Terracotta Lamps Author(s): Oscar Broneer Source: Corinth, Vol. 4, No. 2, Terracotta Lamps (1930), pp.

v-vii+ix-xi+xiii-xx+1-29+31297+299-305+307-340 Published by: American School of Classical Studies at Athens Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4452269 Accessed: 31/03/2010 09:45
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CO
THE AMERICAN

R
RESULTS

IN
CONDUCTED BY

T

H
AT ATHENS

OF EXCAVATIONS

SCHOOL OF CLASSICAL

STUDIES

VOLUME

IV,

PART

I

LAMPS TERRACOTTA
BY

OSCAR

BRONEER

PUBLISHED FOR

THE AMERICAN SCHOOL OF CLASSICAL STUDIES AT ATHENS

HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS
CAMBRIDGE,MASSACHUSETTS 1930

PRINTED AT THE

HESTIA PRESS

ATHENS, GREECE

THIS publication of the results of the excavations carried on at

Corinth by the American School of Classical Studies at Athens is in charge of the Publication Committee of the School. The general editor is Professor Harold North Fowler. Opinions expressed are those of the individual contributors. PAUL V. C. BAUR GEORGE H. CHASE HAROLD N. FOWLER
Publication Commzitee.

PREFACE
THE Lamps published in this volume were discovered in the excavations at Corinth from the beginning of the work in 1896 until and including the year 1928. The lamps resulting from the fruitful campaign of 1929 could, unfortunately, not be included, because part of the book was already in print when they were discovered. Since the greater part of ancient Corinth is still untouched by the spade, any publication of the archaeological finds will perforce partake of the nature of a preliminary report. Particularly is that true of a subject which hitherto has received so little attention from archaeologists as the lamps. The grouping into thirty-seven types will doubtless appear to some as an arbitraryarrangement,but until a general Corpusof Ancient Lamps has been compiled, it is difficult to see how a more permanent classification could be made. I am well
aware of the fact that each new campaign may result in the discovery of new types

which will necessitate a different arrangement in a future publication. Yet, since very little published material exists for the study of ancient lamps-and this is particularly true of lamps from Greek sites-it seemed necessary, not merely to give a general description of the lamps from Corinth, but to attempt a typological study of the material at hand. Some of the conclusions reached with regard to the exact date and manufacture of certain types must therefore remain tentative. The chief authors whose works have been consulted in my study of the lamps are listed in the Bibliography at the end of the volume. Among them one name stands out preeminently, that of Siegfried Loeschcke, whose monumental work, Lanmpenaus Vindonissa, has pointed the way to a proper study and classification of ancient lamps. Although his book covers a period of only about eighty years, the thoroughness of his work and the systematic handling of his material make it a model for similar publications. How much I have made use of this work for my study of the early Roman lamps will appear from the frequent references to it in the discussion of types XXI to XXVI.
ii

x

The manufacture and use of ancient lamps, which are not discussed in the present publication except incidentally, have been thoroughly treated by several des authors,chief of whom are: Toutain, in'the Dictio0nnaire Antiquitesof Daremberg and Saglio; Walters, in the Introduction to the Catalogueof Lamps in the British Museum,
Hug, in Pauly-Wissowa, Real-Encyclopdie der Classischen Altertums-wissenschaft,XIII, 2, s. v. lucerna,; and other writers to whom reference is made in the following pages.

