installation in locations accessible to the general public without the need for protective fencing or vaults. Should transformer protection be required. a metal-clad vacuum circuit breaker shall be bolted to the high voltage flange of the transformer.2 Unit Substations A unit substation consists of a substation type transformer designed for close coupling to a primary switch or switchgear assembly. Three-phase pad-mounted transformers are available from 45 kVA to 5. Compartmental type pad-mounted transformers are designed for the underground entrance of primary and secondary conductors. Should a loop feed or primary selective switching be required.4.000 kVA.

and the self-cooled rating can be increased 33-1/3 percent for short-term load peaks with the addition of fans. The standard basic impulse level (BIL) for dry type transformers is typically less than the standard for (BIL) liquid-filled transformers and needs to be kept in mind when selecting transformers. ESD-106 3-20 01/06 . 3. The standard load rating for a drytype transformer is at a 115o C rise over a 40o C ambient.4. which increases the nominal rating of the transformer at a 65o C rise by 12-1/2 percent. Several types of insulating liquid or fluid are available and NEC Article 450 Section II contains special provisions that cover the use of different liquids or fluids in different locations.2 Transformer Section. Dry type transformers are available in sizes from 225 to 2500 kVA self-cooled ratings.500 to 5. Liquid-filled transformers are available with a 55/65o C rating. B. These transformers are capable of carrying a 15 percent overload continuously without exceeding the 150o C enclosure temperature.2.2. Selection of the transformer must be made based on where the transformer is to be installed and the expected overload requirements. The self-cooled rating of transformers from 225 to 2.000 kVA with a variety of high and low voltage windings. The standard load rating for liquid-filled transformers is at a 65o C rise. Dry-type transformers are available in either ventilated or nonventilated construction for both indoor and outdoor applications. the overload capability of liquid-filled transformers can be increased by the addition of fans. Several options are available for the equipment to be located on the secondary of a unit substation.000 kVA can be increased by 15 percent and the self-cooled rating of transformers from 2. They range from an air terminal cabinet for termination of either a bus duct or cables to a metal-enclosed low-voltage power circuit switchgear. A.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual 3. Transformers are available from 225 to 5. They are also available with an 80o C rise over a 40o C ambient capable of carrying a 30 percent overload continuously without exceeding 150o C in the transformer enclosure. dry type. The circuit protective devices used shall be dependent upon the needs of the system.000 kVA can be increased by 25 percent. or cast coil type. Dry-Type Transformers.3 Secondary Switchgear Assembly.4. Liquid-Filled Transformers. In addition. The transformer section shall be either liquid-filled.

The contactor. In addition to ac motor starters.3 Equipment Selection Unit substations are Metropolitan standard. Manual motor starter. Pad-mounted transformers shall only be used where transformer requirements are so small that unit substations are not available. 3. Following is a list of the more commonly used types and a brief description of each.5 MOTOR CONTROL EQUIPMENT Motor control equipment is a general term that covers a range of voltage and horsepower ratings and innumerable combinations of equipment arrangements and operational functions. nonreversing motor starter.4. A more complete description can be found in either ANSI/IEEE Std 1411993 or the Switchgear and Control Handbook.1 Low Voltage In ac motor control.5. Magnetic. selector switches. or similar pilot devices. DC motor controls. this section includes discussions of adjustable speed controllers. is called a starter. and the circuit breaker provides short circuit protection.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual 3. The manual starter may not provide undervoltage protection. 3. and power factor improvement. nonreversing motor starter provides overload ESD-106 3-21 01/06 . The starter is then applied in combination with either a magnetic-only circuit breaker or a thermal magnetic circuit breaker. All such equipment is designed and produced in accordance with NEMA Standards Publication Industrial and Control Systems. A manual starter is a manually operated switch that is rated for control of induction loads and includes thermal overload protection. Provides fullvoltage starting for motors that must be started frequently and are suitable for use with remote control devices such as pushbuttons. The thermal overload heater block provides overload protection. There are several types of low-voltage motor starters available. contactors are normally used for controlling the power supply to the motor. Starters for motors operating at other voltages shall be sized in accordance with appropriate NEMA standards. and is called a combination motor starter. Section 10. Motor starters for Metropolitan projects shall be sized as shown in Table 2-1 for 480-volt three-phase motors. The magnetic.6 of ANSI/IEEE Std 141-1993 identifies a number of factors that must be kept in mind when selecting the controller for a motor. when applied in conjunction with a thermal overload heater block. The standards for magnetic controllers rated 115 through 575 volts are summarized in ANSI/NEMA ICS2.

In all other respects. The resulting assemblies are then called nonfused nonreversing (or reversing) combination motor starter. Control is provided by two contactors wired so that reversing the phases provides the reversing function. or a circuit breaker. a fused switch. reversing motor starter. Mechanical and electrical interlocks are provided to prevent momentary short circuiting when changing directions. control is the same as for magnetic. unless motor starting voltage drop calculations are made that show that the voltage dip that would result from full voltage starting is less than 20 percent. Either a nonreversing or reversing magnetic starter can be provided in combination with a nonfused disconnect switch. nonreversing motor starters. Reduced voltage motor starters include the basic components of a combination motor starter with a means to reduce the inrush current to the motor to some level below that which would be expected should full voltage be applied. ESD-106 3-22 01/06 . Magnetic. with the addition of a disconnect function and short circuit protection in the case of the fused and circuit breaker type starters. The control functions are as described above. Reduced voltage starters shall be provided for all motors 50 hp and larger when installed as part of a retrofit. or circuit breaker type nonreversing (or reversing) motor starter. Following are the four types of reduced voltage starters that are available from most manufacturers: Autotransformer type (both open transition and closed transition). unless motor starting voltage drop calculations are made that show that the voltage dip that would result from full voltage starting is less than 20 percent. Reduced voltage starters shall be provided for all motors 100 hp or larger when installed as part of new construction.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual protection and can also provide undervoltage protection if momentary contact controls are provided. fused nonreversing (or reversing) combination motor starter. Reduced voltage starters. An autotransformer is used to reduce the voltage being applied to the motor windings. Combination motor starter.

Wye-delta type motor starter. in Chapter 10 of ANSI/IEEE 141-1993 shows a comparison of the operating characteristics of different reduced voltage starters. Table 10-17. Primary resistor or reactor-type reduced voltage starter. It shall only be used on light or low inertia loads. if the voltage applied to the motor is only 50 percent of rated voltage. This installation requires a special motor. The autotransformer type reduced voltage starter offers the highest starting torque in foot pound of torque per kVA of inrush. To minimize the short duration. This type of motor starter initially energizes the motor windings in a wye configuration and then transitions (either open transition or closed transition are available) when the load approaches full speed. the closed transition connection momentarily uses the autotransformer as a series reactor to minimize the current surge. Comparison of Different Reduced Voltage Starters. Part-winding motor starter. this method shall only be used where the drive equipment can be started unloaded. This type of starter shall only be used with low inertia loads where the low starting torque provided is sufficient for the connected load. It is a good choice for reduced voltage starting of high inertia loads. high inrush current that occurs during an open transition. This type of reduced voltage starter is especially useful for long acceleration type applications such as centrifuges. Because wye-delta starters only provide 33 percent of normal starting torque. Because starting torque is a function of the square of the voltage. but is also the most expensive reduced voltage type starter. It is fourth in terms of smooth acceleration of the load. This requires a special motor that is wired for part-winding starting and two magnetic motor starters.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual The starting torque will vary almost directly with the variation in motor current. The motor inrush current is limited by the value of resistance or reactance placed in the primary circuit. and both ends of each motor winding shall be brought back to the motor starter. the starting torque will be reduced to only 25 percent of normal starting torque. This type of starter provides the smoothest acceleration of the load possible and is usually the least expensive. - - ESD-106 3-23 01/06 .

Short circuit protection shall be provided by circuit breakers except that properly sized fuses shall be used in combination with them where current limiting protection is required. Solid-state motor starters shall be considered where smooth acceleration is a must and where maximum limitation of inrush current must be achieved. The branch circuit device provided in a combination motor starter shall be selected with care. the selection of the proper MCP shall be left to the motor starter manufacturer and it should be sized so that its range of adjustment allows it to be set between 7 and 13 times motor FLA. or only short circuit protection. In most situations. The solid-state electronics provide a smooth and adjustable acceleration rate for motor starting that limits inrush current surges and reduces sudden torque surges to the motor. The two types of circuit breakers used in low voltage motor control.300 percent of motor FLA. In motor control center applications. are discussed below. they may provide less protection than a properly sized thermal magnetic circuit ESD-106 3-24 01/06 . magnetic-only and thermal magnetic. If an upstream device provides the necessary short circuit protection. They can only be used in combination with a motor starter because they do not provide any overcurrent protection. Solid-state motor starters can control the starting cycle and provide reduced voltage starting for conventional ac motors. When a branch circuit device is used in combination with a motor starter it may be selected to provide both overcurrent and short circuit protection. the branch circuit device must provide both the disconnect function and the short circuit protection for the branch circuit. Magnetic-only circuit breakers (MCP) are the type most often used in combination motor starters. Two types of circuit breakers are available for motor branch circuit protection and each functions differently. Reduced voltage auto transformer-type starters shall be specified unless special starting requirements exist.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual Solid-state motor starters. MCPs are less expensive than thermal magnetic circuit breakers and clear short circuit currents faster. For motors 50 hp and larger. The NEC allows MCPs to be sized up to 700 percent of motor full-load ampere (FLA) and set up to 1. then a simple disconnect switch may be sufficient. Review special starting requirements with Metropolitan before selection of alternate equipment is made.

They provide both short circuit and overcurrent protection.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES breaker.1. the NEC allows thermal magnetic circuit breakers to be sized at as much as 250 percent of motor FLA. Several types of motor control centers can be purchased. Except in those situations where only a couple motor starters are required. Where the convenience of a circuit breaker is desired but the available fault current exceeds the rating of a motor starter with a magnetic-only circuit breaker. NEMA 3 and NEMA 3R enclosures can be purchased for outdoor installation. Smaller breakers with only fixed magnetic trip units cannot be sized small enough so that the instantaneous trip point is between 7 and 13 times motor FLA and will not be tripped by motor running current. tripping of all three phases. a current limiter shall be added to the breaker to increase the rating of the assembly. "Motor control center" is a term that generally refers to a collection of motor control equipment and circuit breakers assembled in a series of steel-clad enclosures. MWD Electrical Design Manual Thermal magnetic circuit breakers are also used as motor branch circuit protection. low voltage combination motor starters shall be grouped in motor control centers (MCC). Each circuit breaker and combination motor starter is individually enclosed in a compartment separated from other compartments by metal barriers. and adequate motor protection if properly selected. Because circuit breakers offer more convenience.1 Motor Control Center. MCPs shall be sized in accordance with Table 2-1. Motor control centers are available in a variety of enclosure types. Thermal magnetic breakers 70 amps and larger with an adjustable magnetic trip unit can be sized such that the magnetic trip assembly provides adequate short circuit protection for the motor branch circuit. Type B. A current limiter is similar in construction and characteristics to a current limiting fuse. and Class II. 3. The class and type define the type ESD-106 3-25 01/06 . The NEMA 1 enclosure is the most common. which is furnished in Type B and Type C only. but NEMA 1 gasketed and NEMA 12 types are offered for those times when a greater degree of exclusion of dust is required. they shall be used for motor branch circuit protection unless a special condition exists. and Type C. Depending on the type of motor being protected.5. They are defined as Class I Type A. Combination motor starters for 480-volt applications shall be provided with magnetic-only circuit breakers (MCPs).

Where this criteria results in a main bus with an ampacity greater than 1. The short circuit rating of an MCC is equal to the interrupting capacity of the lowest rated device in the assembly. Motor control centers shall be specified with sufficient ampacity in the main bus to carry the connected load.5. See Chapter 23 of the Switchgear and Control Handbook or a manufacturer's descriptive literature for a complete description of the requirements of each. as required by NEMA ICS 2-322. Medium voltage motors shall be controlled by medium voltage motor starters that are specifically designed for the type of motor to be controlled and that have a horsepower rating equal to or greater than the rating of the motor. CPTs shall be provided with two primary fuses. metal-clad switchgear equipment must be used. size. application. Higher short circuit ratings are available by the substitution of high interrupting circuit breakers or the addition of current limiters. 3. and have 20 percent spare capacity.2 Medium Voltage The protection of an ac motor is a function of its type.300 volts to 4. and type of service.2 Control Power Transformers. Circuit breaker type combination motor starters are UL listed for 22. one on each side of the transformer. Motor starters shall be NEMA Class E-2 as described in ANSI/NEMA ICS2. ESD-106 3-26 01/06 .000 amps interrupting capacity (AIC).000 amps symmetrical are available. circuit breakers with current limiters or current limiting circuit breakers shall be specified. Above 4. Class I Type B wiring shall be specified for all motor control centers unless significant amounts of wiring are required between control units.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual of wiring to be provided within the MCC.5. Where fault currents above 22. speed. CPTs shall not be smaller than 100 VA. voltage rating.1.800 volts.000 amps. including known future loads. and then Class II Type B wiring shall be specified.800 volts. the selection shall be reviewed with Metropolitan. The short circuit rating of the motor control center shall be greater than the fault current available at the line side terminals of the MCC plus the motor contribution. Medium voltage motor control equipment (controllers) are rated for use on systems from 2. and one secondary fuse on the ungrounded side of the transformer. 3. Control power transformers (CPTs) shall be provided in all motor starters to provide 120-volt control circuit power. location. CPTs shall be sized to carry at least 150 percent of the total connected load of the control circuit.

instrumentation.5. 3. Motor protection is discussed in detail in ANSI/IEEE Std 242. a contactor. an assembly of medium voltage motor starters with a common supply bus. metering.5. 3. The protective.3 Types of AC Drives The major types of AC drives in use today are as follows: A) Voltage Source Inverter (VSI). 3. thyristores. are designed to operate standard squirrel cage induction motors.5. and control functions shall be provided by using a multipurpose microprocessor-based module such as the GE Multilin 469.5. Where multiple starters are required in a single location. instrument and control power transformers. Microprocessor-based control systems provide reliable and highly accurate speed control. GTOs. and transistors in the inverter section.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual Each motor starter shall consist of current limiting power fuses.3. the vacuum contactor type shall be selected. Varying the armature voltage or field current can change a DC motor’s speed. The design of VSI utilizes thyristors in the converter section and thyristors. Each starter shall be completely self-contained.2 AC Drives Advances in solid-state electronics have resulted in AC drives that have high reliability and low maintenance. See the Standard Specifications Sections Catalog for more detailed requirements for medium voltage motor control equipment. ESD-106 3-27 01/06 . or equal. which are commonly called inverters. 3. Semiconductor devices like diodes. prewired with all components in place. gate-turn-off switches (TGOs) and insulated bipolar gate transistors (IGBTs) are available with high current-carrying capacity. grounded metal barriers. In addition. manufacturers of medium voltage motor control equipment offer recommendations. and appropriate protective relay functions for the type of motor being supplied. AC drives. The basic drive consists of an inverter which converts the 60 Hz incoming power to a variable frequency and variable voltage. Areva MiCom P243. The output voltage is controlled as six-step and is pulse-width modulated (PWM). vacuum and air break.3. and drawout mounting assemblies for each motor starter shall be provided. transistors.1 DC devices DC motors have been the prime choice for speed control based on their adaptability to wide ranges of speed-serving duties of small to several thousand horsepower mechanical demands. Two types of contactors are available.3 Adjustable Speed Drives The advancements in semiconductor devices have enhanced the design and application of solid-state drives for DC and AC motors’ speed controls.3.

the LCI drive uses the emf generated at the motor armature terminals to commute the thyristor inverter. In the case of circuit design. the inductance of the motor plays a major part.5 A) ESD-106 3-28 01/06 . Unlike the first three drives which use forced commutation to turn the inverter on and off. In V/Hz control the volts to hertz ratio is maintained at a user programmable value ove rthe operating frequency range. A) Variable torque.3. The design of PWM does not change the amplitude of the controlled variable to the motor (typically voltage). This design can accommodate the motor to be driven at higher than the rated horsepower. Constant torque.4 Drive Power Ratings Drive controls are rated to provide a defined amount of current for continuous operation at a defined maximum ambient temperature. B) 3.3. The design of CSI is based on controlling motor current for the voltage frequency requirement.5. Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) Inverter. They change the rms value by turning the controlled value on and off at a relatively high frequency while varying the pulse width. The LCI drive is typically used on large horsepower synchronous motors. Load Commutated Inverter (LCI). Controls re generally identified as one of two basic types. A variable torque control rated with a 1.minute overload capability of typically 110 percent to 125 percent of nameplate continuous rated current which is typically sufficient for variable torque loads. A constant torque control is typically rated with a 1-minute overload capability of 150 percent of the nameplate continuous rated current.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual B) Current Source Inverters (CSI). C) D) 3. Control Methods Volts per Hertz. The switching frequency (commonly referred to as the “carrier frequency”) will determine the audible motor noise resulting from motor lamination excitation as well as how closely the PWM controller approximates a pure sine wave.5. A control using the V/Hz technique is particularly useful where multiple motors are connected to a single control. It is generally applied where fast response to torque and speed commands is not required.

These harmonic currents are the result of non-sinusoidal current. unlike a DC motor that is doubly excited through its armature and field windings. which is a characteristic of all adjustable speed drives using diodes or silicon controlled rectifiers (CSRs) on the input. Indirect Vector Control .An indirect field oriented control scheme is one that interprets the motor flux vector from other parameters.A direct field oriented control scheme is one that directly regulates the motor flux vector in order to produce controllable motor torque. An AC vector control decouples the magnetizing flux producing current and the torque producing current to control them separately. The two types of indirect vector drive control schemes used today are closed-loop or feedback vector control (which requires a speed feed back sensor to provide rotor position feedback) and open loop or sensorless vector (SV) control (monitors motor current instead of using a speed feedback sensor). Very accurate speed and torque control can both be achieved. The drive input current is composed of the fundamental sinosoudial current and currents at frequencies higher than the fundamental frequency. such as speed or current.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual B) Vector Control. A squirrel-cage motor is singly excited machine fed by connection to its stator windings. 3. Direct Vector Control .6 Line Harmonic Currents Nonlinear loads like adjustable speed drive create line harmonics when connected to the AC power distribution system. These harmonic currents contribute to the voltampere losses: A) B) C) Possible interference with communication equipment Possible overheating of transformers and other branch circuit equipment Possible increased heating in motors connected acress-the-line due to copper and iron losses ESD-106 3-29 01/06 . This gives the ASD excellent steady state and dynamic performance. The rotor flux would then be used as the feedback in the direct vector control regulator.5. Such a scheme employs Hall effect transducers or air-gap flux sensing windings for the measurement of the motor air-gap flux with the necessary modifications to approximate the rotor flux. A closed loop vector drive provides precise speed control and maximum torque from zero speed to base speed. An open loop vector drive does not have as wide a speed range as a closed loop vector drive and cannot produce holding torque at zero speed.3.

similar DC link choke.an inherent design feature within some controls. ESD-106 3-30 01/06 . provides a minimum level of harmonic reduction by changing the rate of rise of the input current.involves the use of a phase-shifting transformer for feeding multi-pulse control inputs. The harmonic voltage and current distortion values at the PCC may be reduced through several methods that include: A) Design Techniques Power System Design . 12-Pulse Rectifier . However. as percentage of the total power distribution network load will improve harmonic voltage distortion conditions. Harmonic distortion levels as stated in IEEE 519 apply at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC) between the utility system and multiple users. provides lower amplitude of harmonic currents by slowing down the rate of rise of input current pulses.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD D) Possible resonance with power factor capacitors Electrical Design Manual The AC input line harmonic current magnitudes vary with the design of the drive. C) Multi-Pulse Methods/Converter Design Topologies Phase multiplication . The power distribution system impedance at the installation and the drive input design determines the actual magnitude of th eline harmonic currents. The net effect is cancellation of the 5th. By shifting the phase relationship to various 6-pulse controls. and 19th characteristic harmonics. DC Link Choke/Inductor .provides similar performance to an AC line reactor with the additional power quality benefit of being able to adjust the voltage magnitude.decreasing the drive system load. Drive Isolation Transformer .a control that utilizes a dual 6-pulse rectifier network with a phase shifting transformer for proper commutation of the dual bridges.based upon the percent of line impedance. this method is most effective when the motor loads are equal size and load. 7th. the net effect in the power system is to create a 12-pulse circuit with cancellation of the 5th and 7th characteristic harmonics. B) Line Impedance AC line reactor .

monitoring dynamic load conditions and switching necessary VAR compensation. 23rd.5. cancellation of lower order 5th. Active Filters – designed primarily for multiple non-linear harmonic loads.a control that utilizes three 6-pulse rectifier networks with a pulse shifting transformer for proper communication. frequently derivation. similar to a shut filter.7 Drive Application Information Complete application information is critical to the proper selection and installation of an ASD system. The specifications for an ASDsystem should include: A) B) C) D) E) F) G) Horsepower and torque requirements at various speeds Speed range of the load and motor Motor voltage Incoming power. This method of harmonic abatement is the most complex. Harmonic injection – adaptive compensators are designed to constantly monitor the AC line current to the drive by injecting a current equal in frequency/magnitude and 180 degrees out phase to the distorted current. voltage dips and derivations. Series filters – these filters consist of a parallel LC circuit tuned to resonate a specific frequency. and flywheels ESD-106 3-31 01/06 . The series reactor acts to de-tune other power distribution system harmonics form being trapped by the passive filter. 11th. This results in an improved waveform. A microprocessor controller is required for gate control of the input power semiconductors. 7th. 29th. mechanical resonance effects of gears. 25th. 3.a control that incorporates gate controlled power semiconductors in the input rectifier stage to shape the input current waveform.3.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual 18-Pulse Rectifier . 13th. D) Harmonic Filters Shunt filters – passive filters that are properly designed and for the 5th. and 13th harmonics can effectively reduce the harmonic currents in a power distribution system. to a sinusoidal waveform symmetrical to the voltage. and regulating Dynamic response (Wk2) to the motor shaft. couplings. including acceleration and deacceleration time Ride-through requirements and response to momentary interruption For large motors with high-speed operation. Active Rectifier Input . and 31st characteristic harmonics.

