Structure of family……………………………………………….03 Forms of the family……………………………………………......04 Types of marital regulation……………………………………..05 Function of family………………………………………………..07 Family residence and authority patterns……………………...09 Divorce…………………………………………………………...11 Impact of divorce on children’s…………………………..........13 Alternative life style in Pakistan………………………………..15 Families in Pakistan……………………………………………..17


we will see that the family is universal found in every culture through varied in its organization. We will examine divorce and will discuss such alternative lifestyles as cohabitation. And also a brief account on Families existing in Pakistan. There are many variations in the “family” from culture to culture. A family can be defined as a set of people related by blood. including different types of child rearing. descent patterns. there are certain general principles concerning its composition. In this chapter. residence patterns.The family as a social institution is present in all cultures. We will look at the primary functions of the family. remaining single and lesbians and gay relationships. 2 . Particular attention will be given to the increasing number of people who are in dual-income or single-parent families. and authority patterns. and at the variations in marital patterns and family life. marriage (or some other agreed-upon relationship). Although the organization of the family can vary greatly. or adoption who share the primary responsibility for reproduction and caring for members of society.

Sociologist have traditionally viewed the family as a social group whose members are related by ancestry marriage. that is the basic family unit. In many societies it is the kin group. 3 . Clearly.STRUCTURE OF FAMILY What is the family? Although we all use the term and doubtless have a gut-level feeling of what we mean by it. Many of us think of the family as a social unit consisting of a married couple and their children – Mom. Defined in this fashion. defining the family is not simply an academic exercise: How we define it determines the king of intimate groups we consider normal and the kind we consider deviant and what rights and obligations we recognize as legally and socially binding. should be considered families. heterosexual or homosexual. cooperate economically and care for the young. Dad and the Kids. not a married couple and their children. long-term relationships. the ‘family’ is exceedingly difficult to define. or adoption and who live together. But those who are unhappy with this definition argue that psychological bonds are what families are all about.

While not common such living arrangements do exist in the United Stats but still found in Pakistan. caring for and bringing up children and meeting personal needs. In the NUCLEAR FAMILY arrangement. the additional family members may represent the difference between prosperity and failure. blood relatives are functionally marginal. In addition. EXTENDED FAMILY: A family in which relatives in addition to parents & children such as grandparents. The structure of the EXTENDED FAMILY offers certain advantages over that of the nuclear family. In no sphere of social life are the differences in human societies more evident and striking than in kin and marriage patterns. Crises such as death. 4 . the EXTENDED FAMILY constitutes a larger economic unit than the nuclear family If the family is engaged in a common enterprise a farm or a small business. and illness involve less strain for family members. NUCLEAR FAMILY: Social relationships between adult males and females can be organized within families by emphasizing either spouse or kin relationships. spouses and their offspring constitute the core relationship. divorce.FORMS OF THE FAMILY The family is a unique institution. Though out the world there are many arrangements for regulating mating and reproduction. since there are more people who can provide assistance and emotional support. aunts or uncles live in the same home is known as an EXTENDED FAMILY.

the continuity. Accordingly. the continuity. The relationship between a husband and wife may be structured in one of four ways: 5 . Indeed. particularly marriage. a socially approved sexual union between two or more individuals that is undertaken with some idea of permanence. Accordingly. particularly marriage. we need to take a closer look at mating arrangements. we need to take a closer look at matting arrangements.The fact that the parties to a marriage must be members of two different kin groups has crucial implications for the structure of the family. of any kin group depend on obtaining spouses for the unmarried members of the group from other groups. and therefore the long-term welfare. of any kin group depends on obtaining spouses for the unmarried members of the groups. FORM OF MARRIAGES: The fact that the parties to a marriage must be members of two different kin groups has crucial implications for the structure of the family. and therefore the long term welfare. Indeed. a socially approved sexual union between two or more individuals that is undertaken with some ideas of permanence.