In these works will also be found the importantreferencesto lamps in ancient authors. I wish to acknowledge my great indebtedness to the members of the Publishing Committee, and to Professor Harold North Fowler in particular, for reading the whole book both in manuscript form and in page proof and for making many valuable corrections; to Dr. Theodore Leslie Shear, for permission to publish the lamps from the excavations conducted by him in Corinth during the years 1925 to 1928; and to the Chairman of the Managing Committee, Professor Edward Capps, and to the Director of the American School of Classical Studies in Athens, Dr. Rhys Carpenter,for offering me every facility for the completion of the work. A considerable part of the labor of arranging the material for the Catalogue and the indices, as well as most of the proof reading, has been done by Mrs. Broneer. The drawings reproduced in the text and on PLATESXXX to XXXIII were made by Miss D'orothyCox and Mr. Youry de Fomine, and one, that for figure 144, by Miss Mary Wyckoff; the photographs are by Messrs. A. Petritsi and Walter Hege. To these is due in a large measure the credit for the quality of the illustrations. I greatly appreciate the courtesy extended by the authorities of the Museums of Europe in allowing me to study the lamps in their collections and in procuring photographs. The Director of the National Museum in Athens, Dr. P. Kastriotes,has further permitted me to reproduce several photographs of lamps in the Museum. Four of the figures are from lamps belonging to the private collection of Dr. Herbert Wollmann, who has kindly sent me the photographs and granted me permission to publish them. Dr. Alfred Brueckner and Dr. Karl Kiibler have permitted me to study the unpublished finds from the excavations in the Ceramicus in Athens and have furnished me with the photograph for figure 32. My indebtedness to them for much information about some Athenian lampmakers of the late Roman period is expressed in a note on page 104. AmericanSchool of ClassicalStudies Athens, Greece
May I, 1930 OSCAR BRONEER

CONTENTS
Page

PREFACE...................................................... ILLUSTRATIONS
FIGURES PLATES IN THE TEXT.............. ................ ............................... ................ ..

ix
xiii xix

Abbreviations .................................................... ........................... INTRODUCTION .................. CLASSIFICATION
GREEK LAMPS ............................................ .. LAMPS .... ................... HELLENISTIC ROMAN LAMPS.............................. CHRISTIAN

2 3
31 47 70 122

AND EARLY LAMPS

BYZANTINE

........................................

Explanatory Notes................................................

128
129
...................... 143 166 292

CATALOGUE
GREEK LAMPS ............................................
HELLENISTIC ROMAN LAMPS.................. CHRISTIAN

AND EARLY

LAMPS ........................

BYZANTINE

LAMPS..........................................

BIBLIOGRAPHY ..................... INDICES
INDEX INDEX OF INSCRIPTIONS
,..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
..................................

299
307 313

OF SUBJECTS ........................................ INDEX ................ . ........................

GENERAL

321

Addenda et Corrigenda............................................

340

PLATES

18. Athens ......... ... . .. Athens ...... ... 21......... 42 .......... 3... 14.... No.... 114 . . 4... .. Two Lamps in the National Museum..... ..... . ...... Lamp in the Wollmann Collection... Lamp with Inscription in the National Museum. . No...... 6...... 13. Types I to XVII ... .. . .... . ......23 Two Lamps in the Wollmann Collection. 31 .... 17...... .. .... .. No............ ... .. 7. 10.. Lamp in the National Museum.... .......... ..... 17.... ... . ... 16.... ... 43 ... ...... ... Three Lamps in the National Museum. .... ..... Two Lamps in the National Museum.. Athens . Rome ... .. Three Lamps in the National Museum.. 5. N os...23 Two Lamps in the Wollmann Collection.32 Profiles of Wheel-made Lamps. 20.... 11.. Athens .... Athens ....... .. .. 15.. . ..... .. ..ILLUSTRATIONS FIGURES IN THE TEXT Unless otherwisestated the figuresare fromlampsin Corinthand the numbers under each figure are the Cataloguenumbers.. .. 2. .... Lamp in the Wollmann Collection.. Lamp from Nemea . .16 Two Lamps in the National Museum. ....... Athens ...... . ... No.... ....... Two Lamps in the National Museum..... Athens ...... ... ........................ Page 1. ....... ... .. Rome. Athens ....... 12...... .... ... ..... ...... 9.. 12 13 14 15 15 18 19 19 20 24 33 34 35 39 39 44 45 ..... Athens .. Rome .. .... .. 100 . Three Lamps in the National Museum. Rome ... Athens ..... 8.... ........ ... 19.... ... . ....... Five Lamps in the National Museum. ..