Design Calculation. in this design guide. push-to-test pilot lights. and similar switches.5 Control Circuit Devices This section covers a broad range of devices that are found in motor control circuits. Devices covered by this rating include momentary and maintained contact pushbuttons and control switches. which are powered by full voltage starters. and shall not be larger than the maximum size recommended by the motor manufacturer.4 Power Factor Correction Power factor improvement shall be provided only when the electric utility rates include a penalty for low power factor and the projected power factor of the facility will be less than the minimum allowed within the rate. 3. and control relays. such as torque and pulsation M) Regeneration applications 3. making a circuit requiring 7. Power factor improvement shall be provided by installing capacitors on the larger motors (25 hp and larger). The capacitors shall be connected between the motor starter contacts and the overload relays so that overload relay heaters can be sized in accordance with motor nameplate currents. pressure.5. special sequencing circuits or analog input speed reference signals to control the ASD system) K) Harmonic current and its effect on a plant’s power distribution apparatus.3. ability to bypass the drive if necessary. The capacitors shall be sized in accordance with the procedures provided in Section 2. Only devices with contacts having the designation A600 shall be used where the control circuit voltage will be greater than 120 volts. limit switches. ESD-106 3-32 01/06 . All control circuit devices shall meet the requirements of applicable NEMA ICS 2-125 Standards. especially to microprocessor-based equipment and electronically sensitive instruments L) Harmonic current’s effect on mechanical output.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual H) Starting and stopping cycles for emergency-management applications I) General description of the type of application including the environment in which the ASD system components must operate J) A description of additional functionality that may be met with the motor and drive only (motor temperature monitoring.200 voltamperes and breaking a circuit carrying 720 volt-amperes.5. Contacts with these designations are capable of carrying 10 amperes continuously. snap action switches in temperature. Devices that contain contacts and are used in 120-volt control circuits shall have contacts with the designation A300 or A600.

the control switch or pushbuttons shall be located near the motor in either a local control panel or as a locally mounted control station. low-voltage three-phase. all snap action switches and control relays shall be of the quickmake quick-break type. 3.2 Design Considerations There are a number of things that must be taken into consideration when specifying a motor for a specific application. but only the basic ones will be defined here. Most motors used within a water treatment facility will be induction motors and will fall into one of the following classifications: low-voltage single-phase. See Appendix G for a typical motor torque curve and associated definitions. Torque is the force that tends to produce a turning motion in an electrical motor.1 Motor Torque. its operating speed. There are a number of types of torque that are defined in the Motor Application and Maintenance Handbook. the induction motor.6.2. Torque is expressed in terms of force and distance to represent the turning moment. the synchronous motor.6 MOTORS The subject of motors is a very broad topic and will not be dealt with in any detail in this section. ESD-106 3-33 01/06 . Standard duty type shall not be used. and pilot lights shall be heavy duty oiltight or corrosion resistant type. Most important are the torque characteristics of the motor. selector switches. and the environmental protection provided by the enclosure and the insulation system. 3. 3. NEMA standard MG 1 Motors and Generators covers the construction and testing of all types of motors and should be consulted for the general standards of the industry. In addition. Where the drive motor is remote from the motor starter location. and the dc motor. thermal protection. The primary function of this control device is to provide a local override of all other control devices that may exist in the control circuit. or medium-voltage three-phase.6. In addition.6. The use of two-wire and three-wire control stations is illustrated in Figure 3-6. Every motor control circuit shall contain a control switch or START/STOP pushbutton station in series with the main contactor coil to allow manual control of the drive motor.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual All pushbuttons.1 Basic Motor Types There are three basic types of motors that will be discussed in more detail in this section. The text Motor Applications and Maintenance Handbook is an excellent reference on the subject and should be reviewed for specific questions that are not addressed in this manual. 3.

STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual Figure 3-6. Example Control Station Wiring ESD-106 3-34 01/06 .

Few intermittent loads occur in water treatment and pumping plants. 3.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual Locked Rotor Torque. Full-Load Torque.2 Duty Classification. This is the minimum torque developed by the motor at all angular positions of the rotor at the instant of rated-power application to the motor primary winding circuit. This is the torque developed with rated-power input during the period from standstill to full rated speed. This torque is sometimes referred to as the breakaway starting torque. This is typically done by plotting the torque curve of the motor and the load torque on the same graph from zero speed to synchronous speed of the motor.6. ESD-106 3-35 01/06 . or varying duty depending on their ability to drive a load: Continuous duty refers to a load that demands operation at a substantially constant load for an indefinitely long time. Most motor applications in water treatment and pumping plants that are not continuous duty shall be varying duty. It is the positive torque available beyond the requirements of the load. Motors are classified for continuous. where each interval has a specific duration. This is the torque necessary to produce rated speed with rated-power input. This is sometimes referred to as maximum torque and is the maximum torque developed at ratedpower input without an abrupt change in speed.2. Accelerating Torque. Breakdown Torque. Most motor applications in water treatment and pumping plants will be continuous duty. Varying duty refers to a load that demands operation at loads and for intervals of time both of which may be subject to wide variations. The torque capabilities of the motor being proposed must be compared against the torque requirements of the load to verify that the motor is capable of operating the load. intermittent. Intermittent duty refers to a load that demands operation for alternate intervals of load and rest or load and no-load.

The synchronous motor speeds (rpm) at 60 Hz are as follows: 3.600 514 277 1. For ac motors.200 400 240 900 360 225 720 327 600 300 Motors are specified in terms of full-load speed. which will vary between 0. Since the number of poles in a motor is in pairs and the synchronous speed of an ac motor is directly related to the number of poles in the motor.2. Motor speed is designated in terms of revolutions per minute (rpm). This term only applies to induction motors because synchronous motors operate at synchronous speed. at full load. or practically constant. for a specified range of torque.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual 3. 3-1) Slip speed is the difference between synchronous speed and actual rotor speed. Following are several definitions that need to be kept in mind: Full-load speed is the rated speed at which rated full-load torque is delivered with rated-power input. depending on motor design. where full-load speed is the synchronous speed minus the slip speed. ESD-106 3-36 01/06 . Adjustable speed indicates that the speed may be varied gradually over a considerable range.3 Motor Speed.5 and 5 percent. but remains practically unaffected by load at each adjustment. With the introduction of adjustable-frequency controllers. synchronous speed shall be found by using the following formula: Synchronous speed = (rpm) 120 x frequency (Hz) no. of poles in motor (Eq.6.800 450 257 1. it is now possible to continuously adjust the speed of ac motors because the frequency can be continuously varied. Constant speed indicates that the normal operating speed is constant. the motor speeds available are very limited. Synchronous speed indicates that the motor speed is in synchronism with the frequency of the power supply. and for synchronous and induction motors is directly related to the frequency of the power source.

The more critical the drive. high ambient temperature. A single-winding induction motor can be wound such that it can be operated at either of two speeds by reconnecting the windings within the motor. The larger the motor. Since a two-speed single-winding and a two-speed two-winding motor require different controllers. 3. and failure of mechanical components. failure of electrical elements. The need for special protection schemes needs to be evaluated for each of the other possible causes of motor overheating. where high ambient temperatures are anticipated.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual A single motor can be operated at up to four different constant speeds depending on the design of the motor. thermal overload protection needs to be included as part of the motor controller and. the higher the operating voltage. The low speed must be onehalf of the high speed. Integral overheating protection shall be provided for all motors 100 hp and larger. There are a number of causes of motor heating but the ones most often encountered include: sustained overload. Therefore. Severe overheating may result in immediate motor burnout. Several methods can be employed to protect a motor against thermal damage. loss of ventilation.6. an insulation system with a higher temperature rating should be specified. the type of motor to be specified shall be coordinated with the controller to be provided. In some cases. Integral thermostat devices are adequate for small motors but larger motors shall be protected by thermistors or resistance temperature devices (RTDs).2.6. the more likely that special protection shall be provided.4 Motor Thermal Protection. A two-winding motor can be constructed to operate at any of the normally available speeds. Different types of motor enclosures are offered that provide varying degrees of physical protection from the elements for a motor (see Appendix E).5 Motor Enclosures. a single motor designed with two sets of windings. Following is a brief list of those enclosures most often needed in a water treatment plant: ESD-106 3-37 01/06 . 3. low or unbalanced supply voltage. and most motors that are located in wet wells or other locations where continuous cooling cannot be assured. each designed for two-speed operation. Thermal protection must be provided to prevent uneconomical and excessive rates of electrical insulation system deterioration caused by excessive temperatures. would allow four operating speeds. In every case. it is best to provide a combination of elements to provide protection against several possible causes.2. all motors that are driven by an adjustable-frequency drive system (AFD). and the low speed does not need to be one-half of the high speed. Thermistors should be used for motors 100 hp and larger at 480 volts with RTDs being used for all medium-voltage motors.

Single-phase motors shall be equipped with some type of starting device to cause motor rotation. This is an open enclosure with ventilating openings constructed so as to prevent drops of liquid or solid particles that fall on the machine from an angle of 15o or less from the vertical from entering the machine. which will allow their connection to most lowvoltage systems. Single-phase motors are available for operation at 115 volts. Totally Enclosed Fan-Cooled Enclosure. Motors larger than 5 hp that are located in indoor dry areas may be specified to have drip-proof enclosures. 3. The motor is cooled by heat radiating from the surface to the surrounding atmosphere. use of this motor is limited. Totally enclosed fan-cooled enclosures shall be specified for motors smaller than 5 hp in all locations and for larger motors located outdoors and in wet areas. snow. which can be points of failure. Very small motors may also be specified to have totally enclosed nonventilated enclosures when these are the standard of the manufacturer supplying the equipment. Motors 200 hp and larger that are installed outdoors shall be specified to have weatherprotected Type I enclosures.3 Low-Voltage Single-Phase Induction Motors Single-phase motors shall be specified for nonessential process loads less than 3/4 hp and in heating and ventilating (HVAC) system equipment where they are the standard of the manufacturer.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual Drip-Proof Enclosure. 208 volts. Totally Enclosed Nonventilated Enclosure. This is designed to prevent free exchange of air between the inside and outside of the enclosure and includes no external provisions for cooling the enclosed parts. and airborne particles with live and rotating parts. except for the following two exceptions. This is designed to prevent free exchange of air between the inside and outside of the enclosure and includes an integral fan external to the enclosure to provide cooling. Weather-Protected Type I Enclosure.6. Because this starting device often includes a centrifugal switch and a capacitor. All motors to be located outdoors and in wet and/or corrosive indoor locations shall be specified to have sealed winding insulation. or 230 volts single-phase. This is an open enclosure with ventilating passages constructed and arranged to minimize contact of rain. ESD-106 3-38 01/06 .

Voltage selection for motors larger than 200 hp shall be reviewed with Metropolitan. D. All medium-voltage motors shall include integral overheating protection provided by resistance temperature devices (RTDs) embedded in the coils of the motor and in the bearing housings. Design B motors shall be specified unless the load being driven has special torque requirements and a special motor is required. These motors are capable of being driven as either constant-speed motors by a full. Synchronous Motors. whereas a wound-rotor motor is required if a wound-rotor motor controller is to be used.6. these applications are covered under paragraph 3. ESD-106 3-39 01/06 . B. Motors specified for operation with adjustable-frequency controllers shall be sized so that the driven load does not exceed 87 percent of the nameplate rating of the motor. and the main difference between them is their torque characteristics. Medium-voltage motors may be used for smaller motors if medium-voltage motor control was provided for the existing motors to be replaced.5 Medium-Voltage Induction Motors Medium-voltage induction motors shall be used for all applications where the motor size exceeds 200 hp. three-phase induction motors do not require any type of auxiliary equipment to facilitate starting.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual 3. or at adjustable speed by a speed-control system. The design types are A. A contact operation shall be provided to STOP the motor should the temperature at any location exceed a preset value.voltage or reduced-voltage motor controller. and therefore they offer the highest reliability available.4 Low-Voltage Three-Phase Induction Motors Three-phase induction motors shall be specified for most low-voltage process applications.6. Except where special circumstances require otherwise.6. An adjustable-frequencycontrolled speed drive system can be used to operate a normal induction motor. There are some situations where synchronous motors should be selected. Low-voltage three-phase induction motors are classified by NEMA in accordance with five design types (Appendix F). Apart from the motor controller. Lowvoltage three-phase motors are available from 1/4 to 600 hp but shall not be specified above 200 hp except in special situations. A multichannel system shall be provided to monitor the temperature at each RTD location.6. adjustable-speed motors shall be three-phase induction type with pulse width modulated (PWM) adjustable-frequency controllers. and F. C. 3.

and incomplete sequence protection. control. The details of these types of protection are covered by several of the reference texts. since they need to be separately excited. the control equipment is much more complex. These include pull-out protection. With their associated controllers. cable trays. but in a water treatment facility the forms most likely to be found include conduit systems. dc motors shall be specified to drive chemical feed pumps where precise control is required. They are typically used where large loads are operated continuously and power factor improvement is required because they can be a source of VARs when they are overexcited. and instrumentation circuit conductors. Dc motors shall be powered from the low-voltage ac power system using DC-SCR drive units.6.6 Synchronous Motors Synchronous motors are similar in construction to induction motors and require similar type controls except that. loss-offield protection. In addition. Units 5 hp and less shall be supplied power at either 120 or 240 volts single phase. There are few applications in a water treatment plant that justify the added expense of a synchronous motor and its associated controls. starting winding protection.7 Direct Current Motors There are a number of applications for dc motors in a water treatment plant. there are a number of additional types of protection required.6. This section describes when to use the different systems. Raceway systems can take a number of forms. These motors offer a wide speed range with essentially stepless variation in speed setting.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual 3. The guide specifications cover the products to be used in each system and the installation of that material. The synchronous motor needs to be protected for the same conditions that apply to a large induction motor. 3. They are capable of being accelerated and decelerated quickly and result in very accurate speed control when set. the design criteria to be used in sizing the components of each system. 3. Synchronous motors are available from fractional horsepower to many thousands of horsepower. underground trenches. due to the characteristics of the synchronous motor. and identifies many of the applicable sections of the NEC. wireways.7 RACEWAY SYSTEMS A raceway system shall be installed to provide protection for conductors for power. each potential application needs to be reviewed carefully. and underground duct systems. ESD-106 3-40 01/06 .

The conduit number shall be shown on equipment layout drawings. galvanized rigid steel conduit (GRS).7. PVC-coated GRS and Schedule 40 PVC conduit offer resistance to corrosion and shall be selected where corrosive conditions can be expected. The conduit number shall be composed of the equipment number of the serviced equipment. receptacle. The properties of these conduits shall be considered in combination when selecting the conduit to be used for such applications as turning up out of a corrosive soil or passing through the interface between concrete and either the soil or a wet condition exposed to the air. and conduit schedules.7. 350. ESD-106 3-41 01/06 . 3. 353. PVCcoated galvanized rigid steel conduit.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual 3. and 358 of the NEC contain additional information pertaining to the installation of conduit systems and shall be consulted during design. 352. Conduit is available in a number of materials. Schedule 80 PVC and flexible metal conduit (not liquid-tight) are also used for some applications.1 Conduit System The raceway most often used to protect conductors is the conduit. the superior properties of PVC-coated GRS make it the preferred choice. Schedule 40 PVC shall be used where conduits are to be installed underground. and where the conduit can be protected from physical damage. The galvanized coating of EMT resists corrosion well but the walls are so thin that it does not resist physical damage well. and HVAC circuits. because of their superior resistance to corrosion. GRS and PVC-coated GRS offer superior physical protection and should be selected for those applications where physical damage can be expected. but the ones most often used are Schedule 40 PVC. In both of these situations.2 Conduit Identification Conduit numbers shall be assigned to conduits. Articles 344. Schedule 40 PVC shall also be installed abovegrade where a corrosive environment is anticipated. The conduit type to be used in each situation shall be determined based on the conditions expected on the project. wiring diagrams. plus a sequentially assigned number. EMT shall be used in dry areas above ceilings and concealed in walls for lighting. electrical metallic tubing (EMT). either direct buried or concrete encased. electrical conduit layout drawings. and liquid-tight flexible metal conduit (flex). such as in a chemical room.

Solid bottom steel cable trays with steel covers provide EMI/RFI shielding protection for sensitive circuits and shall be used to route instrumentation cables. The trench system may be either precast concrete sections or cast in place.7. All multiconductor cables shall also be tray cable (TC) rated to be installed in a cable tray system.7. Single conductors shall be No. 3. A variety of trench widths and depths are available and the precast type are available with a broad range of options and accessories. it provides space for tapping of conductors. Barriers shall be provided to separate conductors and cables of different systems that are routed through the same trenches. 1/0 AWG or larger and labeled for installation in a cable tray.3 Wireway Wireways with conduit nipples shall be used to interconnect electrical equipment where there will be a number of separate enclosures located close to each other. There are a number of rules in the NEC which must be kept in mind should the engineer choose to use a cable tray system. ESD-106 3-42 01/06 . cable tray systems shall be used in electrical rooms to provide convenient routing of feeder conductors between major equipment items and between the electrical room and the control room to route control and instrumentation cable. Article 392 of the NEC covers the installation of cable tray systems and the installation of conductors and cables in them. 3. Ladder or ventilated/trough cable trays without covers permit the maximum free flow of air across cables and shall be used to route power and control cables. if necessary.5 Trench System The trench system offers an alternative to an above ground cable tray system or a duct bank system in substation and switching station yards where a large number of conductors and cables must be routed around the yard. They have limited use in a water treatment plant where changes occur only infrequently. Article 376 of the NEC contains additional information pertaining to the application of wireway and shall be consulted during design. The wireway provides an ideal pathway between the enclosures.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual 3. In water treatment plants.7.4 Cable Tray System The cable tray system is an ideal raceway system for use where frequent changes in the conductor or cable systems are expected. and it makes grouping of conductors from the various enclosures into conduits leaving the area very easy.

and communication cables. 3. The trench shall be covered by removable fiberglass reinforced concrete panels. The largest ducts shall be installed at the bottom of each ductbank with all of the spare ducts being provided at the top of the ductbank. 14 AWG minimum. Each row in the ductbank shall be the same size throughout its width and the minimum size conduit to be installed shall be 1 inch. Even though different sizes of ducts may be required by the conductors and cables to be installed. Conductors used for control circuits shall be No. power. including conductors and cables for instrumentation and control systems. shall be copper and shall be stranded. Low-voltage.6 Ductbank System A ductbank system consists of a number of handholes and/or manholes interconnected by red concrete encased buried conduits. control. 3. The conduits are grouped together and routed along a single corridor to minimize the space required for them. ESD-106 3-43 01/06 .STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual Trench systems shall be open bottom with a crushed rock fill to provide drainage and cable and conductor support. regardless of use. Ductbanks shall be constructed using Schedule 40 PVC conduit with appropriate spacers to maintain the NEC required spacing. but larger conductors may be used where control circuits are long. Separate ducts shall be installed for low-voltage (600-volt and less). mediumvoltage. instrumentation. the number of sizes being installed shall be kept to a minimum. The minimum size conductor to be used for power and lighting systems shall be No.8 CONDUCTORS All conductors. High voltage duct shall have a separate manhole. 3. Communication duct shall have a separate handhole.8. 12 AWG. control. This section will cover both low-voltage. and medium-voltage wiring systems and their related appurtenances.7. and instrumentation cables that run in the same manhole or handhole shall be provided with barrier in accordance with NEC.1 Low-Voltage Wiring Systems (600 Volts and Below) Low-voltage wiring systems shall generally consist of insulated copper conductors installed in an approved raceway system. Special sections shall be provided where equipment will be expected to cross the trench system that are designed to carry traffic loads and meet the requirements of applicable portions of AASHTO H-20.

1. 1 and smaller shall be sized using their 60o C ampacities. Smaller feeder and branch circuit conductors to be installed in cable tray shall be multiconductor power cable rated type TC.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual 3.8.3. Derating is required due to high ambient temperatures or if the number of conductors being installed in the conduit exceeds three. 1 AWG and smaller are not UL-listed for applications above 60o C. The 90o C ampacities of conductors larger than No. thermosetting. may be used in the calculation as long as the resulting ampacity calculated is equal to or less than the listed ampacity at 60o C. shall have a nylon jacket. they shall be UL-listed as suitable for that use. if: The conductors (conduit) are being installed in a dry area. and shall be UL Type XHHW. as described in paragraph 2. Conductor ampacities used in the calculations shall be based on the appropriate temperature rating for the conductor and corrected for the ambient temperature that can be expected and for the conduit fill conditions. 1/0 AWG to be installed in cable trays.1 Power Conductors and Cables. Where derating factors are used in the calculations for sizing these conductors. The resulting ampacity calculated does not exceed the 75o C rating of the conductor. Because many terminals used in equipment for conductors No. Terminals for larger conductors are rated for use with conductors rated 75o C. polyethylene insulation and shall be UL type RHHRHW-USE. Conductors used for lighting and receptacle branch circuits shall be PVC insulated. Where conductors for power circuits are to be installed in cable trays. either 75 or 90o C ampacities. whichever is appropriate for the application. 1 can be used in determining the size of the conductor to be used. conductors No. Design Calculations. ESD-106 3-44 01/06 . Conductors used for feeders and branch circuits to process equipment shall be insulated with a crosslinked. Low-voltage conductors shall be sized in accordance with the requirements of NEC Table 310-16. The NEC does not allow single conductors smaller than No.

14 AWG. 2 AWG or larger. Table K-2 of ICEA 5-66-524.1. Control conductors may be installed with motor branch circuit conductors where control devices are located at or near the motor. Where the branch circuit conductors are larger than No. The conductors shall be PVC insulated. shall have a nylon jacket. The assembly shall be manufactured in accordance with UL 1277 and shall be UL and NEC Type TC suitable for cable tray installation. Multiconductor control cables shall be constructed using UL type THWN/THHN/MTW single conductors bound together in a single assembly with a PVC jacket.8. No. 4 AWG and smaller. and multiconductor cables shall be installed where the branch circuit conductors are No.2 Control Conductors and Cables. control conductors shall be installed in a separate raceway. 4/0 or parallel conductors are used. 12 AWG conductors shall be used for long circuits where additional physical strength is required. a multiconductor control cable shall be installed. The minimum size conductor to be used for control circuit shall be No. Individual conductors shall be installed with branch circuit conductors No. Where multiple control conductors are required between two panels or terminal junction boxes.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual 3. and shall be UL type THWN/THHN/MTW. ESD-106 3-45 01/06 . Individual conductors of multiconductor control cable assemblies shall be color coded in accordance with Method 1.

18 or larger insulated stranded conductors. All instrument cables shall be terminated with locking forked tongue lugs on numbered screw type terminal blocks.3 Instrumentation Cables. panel. Where a large number of 24-volt discrete signals have been brought together in a terminal junction box and need to be connected to the terminals of a distributed control system or similar input/output assemble for a programmable logic controller (PLC).STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual 3. phenolic. and then a local terminal junction box shall be installed to gather the single TSPs together into a multipair cable. A TST shall be similar except that it shall contain three No. The minimum size conductor to be used for analog signal circuits and other low voltage discrete dc circuits shall be No. or remote terminal unit without the use of intermediate terminal junction boxes. 18 AWG. Instrumentation cables are available with both 300-volt and 600-volt insulation. A TSP shall be installed from each field-located device to the associated control room-located instrument. Cables with 600-volt insulation shall be used wherever they will be installed in equipment that contains circuits that operate at above 120 volts to ground. See the specifications for the details of construction of the instrumentation cables to be used. wherever possible.recognized component plastic.8. individually jacketed. a multipair unshielded cable may be used. and have nickel-plated brass. ESD-106 3-46 01/06 . twisted shielded pair conductors cabled together within an overall shield and jacket. These conductors shall be installed as twisted shielded pairs (TSPs) and/or triads (TSTs) as may be required for the installation. A TSP shall consist of two No. The exception to this is where multiple instruments (more than five) are located close to each other. binder head type screws. 18 or larger stranded copper conductors with PVC insulation and a bare copper drain wire twisted together within a conducting shield and a flame retardant jacket.1. Cables with 300-volt insulation may be used wherever physical separation will be maintained from conductors that operate at above 120 volts to ground. Terminal blocks shall be constructed of UL. The multipair cable shall be constructed of multiple.

regardless of voltage.3 Splices and Terminations As a general rule. all medium. shall be spliced. All splices and termination shall be insulated using heat-shrinkable sleeves that provide an insulation level at least equal to that of the conductor. they shall be made on terminal strips in a junction box (terminal junction box). twist-on spring connectors (wirenuts).8.and high. The ampacity tables of Article 310 of the NEC shall be used in selecting conductor sizes for medium. Cable Systems. The application of each medium. and instruments shall be made with approved compression type connectors. Conductors with insulation rated 133 percent shall be used on ungrounded and resistance grounded medium-voltage systems.and high-voltage conductors shall be shielded. Although both insulations have similar properties and ratings. Final terminations at motors and similar equipment where removal of the equipment for maintenance can be expected shall be made with approved bolted connection.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual 3.and high-voltage circuits but the Engineer must not forget the effects of short circuit currents on these conductors. EPR is less subject to treeing in the presence of water. Control conductors and cables shall be terminated at box lug type terminal blocks rated 600 volts ESD-106 3-47 01/06 . 3.2 Medium and High Voltage Conductors (Above 600 Volts) Two types of insulation must be considered when specifying medium. several manufacturers have published data and graphs that are useful in selecting conductors that are properly sized for applications where fault currents are high. Splices shall not be tolerated in control and instrumentation circuit conductors. Chapter 12.8. See the specifications for the details of medium-voltage conductor construction.and high-voltage conductor shall be reviewed with respect to allowable short circuit current for the conductor size required and allowable temperature rise of the insulation before the short circuit protective device trips. no conductor. Therefore. but there are certain situations where splices and terminations will be required. shall have EPR insulation. Splices in conductors to process equipments. This section deals with the splicing and termination of lowvoltage and medium-voltage insulated conductors. They are the cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) and thermosetting ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) compounds.voltage conductors. Where splices are required. and shall have a PVC or neoprene jacket. In addition. control elements. Conductors with insulation rated 100 percent may be used on systems that are solidly grounded. of IEEE Standard 141-1993 should be consulted for additional information on this subject. Low-voltage power conductors in lighting and receptacle circuits may be spliced using UL-listed insulated.