Two types of marital regulations define the “right” spouse: • Endogamy • Exogamy 6 . All societies regulate he pool of eligible from which individual are expected to select a mate.MONOGAMY: The term MONOGAMY describes a form of marriage in which one woman and one man are marriage only to each other. POLYANDRY: Two or more husband and one wife. GROUP MARRIAGE: Two or more husbands and two or more wives. A child’s kin generally have more in mind than simply getting a child married. They want the child married to the right spouse. This form of marriage is known as POLYGAMY. especially where marriage has consequences for the kin group. POLYGAMY: Some culture allows an individual to have several husbands or wives simultaneously.

such as providing religious training. caste.• ENDOGAMY: Endogamy is the requirement that marriage occur within a group. ethnic group. or religion. race. • Reproduction • Protection • Socialization • Regulation Of Sexual Behavior • Affection And Companionship • Providing Of Social Status 7 . • EXOGAMY: Exogamy is the requirement that marriage occur outside a group. clan. FUNCTION OF FAMILY The family fulfills a number of functions. be it their immediate nuclear family. Yet there are six paramount functions performed by the family. and recreational outlets. or tribe. education. People must marry within their class. People must marry outside their kin group.

it must replace dying members. the family contributes to human survival through its function of reproduction.• REPRODUCTION: For a society to maintain itself. characteristically in male-dominated societies. Which places special demands on older family members. whenever the time period or cultural values in a society. human infants need constant care and economic security. • PROTECTION: Unlike the young of other animal species. The structure of society influences these standards so that. formal and informal norms permit men to express and enjoy their sexual desires more freely than women may. changes in customs for dating) and across cultures (Islamic Saudi Arabia compared with more permissive Denmark). Infants and children experience an extremely long period of dependency. standards of sexual behavior are most clearly defined within the family circle. In all cultures. values. In this sense. However. • SOCIALIZATION: Parents and other kin monitor a child’s behavior and transmit the norms. it is the family that assumes ultimate responsibility for the protection and upbringing of children. • REGULATION OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR: Sexual norms are subject to change overtime (for instance. 8 . and language of a culture to the child.

Nevertheless. the family provides members with warm and intimate relationships and helps them feel satisfied and secure.• AFFECTION AND COMPANIONSHIP: Ideally. and to be there for us when we need them. in school. We expect our relatives to understand us. at work and may perceive the home as an unpleasant place. • PROVIDING OF SOCIAL STATUS: We inherit a social position because of the “family background” and reputation of our parents and siblings. the family is obligated to serve the emotional needs of its members. a family member may find such rewards outside the family from peers. to care for us. 9 . unlike other institutions. The family unit presents the newborn child with an ascribed status of race and ethnicity that helps to determine his or her place within a society’s stratification system. Of course.

• MATRILOCAL: A married couple lives with wife’s family. which are as under.FAMILY RESIDENCE: In every society. • Neolocal • Patrilocal • Matrilocal • NEOLOCAL: A married couple is expected to establish a separate household. there are social norms concerning the appropriate residence of a newly created family. AUTHORITY PATTERNS: 10 . • PATRILOCAL: A married couple lives with husband’s family.

If a society expects males to dominate in all family decision making g. Where will you live? How will you furnish your place of residence? Who will do the cooking. in a matriarchy. for example. It may be more difficult. husbands in others. it is termed a patriarchy. for a woman to obtain a divorce than it is for a man. Frequently. who rules the family? From a conflict perspective. the egalitarian family. that each decision is shared in such families. these questions must be examined in light of traditional gender stratification. Women hold low status in such societies and rarely are granted full and equal rights within the legal system. the eldest male wields the greatest power. You and your spouse face many questions. Some marital relationships may be neither male-dominated nor female-dominated. Wives may hold authority in some spheres. In the view of many sociologists.Imagine that you have recently married and must begin to make decisions about the future of your new family. 11 . Matriarchies may have emerged among Native American tribal societies and in nations in which men were absent for long periods of time for welfare or food gathering. the shopping. the egalitarian family has begun to rplace the patriarchal family as the social norm. the cleaning? Whose friends will be invited to dinner? Each time a decision must be made. is one in which spouses are regarded as equals. in patriarchal societies. By contrast. under which men have held a dominant position over women. however. an issue is raised: “Who has the power to make the decision?” In simple terms. This does not mean. The third type of authority pattern. women have greater authority than men. Societies vary in the way that power within the family is distributed.