... 343........... . 30. ........... 584....... ...... 12................... ... 49. 28... . ............. .. 503..... 38... 593.... Nos..................... .. 590. No...... 48 49 24..... . No............. 281..... ...............xiv Page 22....... 32. . .. ...... .. ..... 406 ........... ............................. ..... ................... Athens ...... ... 27.... .. Nos. and XXVII ............ 422.............. 45........ 36....................... 52........................ 56...... Varieties of the Cross and Christian Monogram on Type XXVIII ..118 No...................... 477... 35........... 23......... ...123 No.. 55................ No..................100 Nos............................... 48. 486...... 491... 40............. . 43............... 431......... 41............ 25... 540 . 591... . 1517...... No.......................... .... ......... 323.. ..... ......... 594......... Designs on the Neck of Type XIX .. Types XXI to XXVII....... 464.......... 49 57 60 63 66 29.....Athens. 51.......... .............. Nos...................................... 1145 ... Four Varieties of Nozzle of Type XXV ... Rim Patterns on Type XIX ..... 538...... .. ................. .... Type XXVIII... 31. 46............. ... 213.... Rim Patterns on Types XXIV.. . Principal Rim Patterns of Type XXVIII ........ Nos........ 1143... ........ Nos.... No.. 461.. 149 ........... 42... .... 53............ 39... 50.................. 44. Principal Varieties of Nozzle........... 533.. ... 34... Lamp in the National Museum....... ...................... 535.. No... 36.. 230............ Nos....... 324 ........ .1 .... 1133........ Two TerracottaFigurines from Corinth .... Rim Profiles of Roman Lamps..... Nos........... 47. . 539. Nos. .. Nos............. 288 ....... .. 26....... 475.....410........ No. 37........... 370 . 592.................. 481....... Lamp from the Ceramicus...... 1468...... ..... ....... 534 ........... 54..... ....................... Nos... Nos... Athens...... Bottom of Plate with Relief from Corinth .............. 287 .......... ......... 265....... 148 .................. Athens .............................. 33. 41.. XXV.................. .......... 67 68 69 71 72 74 75 75 77 80 81 83 85 89 89 98 99 101 103 105 107 108 110 130 132 ................... Five Lamps in the National Museum....... ........... Two Lamps in the National Museum...... 284.. 432 ....... ...

.8.......... 86. 345 . . 64.XV Page 57............. No. ... ... 141 141 143 144 145 145 146 148 148 .. ... .... No..... No..... ... No.. . . 91.......... .. No.... 191 No.. 312. 71... 62......................... 217 ... 82.. . 87......... . 83... ..... 322 ..........298........... No.. ... 60. No.. ........ 72.... .. 110 ...... 68.................141 ....... No.... 65...... No....... 63.. No..... No.. ....... 61. 89. .... ... 354 ........... . .... No.. 124 .................... 197 . ..... ......... ..... 90.... ..150 ...... 128 ... 63...................... 74. . 73 . No..... .. 291 Nos... .. 76.... Nos...... .... . 67. 314 . ..... 115 . ...... 132 135 135 136 137 139 .... 80........... ........ .... .......... . ........ ... ... .... 75.. .. 79..... 184 ....... .. 305 .. ....65 ......... ....... No. . ............ 104 . .... ... ............. No..... 155 ........ No..39 Nos... .. .... ........ ... 160 . ........... 355 ...... No....... 88.. 77.... 335 No....... . .... 78. No...... . .. .. No... 306 ........ No.. ....49 .... 204 No... 66. 81. . .......... 267 No.......... ......................... ..... 87.... No....................160 . No.. . .. 152 ...... .. .. 141 . ....... ... 140 140 140 .......... No... ...... ... 164 164 ..50 ........ 299 No..5..... 84....... 59. . 58.. -..... . ........ ........ ...... 129 ... ..... ......... ................ 157 . . .. . No. 66....... ....... .. . 69.. ......... .. . ............. No. No... 70.... ...... .. No.......... .. 73......... 167 ............ 201 ... 157 157 158 159 159 162 163 . 85... 117 .. . ................. ...37... .158 ...151 ...