Terminations located indoors and in motor termination boxes shall be of the factory premolded EPDM type.5 Conductor Installation Conductors and cable shall only be installed in conduits and ducts that are properly sized.8. and Appendix H for additional information on the conductor identification system and a material specification for the tags. Such splices shall be made inside of manholes or above ground pedestals using premolded deadbreak elbow and modular splice assemblies of ethylene-propylene-terpolymer (EPDM). instrument loop diagrams. etc. Conductors shall be identified by approved conductor and cable tags. See Metropolitan specification Section 16120. such as handholes. The conductor number shall be shown on wiring diagrams. Basic Materials and Methods. All other terminations of medium-voltage conductors shall be made using factory premolded and skirted EPDM type or preassembled slip-on type terminators. and free from debris.4 Conductor Identification All conductors on each project shall be identified by a system of unique numbers. or in conduit or duct run with multiple bend. and panel wiring diagrams. See Metropolitan specification Section 16120. Conductors. for additional information about splices and terminators for mediumvoltage conductors.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual as specified in Section 16050. Terminations in pad-mounted transformers shall be of the premolded EPDM loadbreak elbow type. Instrumentation conductors and cables shall be terminated using locking forked tongue lugs and screw type terminals as previously mentioned in this chapter and as specified in Section 16120. need to be reviewed carefully to verify that they can be safely installed without damage to them. 3. Pulling tension calculations and jam ratio calculations should be performed to determine if additional pull points or larger conduits are required. properly installed. pullboxes. 3. of Metropolitan's Standard Specifications Sections Catalog. manholes. Circuit numbers shall be keyed to the equipment to which the conductors are connected. Conductors. wire lists.8. ESD-106 3-48 01/06 . Installation of large conductors and cables in long conduit or duct runs. Splices shall only be allowed in medium-voltage conductors where existing conductors must be extended and terminals are not available for the extension. of the specifications. Conductors. Each conductor shall be identified at each termination point and at all accessible locations.

stand up to the environment. Larger boxes may be either cast metal. Even if pull boxes are not shown.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual 3. etc. Pull boxes may or may not be shown depending on the needs of the project.9. Two sizes of boxes are discussed in this section: device boxes (small boxes) used as junction and pull boxes. Small boxes to be installed in damp or wet locations shall be cast metal. Small boxes that may be subject to physical damage shall be manufactured of cast metal. Section 16050. and keep water out of the raceway system. whereas larger boxes in such locations shall be manufactured of sheet steel. Boxes used in dry areas may be manufactured of either sheet steel or cast metal. Cast metal conduit fittings may be used as junction boxes in both dry and wet areas if the box contains no splices. and boxes that must be larger than device boxes. shall be constructed of sheet steel. stainless steel. epoxy-coated sheet metal with stainless steel hardware and neoprene gaskets. Basic Materials and Methods. Corrosive and hazardous atmospheres will be discussed later in this section. the specifications require the contractor to install them to limit the number of bends in a conduit section to not more than three 90o equivalent bends. Small boxes located 4 feet above finished floor in lighting.9 JUNCTION BOXES AND PULL BOXES Junction boxes and pull boxes shall be provided to facilitate the combination of multiple circuits into a single conduit and the pulling of conductors and cables. of Metropolitan's Standard Specifications Sections Catalog covers the basic materials that are available for use. The boxes used in indoor locations must be able to withstand the physical abuse they are likely to receive. Junction boxes shall be shown on the drawings as required in the conduit system to group conductors. large device boxes shall be used wherever splices are necessary. or gasketed reinforced fiber glass with stainless steel hardware rated NEMA 4.1 Indoor Locations Indoor locations can have environments that vary anywhere from dry to wet and can include corrosive as well as hazardous atmospheres. ESD-106 3-49 01/06 . They shall be sized as necessary to accommodate the conductors and cables being installed and shall be constructed of a material suitable for the environment where they will be located. 3. terminate cables. and receptacle circuits and concealed boxes in all raceways.

3 Corrosive Locations Boxes to be installed in corrosive locations shall be rated NEMA 4X and shall be manufactured of a material suitable for the corrosive environment. 3. Basic Materials and Methods. or instrumentation cables.9. ESD-106 3-50 01/06 .2 Outdoor Locations Boxes to be installed in outdoor locations that have noncorrosive atmospheres shall be installed using the same criteria as for indoor wet areas. 3. See Section 16050.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual 3. 3. reinforced fiberglass.5 Terminal Junction Boxes The term "terminal junction box" (TJB) shall be a term applied to junction boxes that contain terminal strips for the termination of either control conductors.9. of Metropolitan's Standard Specifications Sections Catalog for additional requirements for TJBs. They shall be constructed using a junction or pullbox that is suitable for the area where it is to be installed and contains terminal strips that are suitable for the conductors to be terminated. These boxes should be located away from corrosive materials as much as possible.9. Where a standard does not exist. Concrete pull boxes shall be installed in underground runs of conduits where the number of conduits passing through them do not justify installation of a handhole or manhole. the boxes shall be designed to meet the requirements of NEMA 7 as a minimum. Boxes shall be installed in such a way as to protect them from physical abuse either by locating them out of harm's way or installing them behind a removable barrier.9.4 Hazardous Locations Boxes to be installed in hazardous locations shall be UL-listed for use in an area with the hazard classification that exists if a standard exists. and PVC. small power conductors. Acceptable materials include 316 SST. PVC may only be used in the smaller sizes.

Handholes in other areas may have covers with a lower loading class. and as necessary to limit pulling tension required for installation of conductors and cable to within safe limits.10. The opening in the cover shall be equipped with a hinged cover that is suitable for the location where the handhole is to be installed. Manholes are constructed with enough depth to allow a worker to climb down into it. but are used for different purposes. Handholes are smaller and are used as pull points and locations to redirect circuits in low-voltage and communication ductbank systems where it is reasonable to work with the conductors from above ground. It is often better to leave the opening open and allow the water level in the handhole to rise and fall with the groundwater level. but the contractor shall be required to provide adequate support for all conductors and cable to keep them from laying on the floor of the handhole. adjacent to every building and/or structure where large numbers of ducts enter the ductbank system. and shall have a square or rectangular opening in the cover. Handholes that are smaller than 4 feet by 4 feet by 4 feet need not be equipped with cable racks and insulators. or handholes with no bottom are also acceptable. In areas where groundwater is not a problem. parking areas.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual 3. ESD-106 3-51 01/06 . remember the buoyant effect that can result.10 MANHOLES AND HANDHOLES Manholes and handholes are similar in construction except for their size.voltage ductbanks and in low-voltage ductbanks where the conductors are too large to work from above the ground.1 Handholes Handholes shall be precast concrete. or other areas where vehicle travel can be expected shall be equipped with covers that are rated for AASHTO H-20 loading. Since a worker must be able to move within the manhole without contacting the low. shall contain blockouts or knockouts on all four sides. Handholes that will be installed in driveways. Manholes are much larger and are used as pull points and places to redirect circuits in medium. When trying to keep the inside of the handhole dry. Handholes shall be installed in low voltage and communication system ductbank at all 90o bends.and medium-voltage conductors that pass through it. similar handholes can be used. Handholes to be installed in areas with high groundwater shall be equipped with a single drain opening that can be either plugged or plumbed to a drain. 3. the horizontal dimensions of the manhole must also be larger than that of a handhole.

in high groundwater areas the buoyancy of the manhole may be sufficient to lift it out of the ground. Manholes shall be equipped with a depressed area for installation of a portable sump pump. All three lighting systems are not always necessary. 3. and the third is exit signing. therefore. They shall be installed at all 90o bends and as necessary to limit the pulling tension required for conductor or cable installation to within safe limits. it may be necessary to provide a drain in the bottom of the manhole to allow the level of the water in the manhole to rise and fall with the groundwater level. All conductors and cables shall be trained around the perimeter of the manhole and shall be tied into place with suitable wire ties or similar banding material. The opening in the top shall be equipped with a cast metal cover that is suitable for AASHTO H-20 loading. building codes and common sense dictate when the second and third types of systems are necessary. ESD-106 3-52 01/06 . The first provides general illumination for visual tasks that are necessary in and around a facility. three different lighting systems are discussed.2 Manholes Manholes shall be precast concrete. Should handhole or manhole spacings greater than 300 feet be desired or 90o bends be necessary. the second is an emergency/standby system to provide minimum illumination of means of egress so that safe exit from an area is possible should normal power fail. shall contain blockouts or knockouts on all four sides. Remember. and shall have a round opening in the top. The manhole shall be a minimum height of 6-1/2 feet clear inside so that a person can stand full erect within the manhole. Manholes shall be equipped with heavy duty inserts and cable racks to provide support for conductors and cables that pass through them.10. Manholes shall be used in all medium-voltage ductbank systems and in low-voltage ductbank systems where the size of the conductors makes it impossible to work with them from above the ground.11 LIGHTING SYSTEMS In this section.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual 3. pulling tension calculations shall be performed.

they are not immediately on as is a fluorescent or incandescent lamp. the 96-inch. and the frequency of use of the lighting system. the fluorescent lamps most often used are the 48-inch.intensity discharge lamps (mercury vapor. the mercury vapor. Other lamps that may be used include the incandescent. their increased efficacy (lumens per watt) and their longer life make them the best choice for outdoor and hard to relamp indoor areas. Because of their long life expectancy. during which time the light output is greatly reduced. and high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps shall be the preferred source in outdoor and high bay indoor locations. and the metal halide or multivapor lamps. and where low temperatures or hazardous environments make the selection of other sources difficult. the lighting levels required. the mounting height of the luminaires. and the 96-inch. HPS. The restrike time for a HPS is usually 1 minute or less. and metal halide) is that they require a warm-up and restrike time. an auxiliary quartz lamp can be provided by some luminaire manufacturers. HPS lamps are available in a number wattages and are suitable for burning in any position. 75-watt (60-watt energy saver) slim line. The incandescent has very low efficacy and short life. providing reasonable color rendition for the visual tasks in the area. cool white lamps are recommended for most applications because they provide truer color rendition and thus better visibility. but it is on immediately when energized and is very low cost.1 General Illumination Lighting for general illumination can be provided by a variety of sources depending on the visual tasks that are anticipated. but the only ones that will be considered here are the cool white and warm white classifications. One characteristic of all high. They are available in several color classifications. Illumination should be provided by the source that provides the highest light output (lumens) per watt of input power (efficacy) that can be used. The warm-up time for a HPS can be as much as 3 to 4 minutes. Even though their color rendition is not equivalent to that of fluorescents. Fluorescent lamps shall be the preferred source in indoor locations. 110-watt (95-watt energy saver) high output lamps.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual 3. Where immediate light output is necessary on re-energization. It has applications in out-of-the-way places that are not visited frequently. Warm white may be selected for industrial type applications where color rendition is not important. Fluorescent lamps are available in several types and each has very specific characteristics.11. Mercury vapor and metal halide could be applied in the same areas where HPSs have ESD-106 3-53 01/06 . Although warm white lamps produce a higher light output. 40-watt (34-watt energy saver) preheat rapid start.

STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual been recommended. Each has advantages and disadvantages, which will not be discussed here. When used, incandescent lamps shall be extended service, inside frosted type unless clear lamps are required to meet specific design requirements. 3.11.2 Recommended Illumination Levels The Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) has published a handbook that contains recommended illumination levels for nearly all situations. Table 3-2 is based on the recommendations of IES but is abbreviated because of the need to use more general area classifications that can be applied to a water treatment plant or pump station. Footcandle levels recommended are only approximate, and judgment must be exercised when selecting appropriate levels and making the calculations. In some instances the lighting level indicated only applies to a small portion of a room or area, and it may be best to provide task lighting (Figure 2-4) at the higher level and use a lower level for the rest of the area. 3.11.3 Lighting System Design The design of lighting systems for Metropolitan’s water treatment plants, pump stations, and administration and maintenance buildings shall be in accordance with California Code of Regulations, Title 24, State Building Code. The Code provides performance and perspective compliance approaches for achieving energy efficiency in building lighting systems. 3.11.4 Luminaires There are too many companies that manufacture luminaires to list them or the types of luminaire that they manufacture. In this section, some of the general types of luminaires available will be discussed and recommendations for their use will be made.

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MWD Electrical Design Manual

Table 3-2. Recommended Illumination Levels Task/Area Office/Lab Areas General Close Work Control Room Process Areas Storage Areas/Active Storage Areas/Inactive Outdoor Areas Filters Pump Stations Storage Areas Walkways Roadways Footcandles 50 100 50 30 20 10 5 10 5 2 1

3.11.4.1 Fluorescent. Fluorescent luminaires used indoors shall be one of four basic types: Recessed type with a lens; Surface type with a lens; Open-chassis type; Enclosed and gasketed. All lenses shall be specified to be 100 percent clear acrylic. Recessed fluorescent luminaires with a prismatic acrylic lens shall normally be used in office areas, and lab areas. The luminaire specified must be coordinated with the type of ceiling being installed, because the luminaire to be recessed in a lay-in ceiling cannot be installed in a plaster board ceiling and vice versa. Two-lamp luminaires are preferred but three- and four-lamp luminaires shall be used where higher footcandle levels are required and/or two-level switching is desired. Where threeand four-lamp luminaires are installed in office areas, two-level switching shall be provided. Surface-mounted fluorescent luminaires with a lens may be substituted for recessed luminaires in areas where plasterboard ceilings are being installed. In areas that contain equipment having video display terminal (VDT)

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STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual screens, special care needs to be taken in selecting the lighting units to be used. High-angle brightness, better known as glare, must be controlled to avoid discomfort and fatigue. Proper selection of lighting units can substantially reduce this brightness and thus improve the work environment. Lighting control systems that utilize a parabolic louver assembly of preanodized specular low-iridescent aluminum, Lithonia OPTIMAX, or equal, shall be used in all areas where VDT screens will be used. Open-chassis fluorescent luminaires shall be specified for all industrial type areas in the plant where moisture is not a problem if they can be mounted at 15 feet or less. Higher mounting heights result in difficulties in relamping and the need for higher wattage luminaires. Again, two-lamp luminaires are the preferred type. Where more lamps are required to provide the footcandle levels required, higher wattage lamps should be considered. Open-chassis luminaires with reflectors shall normally be used. Where the luminaires are to be suspended, a minimum of 10 percent uplight shall be provided. In situations where surface mounting is necessary, no uplight is required and an open-chassis luminaire without the reflector may be used. All open-chassis luminaires specified shall be heavy duty type. Enclosed and gasketed luminaires shall be specified for damp and wet locations. They shall be UL-listed as suitable for the type of area that they will be installed in. Luminaires shall be manufactured of molded, highimpact resistant ABS plastic or reinforced fiberglass with a diffuser of highimpact resistant acrylic. 3.11.4.2 High-Pressure Sodium. High-pressure sodium (HPS) luminaires installed indoors shall be either open or enclosed and gasketed as best suits the needs of the area where they are to be installed. Open luminaires shall be installed in dry low and high bay areas where they will be suspended and uplight is required. They shall be installed in areas where the ceiling height exceeds 15 feet. Enclosed and gasketed HPS luminaires shall be installed in all damp and wet areas where the mounting height exceeds 12 feet. Luminaires shall be installed suspended and shall be constructed using an acrylic or glass refractor that totally houses the lamp. High-pressure sodium lamps shall be used for all lighting applications outdoors except where decorative lighting is to be provided at the entrances of administration buildings. Security lighting shall be provided on the outside of buildings and at entrances by wall-mounted HPS luminaires that use a prismatic glass or acrylic refractor to direct the light over a broad horizontal area. Each

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STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual luminaire shall put a minimum of 2.25 footcandles of light on the ground within a space of at least 10 feet in front of and at both sides of the luminaire when it is mounted at 10 feet above final grade. Illumination shall be provided at parking areas and on roadways by polemounted luminaires. Mounting heights shall not exceed 25 feet, and lamp size shall be 150 watt. In most situations, IES Type II luminaires will provide the best illumination on roadways whereas IES Type IV or V luminaires provide the best lighting for parking areas. Parking area and roadway luminaires shall be wired for operation at 480 volts if the voltage is available. 3.11.5 Emergency/Standby Lighting For the purposes of this section, the term "emergency lighting" shall mean those lighting systems that are required by NFPA 101 for the protection of human life when the normal power supply fails. The term "standby lighting" shall mean those auxiliary lighting systems that are not required by code but are required for safety reasons should the normal power supply fail. The same equipment shall be used for both lighting systems. Emergency/standby lighting needs in office, lab, and control room areas shall be provided by either recessed emergency lighting units or emergency lighting units that are supplied integral to the fluorescent luminaires. In either case, sufficient units shall be installed in all areas to provide adequate egress lighting for all occupants in the building. Units supplied shall provide a minimum of 90 minutes of light as required by UL 924. Emergency/standby lighting needs in enclosed process areas of the plant shall be provided by 12-volt unitized lighting units. At least one unit shall be installed in each area where motors or other process equipment exist and one unit shall be installed in each electrical room that houses switchboards, unit substation, or motor control centers. Lighting units may also be installed in other areas where the exitway may be blocked by equipment or materials and a hazard may exist. Each lighting unit shall be located to provide maximum illumination on the normal exitway. The NEC requires that all unit type emergency lighting systems be supplied power from the circuit that normally supplies the lighting in the area where the unit is to be located. Where more than one circuit supplies the area, the one that supplies the largest part of the traveled area shall be selected as the source of power.

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an individual ON/OFF switch shall be installed on each pole of the lighting fixtures. provide a separate switch for each room.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual 3. In some pole-mounted lighting applications. Exit signs and lighting shall be provided in the administration building where the public and persons unfamiliar with the building may have access. All exit signs shall be electrically powered and shall contain an integral battery and low-voltage lamps to provide uninterrupted illumination should the normal power supply fail. In addition.7 Controls Controls for lighting systems shall be designed to meet the needs of the space where the lighting system equipment is to be installed. a three-position switch shall be provided so that they can be turned on for testing. In office areas where lighting requirements will vary depending on the task at hand.11. at least one switch shall be provided for each two 20-amp lighting circuits.11.6 Exit Signs The Life Safety Code. however. 3. dimmers. NFPA 101. two-level switching. or occupancy lighting control sensors shall be provided to maximize energy savings. ESD-106 3-58 01/06 . All outdoor lighting circuits shall be routed through a photocell or photocell controlled contactor to assure that they will be OFF when not required. Where outdoor lights are controlled by photocell controlled contactor. process buildings that contain multiple rooms so that the means of egress is not obvious shall be equipped with exit signs to direct a person to the nearest exit. where exit signs should be provided. There are some locations. Rooms that have a single door that does exit to the outdoors need not be equipped with an exit sign. that defines the need for exit signing and lighting contains no requirement that would require exit signs in most buildings of a water treatment plant. Exit signs shall provide adequate direction to the exits. In all office and process areas where illumination is not required continuously. Where large rooms are encountered. Areas that will require illumination 24 hours per day shall be provided with switching duty circuit breakers and no local switches.

(Number of conductors limited by derating required by Article 310.7 in this manual for sample calculations). instrumentation panels.12. three-phase dry-type transformers located at each load center.and three-phase loads shown on the drawing.3. Where Article 220 allows the use of demand factors. Low-voltage power shall be supplied by installation of 480-208Y/120-volt. and 430 of the NEC. The second panelboard may be located remote from the first panelboard. they shall be used with caution.1 Voltage Selection Low-voltage power for lighting.2 Panelboards Panelboards shall be installed as necessary to provide power to the 120-volt. 220. and miscellaneous power needs shall be distributed at 208Y/120 volts unless some other power need dictates a different voltage.12 LOW VOLTAGE POWER DISTRIBUTION MWD Electrical Design Manual 3.12." It is recommended that the load on these circuits be limited further to 1. 3.) In addition.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES 3. single-phase transformer. Branch circuit breakers for instruments. Where more circuits are required than can be provided by a single panelboard. Branch circuit breakers shall be thermal-magnetic type and sized in accordance with applicable paragraphs of Articles 210. 225. receptacles. single. The load on 20-amp branch circuits that supply lighting and receptacles must be limited to 80 percent of the rating of the branch circuit protective device. All panelboards supplied from a transformer shall have a main circuit breaker (transformer secondary breaker) that has been sized in accordance with the National Electrical Code (see paragraph 2. these circuits often pass through an ESD-106 3-59 01/06 . The instrument power supply transformer may be a 480-120/240-volt.phase and 208-volt.15(B)(2) of the NEC. Instruments shall be powered from a separate supply transformer and panelboard unless their number is very limited and the low-voltage power panel is connected to no loads that can be expected to generate harmonics back onto the bus. a 20-amp molded case circuit breaker per Article 210 of the NEC.800 VA to limit voltage drop on these circuits. provide a subfeed breaker in the panelboard supplied by the transformer to supply a second panelboard. single. because lighting and receptacle loads must be considered "continuous. Demand factors may be used for feeder and transformer sizing calculations but not branch circuit calculations. and so on where the exact load is unknown but is small in magnitude shall be sized at 15 amps to allow installation of multiple conductors in the same conduit.

These receptacles shall all be in addition to receptacles that may need to be provided for connection of portable process equipment. coordinate the location of receptacles with the needs of the design architect. provide outlets on at least three walls. A separate branch circuit shall be provided for each instrument and instrumentation panel unless several instruments are located at the same location. In office areas. all lighting together. Each panelboard shall be provided with a minimum of 20 percent spare breakers corresponding in size with the breakers being used. and air conditioning equipment rated 120 or 208 volts shall be supplied power from the lighting and power panelboards. Inside of the administration building. which are being designed primarily for the use of personnel. Duplex receptacles shall be NEMA configuration 5-20R and shall be rated 20-amp. ventilating. three. In laboratory areas multiple outlets shall be located at work stations. coordinate these locations with the laboratory designer. 3.9.. These circuits should be connected to adjacent circuit breakers in the panelboard.3 Convenience Receptacles Convenience receptacle outlets shall be located throughout each facility to provide a ready power supply for portable tools. Additional receptacles shall be provided in areas where portable tools may need to be used and where the above criteria does not require one in the area. In addition. In the above case. All receptacles shall be installed in boxes as described in paragraph 3. 14 AWG control conductors. are all associated with the same flow stream or process. all receptacles together). and monitor different parameters. Receptacles located outdoors or in locations subject to washdown where they cannot be protected by mounting height (4-foot ESD-106 3-60 01/06 .12. The Engineer shall make an effort to group circuits that perform a common function together within a panelboard (e. etc. two-wire. These receptacles shall be located such that no item of process equipment is located more than 40 feet from a receptacle whether inside or outside of a building.g. a toggle switch shall be located adjacent to each instrument to disconnect it from the branch circuit. Branch circuits for heating.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual instrument panel and become No. three-pole grounding type unless requirements dictate otherwise. Branch circuit protective devices shall be rated 15 amps unless a larger size is required to supply the load..and four-wire branch circuits should be shown on the drawings wherever they are appropriate to minimize the amount of conduit that is required. maintenance buildings.

5 Power Receptacles Plugs and receptacles specified for use on Metropolitan projects shall meet applicable NEMA and UL standards and shall be selected from Figure 3-7. ESD-106 3-61 01/06 . Ground fault interrupter type outlets shall be installed in all outer locations and locker rooms and bathrooms where personal hygiene items may be used.12. Receptacles to be installed in underground structures and in areas where a corrosive atmosphere can be expected shall be manufactured of corrosion-resistant materials.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual minimum above finished floor) shall have a weatherproof cover. 3.4 Hazardous Area Receptacles Receptacles to be installed in hazardous locations shall be of the type suitable for use in classified areas in accordance with Article 500 of the NEC and shall be UL approved.12. 3.