In many societies where there is no great emphasis upon romantic love and no intense individual love attachment. Some make divorce very simple. some make it very difficult or perhaps give the privilege of divorce only to the men. FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH HIGHER PROBABILITY OF DIVORCE: • • • • • • • Marriage at a very young age (15 to 19 years old) Short acquaintanceship before marriage (less than two years) Short engagement (under six months) or no engagement Parents with unhappy marriages Disapproval of marriage expressed by kin and friends General dissimilarity of background Membership in different religious faiths • Failure to attend religious services Incomplete education (leaving school before getting diploma or degree) • Disagreement of husband and wife on role obligations Urban background In addition to these strains in each individual relationship. Perhaps the most important factor in the increase in divorce throughout the twentieth century has been the greater social 12 . The social and family structure of many societies makes divorce a fairly painless and harmless operation. however.What is to be done when a married couple can’t live comfortably together? Although most societies make some provision for divorce. divorce entails no great heart break. A divorce may complete the collapse of the emotional world for both child and adult. there are overall social changes which have contributed to the nation’s rising divorce rate. The meaning of divorce depends upon how it relates to other aspects og the institution of the family.

The most extreme cause of marital breakdown is domestic violence. Moreover. as society provides greater opportunities for women. Many states have adopted more liberal divorce laws in the last two decades. They may then feel more able to leave if the marriage seems hopeless. When compared with daughters from intact families. since they now tend to have fewer children than in the past. IMPACT OF DIVORCE ON CHILDREN: Traditionally. A general increase in family incomes. In particular. Finally. However. this increased tolerance has resulted from a relaxation of negative attitudes toward divorce among various religious denominations. sometimes only in adolescence or even in adulthood. the harmful effects of divorce emerge somewhat later than for boys. daughters of divorce are more likely to have feelings of lowered self-worth. a daughter of divorce may find it difficult to 13 . has meant that more couples can afford the traditionally high legal costs of divorce proceedings. These researchers have often written that the absence of fathers is more harmful for the development of boys than for girls and that girls receive greater emotional support from custodial mothers. For girls. it is no longer treated as a sin by most religious leaders.acceptance of divorce. coupled with the availability of free legal aid for some poor people. A few other factors deserve mention. more recent studies have led to a reexamination of these long-held assumptions. more and more wives are becoming less dependent on their husbands both economically and emotionally. Although divorce is still seen as unfortunate. Divorce has become a more practical option in newly formed families. family researchers have suggested that divorce has a more detrimental effect on boys than on girls.

Divorce does not ruin the life of every child it touches. we should not underestimate the harmful impact of divorce on girls. 14 . it is important to avoid labeling young people as “children of divorce” as if this parental experience is the singular event defining the life of a girl or boy. if divorce does not lower children’s access to resources and does not increase stress. its impact on children may be neutral or even positive. though its effect on a child is not always benign. While divorce can obviously be a painful experience for both female and male children.achieve a healthy separation and independence from her custodial mother. While the detrimental effect of divorce is sometimes more obvious and more dramatic in boys because of their greater tendency toward aggressiveness and antisocial behavior.

Denmark. One report notes that in Sweden it is almost universal for couples to live together before marriage. Sweden.Sometimes many people have chosen alternative lifestyles rather than the traditional Nuclear Family norm. But this king of cohabitation would not be accepted in our society. France. Demographers in Denmark call the practice of living together “marriage without papers”. or because one or both have lived through a spouse’s illness and death and they don’t want to experience that again. because one partner or both are not legally divorced. thereby engaging in what is commonly called COHABITATION. Such couples choose cohabitation rather than marriage for many reasons: Because of the religious differences. because they wish to preserve the full Social security benefits they receive as single people. • • • • Cohabitation Remaining Single Lesbian and Gay Relationships Marriage without Children • COHABITATION: One of the most dramatic trends of recent years has been the tremendous increase in male-female couples who choose to live together without marrying. out of fear of commitment. these couples are known as “de factors”. 15 . Data released in Great Britain indicate that more than 12 percent of people ages 18 to 24 are cohabiting. and Australia. In Australia. and it is considered as a sin according to our religion (Islam). Increase in cohabitation has also been found in Canada. to avoid upsetting children from previous marriages.