.

ANSI/IEEE Standard 80--IEEE Guide for Safety in AC Substation Grounding.1 General Electrical circuits.2 System Grounding Electrical distribution systems can be either ungrounded (no intentional ground) or grounded (intentionally grounded). To provide for isolation of faulted equipment and circuits when a fault occurs. Three types of grounding are discussed in IEEE Standard 142: system grounding. 3.13. For the purposes of this manual. a grounded system shall be a system of conductors in which at least one conductor or point is intentionally grounded.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES 3. ESD-106 3-63 01/06 . and static and lightning protection grounding. The basic reasons for system grounding are the following. equipment grounding. References to be used in designing grounding systems shall include the following: NFPA 70--The National Electrical Code.13 GROUNDING MWD Electrical Design Manual 3. equipment. static accumulation. or other abnormal conditions shall be grounded by two ground connections. IEEE Standard 142--IEEE Recommended Practice for Grounding of Industrial and Commercial Power Systems.13. All process equipment and structures subject to potential and current flow due to lightning. To limit overvoltages appearing on the system under various conditions. and equipment enclosures shall be bonded and grounded as required by Article 250 of the NEC. The following sections will cover grounding of both plant electrical systems and substation grounding. either solidly or through an impedance. To limit the difference of electric potential between all uninsulated conducting objects in a local area.

Each item within the system shall be bonded together by a bonding conductor sized in accordance with the requirements of the NEC. 3.and medium-voltage transformers and switchgear located outdoors to provide equipment grounding.4 to 12 kV shall be low-resistance grounded.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual 3. The grounding electrode system shall be used for ground of the neutral of the low-voltage power supply and the equipment ground conductors.13. This ground connection shall be of sufficient size and low enough impedance to effectively ground the low-voltage distribution system.2.3. Metropolitan does not use buried large diameter steel pipes in its distribution system as grounding electrodes.13.2. A grounding grid shall be provided in substations and at low. 3. single-phase transformers shall have their neutral solidly connected to ground. because of galvanic action between buried steel pipes and other nearby dissimilar metals. and to minimize step and touch potentials. they shall be 5/8-inch by 10-foot (minimum) copper-plated steel rod (copperweld or equal). Systems 2. The system grounding resistor shall be sized to allow sufficient ground current to flow to provide immediate and selective clearing of the ground fault.1 Service Entrance Grounding. ESD-106 3-64 01/06 . The NEC permits the following to be used as grounding electrodes: Metal underground water pipes Metal frame of the building or structure Concrete-encased electrode Ground ring Rod and pipe electrodes Plate electrodes However.2 Medium-Voltage Grounding.13. Low-voltage 480/277 and 208/120-volt.13. Each power supply system shall be connected to a grounding electrode system meeting all requirements of Article 250 of the NEC.3 Grounding Electrode Systems and Grounding Grids A grounding electrode system shall be provided for all premises' wiring systems as required by the NEC. 3. system grounding. The zero sequence current transformer method shall be used to monitor for ground currents because of their increased sensitivity over a residual scheme using the high-ratio phase current transformers.1 Low-Voltage System Grounding. Installation of the ground grid required shall be calculated using measured soil resistivities. wye-connected three-phase and 120/240-volt. Where made electrodes are included in the grounding electrode system.

13. 2/0 AWG. A grounding grid shall be installed at each transformer or switchgear assembly located outdoors. ESD-106 3-65 01/06 . the design of the substation grounding system must be coordinated with other designs to minimize the effects of corrosion. 2/0. Using the latter method of approximation.3. Smaller conductors may be used to connect noncurrent carrying equipment to the grid. 2 bare copper ground connections to a ground mat constructed under and around the transformer. install a system based on tables that are available. but larger conductors shall be used where high fault currents are expected. Because copper and copper-plated steel form galvanic cells with buried steel pipes and conduits.000 kVA and smaller shall be provided with a minimum of two No. The ground mat shall be constructed of No. Where soil resistivity is measured. the entire grounding system. shall be No. these must be sized based on the fault current they could be expected to carry should a fault occur. and using that data.3 Substation Grounding. a complete grounding system design can be prepared. The minimum conductor size used shall be No. a complete grounding system design shall be performed using procedures contained in IEEE Standard 80. and then verify that the system is adequate. Supply transformers (pad-mounted or unit substation type) 1. All underground connections shall be made with thermoweld process. A grounding grid system designed in accordance with the requirements of IEEE Standard 80 shall be installed in every substation.13. The soil resistivity shall be determined by field measurement. The grounding grid shall be constructed of copper-plated steel rods 3/4-inch by 10-foot driven full length into the ground and bare stranded copper or copper-coated steel conductors. 3.2 Transformer Grounding. a grid system shall be designed to keep step and touch potentials within safe limits. For larger transformers. 2/0 bare copper conductors and copper clad steel ground rods in sufficient quantity to result in a measured resistance to ground of 1 ohm.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual 3.3. Bolted connections may be used abovegrade and shall be used at equipment and structures to be grounded. Where high resistivity soils are encountered. the following grounding system should be adequate in areas where soils with reasonably low levels of soil resistivity are present. including the connections to the transformer. It is often sufficient to determine the approximate needs of the grounding system.

6 Lightning Protection System Grounding Even though southern California is in an area of relatively low thunderstorm activity. Use of the raceway system for grounding is not acceptable.14. they are both discussed in this section.13. A dedicated grounding conductor connected directly to the equipment grounding conductor terminal of the applicable derived system or service may be required in some instrumentation and computer grounding applications. The equipment grounding connection shall be provided by an equipment grounding conductor sized in accordance with Table 250-122 of the NEC routed with the phase conductors. its grounding system shall be installed separate from the electrical system ground. all noncurrent carrying metal parts of fixed equipment likely to become energized shall be grounded.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual 3. Where isolated grounding type receptacles are used. In Metropolitan-owned premises. 3. 3. Where a lightning protection system is installed on a building or structure.146(D) shall be applied.13.4 Equipment Grounding The NEC requirements for equipment grounding are covered in Article 250. For the purposes of this manual. NFPA 78 The Lightning Protection Code and IEEE Standard 142 both deal with the grounding requirements of a lightning protection system.1 General Because emergency and standby power systems both use the same equipment and often serve the same purpose. grounding for lightning protection is still a subject that should be dealt with. the requirements of NEC Section 250. but all metallic segments of the raceway system shall be bonded to the equipment grounding conductor installed in it. An independent reserve source of electric energy that. The need for a lightning protection system is a separate subject and will not be addressed here.13. upon failure or outage of the normal ESD-106 3-66 01/06 . 3.5 Instrumentation and Computer Grounding Each piece of equipment shall be connected to the equipment ground point at the electric service equipment by an equipment ground conductor run with the branch circuit conductors to provide the equipment ground required by the NEC. the following definitions of emergency power and standby power systems will be used: Emergency power system. but the two shall be interconnected to provide a common ground potential.14 EMERGENCY AND STANDBY POWER SYSTEMS 3.

defines two types of standby systems: the legally required and the optional standby systems. emergency power systems are those required by law or code that are intended to provide safety of human life. unit equipment as defined in Article 700 shall be used. The legally required standby systems are those that are required by local. they are usually installed by user choice. The NEC. is an excellent reference on the subject of emergency and standby power systems. Where large amounts of power are required. federal.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual source.14. the need shall be supplied by an onsite diesel engine driven generator.14. of which failure to operate satisfactorily would jeopardize the health and safety of personnel or result in damage to property. however. Standby power system.3 Legally Required Standby Power System Legally required standby systems shall meet all applicable requirements of Article 701 of the NEC. 3. ESD-106 3-67 01/06 . state. Lighting requirements shall be provided by unit type equipment as defined in Article 700 of the NEC. An independent reserve source of electric energy that. provides electric power of acceptable quality and quantity so that the user's facilities may continue in satisfactory operation. 3. diesel driven engine generators shall be installed onsite. ANSI/IEEE Standard 446--IEEE Recommended Practice for Emergency and Standby Power Systems for Industrial and Commercial Applications.2 Emergency Power Systems Emergency power systems shall meet all applicable requirements of Article 700 of the NEC. and other codes to supply power to facilities where interruption of normal electrical supply could create a hazard or hamper rescue or fire fighting operations. automatically provides reliable electric power within a specified time to critical devices and equipment. Standby systems are those that are required for continuous operation of a plant or a process should the normal source be interrupted. Where emergency power is only required for emergency lighting and egress illumination. Where large amounts of emergency power are required. To put it another way. upon failure or outage of the normal source.

Lighting requirements shall be provided by unit type equipment as defined in Article 700 of the NEDC. ESD-106 3-68 01/06 . The diesel engine driven generator is the preferred source of emergency and legally required standby power because of its low first cost. and processes that. In addition. due to fuel volatility nature. An interruptible power supply system shall be provided for all computerbased control and monitoring equipment that may not have integral battery backup capability. They can be diesel. or the like. Gasoline engine driven and propane engine driven generators should not be used unless other sources of fuel are not available. natural gas engines are not often used.14. the NEC requires onsite storage of sufficient fuel for 2 hours of full load operation. To be used as an emergency or legally required standby power supply. gasoline engines are seldom used except in very small sizes.5 Engine Generators Engine generators are the most often used source of onsite emergency or standby power. For optional standby power.14.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual 3. 3.4 Optional Standby Systems Standby power supply equipment shall be installed to provide an alternate source of power for critical control and monitoring functions. 3. therefore. Optional standby systems shall meet all applicable requirements of Article 702 of the NEC.1 Diesel Engine Driven Generator. serious interruption of the process. or even propane powered. the natural gas engine driven generator should be given first consideration due to its cleaner burning and longer run time between maintenance.14. when stopped during any power outage. gasoline. damage to the product or process. could cause discomfort. Synchronous generators shall be used for all applications.5. natural gas.

with both diesel and natural gas being available in most ratings.5. a battery charger. The unit shall meet all applicable requirements of NEC Article 700. compact case.14. Special consideration must be given when sizing a generator when the electrical system being supplied includes loads such as adjustable frequency drive systems. Selection shall be made once a complete list of loads and their sequence of application has been completed. 3.2 Generator Ratings.6 Unit Equipment Unit type emergency lighting units shall consist of a sealed lead acid or lead calcium battery. Engine generators are available in ratings from less than 1 KW to several thousand KW. 3. It must be remembered that either one large motor or a number of smaller motors that are equal in total horsepower and are started simultaneously will have the same impact on the sizing requirements of the generator.14. The connection to the branch circuit shall be made ahead of all local switches. each motor starter should be equipped with a time delay relay so that they can be automatically sequenced on.4 Considerations for Load Types. thus limiting the initial inrush.5. Unit equipment shall be installed as required to provide egress lighting. and appropriate indicating lights and test switches all contained in a single. If there are several motor loads that must be started immediately when the generator is connected to the load bus. ESD-106 3-69 01/06 . and similar solid state power equipment. This will allow the generators to be sized more closely to the actual load requirements. 3.12(F) of the NEC.14.14. Units shall be powered from the branch circuit that supplies normal lighting in the area where it is to be installed as required by Article 700.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual 3. two 6-watt (minimum) lamps. Generator sizing computer software available from most manufacturers shall be used to make the initial selection and then the generator manufacturer shall be consulted to verify that proper generator selection has been made.5. uninterruptible power supplies.3 Generator Sizing.12(F) and NFPA 101. Sizing of the engine generator shall be based on the needs of the anticipated connected system electrical load and shall take into account the starting requirements of the larger motors on the system.

a single large UPS system shall be specified.1 Telephone System. It is important to get the users' early input to the communication system design. The telephone systems available at design time may have all been replaced with significantly changed models by the time the contractor places an order. multiple smaller UPSs shall be specified.1. as noted below. The UPS provides conditioned power to the equipment during normal operation and provides uninterrupted standby power should the normal source fail. The objective of this section is to point out the steps to be followed to design a communication system for a medium to large water treatment plant. The objective of the plant communication system is to locate people within the plant and to communicate with the world outside the plant. Telephone systems are changing rapidly. which may not require paging systems. it is usually advisable to have the telephone system supplied by the local telephone company.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual 3.15.15 SPECIAL SYSTEMS 3.1 Plant Communication System A complete plant communication system consists of a telephone system and a paging system. Where the equipment is dispersed. The operation of the plant will be simpler and the design easier if these systems work together. 3. this does not mean that a detailed design is necessary. Where multiple units are located in close proximity to each other.15.7 Computer Power Systems Power shall be supplied through uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) to computer systems and microprocessor-based equipment such as remote terminal units (RTUs) and programmable logic controllers (PLCs) that have volatile memories. The engineer/designer should give detailed attention to how the telephone system should work. For smaller plants. The first option to consider in getting the users their preferred type of telephone system is to exclude it from the design package or include it as an allowance. 3.14. Putting the telephone system selection in the competitive ESD-106 3-70 01/06 . Batteries supplied with UPS systems shall be of the low-maintenance type specifically designed for use with UPS modules. The reasons for this are: Leaving the telephone system selection to installation time will get a more up-to-date system.

The engineer/designer should have enough knowledge to assist the users with the selection. Find out if the user currently has any telephone systems installed that they especially like or dislike. Telephone system suppliers are generally willing to work closely with contractors so that coordination of an activity that occurs outside the contract should be no problem. equipped (can be made active by adding a phone set). most suppliers will provide little information about their system. and wired future (with addition of future switch modules). It will also avoid having the engineer/designer act as merely a pass-through for vendorsupplied information. Number of stations that are active (in place). until they have a purchase order. and what size?). The system supplier shall be responsible for the complete installation. where does it go. who supplies raceway.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual bidding process will result in the users getting the system they want at a reasonable price. policies on interface with private exchanges. design around a specific system. How heavily will the system be used? How many options do they want? How much complication are they willing to put up with to use these options? The engineer/designer will need to determine the following before beginning the design: Local phone company contact.. it is important to get as much input from the user as is available. Getting design information from a telephone system supplier will be difficult. Since NEC requirements on telephone installations are changing more rapidly than the code revision cycle. this will allow the latest installation methods to be used. If the telephone system is going to be included in the design package. Number of and configuration of paging zones.g. beyond sales brochures. With the design included in the documents. ESD-106 3-71 01/06 . The telephone industry is presently order driven. and requirements for service (e. Check on the cooperation offered by the suppliers in the local area. The contractor shall be responsible for any claim that will occur during such coordination activities with the telephone system suppliers.

Locate the telephone switch and distribution frame (with assistance from selected supplier) and provide more than sufficient power to this area. Location of telephone switch. typically this bus would be 1/4-inch by 2-inch copper (check with the system supplier).15. the equipment available from the selected supplier.2 Paging System. and result in a biddable document that several reputable suppliers can meet. Modify the specifications so that they reflect the users' preferences.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual Features and options desired (see specification and manufacturer's current literature). attendant's console. ESD-106 3-72 01/06 . wet. The engineer/designer must locate an amplifier in each building where paging will be required. Locate a telephone terminal box in each building that will have a phone set and connect these boxes back to the building that contains the telephone switch by large empty conduits. Atmosphere (dry. Provide a ground bus in the vicinity of the distribution frame connected to a grounding electrode and the plant grounding system. Hand-held units have the advantage of rarely being out of range while on the plantsite. Paging systems are of two types: public address or hand-held units. provide about twice the number of receptacles that the telephone system supplier requires. their disadvantage is that the pager has to be carried and it cannot (or only with great difficulty) be tied into the telephone system. The choice will depend on whether you need to locate a few people or anyone that happens to be on site.1. Locate a telephone outlet near each point where a phone set is to be installed. 3. provide a receptacle near each amplifier. hazardous) at every point that a piece of telephone equipment will be installed. and telephone sets. The engineer's/designer's tasks are then to: Select a system that will meet the users' requirements. provide an empty raceway from the amplifier to the telephone terminal cabinet.

5).3.2 High Fire Hazard.g.4). Underground structures in which the story is below the level of exit discharge. unit processes (e. (b) the occupancy is subject to 100 or more occupants above or below the level of exit discharge.g. and welding operations may provide flammable/explosive conditions when acting alone or mixed with other substances. carbon. potassium permanganate) used in various unit processes may be combustible or cause potential flammable and explosive conditions. and combustible dusts. Windowless structures without grade level doors. Chemicals or combustible dusts (e. or (c) the occupancy is subject to 1. some chemicals. chlorine.g. Sources of fire hazard at water treatment plants include gases.1). Since most industrial facilities are not open to the public and are staffed by personnel knowledgeable of the process and of the hazards associated with the process.15.. 3. Paging speakers shall be located on the drawings as required to provide coverage of areas where process equipment are located. unless the total capacity is under 100 persons and fewer than 25 persons are above or below the level of exit discharge (NFPA 101 28-3. All business occupancy buildings where (a) the building is two or more stories in height above the level of exit discharge. extensive fire alarm systems are not usually required.15.1).4.4. The following buildings shall be provided with fire alarm systems: All industrial occupancy buildings.2 Fire Alarm System Fire alarm systems at industrial facilities are provided in facilities where several people are consolidated in one area and in facilities where there is a high fire hazard.2..2. or windows on two sides of the building (NFPA 101 30-1.3. 3.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual and provide a conduit system between the paging system amplifier and the paging speakers for installation of conductors by the communications system supplier. hydrogen. ozone).15.1 Building Occupancy.. access panels. except where the story has at least two sides with at least 20 square feet of opening above the grade level (NFPA 101 30-1. ESD-106 3-73 01/06 . Gases used for laboratory analysis (e. oxygen). 3.000 or more total occupants (NFPA 101 26-3.

Laboratories Using Chemicals. of itself. Life Safety Code. Standards for Fire Alarm System Installation.3. Hazardous Chemicals Data.15.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual Mitigation of fire hazards or potential ignition sources is best achieved by physical separation of reactive chemicals and ventilation. alarm and detection devices shall be provided as shown in Table 3-3.4. The following documents contain additional information: NFPA 45.3 Design Criteria.2. Other documents from NFPA. Classification of Class 1 Hazardous (Classified) Locations for Electrical Installations in Chemical Process Areas. as well as other sources. provide specific information on fire alarm system requirements. see NFPA 101 Section 7-6. operation.15. and communication. For the basic functions of protective signaling and control systems including fire detection. Fire alarm systems are required in the following areas: Laboratory buildings if a fire may not. 3. NFPA 70. NFPA 49.1).2. NFPA 101. ESD-106 3-74 01/06 . installation.4 Code References. The system shall automatically initiate an occupant evacuation alarm signal (NFPA 101 28-3.2). Chemical Reactions. NFPA 72A-E. provide adequate warning to building occupants (NFPA 45 4-5. Where fire alarm systems are required. and sources of ignition. High hazard occupancy. alarm.2 and 28-3. NFPA 497A. sources of hazards. NFPA 491M. or process areas with an automatic extinguishing system. 3. National Electrical Code.

Electrical testing of the power system and its associated equipment is an absolute requirement that will provide a safe and reliable electrical system. the electrical testing and system checkout should include the following: The power supply as furnished by the serving electric utility company. It is the designer's responsibility to be familiar with the testing and checkout procedures in order to be able to specify what is required of the contractor.16 ELECTRICAL TESTING 3.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual 1 Table 3-3. 3. as well as prevent damage to equipment and possible injury to operating personnel. a visual alarm may be required by the governing authorities in some cities and counties. Thus. and should be continued by the electrical contractor during. it is necessary that the required testing and checkout procedures be established in the project specifications. NFPA 820. The testing and checkout process must be started during the period the equipment is being manufactured.1 General Requirements The electrical testing and equipment checkout process cannot be designed into a project. Requirements for Fire Alarm and Detection Devices Area Industrial occupancy Initiation Manual or automatic Notification Audible alarm in continuously attended location for initiating action Business occupancy Manual or automatic detection or sprinkler General audible alarm or live public address from alarm at continuously attended location Audible alarm in continuously attended location for initiating action Underground structure Manual or automatic Windowless structure Manual or automatic Audible alarm in continuously attended location for initiating action Laboratory (not specified) All persons endangered and local fire department to be alerted High hazard area 1 Automatic extinguishing system General audible alarm In addition to an audible alarm. the plant construction. In general. Properties of Chlorine. and upon completion of.16. Fire Protection in Wastewater Treatment Plants. ESD-106 3-75 01/06 . Chlorine Institute.

2 Equipment Line Current. the cause of the unbalance should be located and corrections should be made. switchboard.2. ESD-106 3-76 01/06 . Grounding. The plant illumination system should be visually checked after the fixture installation has been completed. switchgear.4 Plant Illumination. 3. a request should be made to the utility company to have the condition corrected.16. 3. The utility company's incoming threephase service voltages should be continuously recorded for a period of 24 hours at the point of termination after the installation is essentially complete and the plant is in operation.16. as defined by NEMA. exceeds 1 percent.2 Plant Electrical System 3. Voltage amplitude and balance between phases for loaded and unloaded conditions should be recorded and reviewed.2.2. Lighting levels and controls.2. Require the contractors and/or equipment suppliers to check out each item of equipment and demonstrate that it operates in accordance with the requirements of the project specifications.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES Manufactured electrical equipment. MWD Electrical Design Manual Electrical distribution and branch circuit wiring. The contractor must demonstrate that protective functions are operating properly and are properly incorporated into the electrical system protection and control schemes and into the plant control system. The line current in each phase conductor for all three-phase equipment and/or for each substation. If an unbalance.1 Utility Service Tests. The initial lighting levels should be checked against the design criteria and for compliance with Title 24 of the State Administrative Code requirements. Should the voltage vary by more than plus or minus 4 percent throughout the day from loaded to unloaded conditions. Electrical connections and terminations. 3.16. Exterior lighting should also be checked for proper fixture aiming.16.3 Equipment Operations. 3. and panelboard should be measured and recorded after the utility company has made final adjustments to the incoming service voltage.16.

Liquid-filled and dry-type transformers should receive all standard commercial tests in accordance with ANSI C57. Check for proper installation of vibration dampeners.3. valves. and gauges.4 kV and above. Full-load losses. Voltage ratio. Check the adequacy of wall or floor mounting/anchor bolts. alarms.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES 3. Check and exercise all auxiliary devices such as fans.90 at the factory. voltage breakdown limits. Continuity. the contractor should perform the following checks: Perform phase-to-phase and phase-to-ground megohmeter test to verify winding integrity and dryness.16. gauges. Impedance. and amount of contamination. Regulation. No load losses. These standard transformer tests include the following: Applied potential. Temperature rise. Prior to energizing a transformer. Obtain liquid sample from liquid-filled transformers and have analyzed for moisture content. The manufacturer will also perform the following additional tests on units identical to the design type being supplied: Sound level. Polarity. handholes. Induced potential.16.3 Medium and Low Voltage Equipment MWD Electrical Design Manual 3. Visually check liquid-filled transformers for proper oil level and oil leaks at the bushings. and radiators. covers. Insulation power factor test on transformers with windings rated 2.1 Transformers.12. ESD-106 3-77 01/06 .

Ac tests are used for proof testing of equipment (that is. Switchboards are designed. 3. Motor control centers are designed. This test measures the ratio of the insulation loss and voltamperes at a specified test voltage. the contractor should make the following checks and/or tests: Proper voltage level.3. which is basically nondestructive. 3.16.3.3. Correct polarity.16. 3. Phase rotation. Load balance between phases.3.4 Automatic Transfer Switches. Alternating current is sometimes used for high potential testing.16.2 Switchgear/Switchboards. and tested under the requirements of NEMA PB-2 and Underwriters' Laboratories UL-891 standards. built. All protective device and instrument circuits should be tested using primary injection. to verify that a motor meets prescribed standards). Ambient temperature. while dc tests provide more qualitative results.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual After a transformer has been energized. Automatic transfer switches are designed. which is essentially a high-range resistance meter (ohmmeter) with a built-in dc generator. and tested under the requirements of NEMA ICS-2-322 and Underwriters' Laboratories UL-845 standards. Field tests performed by the contractor consist of operational tests of all instrumentation and protective devices and ground fault protection devices. Field tests should be performed by the contractor to demonstrate operation of all protective devices and correct operation of all control logic. This ac test procedure is a "go. 3. no go" type of test and can cause insulation damage. built. Motor insulation is generally field and/or shop tested by utilizing a megger-type insulation tester.16.51 standards.5 Medium and Low Voltage Motors. Motor insulation is also tested using a power factor test set. voltage is increased to some specified point to determine whether or not the insulation will fail at that particular voltage. Field inspections and tests should be performed to verify that the phase rotation of the two sources are the same and that all time delays are set in accordance with the requirements of the specifications. and tested in accordance with Underwriters' Laboratories 1008 standards. in contrast to the dc test. ESD-106 3-78 01/06 . Switchgear should be conformance tested at the factory in accordance with ANSI C37. built.3 Motor Control Centers.

After the engine generator has been installed. and 1-hour continuous operation at 110 percent rated load. poor workmanship when making splices and/or terminators. Switchgear and transfer switches.16.5. ESD-106 3-79 01/06 .5 Emergency/Standby Generators 3.4 Conductors MWD Electrical Design Manual 3. having been factory tested. This field test should not be used to create a complete failure in the dielectric or shielding systems. it does not cause deterioration of the insulation. This field test can be performed with the conductors either connected to or disconnected from the equipment being served by the circuit. unexpected environmental factors. In addition to these standard test requirements.16. This field test should only be utilized to assure freedom from electrical weakness in the circuit caused by such things as mechanical damage. which is essentially a high-range resistance meter (ohmmeter) with a built-in dc generator. should then be tested after the engine generator has been installed. 3. it is common practice to have a manufacturer performance test the engine generator set in accordance with MIL-STD-705 and IEEE Standard 115.1 Medium Voltage Conductors.16. etc. This test method is nondestructive.16. the manufacturer should factory test the engine generator unit a minimum of 3 hours with 2-hour continuous operation at 100 percent rated load having a 0.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES 3. nor should the dc potential be excessive such that it would initiate punctures in otherwise good insulation. The various alarms and shutdown devices should also be checked during this operational test. that is.2 Low Voltage Conductors. Thus. Engine generators are generally packaged as a single unit. and connected to the plant distribution system. Power failure should be simulated to verify that the emergency power system will function as intended. The method of testing medium voltage conductors in the field involves the application of a high potential direct-current (DC) source to a series-connected cable assembly.1 Engine Generators. Low voltage conductors are tested by the use of a megger insulation tester. 3.4. tested.2 Switchgear/Transfer Switches.4.5.16.8 power factor. the contractor should perform an onsite test at full load using resistive load banks for a minimum of 4 hours. Results of this test should be compared with the test performed by the manufacturer and the requirements of the specifications.16. 3.

16. Circuit breakers that include ground fault protection devices should be tested by the current injection method. an ohmmeter to measure resistance directly. The testing of a grounding grid system is accomplished by using a null-balance earth tester.2 Equipment Ground Busses.16. 3. 3.16. Ground fault devices such as ground fault interrupter receptacles should be tested for operation with methods and instruments prescribed by the manufacturer. and switches to change the instrument's resistance range. Generally. The basic test method used to determine earth resistance is the direct method (known as the Two-Terminal Test) and the fall-of-potential method (known as the Three-Terminal Test).16. Each of these testers has a voltage source. The direct method is the simplest way to make an earth-resistance test because only two electrodes in series are measured. which requires three electrodes. this method is not as accurate at the fallof-potential method. however. Equipment ground busses and the ground wire connection to the equipment bus is generally tested by the direct method of testing. The ohmic value of a single ground rod is usually obtained by the use of a direct-reading earth tester.STANDARD ELECTRICAL DESIGN PROCEDURES 3.1 Ground Rods/Grid. ESD-106 3-80 01/06 .6.3 Ground Fault Devices.6 Grounding MWD Electrical Design Manual 3. all that is required to test these devices is a push of a button.6.6.

1. calibration. Eye bolt mounting shall be a part of the structural support bracing to distribute stresses and enclosure weight. 4. terminal blocks. Removable eye bolts shall be provided for sling handling of enclosures. ESD-106 4-1 01/06 . and gaseous contaminants. Panels shall be designed. manufactured. Control panels shall provide manual control of process equipment.1 CONTROL PANELS Control panels shall concentrate local process control and monitoring functions from within a given area. See Appendix D for the complete list of NEMA enclosure types that shall be used to select an enclosure. Panel layout and equipment spacing shall allow for device removal. and some representative control and monitoring devices mounted on or in the panels. Sufficient structural reinforcements shall be provided to ensure a plane surface. IEEE.1. 4. construction. and shall protect instruments and equipment enclosed. and ANSI.1 NEMA Standards Panel types shall be compatible with and suitable for the environment of their installed location. The choice of location for panels shall minimize exposure to ambient temperature extremes.Chapter 4 CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual 4. Control panels shall be designed to permit interfacing with the field equipment and the remote terminal units. and signal conditioning or conversion equipment required. power supplies. and to provide rigidity during shipment. The panels shall only be used in case of RTU unavailability. to limit vibration. mounting hardware. dirt. Control panels shall provide the means for the operator to take over control from remote terminal units (RTU). moisture. This section contains design standards for panel layouts.2 Panel Design Panels and cabinets shall be designed to accommodate all necessary accessories such as instrument air. The panel design shall consolidate functions wherever possible. and tested in accordance with the latest applicable standards of NEMA. and maintenance without disassembly or adjacent devices.

Indicating lights shall have bulb removal and bulb replacement possible from the front of the panel.1. and operation without distortion or damage to the panel or injury to any mounted instruments. pushbuttons. A push-to-test feature shall be provided for lamp testing. Structural Design Manual. Enclosure seams shall be continuously welded and ground smooth to be undetectable after painting. edgewise panel indicators. Indicating lights shall be LED type. Contact block terminals shall be labeled for identification and contain not less than one single pole.3 Indicating Devices Indicators include rectangular panel meters. or high speed Green Equipment stopped (safe). refer to ESD-103. Free-standing enclosures for areas accessible through manholes shall have maximum dimensions of 72 inches high by 24 inches wide by 24 inches deep to allow passage through 36-inch round manholes. Selector switches. pushbuttons. or low speed White Valve intermediate position or alarm and ESD-106 4-2 01/06 . Selector switches and pushbuttons shall be supplied with operator mechanisms. valve fully open.4 Switches. and graphic displays. Instruments or devices shall be suitable for panel mounting. and indicating lights shall be supplied by one manufacturer to assure similar appearance. and necessary inserts. and lights.MWD Electrical Design Manual CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN PROCEDURES installation. valve closed. double throw contact. digital readouts. appropriate number of contact blocks. as appropriate. and Lights Refer to Metropolitan's Standard Specifications for detailed specifications of switches. Enclosures shall be designed for wall-mounting or be free-standing. Panel indication lamps--the color of indicator lights shall denote the lamp functions as follows: Status and alarm lights: Color Function AmberOverload Red Equipment running. For enclosure installation seismic requirements. 4. legend plate. Pushbuttons. circuit breaker open. 4. circuit breaker closed.1.

The annunciator cabinet shall be suitable for front-panel mounting. The annunciator sequence shown in Table 4-1 is an example of the many sequences available.000 hours minimum life at rated voltage. Lamps shall have a nominal 20.1. The design of the unit shall permit front-of-panel relamping. Annunciator pushbutton colors shall be: Color Green Blue Yellow Function Reset Test Acknowledge Specific alarm functions shall be described in English block-type letters and front engraved on a white. silence (acknowledge). internally illuminated. 60 Hz.5 Annunciators Indication of alarms shall be displayed on a panel-mounted. For other annunciator sequences refer to ANSI/ISA-518. solid-state annunciator. All positions in the annunciator cabinet shall contain one solid state alarm plug-in module. ESD-106 4-3 01/06 . 3-inch-by-7/8-inch display window with characters 5/32-inch high.CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN PROCEDURES automatic or manual MWD Electrical Design Manual 4. Annunciators shall provide auxiliary signals for remote annunciation of each and every point. The annunciator shall be provided with horn and pushbuttons for reset. Each annunciator alarm point shall have one alarm module. The alarm module shall be capable of accepting a normally open field contacts that close on alarm or normally closed contacts that open on alarm. Terminals for field connections shall be accessible from the rear. translucent material. Engraved characters shall be filled with black heat-resistant epoxy resin.1. selectable by a slide switch. and lamp test functions. Annunciator power rating shall be 120 volts ac.

CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN PROCEDURES

MWD Electrical Design Manual

Table 4-1. Annunciator Sequences Condition Normal Off Normal 1st alarm 2nd alarm steady Operator Acknowledgement 1st alarm 2nd alarm Operator Reset 1st alarm 2nd alarm Return to Normal Visual Annunciator Off Intermittent Fast flash Fast flash Slow flash Steady on Steady on Steady on Off Audible Annunciator Off On On Off Off Off Off Off

4.1.6 Relays and Timers Control logic relays shall be heavy-duty, machine tool industrial-type with contacts rated not less than 10 amperes at 600 volts ac. Relay coils shall be molded construction and operate on 120 volts ac 60 Hz, ±10 percent. Auxiliary interposing relays shall be supplied by the same manufacturer to assure similar appearance and uniform operating characteristics. Relays shall have a clear polycarbonate dust cover. Relays shall be UL recognized. Operating temperature range shall be compatible with the environment in which the relay will be installed. Contact material shall be gold or gold flashing over silver and rated 0.5 amperes at 125 volts ac in instances where low-level signal currents are being switched. Relay shall be an octal or 11-pin base plug-in type furnished with appropriate sockets. Electrical timing relays shall be supplied by the same manufacturer to assure similar appearance and time setting procedures. Operating voltage shall be 120 volts ac 60 Hz ±1 percent. Contact rating shall be 10 amperes at 120 volts ac and have a minimum mechanical life of 1 million operations. Operating temperature range shall be compatible with the environment in which the timer will be installed.

ESD-106

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CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN PROCEDURES

MWD Electrical Design Manual

On-delay and/or off-delay shall be supplied as required. Repeat accuracy shall be ±5 percent or better. Reset and recycle time shall be 200 milliseconds maximum. Time delays shall be adjustable with a graduated knob on the timer body. 4.1.7 Control Panel Layout The primary function of a panel and the I&C items on it is to provide the best possible communication between the operator and the process. To establish this communication, the operator has to (1) be able to clearly see the information the instrumentation is providing, and (2) be able to react quickly and accurately to that information. For the operator to see the information clearly on the instruments, lighting is important. Also, the information has to be within the range of vision; therefore, the position of the instrumentation is also important. Thirdly, for the operator to react quickly and accurately, the controls have to be within easy reach. Therefore, the position of the controls is important. Not only must the operator be able to reach the controls, they must also be placed in a logical manner so that the hands will tend to reach for the correct control automatically with the least chance of error. All panels for a given facility shall be designed with the same format so that the operator need not relearn panel configuration concepts while moving around the plant. The following guidelines shall be followed in designing front panel layouts for consistent and efficient operator interface. Front panel components shall be grouped functionally. The grouping of components shall be clearly distinguished by extra spacing between groups and by the use of group nameplates. The group nameplates shall be larger or longer than individual component nameplates. Functional groupings shall be arranged from left to right corresponding to process flow or equipment number. For example, controls for Pump No. 1 would be on the left and controls for Pump No. 2 would be on the right. Panel components shall be located in the following general areas of the panel: Annunciators and alarms, uppermost panel area Graphic panels, uppermost panel area

ESD-106

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01/06

MWD CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN PROCEDURES Indicators, 36 to 60 inches from the floor

Electrical Design Manual

Recorders, 36 to 60 inches from the floor Hand switches and lights, lowest panel area but no lower than 30 inches from the floor Status indicating lights shall be located directly above their corresponding control switches. 4.1.8 Wiring and Terminations Refer to Metropolitan's Standard Specifications for detailed specifications on wiring and terminations within a control panel. Internal panel wiring and terminations shall be in accordance with the National Electrical Code. Low-level signal wiring shall be segregated from control power wiring, grouped functionally, and arranged neatly to facilitate circuit tracing. No combination of analog, digital input, or control output wiring shall be within the same bundle or duct or panduit within a panel. Signal wiring shall be uniformly twisted. Plastic wiring wraps shall be used to bundle wires, except within wiring ducts. The bundles shall be securely fastened to the steel structure at intervals not exceeding 12 inches. Solderless ring lug connectors with insulating sleeves shall be used for connecting wires to terminal blocks. Flexible stranded wiring shall be used throughout. Where shielding is required, shields shall be continuous foil or metalized plastic providing 100 percent coverage. A drain wire in continuous contact with the shield shall be included. The dc signal wiring shall be segregated from wire conducting ac signals. Power wiring insulation shall be rated to 600 volts and be type MTW. Conductors shall be stranded copper. No wire smaller than 12 AWG 90o C shall be used for power wiring. Wiring must not be spliced. Wire must be run in continuous lengths from screw terminal to screw terminal. Wire service loops shall be provided to permit device removal and to permit front door of control cabinet, if equipped and wired with door-mounted devices, to open 90 degrees.

ESD-106

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01/06

CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN PROCEDURES

MWD Electrical Design Manual

Terminal blocks shall be provided for interconnections with field instruments and termination cabinet wiring. Design of the terminal layout shall include a grounded barrier to segregate those terminals devoted to current type signals. The terminal blocks shall be factory assembled on a mounting channel and the channel bolted to the inside of the panel. Terminals shall accept wire size 12 AWG and smaller. Terminal blocks shall be rated 300 volts for NEMA general industrial control devices and 600 volts NEMA for power circuits. No miniature terminal blocks shall be permitted. The terminals shall have a continuous marking strip. Separate terminals shall be provided for terminating the shield wire for each signal. The terminal blocks shall have point identification strips. Terminal strips shall be labeled horizontally from left to right (facing enclosure front) 1F, 2F, 3F, 4F, etc., and facing rear of enclosure 1R, 2R, 3R, 4R, etc. Vertically the terminations shall be marked with a permanent, continuous marking strip from top to bottom. One side of each terminal strip shall be reserved for field incoming conductors. Common connections and jumpers required for internal wiring shall not be made on the field side of the terminal. No more than two wires shall be terminated at any one terminal. A minimum of 25 percent spare terminals shall be provided. Two 1/4-by-1-inch copper ground buses with M5 and M6 tapped holes and insulated mounting brackets shall be provided in each cabinet or panel, one for shield and cabinet grounding and one for signal grounding. Wiring shall be identified at each termination by marking with a number to correspond with the wiring diagram and shall be color coded as follows: Line and load circuits, ac or dc power: black; ac control circuits: red; dc control circuits: blue; Interlock control circuits on the panel energized from external source: yellow; Equipment grounding conductors: green; Current carrying grounded conductor (neutral): white.

ESD-106

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01/06

MWD Electrical Design Manual CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN PROCEDURES External wiring shall be color coded as shown in paragraph 4.2, Field Wiring.

Wires and cable terminated within control panels, instrumentation panels, and termination cabinets shall be provided with identification tags as shown in paragraph 4.2, Field Wiring. 4.1.9 Nameplates Nameplates shall be installed on the doors or covers of panels, panelboards, starters, contactors relays, and other electrical equipment. Equipment within panels shall be identified. Front panel nameplates for devices shall be black laminated plastic with white letters, attached with No. 2-56 stainless steel machine screws, Phillips type, counter sunk head. 4.1.10 Installation Before any circuits are energized, internal and external electrical and mechanical clearances must be checked to assure that installed equipment will function safely and properly. Free standing panels shall be shimmed level and grouted. Panels shall bear evenly over the full length and be installed plumb. Panel structures must be accurately leveled such that panel structures will not be distorted and all doors must operate without binding. 4.1.11 Seismic Design Requirements Equipment base and anchorage shall be designed and installed to withstand stresses caused by seismic forces. Refer to Metropolitan's Structural Design Manual. Panels, consoles, and cabinets mounted on concrete floor shall be bolted through a structural member to the floor at four corners. Equipment located on a raised floor in the control and computer rooms shall be secured to the concrete floor with tie-down cables at four corners. The cables shall be angled to prevent tipping.

ESD-106

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01/06

1 FIELD WIRING Field Signal Wiring MWD Electrical Design Manual 4. Single pair wires shall be 18 AWG or larger. and compatible with the environment in which it is installed and shall be type TC tray cable.CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN PROCEDURES 4.4 Color Code Identification. Multipair cable overall jacket material shall be moisture-resistant. and motor control centers). Field signal wiring includes monitoring and control signal wiring between field equipment (sensors. 4.2 Sizing. Signal wiring insulation shall have a minimum dielectric strength of 600 volts.2. The colors of individual conductors shall be in accordance with NEMA WC-70 as follows: ESD-106 4-9 01/06 . Multipair conductors shall be 22 AWG or larger. flame-retardant.1.1. control panels and remote terminal units (RTU).3 Insulation. Insulation temperature range shall extend to at least 75o C in dry locations and 90o C in wet locations.2. Thermocouple extension wires shall be solid conductors of the same material as the associated thermocouple.2. valves. Each wire shall have a color code identification to facilitate wiring and troubleshooting.2.1 General.2 4. 4.1.2. 4.1. abrasionresistant.

7 Signal Wire and Cable Selection.CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN PROCEDURES 1-Black 2-Red 3-Blue 4-Orange 5-Yellow 6-Brown 7-Red/Black 8-Blue/Black 9-Orange/Black 10-Yellow/Black 11-Brown/Black 12-Black/Red MWD Electrical Design Manual 13-Blue/Red 14-Orange/Red 15-Yellow/Red 16-Brown/Red 17-Black/Blue 18-Red/Blue 19-Orange/Blue The following abbreviations shall be used for identification of multiconductor cables and colored wires when developing wire lists or documentation: Color Black White Red Green Orange Blue Yellow Abbreviation B W R G O BL Y Color Brown Abbreviation BR Gray GY 4.1. A drain wire in continuous contact with the shield shall be included.6 Shielding.5 Twisting. Where shielding is required. shields shall be continuous foil or conductive metalized plastic providing 100 percent coverage. shielded. 4. twisted pair ESD-106 4-10 01/06 . 4.2. Type I II Description Single. twisted pair Single.2. Cable lays and pairs shall be twisted in the same direction. unshielded. Signal wires shall be uniformly twisted with a minimum of six twists per foot (2-inch lay).1.2.1.

8 Instrument Power and Control Wiring. panels.1. 4. Type I and III wiring shall be used for individual and multipair runs. Shields shall be continuous through cabinets. 14 AWG shall be used for control wiring.000 feet between splices shall be maintained. Thermocouple. Conductors shall be stranded copper..1. and other low-level signal lines shall be continuous ESD-106 4-11 01/06 . overall shielded cable of Type II wire Analog Signals Analog signals are isolated 4-20 mA inputs received from remote instruments and isolated 4-20 mA outputs transmitted to remote control elements. Splicing shall only occur at a junction or pull box. respectively. RTDs.2. Continuity of conductors and shields shall be maintained at each splice.10 Splicing. Wire and cable insulation shall be 600-volt type THHN or THWN.2. 12 AWG shall be used for power wiring.g. analog transmitter or contact closure) unless otherwise recommended by the instrument or equipment manufacturer. no wire smaller than No.1. Contact Inputs Contact inputs originating from isolated contact closures and conducting less than 10 mA at 48 volts dc. 4. Contact outputs are isolated contacts from interposing relays actuated by the RTU for controlling 120-volt devices. No wire smaller than No. 4. Connections shall be made gas tight by compressing the two wires to be joined with an isolated compression device or bolted connection. Signal shields shall have one ground point located at the source of the signal (e.9 Shield Grounding.2. Type II and IV wiring shall be used for individual and multipair runs. respectively. and junction boxes. As a general rule. overall shielded cable of Type I wire Multipair. A minimum distance of 1.CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN PROCEDURES III IV MWD Electrical Design Manual Multipair.

Parallel runs of analog and control or power wiring shall be avoided.2.11 Terminations. Wire at both ends of the cable shall be terminated with preinsulated solderless or compression type spade or ring lugs for maximum physical strength and electrical conduction.1. Analog signals shall be physically separated from contact output and power wiring using separate conduit for each. Use ring lugs for terminations subject to vibration and for all current transformer secondary circuits. but.1. where required. 4.2. If they are run in the same conduit. shall be separated by at least 3 feet. the pairs must be twisted and shielded. Analog Signals Signals in one cable or conduit shall be of the same magnitude. Low-level analog and control or power wiring shall cross at right angles.2. with no tension exerted on wiring with doors in any position. The following peak voltage levels define the different signal magnitude: 0 to 100 mV. 4. 4.13 Installation.MWD Electrical Design Manual CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN PROCEDURES from the thermocouple connection head to the final termination point. ESD-106 4-12 01/06 .12 Separation of Signal Wiring. 5 V to 75 V. shall be run in separate conduits. Wiring inside enclosures shall be supported at least every 24 inches unless longer unsupported runs are required for access or maintenance. Digital Signals Digital input and control wiring. Wiring to doors shall be installed such that bending is axial. using unshielded pairs. Wires shall not be terminated on adjacent terminal points if accidental short circuiting could cause tripping or closing of a breaker. 100 mV to 5 V.1.

A lubricating agent compatible with the wire insulation shall be used.2. 4.2. Conduit that has been crushed or deformed in any way shall not be used. The maximum allowable distance between pull points shall be 300 feet or the distance based on allowable maximum cable pulling tension.2 Conduit MWD Electrical Design Manual 4. The radius of the curve shall not be less than that recommended by either the National Electrical Code or manufacturer of the wires or cables to be contained within the conduit. whichever is less.2 Number of Bends.2. Bends of rigid conduit shall be made such that the conduit will not be injured and that the internal diameter of the conduit will not be effectively reduced. Conduit shall be firmly supported within 3 feet of each pull box. as stated above.4 Conduit Fill. junction box. 4.2.2. the maximum allowable distance shall be 75 feet. Conduit construction must be in accordance with the latest revision of the National Electrical Code.2. 4.3 Distance Between Pull Points. The conduit shall be sufficiently supported elsewhere in accordance with the National Electrical Code requirements. The maximum angle of bends between pulls shall not total more than 180 degrees including entrance and exit to pull boxes or access fittings. or termination point. The conduit shall be of galvanized rigid steel with a flexible section for connection to devices.5 Conduit Support.2. ESD-106 4-13 01/06 .2.2. The combined cross-sectional area of conductors and cables in a conduit shall not exceed the fill percentages specified by the National Electrical Code. When the distance between the two pull points contains the maximum angle of bends.2.CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN PROCEDURES 4. The pull boxes shall be sized to allow adequate bending radius for the wire or cable being pulled.2. 4.1 Construction.

Control circuit diagrams for various types of field devices are shown on Figures 4-1 through 4-10 (located at the back of this chapter).2. Hydraulic actuator.3 CONTROL DEVICE INTERFACING This section covers the design requirements for the interface between remote terminal units and field control devices.2.3 Spare Conductors Spare conductors in each conduit equal to 25 percent of the number required for both present and (defined) future conditions. Included are the types of input and output hardware at the RTU. Variable speed. 4.7 Condensation Drains.2. 4. Each cable shall have 10 percent spare conductors but not less than two conductors. Multiple speed.8 Installation. Conduit runs shall be solidly connected to assure the ground continuity of the entire run.2. 4.2. but in no case less than two spare wires. Hydraulic actuator. Conduit runs shall be provided with condensation drains at low points. interlocks and manual control equipment at field control panels.CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual 4. ESD-106 4-14 01/06 . Electric motors: Constant speed. Ground jumpers shall be installed where the possibility of losing continuity exists. and control hardware at the field devices. stations and alarm monitoring at the field control devices. Open/close control valves: Electric motor operator. The following are the types of field devices specifically covered in this section. Modulating control valves: Electric motor operator.6 Continuity. Design requirements for other field devices shall follow the general requirements established in this section. Exposed conduit runs shall be parallel or perpendicular to building walls. shall be installed.2.2. 4.