16 . The lifestyles of lesbians and gay men vary greatly. lesbians and gay men together constitute perhaps 10 percent of the nation’s population. monogamous relationships with a lover and with children from formal heterosexual marriages. Some live alone. • MARRIAGE WITHOUT CHILDREN: According to the data found from a research is that. about 16 percent of women in their forties will complete their childbearing years without having borne any children. Some live in long-term. Also. From a financial point of view. Others remain married and have not publicly acknowledged their homosexuality. it is often no longer necessary for a woman to marry in order to enjoy a satisfying life. This is especially significant for women. others with roommates. There are many reasons why a person may choose not to marry. the single lifestyle can offer certain freedoms that married couples may not enjoy. As many as 20 percent of women in their thirties expect to remain childless.• REMAINING SINGLE: The trend toward maintaining an unmarried lifestyle is related to the growing economic independence of young people. Singleness is an attractive option for those who do not want to limit their sexual intimacy to one partner. some men and women do not want to become highly dependent on any one person and don’t want anyone depending heavily on them. In a society which values individuality and self-fulfillment. • LESBIAN AND GAY RELATIONSHIPS: According to traditional estimates.

all societies practices Endogamy. Societies leads to Westernize norms. Interior Sindh. to choose a mate within some specified groups that is in their own family. 90% families are ideal. The Urban Families. that is one husband got one wife. and families practice Exogamy. societies permit Polygamy (Polygyny). that is in their Universities mate or Office Colleagues. the Urban Family of Karachi and the Rural Family of rest of Pakistan is quite different. 17 . In Rural areas. especially in Karachi are Conjugal. While in Karachi. to choose a mate outside of some specified groups for the marriage. which varies greatly in form. wife and children. which includes Interior Punjab. not childless. a much larger group of blood relatives with a fringe of spouses. choose not to have children and regard themselves as child-free. In Karachi. Some couples. wherein it is the husband who has more than one mate at a time. But in rest of Pakistan. composed of husband. family unit is consanguine. however. They do not believe that having children automatically follows from marriage. In Pakistan. But in many Rural areas.Childlessness within marriage has generally been viewed as a problem that can be solved through such means as adoption and artificial insemination. Lahore. Rawalpindi. PAKISTANI FAMILY TODAY: Pakistani Family is the basic social institution. nor do they feel that reproduction is the duty of all married couples.

Thus the concept of endogamy will be decreased. and will be perceived as sin in Urban areas. We experienced lots of cross cultural marriages in Pakistan.The rate of Divorce in Pakistan (Urban + Rural) is very low. an ideal family will be boosting where only one wife and one husband is present. Polygyny will be decline in Rural Areas. that’s why scope of Exogamy is increased and restriction to get married in their own cast or language is declined. In Pakistan. because here wife or husband did compromise with each other despite of their dislike ness and their children are the main reason of this compromise. Currently Polygyny (plurality of wives) exist in rural areas but due to increasing awareness and low resources of income. it is because of our culture and our religion. but its for just as a custom and 18 . we experience a strong bounding of blood relatives. There is no space of single parent in Pakistan. The Problem of getting marriage proposal in Pakistan is a big problem for girls. Currently Patrilocal marriages exists in Pakistan where married couple live with husband’s family. FUTURE OF THE FAMILY OF PAKISTAN In Pakistan. We have experienced that many Consanguine Family broke up into several Conjugal Families. But the concept of Consanguine Family is declining in Pakistan because of low resources of income and increasing responsibilities. that’s why family’s actual concept (Husband + Wife+ Children) never be decline.

the main reason is nothing. Because of this the number of Montessori institutions is increasing day by day and the culture of Babysitting will soon be introduce in our society in future.often few months. the newly married couple will detached and create a new conjugal family. 19 . only to fulfill the income resources of the family. where there’s no place of Polygamy or Divorce. Pakistan will be a country of Conjugal family. The number of working women is increasing in the recent era.