In addition. The time between initiating and stopping or reversing control action shall be controlled by RTU software. Two contacts shall be provided for each control device. Separate terminal blocks shall be provided for analog discrete signals. Closing one of the contacts shall cause the motor to operate. the motor is stopped. with the duration of the closure controlled by RTU hardware. Termination cabinets shall be 36” or 48” or 60” wide. When neither contact is closed.3. The size of the termination cabinet is slelected based on the number of I/O terminations in the RTU. one to initiate control action. Analog signals shall have three terminal blocks.2 Contact Outputs. The position of the device shall not change during loss of remote control. For contact closure-type outputs. ESD-106 4-15 01/06 . the other shall cause the motor to reverse. Each discrete input and output shall have two terminal blocks. The terminal blocks for analog and discrete signals shall be switch type terminal block to permit isolating and testing of the signal loop. Contact outputs to field control devices shall be momentary contact closures using interposing relays. 24” deep and 72” or 76” high for Metropolitan’s small or standard RTU.3. signal(-) and shield. 4. and a copper grounding bar with M5 and M6 tapped holes and insulating mounting brackets.1 Remote Terminal Unit Outputs MWD Electrical Design Manual 4.3. the other to stop or reverse control action. and 20” wide x 20” high x 8” deep for wall-mounted RTU. two separate contacts are required for each device.CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN PROCEDURES 4. one each for signal (+). 4.1. Termination cabinets shall be supplied with non-UPS 120V AC power for enclosure lights and outlets.1 RTU Termination Cabinet Remote terminal units (RTU) shall have a termination cabinet.1. transfers between remote and local control are made without changing position.3 Modulating Outputs. Modulating devices such as variablespeed pumps and automatic control valves shall be controlled by isolated 4-20 mA outputs.3. Seal-in circuits shall be provided in either the field control panel or the motor starter. It is Metropolitan’s practice to terminate all conductors between TRU and the corresponding termination cabinet for the construction contractor to terminate field wiring between termination cabinet and field mounted devices.1. Contact closure-type outputs shall be used for constant speed motor-operated valves and gates.

Limit switches and the position signal shall be furnished by the valve manufacturer as an integral part of the valve assembly. Indicating lights may be incorporated into the pushbuttons if desired.3.3. 4. Full open-close type valves that are remotely controlled shall have limit switches for both the open and closed positions. Limit switches shall be furnished to monitor the fully closed and open position of flow routing valves and gates. Whenever possible. and motor vibration.3.1 Valve Monitoring. 4.3.2 Panel Controls. Throttling valves shall have limit switches for fully opened and closed position monitoring and a 4-20 mA output signal for monitoring valve position. of the colors shown on the figures.1 Control Transfer Switch. 4.2 Control Panels MWD Electrical Design Manual 4.2. that are critical to the process. Pushbutton controls on the control panels shall be momentary to match the RTU outputs.CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN PROCEDURES 4.) Indicating lights.. Manual valves and gates used solely for maintenance (e.3. plant. generally over 100 horsepower. Field devices may be grouped or be individually controlled by one control transfer switch. The control transfer switch shall be maintained in each position.3. Equipment and personnel safety interlocks shall be locally hardwired to ESD-106 4-16 01/06 . Auxiliary contacts shall be available for reporting to the RTU.3.3 Status Monitoring 4. Pushbuttons shall not operate unless the control transfer switch is in the local position. Motor starter auxiliary contacts shall be provided for remote monitoring of the running status of motors that are controlled by the RTU.g. (See Figure 4-1. high motor winding temperature. pump suction and discharge isolation valves) shall have limit switches as required.2 Motor Monitoring.3. or system shall be monitored for alarm conditions such as high bearing temperature. shall be provided on the control panel adjacent to pushbuttons to show control device status.2. Control transfer switches shall be provided at control panels to select either remote (from RTU) or local (at the control panel) control. a 4-20 mA position signal is preferred instead of a potentiometer. Large motors.

which is capable of interrupting power to the motor starter pilot circuit.4 Signal Convertors Signal converters shall be provided as needed to condition analog signals for input to the computer system RTUs and control panel devices. Motors controlled by the RTU shall be equipped with a pushbutton switch control or other type of disconnect in accordance with the National Electrical Code. Examples of interlocks are a low-level switch contact used to prevent pumps from running dry and a valve limit switch used to prevent a pump from being started against a closed valve. 4.MWD Electrical Design Manual CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN PROCEDURES the control panels to function independently of the RTU.3. ESD-106 4-17 01/06 .

CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual ESD-106 4-18 01/06 .

CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual ESD-106 4-19 01/06 .

CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual ESD-106 4-20 01/06 .

CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual ESD-106 4-21 01/06 .

CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual ESD-106 4-22 01/06 .

CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual ESD-106 4-23 01/06 .

CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual ESD-106 4-24 01/06 .

CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN PROCEDURES MWD Electrical Design Manual ESD-106 4-25 01/06 .

unless otherwise specified. IEEE Recommended Practice for Emergency and Standby Power Systems for Industrial and Commercial Applications IEEE Std 484. California Building Standards Code Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Note: Many IEEE documents are adopted by ANSI and have an ANSI/IEEE document number similar to the IEEE document number. IEEE Guide for the Design and Installation of Cable Systems in Power Generating Stations IEEE Std 433. IEEE Recommended Practice for Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Analysis IEEE Std 422. Chapter 4. IEEE Recommended Practice for Grounding of Industrial and Commercial Power Systems IEEE Std. American National Standards Institute ANSI C2. IEEE Recommended Practice for Protection and Coordination of Industrial and commercial power systems IEEE Std 399. IEEE Recommended Practice for the Design of Reliable Industrial and Commercial Power Systems IEEE Std 519. Recommended Practice and Requirements for Harmonic Control in Electrical Power Systems ESD-106 A-1 01/06 . Division 1. IEEE Std 80. Subchapter 5. IEEE Recommended Practice for the Design of Reliable Industrial and Commercial Power Systems IEEE Std 446. National Electrical Safety Code California Code of Regulations CCR Title 8. Electrical Safety Orders CCR Title 24. 242.Appendix A REFERENCES MWD Electrical Design Manual Note: The most current edition of referenced publications applies. IEEE Recommended Practice for Electric Power Distribution for Industrial Plants IEEE Std 142. IEEE Guide for Safety in AC Substation Grounding IEEE Std 141. IEEE Recommended Practice for Installation Design and Installation of Large Lead Storage Batteries for Generating Stations and Substations IEEE Std 493.

IEEE Standard for Metal-Enclosed Low-Voltage Power CircuitBreaker Switchgear IEEE Std C37. IEEE Guide for the Design and Installation of Cable Systetms in Substations IEEE Std 605.100.101.2. IEEE Guide for Instrumentation and Control Equipment Grounding in Generating Stations IEEE Std 1100. IEEE Standard Definitions for Power Switchgear IEEE Std C37. IEEE Recommended Practice for Energy Management in Industrial and Commercial Facilities IEEE Std 979. Motors and Generators NEMA 250. IEEE Guide for Design of Substation Rigid-Bus Structures IEEE Std 739. IEEE Guide for Containment and Control of Oil Spills in Substations IEEE Std 1050.102. Nonshielded Power Cables Rated 2000 Volts or less for the Distribution of Electrical Energy NEMA WC 71/ICEA S-96-659.20-1.20-2. Enclosures for Electrical Equipment (1000 Volts Maximum) NEMA WC 70/ICEA S-95-658. IEEE Standard for Metal-Enclosed Interrupter Switchgear IEEE Std C37. IEEE Guide for Substation Fire Protection IEEE Std 980. IEEE Guide for AC Generator Protection Illuminating Engineering Society IES Lighting Handbook National Electrical Manufacturers Association NEMA MG 1. IEEE Standard Electrical Power System Device Function Numbers IEEE Std C37. IEEE Guide for Generator Ground Protection IEEE Std C37. IEEE Recommended Practice for Powering and Grounding Electronic Equipment IEEE Std 1187. IEEE Standard for Metal-Clad and Station-Type Cubicle Switchgear IEEE Std C37. IEEE Guide for AC Motor Protection IEEE Std C37. IEEE Recommended Practice for Installation Design and Installation of Valve Regulated Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Stationary Applications IEEE Std C37.96.Appendix A REFERENCES MWD Electrical Design Manual IEEE Std 525.20-3. Standard for Nonshielded Cables Rated 2001-5000 Volts for Use in the Distribution of Electric Energy ESD-106 A-2 01/06 .

Emergency and Standby Power Systems NFPA 780. National Fire Alarm Code NFPA 75. Protection of Information Technology Equipment NFPA 76. editor. editors. editor. Life Safety Code NFPA 110. 5-46 kV Shielded Power Cable for Use in the Transmission and Distribution of Electric Energy. McGraw-Hill Electrical Systems Analysis and Design for Industrial Plants. McGraw-Hill Industrial Power Systems Handbook. Peter J. Fire Protection for Hydroelectric Generating Plants Underwriters’ Laboratory UL 845. McGraw Hill Handbook of Electric Power Calculations. Protection in Wastewater Treatment and Collection Facilities NFPA 851. Motor Control Centers UL 891. Switchboards UL 1008. Electrical Standard for Industrial Machinery NFPA 101. editor. National Electrical Code (2005 Edition) NFPA 70E. Fire Protection for Laboratories Using Chemicals NFPA 70. Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace NFPA 72. National Fire Protection Association Electric Service Requirements. Bob Hickey. McGraw-Hill ESD-106 A-3 01/06 . Earley. Donald Beeman. City of Los Angeles Department of Water and Power Electrical Service Requirements Manual. Transfer Switch Equipment Miscellaneous Documents Electrical Installations in Hazardous Locations. editor. Irwin Lazar. Wayne Beaty. Installation of Lightning Protection Systems NFPA 820. Southern California Edison Electrical Engineer’s Portable Handbook. H. Schram and Mark W. National Fire Protection Association NFPA 45.Appendix A REFERENCES MWD Electrical Design Manual NEMA WC 74/ICEA S-93-639. Fire Protection of Telecommunications Facilities NFPA 79.

Donald G. editor. Fink and H. Smeaton. Robert W. editors. McGraw-Hill Switchgear and Control Handbook. Robert W. Ubert. Wayne Beaty. McGraw-Hill Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers. Smeaton and William H.Appendix A REFERENCES MWD Electrical Design Manual Motor Application & Maintenance Handbook. McGraw-Hill ESD-106 A-4 01/06 . editors.

Appendix B ABBREVIATIONS A A or AMP A/C AC AF AFF AFG AG ASD AT ATS AUX AWG Ampere Air Conditioner (Conditioning) Alternating Current Ampere Frame Above Finished Floor Above Finished Grave Above Ground Adjustable Speed Drive Ampere Trip Automatic Transfer Switch Auxiliary American Wire Gauge MWD Electrical Design Manual B BAT BC BET BOT BLDG BKR BTU BTU/H Battery Bare Copper Between Bottom Building Breaker British Thermal Unit British Thermal Unit Per Hour C C CAB CAT CB CHLOR CONC CKT CMIL CNTL or CONT CONT’D Conduit Cabinet Catalog Circuit Breaker Chlorine Concrete Circuit Circular Mil Control Continued ESD-106 B-1 01/06 .

Appendix B ABBREVIATIONS D D DC DIA or DN DISC DIST DPDT Depth Direct Current Diameter Down Disconnect Distribution Double Pole Double Throw MWD Electrical Design Manual E EL or ELEV EXIST EM EPR Elevation Existing Emergency Ethylene Propylene Rubber F F FDR FL FLEX FS FVR FVNR Frequency Feeder Floor Flexible Flow Switch Full Voltage Reversing Full Voltage Non-Reversing G G GFI GFCI GND or GRD Ground Ground Fault Interrupter Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter Ground H H or HGT HDAF HH HOA HP Height Hot Dipped After Fabrication Handhole Hand-Off-Automatic Horsepower B-2 ESD-106 01/06 .

Appendix B ABBREVIATIONS HPF HPU HTR HV HZ High Power Factor Hydraulic Power Unit Heater High Voltage Hertz MWD Electrical Design Manual I IEEE INST INSTR I/O ITC Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Instantaneous Instrument Input/Output Instrument Terminal Cabinet J J JB Junction Junction Box K K KAIC KCMIL KW KV KVA KVAR Kilo (1000 times) Kiloamp Interrupting Current Thousand Circular Mils Kilowatt Kilovolt Kilovolt Ampere Kilovolt Ampere Reactive L LP LS LT LTG LV Lighting Panel Level or Limit Switch Liquidtight Lighting Low Voltage M M Motor ESD-106 B-3 01/06 .

Appendix B ABBREVIATIONS mA MAX MCC MCP MFE MFR MIN MH MOD MV MVA MWD Milliamp Maximum Motor Control Center Motor Circuit Protector Metropolitan Furnished Equipment Manufacturer Minimum Manhole Module Medium Voltage Megavoltampere Metropolitan Water District MWD Electrical Design Manual N NC NEC NEMA NFPA NIC NO NO. or # NTS Normally Closed National Electric Code National Electrical Manufacturers Association National Fire Protection Association Not In Contract Normally Open Number Not To Scale O P P PB PDR PF PH or PLC PNL PS PVC PWR Pole Pullbox or Pushbutton Preliminary Design Report Power Factor Phase Programmable Logic Controller Panel Pressure Switch Polyvinyl Chloride Power ESD-106 B-4 01/06 .

Appendix B ABBREVIATIONS Q MWD Electrical Design Manual R R RECPT or RCPT RGS RTU Resistor Receptacle Rigid Galvanized Steel Remote Terminal Unit S SCE SHLD SHT or SH SN SP SPDT STD STR SV SW SWGR Southern California Edison Shield Sheet Solid Neutral Spare Single Pole Double Throw Standard Starter Solenoid Valve Switch Switchgear T TB TC TD TEL TERM THRU TM TS TSP TST TYP Terminal Box Terminal Cabinet Timer Delay Telephone Terminal Through Thermal Magnetic Temperature or Time Switch Twisted Shield Pair Twisted Shield Triad Typical ESD-106 B-5 01/06 .

Appendix B ABBREVIATIONS U UG or U/G UPS UL USA Underground Uninterruptible Power System Underwriters Laboratories Underground Service Alert MWD Electrical Design Manual V V VA VFD Volt Voltampere Variable Frequency Drive W W W/ WP Watt With Weatherproof X XDCR XFMR Transducer Transformer ESD-106 B-6 01/06 .

and reasonable accuracy. If several people work on areas that can share solutions. If there is a better way to meet the design objectives. See the preliminary design report (PDR) for a description of the electrical system to be provided for this project. the usual standards of the profession will apply such as constructibility. Simplicity shall not go so far as to shift tasks normally accomplished during design into the construction phase. In addition. The object of having this information available before the design begins is to minimize changes in the electrical design. the presentation shall be as simple as clarity permits. Simplicity The design itself. Clarity The design and presentation must be clear. Where possible. show the contractor what shall be done for the particular situation. This section tells what information must be available before beginning the design for each part. simplicity. If you want a specific result. and standardization. completeness. ESD-106 C-1 01/06 . OBJECTIVES The design objectives on this particular project are clarity. submit a recommendation to the project lead electrical engineer for processing. Show how you arrived at significant decisions. manufacturers' standard assemblies shall be used. Standardization The design must show uniformity throughout so that similar problems are solved in similar ways. they shall only produce one solution and reference it elsewhere.Appendix C SAMPLE ELECTRICAL DESIGN CRITERIA MEMO MWD Electrical Design Manual The (title of facility) is a new facility. In addition. SCHEDULING An electrical work plan will be provided separately. of course. This document is intended to provide guidance for the electrical system design. do not begin that portion of the design. If the information listed below is not available at the time the design for a particular portion is scheduled to begin. Problems that you encounter in obtaining the necessary information will either be immediately resolved or referred to the Design Manager and/or Project Manager. shall not be more complex than necessary to produce a good electrical system.

Facility and Process Plans The process electrical design for any area will be started only after the following things have been accomplished for that area: Equipment data sheets are complete and reviewed by the lead engineer in charge of the process. Each motor and equipment number shall be checked against the current P&ID set before the equipment list is considered complete. I will modify this single line as necessary to accommodate changes that have been made since the PDR was completed. Single-line diagrams for motor control centers (MCC) will not be started until a reasonably complete motor list has been developed for the area where the MCC is to be located. CAL/OSHA Standards Board. State of California Code. lights. Facility electrical design. for any area will be started only after the process design is completed and building plans and sections are prepared and drafted by the architects (changes in process design may still take place). P&IDs completed.Appendix C SAMPLE ELECTRICAL DESIGN CRITERIA MEMO MWD Electrical Design Manual Single-Line Diagram A single-line diagram for the plant electrical distribution system is included in the PDR. The P&IDs shall be used to check the equipment lists given to us by the process leads. Equipment selection calculations have been reviewed. The PDR and single-line diagrams STANDARDS AND CODES Electrical design shall conform to the latest editions of the following applicable standards and codes: National Electrical Code (NEC). REFERENCE MATERIALS Besides the usual codes and standards. National Electrical Safety Code (NESC). Title 8. and outlets. California State Electrical Code. the following documents are available as information. ESD-106 C-2 01/06 .

500 watts. The code allowable total voltage drop from the 480-volt source bus (excluding site distribution) to the point of use (including feeder.160-volt. the voltage for fluorescent. convenience outlets. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Applicable state and local codes and UL listing requirements shall be followed for electrical inspection. Where the requirements of more than one code or standard are applicable. Insulated Cable Engineers Association (ICEA). ESD-106 C-3 01/06 . three-phase. single-phase. emergency egress lighting. Motors above 200 hp shall be 4. three-phase. Local codes and standards shall be applied as appropriate. VOLTAGES The primary distribution voltage within the plant shall be 4. The secondary distribution voltage shall be 480-volt. MWD Electrical Design Manual Standards and codes of the following organizations shall also govern where applicable: American National Standards Institute (ANSI). branch circuit. Under normal circumstances.500 watts and motors from 1/2 to 200 hp shall be 480 volts. Electrical Safety Orders. high pressure sodium. Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE). the more restrictive shall govern. highresistance grounded. This voltage also shall be supplied to heaters up to 1. motor controls. National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA). and emergency lighting power supply shall conform to requirements of the building inspector. Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA). and incandescent lighting shall be 120-volt. three-phase. Exit signs.160 volts. and transformation) shall not be exceeded. Heaters above 1.Appendix C SAMPLE ELECTRICAL DESIGN CRITERIA MEMO Subchapter 5. Requirements of applicable codes and standards are not repeated in this section. three-phase. and motors of less than 1/2 horsepower (hp). wye.

Circuiting of 208Y/120-volt panelboards shall be shown on the panel schedules. the branch circuit. Circuiting of 480Y/277-volt panelboards shall be shown on the panel schedules where possible. Conduit and conductor sizes shall be indicated on the single-line as well. short circuit ratings. overcurrent device types and ratings. metering and load ratings (horsepower or kilowatt). including all combination motor starters and disconnect switches. etc. the standard Metropolitan symbols shall be used. and manholes.T. but where motors are powered from panelboards. Site And Area Plans The site plan shall show the location of all facilities and major equipment. thickeners.T. Area plans shall show all of the above items and facility designs where the facility does not require a separate drawing such as clarifiers. A preliminary legend sheet is included in the PDR. Site and area plans shall be overlayed on civil backgrounds (base sheets). The legend sheet shall contain only the symbols and final abbreviations actually used in the drawing set. DRAWINGS Legend Sheet In general. due to the complexity and expense of providing ground fault protection for three-phase 4-wire double ended substations with multiple grounds. protective relay types and ratings. with input from the project team. ESD-106 C-4 01/06 . and circuit breaker and switch ratings.Appendix C SAMPLE ELECTRICAL DESIGN CRITERIA MEMO MWD Electrical Design Manual In addition. ratios. no phase to neutral loads shall be supplied directly from the 480-volt transformer secondaries. C. duct bank routes. Single-Line Diagram The single-line diagram shall show the entire electrical distribution system from the elec trical service down to 460-volt utilization devices and 208Y/120-volt panelboards. and P. handholes. Information on single-line diagrams shall include bus capacity. The development of this sheet is my responsibility. shall be shown on the single-line diagram.

which are not mounted in I&C panels. note depths of assemblies on elevations. Single controls in an I&C panel (on/off selector switch. low-voltage switchboards. Where important. shall be shown on the ECDs where we feel that they are necessary: ON/OFF/REMOTE switch (where required and not shown) Elapsed time meters (will be provided if the motor falls into the criteria described hereinafter) Ground fault relays Metering Motor heaters Motor thermal devices ON/OFF status lights ESD-106 C-5 01/06 . metering. not shown on the P&IDs. Switchboard and switchgear elevations shall be informally reviewed by the first-named manufacturer for placement of units and overall dimensional accuracy. The following control devices. Talk to the I&C engineer before adding control devices. Assume that this will be the case when you need to have relays. start/stop pushbuttons) may be shown. add another 3 inches. Motor Elementary Control Diagrams Motor elementary control diagrams (ECDs) shall be done in the style shown on the attached example. unit substations. Two will fit in the added 3 inches.Appendix C SAMPLE ELECTRICAL DESIGN CRITERIA MEMO MWD Electrical Design Manual Elevations Front elevations shall be shown for all medium-voltage switchgear. all control devices shall be shown on the P&IDs. etc. Elevations of the equipment shall be developed by the designer of the facility that the equipment is located in and reviewed by me. if you need 3. and conductor entrances. and motor control centers. such as "RUN M-1-1 @ FP-2." Except as noted below. The ECDs shall show control circuit devices. overcurrent devices. More complex control in an I&C panel shall be shown as two terminals in a dashed rectangle with a reference to the signals as they are labeled at the I&C panel. Remember that even one control relay in a motor starter will usually require an additional 3 inches of compartment height. MCC units with extra height shall be shown where required for relays. Elevations shall be drawn to scale and shall show the locations of MCC units.

The project lead electrical engineer will act as. find out the number from the detail coordinator. A preliminary list of luminaires shall be developed before design is started and the same luminaire shall be used for all similar applications throughout the plant. If it has not been used. The panel schedule format is available upon request.Appendix C SAMPLE ELECTRICAL DESIGN CRITERIA MEMO MWD Electrical Design Manual ECDs shalll be developed by each facility designer for the equipment located in that facility. A preliminary set of design details will be selected and a copy of each will be provided to each design team member. obtain a new number from the detail coordinator and tell the coordinator the standard detail number. The lead design engineer for each facility shall be responsible for the preparation (and review) of all panel schedules related to that facility. whether you are modifying the detail or whether you are creating a detail from scratch. Every 1 to 2 weeks. A separate panel shall be provided within each facility for the power supply to process related instruments and equipment. this panel may be subfed from the lighting panel. The panel schedules shall be included on the drawings with the buildings or facilities where they are located or with the single-line diagrams or equipment elevation of the related equipment. or appoint a detail coordinator. ESD-106 C-6 01/06 . A preliminary list of luminaires shown in the format to be used is enclosed hereinafter. Details will generally be Metropolitan standard details. Addition of a new luminaire to the schedule shall require review with the project lead electrical engineer. the detail coordinator shall send a copy of details being added to the project to each electrical designer on the project. Panel schedules shall be prepared similar to the panel schedule shown on attached example. When you need to use a detail that has already been used. but in larger facilities it shall be fed from a transformer and transfer switch that is separated from the building facilities power supply. Details Details shall be numbered as noted in the project instructions. Schedules Luminaire and panel schedules shall be put on the drawings. The luminaire schedule shall be prepared in a format similar to the lighting fixture schedule shown on attached example. In smaller facilities.

water heaters. "MCC5A via JB-3. make the destination the next junction point and give the final destinations in the size and fill callout. more usually. give the final destination and the next junction. DIVISION 11 SPECIFICATIONS Division 11 specifications for equipment that requires electrical connections shall be reviewed for electrical requirements by the electrical design engineer responsible for the area where the equipment will be installed. 3#4 to MCC5A.g.They shall be used on all plan sheets where such information will not cause confusion. 3#12 to MCC5A. the project lead electrical engineer shall review each equipment specification before it is returned to the Design Manager for processing. lights. If everything in the conduit is going to the same final destination with no intermediate junctions." If there are several final destinations for the circuits in a conduit. Fill shall be called out by number and size of conductors or by circuit name where the circuit appears on the circuit schedule.. e. A list of circuit types with single letter designators shall be prepared for circuit types that will be used repeatedly.g. "3/4" C.g. HVAC equipment. unless the specifications clearly require that all of the devices are to be wired to a single panel or TJB by the supplier of the equipment." If. everything in the conduit is going to the same final destination. in which case just show the raceway and circuit number. 1#12G.5 kW or greater). unless the raceway has an assigned number. but has intermediate junctions. just give the destination. and other non-process loads shall be shown on the facility plan. and routing. where appropriate. 6#14 to FP-3. See the preliminary drawing list for the buildings and facilities where separate plans are expected. Spare raceway for future equipment shall also be shown. showing a homerun and destination. At each connection.Appendix C SAMPLE ELECTRICAL DESIGN CRITERIA MEMO MWD Electrical Design Manual Process And Facility Plans Process and facility plans shall show the location of and connection to all equipment that requires raceway or conductors.. e." Process and facility plans shall be developed by the designer responsible for that facility. A list of Division 11 specifications will be prepared that identifies which electrical design engineer is to review which sections. the process plans shall be separated from the facility plans. A separate connection point shall be shown for each device located within an area. "MCC5A. show the connected load in kW (where it is 0. If the plans become crowded. In addition. raceway size. ESD-106 C-7 01/06 . e. Routing shall consist of showing the actual routing in cases where this is important or. Receptacles. fill.. even if they are all supplied as part of the same package.

Circuit type (power. 2-4 inch PVC. Information to be presented in circuit and raceway schedules shall show the following information: Circuit number. To coordinate the efforts of all staff having input to the schedules. each electrical designengineer shall be responsible for all circuits that leave their facility and enter the duct bank system. control.). When developed. etc. size. Number. refer to AppendixG. Standard Specifications Sections Catalog for a list of specifications necessary for this job. For cable and circuit identification.. e.g. The raceway schedule shall show the following information: Raceway number. these specifications shall be compatible in requirements to Metropolitan Standard Specifications Sections Catalog.Appendix C SAMPLE ELECTRICAL DESIGN CRITERIA MEMO MWD Electrical Design Manual DIVISION 16 SPECIFICATIONS Refer to Metropolitan's ESD-135. Routing—list raceways in the order that the circuit passes through them. These specifications shall be developed by the project lead electrical engineer with input from each electrical design engineer where a specification affects an area they are designing. They shall verify that each of their circuits is completely routed through the duct system to its final destination. The multiconductor cable schedule shall show the following: ESD-106 C-8 01/06 . and type of conduits. CIRCUIT AND RACEWAY SCHEDULES A computer-developed circuit and raceway schedule shall be used for all circuits that are routed through the duct bank system. count and type . Circuits carried in the raceway. Raceway end points. Circuit end points. instrumentation. with the exception of those shown on the area plans (1"=20' scale site plans) where the ultimate destination of the circuit is also shown on the same plan.identify neutral and grounds. Conductor size.

The following circuits and the raceways containing them shall be identified and entered into the circuit and raceway schedule: Circuits which leave a sheet (exception: circuits which leave one floor plan to a second floor of the same building but do not leave the building). FAULT STUDIES A preliminary fault study shall be completed for the entire plant as part of the PDR but no later than the start of final design. and the routing between facilities is clear. the only information that needs to be put on the drawings about that circuit is the circuit number and the raceways that contain it. unless they do not leave the sheet. This means that once the need to identify a circuit has been established. just give enough information on the drawings to locate it in the schedules. The utility service transformers shall not be operated in parallel. that portion of the circuit may be identified in the circuit schedule and the circuit will be identified as part of the raceway fill on the drawings. it shall be identified for its entire route. If a circuit is identified anywhere on its route. What to include in circuit and raceway schedules.Appendix C SAMPLE ELECTRICAL DESIGN CRITERIA MEMO Cable number. For anything appearing in the schedules. Information shall not be duplicated on the drawings and circuit and raceway schedules. Circuits which leave a facility. These diagrams may or may not be on the drawings depending on the complexity of the diagram. Circuits carried in the cable. MWD Electrical Design Manual Each multiconductor cable shall also appear in the circuit schedule. In such a case. An interconnection diagram similar to that shown in Figure 5 shall be prepared for all terminal junction boxes (TJBs) from which a control cable originates. Circuits which are part of a control cable. ESD-106 C-9 01/06 . The following assumptions shall be made: An infinite source is available on the high side of each utility service transformer. All raceways containing that circuit shall also be identified unless the raceway remains entirely within one facility.

Total. the digester gas compressor rooms shall also be classified as Class I. scum pits. a drawing shall be developed to deal with each area.e. PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS Hazardous Areas The project lead electrical engineer shall review the various areas of the plant that may contain hazardous concentrations of hazardous gases. if required by the electric utility. Devices that contain contacts located in hazardous areas shall generally be wired intrinsically safe. Division II areas where hermetically sealed contacts may be installed.. Other categories may be added to the above. The final load study shall show the load at each distribution assembly in the following categories: HVAC. up to the aeration basin). except in Class I. Other facility loads. In addition. The final fault study shall be an update of the preliminary fault study. which shall be considered Hazardous Class I. Process. These are areas open to raw sewage or secondary influent (i. ESD-106 C-10 01/06 . and similar areas. Based on the requirements of NFPA 820. The maximum load operating on each 480-volt bus at each load center shall be equal to 100 percent of the installed transformer capacity at that load center. The areas that will be affected include enclosed areas. Division I areas.Appendix C SAMPLE ELECTRICAL DESIGN CRITERIA MEMO MWD Electrical Design Manual The standby engine generators shall not operate in parallel with the utility source but the gas utilization generator shall. The study shall show the load and fault duty on each bus and feeder overcurrent device rated 460 volts or higher. Other areas may be classified hazardous as required by NFPA 820. Division I due to the presence of methane and gasoline unless adequate ventilation is provided. Lighting.

. The plant shall be designed with double-ended unit substations and MCCs in all facilities. Sequence numbers for deleted equipment shall not be reused. Redundancy of supply criteria shall comply with EPA Bulletin EPA 430-99-74-001 definitions for a Class I plant. Power for duplicate equipment shall be put into different conduits so as to maintain the Class I reliability. Miscellaneous Provide disconnects where required at process equipment. Until I&C tag numbers become available. UTILIZATION EQUIPMENT CONSIDERATIONS Utilization Equipment Identification Permanent. Interim. compressors. ESD-106 C-11 01/06 . unit heaters. Provide disconnect switches for all HVAC equipment that has any integral controls (i. utilization equipment will be identified by the following format: FF-SS Where FF is the facility number in or near which the equip ment is located and SS is a sequence number. duct heaters. Sequence numbers shall be assigned in order by the facility designer. UH for unit heater. for example. especially at motor-operated valves.Appendix C SAMPLE ELECTRICAL DESIGN CRITERIA MEMO MWD Electrical Design Manual Reliability This plant requires EPA Class I reliability. Utilization equipment that does not appear on the P&IDs will be identified in the same manner as electrical distribution equipment (see below) using an appropriate equipment type.e. etc.). Do not ask that they be specified unless they are a standard option. air handlers. Utilization equipment shall be identified by I&C tag numbers as those numbers become available. One utility source is available at the plant and a standby generator shall also be provided. Work with the equipment specified to see if integral disconnects are a standard option.

medium. Equipment-type designations shall be as follows: CMS JB MCC MSR = = = = Combination motor starter. Distribution panelboards. etc. 5EL1. Several examples of equipment designations based on function and voltage are given below. Switchgear. Junction box. medium voltage. Switchboard. etc. 480 Volts Distribution Panel Switchboard Motor Control Center Emergency Panel 208Y/120 Volts Lighting. 5DP3. 5MCC2. 5MCC1. Transformer. 5MCC3. 5EP2. Receptacles. etc. 5LP2. Unit substation. etc. note that the numeral 5 indicates the equipment is located in Building No. ESD-106 C-12 01/06 . 5LP3. 5. Distribution equipment numbers shall reference the building or facility in which the equipment is located. or low voltage.Appendix C SAMPLE ELECTRICAL DESIGN CRITERIA MEMO ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT CONSIDERATIONS MWD Electrical Design Manual Electrical Distribution Equipment Identification A logical and consistent naming and numbering system shall be developed to designate equipment associated with electrical systems. low voltage. 5DP2. 5SB1. 5LP1. and Miscellaneous Power Emergency Lighting Panel 5DP1. 5EP1. not part of a manufactured assembly. Grouped motor control. 5EL2. 5SB3. 5EP3. 5EL3. PNL = DPNL = SB = SWG = TJB = TX = USB = Other equipment-type designations may be used. Terminal junction box. etc. 5SB2. Panelboard. etc. Motor control center.

"D" for discrete. Transformers. The following equipment will be identified: Motor control centers. junction boxes may need to be identified in order to homerun to them. Other equipment may be identified if identification is required for other purposes. Smaller feeder breakers shall be molded case with solid state trips. 480-volt motor control center branch circuit breaker (other than combination motor starters): molded case thermal magnetic. MCCs. SWBDs. ESD-106 C-13 01/06 . 4. shall be located on the site plan and the 1"=20' scale area plans in addition to the facility and process electrical plans.Appendix C SAMPLE ELECTRICAL DESIGN CRITERIA MEMO MWD Electrical Design Manual Sequence numbers are required even if only one of a particular type of equipment is in a particular facility. For TJBs only. for example.. etc.160-volt motor control—: Draw-out type vacuum contactors with current limiting fuses in NEMA Type 1 gasketed enclosure. i.. Major electrical equipment.e. the sequence number will be followed by "A" for analog. 480-volt switchboard: 100 percent rated insulated case circuit breaker with solid-state trip for mains and feeders 600 amperes and larger. Distribution panelboards. Unit substations.and low-voltage distribution systems: 4. Switchboards. Switchgear. Panelboards. Terminal junction boxes. 480-volt motor control center main circuit breaker: 100 percent rated molded case with solid state trips.16-kV main switchgear assembly: Draw-out vacuum type power circuit breakers in NEMA Type 1 enclosure for indoor or NEMA Type 3R enclosure for outdoor. or "P" for power. Distribution System Protection The following types of protective devices shall be used for the medium.

All motor control circuits shall operate at 120 volts and shall be supplied by individual control power transformers fused both in the primary and secondary sides. Each motor shall be provided with thermal overload protection in all ungrounded phases. Motor Protection and Control Magnetic-only circuit breakers shall be provided as a branch circuit protection in motor starters for all motors 50 hp and smaller. ESD-106 C-14 01/06 .Appendix C SAMPLE ELECTRICAL DESIGN CRITERIA MEMO MWD Electrical Design Manual 480-volt feeder circuit breaker in motor control centers and power distribution panelboards. Motor control center type construction shall be used where multiple three-phase motors are located in the same general area. Equipment shall have adequate momentary and interrupting capacity to withstand fault currents that may occur at the point in the system where the equipment shall be applied. pushbuttons. and ground fault protection shall also be provided on large motors. Branch circuit protection for larger motors shall be provided by thermal magnetic breakers with adjustable magnetic trips. Each circuit breaker protecting a motor of 100 horsepower or more shall be equipped with ground fault protection. Multi-function protective relays for overload. Devices connected with process controls. Smaller circuit breakers shall be molded case thermal magnetic. Internal temperature detectors embedded in motor windings shall be specified for motors of 100 hp and larger and all motors 10 hp and larger that are powered by an adjustable frequency drive. Electrical motor starter control shall normally consist of indicating lights. phase protection. or switches. 400-ampere and larger: molded case solid-state trip. 100 percent rated. Ground fault protection on motors shall be instantaneous type and ground fault protection on main breakers and feeder breakers shall be equipped with time delay setting and restraint systems. Controller-mounted thermal overload relays shall have external manual reset. shall be provided in instrumentation and control panels or operated by a programmable logic controller as part of its internal control logic. such as timers and auxiliary relays. Each circuit breaker that is located immediately downstream from the secondary main on a 480Y/277-volt secondary transformer shall be equipped with ground fault protection unless that circuit breaker is rated 200 amps or less.

etc. Instruments of different types that are all associated with the same flow stream may be connected to the same branch circuit to simplify the design. Separate panelboards shall be provided to supply power to instruments and control panels where the equipment to be supplied requires a conditioned power supply. 208Y/120-volt. four-wire type with the main circuit breaker sized to match the lighting transformer capacity. rating of main lugs or main circuit breaker. and interrupting rating of breakers. three-phase. neutral bus size. neutral bus size. Examples: One circuit per bar screen channel Branch circuits or feeders shall be identified on the drawings with the panelboard and device protecting the individual circuit or feeder. bus work. load in volt-amps by phase. Computer-generated panelboard schedules shall be included in the drawings. ESD-106 C-15 01/06 . number of poles. rating of main lugs or main circuit breaker. ground bus size. Where two 480-volt power supplies are available. and interrupting rating of breakers. ground bus size. a toggle switch shall be provided at each tap to allow each individual instrument to be disconnected from the branch circuit. Where multiple instruments are connected to a single-branch circuit. Each panelboard shall be equipped with a minimum of 20 percent spare breakers with spaces.Appendix C SAMPLE ELECTRICAL DESIGN CRITERIA MEMO MWD Electrical Design Manual Panelboards A separate circuit breaker shall be provided for instruments that perform the same function on parallel flow streams. protective device trip rating. A common branch circuit shall be provided for all valve and gate operators that are associated with a single-flow stream. protective device trip rating. flow meters. Lighting panelboards shall be surface-mounted. Panelboard schedules shall be prepared indicating circuit description. Panelboard schedules shall show the circuit description. such as DO meters. and terminations to complete the standard size panelboard. number of poles. an automatic transfer switch shall be provided to supply power to the lighting panelboard transformers from either 480-volt source.

The minimum diameter of conduit in all areas shall be 3/4 inch. underground duct bank shall be provided for the following systems: Power wiring above 600 volts. and cost. Current and time trip levels shall be adjustable. Facilities shall be provided for testing the ground fault circuit by secondary current injection. Motor ground fault shall be an instantaneous trip. Underground raceways that are not installed in a duct bank shall be direct-buried. polyvinyl chloride (PVC) conduit. concrete-encased. schedule 40 PVC conduit. offices. temperature. Raceways Specific types of raceway shall be chosen for use in various locations in the facility based on moisture. Process instrumentation analog and communication wiring. corrosion. Receptacles shall be located as needed in commercial areas. Power Factor Power factor correction capacitors shall be applied to all motor starters for motors of 40 hp and larger. Ground fault shall be supplied external to the circuit breaker. 6 AWG. voltage. Capacitor banks shall generally be located on top of motor control centers. Power and discrete control wiring below 600 volts. Ground Fault Ground fault systems shall be zero sequence type. and installation: Conduit size shall be based on THWN insulation for sizes below No. and THW insulation for all other wiring 600 volts and below. Receptacles in outdoor locations and areas subject to washdown shall be weatherproof. Exposed raceways shall be installed in process areas. and all areas ESD-106 C-16 01/06 . Coordination shall be obtained by hard-wired trip restraints (about 2ms restraint). selection. Separate. exposure to damage.Appendix C SAMPLE ELECTRICAL DESIGN CRITERIA MEMO MWD Electrical Design Manual Convenience Receptacles Duplex receptacles for general service shall be spaced not more than 40 feet apart inside all process buildings and 75 feet apart in outside process areas and shall be located on the surface of walls or columns. Raceways in walls and ceilings in control rooms. The following general guidelines shall be used for raceway sizing. with or without tripping and for indicating the occurrence of a ground fault.

6 AWG and smaller shall have THHN/THWN insulation. Interior conduit exposed to corrosive areas shall be schedule 80 PVC. Exterior. Interior. direct-buried conduit shall be schedule 40 PVC. Interior conduit exposed to damp or wet areas shall be aluminum and/or PVC coated rigid steel. Exterior. concealed conduit shall be electrical metallic tubing (EMT) in frame construction and finished ceiling spaces. exposed conduit shall be aluminum and/or PVC-coated rigid steel. except that EMT shall be allowed for lighting circuits more than 4 feet above finished floor.10 AWG and smaller where required by wiring devices. Embedded and buried nonmetallic conduits shall be converted to metallic conduit before exiting from masonry or earth. The current carrying capacity of conductors shall be based on 75 C insulation ratings. Multi-pair cables shall be used where grouping of circuits is practical. underground. Interior conduit exposed in dry areas shall be steel. unless it is practical to use multi-conductor cables to group control circuits. 16 AWG with an aluminum mylar tape shield shall be used for analog signals. Individual No. underground. Twisted-shielded pair control cable No. copper tape shield and PVC outer jacket. schedule 40 PVC when embedded in concrete or direct-buried in earth. Stranded conductors shall be used for other applications. Conductors above 600 volts shall be 19-strand copper with ethylene-propylene polymer (EPR) insulation. concrete-encased conduit shall be schedule 40 PVC. larger conductors shall have XHHW insulation.Appendix C SAMPLE ELECTRICAL DESIGN CRITERIA MEMO MWD Electrical Design Manual with finished interiors shall be concealed. Conductors No. Solid conductors shall be used for No. 14 AWG conductors shall be used for discrete control circuits. Wire And Cable Copper conductors shall be used for all lighting and power wiring of 600 volts and below. o ESD-106 C-17 01/06 . Exterior. The number of conduit bends shall be limited to an equivalent of 270 degrees on long runs.

A ground wire shall be installed in all raceways that contain power conductors at any voltage. ground rods shall be driven outside the building to supplement the ground electrode. Overloads will be non-ambient-compensated unless such compensation is needed. devices.. Limiters shall be shown where necessary. at submerged pumps. Grounding electrodes of ground mats or embedded rods and cables shall have a maximum resistance to ground of 1 ohm. for instance. See the manufacturers data contained hereinafter for additional information. All solenoid valves. Where this is done. The transformer neutrals of wye-connected transformers shall be solidly grounded through a grounding conductor connected to the grounding system. Allow space for at least one future section at each MCC. the following minimum foot-candle level shall be provided: ESD-106 C-18 01/06 . A minimum of 5 percent spares and 10 percent spaces shall be provided. and metallic raceways that do not carry current shall be connected to the ground conductors. Lighting Lighting levels in all areas of the plant shall be calculated following the procedures recommended in the Illumination Engineering Society (IES) handbook. which may consist of a building steel column that is bonded to the underground rebar or the nearest available effectively grounded metal water pipe. Grounding Load centers shall be bonded to a grounding electrode. MCCs shall be 20 inches deep. panelboards. the need for additional CPT capacity shall be called out. A minimum of No. In addition. Switchboards Switchboards shall be similar to Square D Power Style with individually mounted. etc. 2/0 insulated copper cable shall be used for interconnecting ground rods and connection to equipment.Appendix C SAMPLE ELECTRICAL DESIGN CRITERIA MEMO MWD Electrical Design Manual Motor Control Centers MCCs shall use NEMA 1B wiring. In general. molded case circuit breakers that have solid state trip elements. that need to be operated when the motor is on shall be powered from the motor starter CPT. The parts of all electrical equipment. thermal devices.

A small transformer with a separate panelboard shall be used in every case. inside Process. Transformers to supply 480 volt 3-phase and 4160 volt 3-phase shall be of the pad mount type where located outdoors and of the dry type where located indoors. inside Walkway. above 12 feet mounting height Storage. outside Storage. ESD-106 C-19 01/06 . Transformers that include a small panelboard in the same enclosure shall not be used.Appendix C SAMPLE ELECTRICAL DESIGN CRITERIA MEMO Area Office Process. inside Walkway. inside Walkway General site 70 50 5 10 5 1 MWD Electrical Design Manual Foot-Candle The following general types of light service shall be used to provide the proposed foot-candle levels: AreaLight Service Office Process. outside General site Fluorescent Fluorescent High pressure sodium or metal halide Fluorescent Fluorescent High pressure sodium High pressure sodium Transformers Transformers to supply 208Y/120 volt requirements shall be dry type and suitable for the area in which they are to be located. inside to 12 feet mounting height Process.

For each facility. a JB or TJB (if conversion to a multiconductor cable is required) shall be installed for the interface. Copies of all calculations shall be sent to project lead electrical engineer as they are completed for his review and filing. Where discrete I&C circuits that leave a facility come from several assemblies. letters. CALCULATIONS REQUIRED Calculations shall be done in an orderly manner either on a desktop PC computer or on computation paper. and the designers name. Each sheet shall have the date on which the computations were made. Where analog I&C circuits that leave a facility come from several assemblies. Where all analog I&C circuits that leave a facility are in a single assembly. that assembly shall be used as the interface. equipment data sheets. etc. Where all discrete I&C circuits that leave a facility are in a single assembly. At the completion of the project. a TJB shall be installed for the interface (see Figure ___). Analog Instrument and Control Interfaces. All calculations shall be reviewed before the related drawings are drafted. Discrete Instrument and Control Interfaces. the project number.Appendix C SAMPLE ELECTRICAL DESIGN CRITERIA MEMO MWD Electrical Design Manual Miscellaneous Systems Fire alarm systems shall be included in buildings as required by applicable codes. make a list showing where the interfaces are. comps. The computations listed below are the minimum that need to be documented. Each computation shall clearly identify the facility for which the calculations are being made and the type of computation that is being performed. Power interfaces shall be done at an assembly or device and shall not require a junction box. that assembly shall be used as the interface. Power Interfaces. All information used in the preparation of the design shall be kept in a notebook with tabs to properly divide the different items such as telco memos. all pertinent information shall be assembled in a single set of notebooks for inclusion in the project files. ESD-106 C-20 01/06 . INTERFACES Facility Each facility shall have designated interface points for connection with conductors that leave the facility.

Demand and diversity factors that are allowed by the NEC may be used for sizing transformers that supply loads in areas that are not process related. ESD-106 C-21 01/06 . Motor starting voltage drop shall be limited to 20 percent. Voltage Drop Prepare steady-state voltage drop calculations for all heavily loaded and/or long branch circuits and feeders using the attached "Voltage Drop Calculation Data. Show wiring sizing for all services. Pad Mounted and Unit Substation Transformers All power supply transformers shall be sized to supply the total load that is normally connected to the transformer's secondary bus without exceeding the air-cooled rating of the transformer. it shall be assumed that the third MCC bus can be "normally connected" to either transformer. Steady state voltage drop shall be limited to the values listed in the Design Criteria with not more than 2 percent drop on feeder. Where there are three MCC buses. Calculations for feeders to panelboards shall reference the specific panelboard being supplied and a copy of the panel schedule with all loads indicated shall be included with the calculations. assuming that one transformer has failed. feeders. but transformers in other areas shall be adequately sized to supply the total connected load connected to the process. Motor starting voltage drop calculations shall be shown for all motors that exceed 20 percent of the rating of the serving transformer.Appendix C SAMPLE ELECTRICAL DESIGN CRITERIA MEMO MWD Electrical Design Manual Wire Sizing Take into account wet/dry areas and ambient temperatures—see attached form for a guide. Dry Type Transformers Include a list of all branch circuit panelboards to be supplied and the connected load on each panel. and large branch circuits. Primary and secondary feeders to/from dry type transformers shall be sized in accordance with the attached transformer table and the proper sized main breaker shall be shown in the panelboard that is served from the transformer. Each transformer shall also be able to carry the total load of the load center that would be expected to be operating during peak flow conditions without exceeding the transformer's overload rating. Calculations shall include a summary of all loads to be served where there is more than one load." Base calculations for motor circuits on an 80 percent power factor.

use the "Zonal Cavity Calculations" form attached. For larger areas. including the ground conductor. Conduit fill shall not exceed that allowed by the NEC when all conductors. For small areas. Lighting Calculations may be in any form. A minimum wire size of No. Branch circuit shall be limited to five duplex receptacles in process areas and six duplex receptacles in office areas. a statement that "so many" lights of "such" a size will do the job. a copy of the table used with appropriate values marked. The calculations shall include a statement showing all assumptions that are made to make the calculation.Appendix C SAMPLE ELECTRICAL DESIGN CRITERIA MEMO MWD Electrical Design Manual Branch Circuits Connected load and NEC requirements shall be used for sizing branch circuit breakers and conductors. Presume the utility is an infinite bus unless better information can be obtained. No. Special areas may require further reduction in number of receptacles per circuit. and is all that is required. 120 volt lighting branch circuit load shall be used for up to 1800 voltamps. shall be included in the calculation section of the notebook. If tables are used. are included in the calculation assuming that ground conductors have TW insulation and phase conductors have THW insulation. ESD-106 C-22 01/06 . 10 AWG shall be used where the first convenience receptacle is more than 75 feet from the panelboard. Fault Study and Coordination This should take into account future loads and changed conditions. 120 volt lighting loads shall be connected to circuits separate from receptacles except in storage rooms where the lights may be connected to receptacle circuits or vice versa. 12 AWG copper shall be used for lighting and receptacle branch circuits. In general. Conduit Size Calculations shall be included for sizing of all conduits that are not covered by the table of conduit sizes included hereinafter. The foot-candle level resulting from the actual fixtures to be installed shall be documented. Power Factor Correction Calculations shall be made for the sizing of all power correction capacitors.

Submersible. and Sleet-Resistant. Watertight. Dusttight. NEMA Type 4. sleet. NEMA Type 6P. Dusttight. windblown dust and to provide for operation of external mechanisms when ice laden. and damage from external ice formation. windblown dust and damage from external ice formation.(Ice-) Resistant. Dusttight. and Sleetproof (Iceproof) Enclosures intended for outdoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against rain. are corrosion-resistant. Submersible. and the entry of water during occasional temporary submersion at a limited depth and damage from external ice formation. and Sleet. Dusttight. If provision is made for the entrance of conduit at the top. Enclosures have conduit hubs or equivalent provision for watertight connection at the conduit entrance and mounting means external to the equipment cavity. Raintight. ESD-106 D-1 01/06 . Enclosures have provisions for drainage.(Ice-) Resistant. Raintight.Appendix D ENCLOSURE TYPES MWD Electrical Design Manual NEMA Type 1. Watertight. sleet. Enclosures have conduit hubs or equivalent provision for watertight connection at the conduit entrance. NEMA Type 6. NEMA Type 4X. Enclosures intended for indoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against limited amounts of falling dirt.(Ice-) Resistant. Rainproof and Sleet. sleet. hose-directed water and damage from external ice formation. NEMA Type 2. Enclosures intended for indoor or outdoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against windblown dust and rain. NEMA Type 3R. and provision for locking. Enclosures intended for indoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against limited amounts of failing water and dirt. Same provisions as Type 6 enclosure except for protection against entry of water during prolonged submersion at a limited depth. it consists of a conduit hub or equivalent. General Purpose. Enclosures intended for outdoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against rain. Dusttight. Dripproof. and Sleet. mounting means external to the equipment cavity. Enclosures have conduit hubs or equivalent provision for watertight connection at the conduit entrance and mounting means external to the equipment cavity. splashing water. Dusttight. Enclosures intended for indoor or outdoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against hose-directed water. Enclosures have conduit hubs or equivalent provision for watertight connection at the conduit entrance. Watertight. and in addition.and Corrosion Resistant: Same provisions as Type 4 enclosure. NEMA Type 3. and Sleet. Enclosures intended for outdoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against rain. NEMA Type 3S. Sleet. Watertight.(Ice-) Resistant.

NEMA Type 9. B. or D Hazardous Locations. and external condensation of corrosive liquids by providing for immersion of equipment in oil. B. except that oiltight or dusttight mechanisms may be mounted through holes in the enclosure when provided with oil-resistant gaskets. Division 1. NEMA Type 8.Appendix D ENCLOSURE TYPES MWD Electrical Design Manual NEMA Type 7. lint. F. NEMA Type 13. Group A. Groups A. and external condensation of noncorrosive liquids. Class I. Division I. oil. Oil-Immersed. C or D hazardous locations as defined in the National Electric Code (NFPA 70). C. F and G hazardous locations as defined in the National Electric Code (NFPA 70). B. Nonventilated enclosures constructed for mine use and designed to meet the requirements of the Mine Safety and Health Administration. Enclosures are commonly referred to as oil immersed. C or D hazardous locations as defined in the National Electric Code (NFPA 70). Enclosures have no holes. Division 2. Oil-Immersed. conduit knockouts or conduits openings. Group A. Corrosion-Resistant and Dripproof. C. Enclosures are designed to withstand the pressures of an internal explosion and not ignite an explosive mixture outside the enclosure. ESD-106 D-2 01/06 . pushbutton. Groups A. and pilot lights and to protect these devices against lint and dust. Enclosures intended for indoor use to protect the enclosed equipment against fibers. Enclosures intended for indoor use in locations classified as Class I. NEMA Type 12. Industrial Use. flyings. and Driptight. Groups E. seepage. Enclosures are designed such that the enclosed equipment is oil-immersed and can operate at rated voltage and most severe current conditions in the presence of flammable gas-air mixtures without igniting these mixtures. B. NEMA Type 10. or G Hazardous Locations. Class II. external condensation. seepage. Oiltight and Dusttight. dust. or coolant. Enclosures intended for indoor use in locations classified as Class II. selector switches. Enclosures intended for indoor or outdoor use in locations classified as Class I. Dusttight. foot switches. and spraying of water. Group E. or D Hazardous Locations. Enclosures prevent the ingress of hazardous dust and are commonly referred to as dust-ignition proof. Nonventilated enclosures intended for indoor use primarily to house control-circuit devices such as limit switches. Air-Break. NEMA Type 11. Enclosures intended for indoor use to protect the enclosed equipment against dripping. Air-Break. Enclosures are commonly referred to as explosion-proof. Class I. Equipment within the enclosure shall be able to interrupt in a flammable atmosphere. All conduit openings have provisions for oiltight conduit entry.

OPEN PIPE VENTILATED MACHINE: openings for the admission of the ventilation are so arranged that inlet ducts or pipes can be connected to them. are guarded as in the case of a "guarded machine. SEMIGUARDED MACHINE: ventilation openings in the machine. WEATHER PROTECTED MACHINE TYPE II: ventilation passages at both intake and discharge are arranged so that high velocity air and airborne particles blown into the machine by storms or high winds can be discharged without entering the internal ventilating passages." but the others are left open. expanded metal. TOTALLY ENCLOSED MACHINE: enclosed to prevent the free exchange of air between the inside and outside of the enclosure but not sufficiently enclosed to be termed airtight. and airborne particles. WEATHER PROTECTED MACHINE TYPE I: ventilation passages constructed so as to minimize the entrance of rain. grilles. ESD-106 E-1 01/06 .Appendix E MOTOR ENCLOSURE TYPES MWD Electrical Design Manual OPEN MACHINE: ventilation openings permit passage of external cooling air over and around the winding of the machine DRIP-PROOF MACHINE: ventilation openings are so constructed that successful operation is not interfered with when drops of liquid or solid particles strike or enter the enclosure at any angle from 0 to 15 degrees downward from the vertical. usually in the top half. OPEN EXTERNALLY VENTILATED MACHINE: ventilated by means of a separate motor-driven blower mounted on the machine enclosure. Machine shall be self-ventilated or force-ventilated. GUARDED MACHINE: all openings giving direct access to live metal or rotating parts are limited in size by structural parts or by screens. baffles. SPLASH-PROOF MACHINE: ventilation openings are constructed so that successful operation is not interfered with when drops of liquid or solid particles strike or enter the enclosure at any angle not greater than 100 degrees downward from the vertical. or other means to prevent accidental contact with hazardous parts. external from and not a part of the machine. snow. DRIP-PROOF GUARDED MACHINES: a drip-proof machine with guarded ventilation openings.

for circulating the internal air and a fan or fans. either integral with the rotor shaft or separate. for circulating the external air. TOTALLY ENCLOSED AIR-TO-AIR COOLED MACHINE: cooled by circulating the internal air through a heat exchanger which. TOTALLY ENCLOSED FAN-COOLED MACHINE: equipped for exterior cooling by means of a fan or fans integral with the machines but external to the enclosed parts. with the water or water conductors coming in direct contact with machine parts. in turn. is cooled by circulating water. and which will not permit arcs. DUST IGNITION-PROOF MACHINE: enclosure designed and constructed in a manner that will exclude ignitable amount of dust or amounts that might affect performance or rating.Appendix E MOTOR ENCLOSURE TYPES MWD Electrical Design Manual TOTALLY ENCLOSED NONVENTILATED MACHINE: totally enclosed machine that is not equipped for cooling by means external to the enclosed parts. TOTALLY ENCLOSED WATER-AIR-COOLED MACHINE: cooled by circulating air which. or explosions of the specified gas or vapor. TOTALLY ENCLOSED WATER COOLED MACHINE: cooled by circulating water. ESD-106 E-2 01/06 . flashes. WATERPROOF MACHINE: constructed so that it will exclude water in the form of a stream from a hose. in turn. EXPLOSION-PROOF MACHINE: enclosure designed and constructed to withstand an explosion of a specified gas or vapor that may occur within the enclosure and to prevent ignition of the specified gas or vapor surrounding the machine by sparks. for circulating the internal air. Machine is provided with an air-to-air heat exchanger for cooling the internal air and a fan or fans. either integral with the rotor shaft or separate but external to the enclosing part or parts. either integral with the rotor shaft or separate. is cooled by circulating external air. Machine is provided with a water-cooled heat exchanger for cooling the internal air and a fan or fans. TOTALLY ENCLOSED PIPE VENTILATED: constructed with openings so arranged that when inlet and outlet ducts or pipes are connected to them there is no free exchange of the internal air and the air outside the enclosure may be self-ventilated or force-ventilated. except that leakage may occur around the shaft that provides for automatic drainage. sparks. or heat to cause ignition of exterior accumulations or atmospheric suspensions of a specific dust.

Appendix E MOTOR ENCLOSURE TYPES MWD Electrical Design Manual TOTALLY ENCLOSED FAN-COOLED GUARDED MACHINE: all openings giving direct access to the fan are limited by size or design of the structural parts. to prevent accidental contact with the fan. grilles. and have screens. TOTALLY ENCLOSED AIR-OVER MACHINE: intended for exterior cooling by ventilation external to the machine. etc. expanded metal. ESD-106 E-3 01/06 .

A Design C motor is a squirrel-cage motor designed to withstand full-voltage starting. ESD-106 F-1 01/06 . A Design A motor is a squirrel-cage motor designed to withstand full-voltage starting and to develop locked-rotor torque. A Design B motor is a squirrel-cage induction motor designed to withstand full-voltage starting. drawing locked-rotor current not to exceed the values shown in Table MG1-12-35. developing locked-rotor torque for special high-torque applications up to the values shown in Table MG1-12-38. Design B. Therefore. Design A motors are usually used for applications where extremely high efficiency and extremely high full-load speed are required.Appendix F MOTOR DESIGN TYPES MWD Electrical Design Manual The polyphase induction motor shall be of either the squirrel-cage or the wound-rotor type. Design A motors tend to be special motors. It has a locked-rotor current higher than the value shown in Table MG1-12-35 and a slip at rated load of less than 5 percent. and having a slip at rated load of 5 percent or more.2. and having a slip at rated load of less than 5 percent. Design C. A Design D motor is a squirrel-cage motor designed to withstand full-voltage starting. It has a breakdown torque as shown in Table MG1-12-39. with locked-rotor current not greater than that shown in Table MG1-12-35. Motors with 10 and more poles may have a slip slightly greater than 5 percent. Design A. Design F. Design B motors are the standard general-purpose motors used where low locked-rotor current and moderate locked-rotor torque are required along with high full-load speed and efficiency. breakdown torque up to the values shown in Table MG1-12-39. A Design F motor is a squirrel-cage motor designed to withstand full-voltage starting.2. developing high locked-rotor torque as shown in Table MG1-12-38. developing locked-rotor and breakdown torques adequate for general application as specified in Tables MG1-12-38. developing low locked-rotor torque as shown in Table MG1-12-38. and having a slip at rated load of less than 5 percent.2. Design D.1 and MG1-12-39.1 with breakdown torque as shown in Table MG1-12-38. and having a slip at rated load of less than 5 percent. with locked-rotor current not to exceed the values shown in Table MG1-12-35.2. The squirrel-cage induction motor has been classified by National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) Tests and Performance-AC (MG1-1987) according to the following designs. with locked-rotor current not to exceed the values shown in Table MG1-12-35.

Appendix F MOTOR DESIGN TYPES MWD Electrical Design Manual The following figure shows typical speed-torque curves of NEMA design-class squirrel cage motors. ESD-106 F-2 01/06 .

Locked-rotor (starting) torque – Minimum torque which the motor will develop at rest for all angular positions of the rotor. For motors which do not have a definite breakdown torque.Appendix G MOTOR TORQUE DEFINITIONS MWD Electrical Design Manual The following terms are commonly used to describe motor torque. the pull-up torque is the minimum torque developed up to rated speed. ESD-106 G-1 01/06 . at rated voltage and frequency. when its field excitation is applied. Pull-up torque – Minimum torque developed by the motor during the period of acceleration from rest to the speed at which breakdown torque occurs. Breakdown torque – Maximum torque which the motor will develop with rated voltage applied at rated frequency. Pull-out torque (synchronous motor) – Maximum sustained torque which the motor will develop at synchronous speed with rated voltage applied at rated frequency and with normal excitation. Full load torque – Torque necessary to produce rated horsepower at full-load speed. with rated voltage applied at rated frequency. Pull-in torque (synchronous motor) – Maximum constant torque under which the motor will pull its connected inertia load into synchronism. without an abrupt drop in speed.

Appendix H STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF ELECTRICAL CURRENT CARRYING CONDUCTORS MWD Electrical Design Manual The specification is provided by the Treatment Plant Design Team. The cable number should be constructed as follows: 1.) Feeder number from unit substation or distribution loadcenter (1. 3. instrument-loop diagrams.B. The cable number should be show on single-line diagrams.) Motor control center or power distribution panel designation. and panel-wiring diagrams. 2L-1 (without suffix letter) ESD-106 H-1 01/06 .2. CABLE IDENTIFICATION Conductor and multiconductor cables should be identified at each end of the installed cable.2. Feeder Cable From Unit Substation or Distribution Load-Center. Cable tags and fastening devices shall be made of nonconductive materials. Branch Circuit Cable From Lighting and Receptacle Panel.3…etc. wiring diagrams. a. 2. IP-1 A (without suffix letter) (with suffix letter) Suffix letter as required (A. a. Cable tab marking should be permanent type and waterproof. Feeder Cable from Motor Control Center or Power Distribution Panel. 1P1-1 b.C.) MSDS transformer’s secondary cable designation.) Feeder number from motor control center or power distribution panel (1.B.3…etc.C. IP-1 b.…etc. wire list. 1P1-1 A (without suffix letter) (with suffix letter) Suffix letter as required (A. a.…etc.

…. Control Cable of Instrumentation Equipment with Contract Closure a. except “C.) Denote “Control” cable. PS500C b. LI302C-1 d.C.etc. Instrument tag number as show on the P&ID’s without suffix number.Appendix H STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF ELECTRICAL CURRENT CARRYING CONDUCTORS b.) 5.B. Typical for all feeder-source-panel with control cable or conductor. Control Cable of Motor Starter or Controller.C. c.etc.3…etc.B. Motor control center or power distribution panel designation.…. 1C1-1 b. PS500 C A (without suffix letter) (with suffix letter) Suffix letter as required (A. 2L-1 A (with suffix letter) MWD Electrical Design Manual Suffix letter as required (A. a.C.B.etc.….” which denotes “Control” is substituted for power “P” or to any power designated letters.) Lighting and receptacle panel designation (“L” denotes lighting and receptacle cable or conductor) 4.) Feeder number from power source panel.2.) Lighting or receptacle circuit number (1. 1C1-1 A (without suffix letter) (with suffix letter) Suffix letter as required (A. LI302C-1 A (without suffix letter) (with suffix letter) ESD-106 H-2 01/06 .

ESD-106 H-3 01/06 ..C.) Instrumentation cable designation without suffix number.) Instrument tag number’s suffix number as required (1.B.B.…etc. I-LI302-1 A (without suffix letter) (with suffix letter) Suffix letter as required (A.3…etc) Control cable designation without suffix number.2. I-PS500 b.) Instrument tab number as shown on the P&ID’s without suffix number. c.Appendix H STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF ELECTRICAL CURRENT CARRYING CONDUCTORS MWD Electrical Design Manual Suffix letter as required (A. Denotes “Instrumentation” cable.etc. 6.) Instrument tag number’s suffix number as required (1.…etc.C. I-PS500 A (without suffix letter) (with suffix letter) Suffix letter as required (A..C. Instrumentation Cable of Instrumentation Equipment with Analog Signal a. Denotes “Instrumentation” cable.2.…. Note: See Figure H-1 and Figure H-2 for samples.etc.B. I-LI302-1 d.3.

Examples of Power Feeder Cable Identifications for Water Treatment Plant Section ESD-106 H-4 01/06 .Appendix H STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF ELECTRICAL CURRENT CARRYING CONDUCTORS MWD Electrical Design Manual Figure H-1.

Examples of Control and Instrumentation Cable Identifications for Water Treatment Plant Section ESD-106 H-5 01/06 .Appendix H STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF ELECTRICAL CURRENT CARRYING CONDUCTORS MWD Electrical Design Manual Figure H-2.

A CHARACTER COLOR WHITE BLACK WHITE WHITE WHITE WHITE VOLTAGE LEVEL 12KV AND UP 4.16KV 480V 240V 120V SIGNAL ESD-106 H-6 01/06 . wire lists. All conductor voltage levels shall be identified by the following color code in Table-A. DEFINITIONS: Cable: A current carrying conductor/ conductors enclosed in an insulating sheath and bound by an outer jacket of insulating material.31 single conductors and individual conductors of multi-conductor cables should be identified with a Thomas & Betts type WWSL selflaminating vinyl marker. Identification tags should be affixed within 6” of conductor separation from outer jacket except as noted. or equal attached or shrink wrapped to the cable.0.00 3.30 3. Instrument loop diagrams. All conductors and multi-conductor cables identified on design documents as requiring identification tags should have a Thomas & Betts WSL selflaminating vinyl marker.21 3. 3. INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS: Cable identification tags shall be non-metallic material and permanently affixed to outer cable jacket.Appendix H STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF ELECTRICAL CURRENT CARRYING CONDUCTORS ELECTRICAL BRANCH HYDRO PLANT DESIGN SECTION STANDARD SPECIFICATION FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF ELECTRICAL CURRENT 1. 2. 3.20 3.32 BACKGROUND COLOR RED ORANGE BLUE BLACK BROWN GREEN TABLE . where taping or shielding is required the tag shall be placed as close to the termination point as physically possible. Conductor: A single current carrying material enclosed by an insulating jacket. wiring diagrams.10 3. EXCEPTIONS: I. or equal attached or shrink wrapped to the conductor indicating the point of termination.0 MWD Electrical Design Manual SCOPE: This standard provides the means of identifying electrical current Carrying conductors on single line diagrams. and internal/external panel diagrams. Also provided is the installation requirements for cable identification tags.

2. CABLE TAG NUMBER 00 THROUGH 99 The cable tag number identifies a particular cable that is related to a specific piece of equipment located within a particular plant system.1 4.0.Appendix H STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF ELECTRICAL CURRENT CARRYING CONDUCTORS MWD Electrical Design Manual 4.1.1 ASSOCIATED PLANT SYSTEM The associated plant system indicates the system that the cable is related to. 4. Cable Identification ESD-106 H-7 01/06 .2.2.0 4. See page H-10 for a sample listing of plant system.3 X XX X X X CABLE TAG NUMBER 00 THROUGH 99 EQUIPMENT NUMBER ASSOCIATED PLANT SYSTEM UNIT OR EXPANSION NUMBER Figure H-2.0 IDENTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS: All cables that require identification should be identified by the following alpha-numeric code as shown in Figure H-3 The alpha-numeric code shall be used on all design documents where cable identification is required UNIT OR EXPANSION NUMBER The unit or expansion number indicates the phases of the project.2 4. 4. This number or letter will increase as subsequent phases of the project are started.1.2. EQUIPMENT NUMBER The equipment number or letter identifies a particular piece of equipment that is related to the associated plant system.0 4.

Appendix H STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF ELECTRICAL CURRENT CARRYING CONDUCTORS MWD Electrical Design Manual Figure H-3. Identification of A Multi-Conductor Cable Figure H-4. Identification of A Single-Conductor Cable ESD-106 H-8 01/06 .

Appendix H STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF ELECTRICAL CURRENT CARRYING CONDUCTORS MWD Electrical Design Manual ASSOCIATED PLANT SYSTEMS CABLE CODES MECHANICAL SYSTEMS AD BD BP CI CD DP EQ FA FB FD FI FO FL FW GW IW IQ PA PI SD SP SW TB WP WS WW ALUM DISTRIBUTION BASIN DEWATERING BACKWASH POLYMER CHEMICAL INJECTION CHLORINE DISTRIBUTION DRY POLYMER EFFLUENT WATER QUALITY FILTER AID DISTRIBUTION FLOCCULATION BASINS FLOOR DRAINS FILTER OPERATION FOAM ABATEMENT FLOCCULENT AID DISTRIBUTION FIRE WATER DISTRIBUTION GRAY WATER INDUSTRIAL WATER INFLUENT WATER QUALITY PLANT AIR PLANT INFLUENT SUBDRAINS SPARGER PUMPS SURFACE WASHWATER TRAVELING BRIDGE PORTABLE WATER PUMPS WATER SAMPLING WASHWATER ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS SS US MC ST UT MT L1 D1 STATION SERVICE UNIT SUBSTATION MOTOR CONTROL CENTER STATION TRANSFER UNIT SUB-STATION MCC TRANSFORMER LIGHTING PANEL 1 DISTRIBUTION PANEL 1 ESD-106 H-9 01/06 .

Typical Box Identification ESD-106 H-10 01/06 .Appendix H STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF ELECTRICAL CURRENT CARRYING CONDUCTORS MWD Electrical Design Manual XXXXXX BOX TAG NUMBER BOX IDENTIFICATION UNIT OR EXPANSION NUMBER TYPICAL MANHOLE IDENTIFICATION 1MH123 TYPICAL MANHOLE IDENTIFICATION 1MHH123 TYPICAL PULLBOX IDENTIFICATION 1PB123 TYPICAL JUNCTION BOX IDENTIFICATION 1JB123 TYPICAL TERMINATION BOX IDENTIFICATION 1TB123 Figure H-5.

ESD-106 1A1505 Typical Duct Bank Identification H-11 01/06 .Appendix H STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF ELECTRICAL CURRENT CARRYING CONDUCTORS MWD Electrical Design Manual X X X X X X COLUMNS 01 TO 99 01 1 1A1101 2 1A1201 ROWS 1 TO 9 3 1A1301 4 1A1401 02 03 04 05 1A1102 1A1103 1A1104 1A1107 1A1202 1A1203 1A1204 1A1205 1A1302 1A1303 1A1304 1A1305 1A1402 1A1403 1A1404 1A1405 5 1A1501 1A1502 1A1503 1A1504 TYPICAL DUCT ALPHA-NUMERIC CODE Figure H-6.

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