167 165 168 169 170 173 173 174 176 176 180 180 181 186 187 187 188 190 191 191 193 194 196 196 199 123...... 104... No. 436......... 653....... 105...... 362...... 106.... 386........... 424..... No..... No. ..... 103....... 113............... 636...... 111..... 100......................... 622. 120....... No.. ................. . 429 . No................. 625 ............. ..... 460... 97...... No.................... 121. No............. 119. 199 199 200 200 .......... No........ 604 . .................................. 115......... . 478 ....179 .......... 112....... ...... No. No..... No.... ........................... No...........198 ... 116. 95....... ..... ........ .... 122..... 502........... No..500...... No. 586....... 101........ 117.... No...........................196 ... Nos......... 580.. 114...... 623.645.............................. 108..... 644...... ....... No. ... 94. 109.......... No................. 96...... 548. No........................ ......... No.. 452..... 125.. .. 107.. 110..................... 118.......72 ... No..........177 ... 401............. ........ 124...... No.... ..... ............. No.'490... No.......... No..xvi Page 92........ 654 ... ........... 93...... .... No........... 453................... No.... No...... 554....... ... 423... Nos..... 98....... 102.................... ......... No..... No....... 646.... ..................... 547....... No....172 . 382................... 588........ 426........ 397.... 126........ 601..... No.... 485 .428........ 99..... ...... No.... 555 ........... No.......................

.. 847. .. No... 666. No.200 . . 669 No.. 888... No...... No.. . ........ 131. 681. 133. Reverse .... No........ ... ..... 136..... 801.... No. ......... No. .... Reverse ... .. 704.... ... 159.. 134...... ....... 146.... ... . ... 156... No... No.. 128. .... ..... .....01 . 697.. . . . 139.. ... ....691... No..... 158. ... . 137. . .. .. ... ..... .... 143....... ... . ... 839. .. .. No. . .. .. 155..... .. . ..... ... .. 144.... ... Reverse . No...... ... . . No.. ... .. ... ... ........ No..201 2. . . ..... No. 142. .... No. Reverse .. ........206 ........ 140. 843...... .... 682........... 659... 790.205 No..222 ... 903.. .. ..... 899......... ... . ..... 145. 161. .. No. ... .......... ... 884 ........ 895. .. Reverse . 157....... . ..... 138.... . 141. .... . Reverse . ..... Reverse 148. ...... .. . 129. 1 54.... 151. ..... ... Reverse.. 889... .10 213 213 214 .. 910 ... No..... . 135..... ... . No... .. No. 147. 705... 132... .......... .200 . 703..... ... 152. No. .. .... .. .. . ....xvii Page 127....... iii ..210 . .. . . .. 757. .... ... Reverse ... ... 707. ... .. 909... 753. .......... ..... No. ... 676.. . 217 217 218 218 219 223 223 223 224 224 224 .......... .. 685 Nos. No.... ......... ........... No... .... ... .....206 . ... . No..06 . No................. 834. ...... .. 130.203 203 02 . Reverse .. ..... ... .. ..... No.. ....... .. .... . ....... ..201 ..203 .. 153. ..203 .225 .. .....225 160................ No.... 692 ... 680..206 .. . Reverse No...... .... No.... No... 799.... . 656.. .... No. .....204 .. . ... . 660...... .. 832... ... .......... .. 149. 905 ... Reverse ... ..... .......... 150.. . . ..

No......... No. . Nos.. 925..... ..... 1200 .... ....... No. 189.... .. No................1173..xviii Page 162. 1212... . 172. .. No..239 170. 1102 175. 1215 ..... ...... 1180 ....... 1196 .. 1309 . ..270 . .... 1213 ... Reverse . . ... 192.254 178. 169.. 1303 ........... 173...... No.. 191........ 1302 ..... .. 1029. 193..... 166. 165....................... .......... 1316 ....... 190....... .. 187. No.. 967.... ......... No. No... 256 180.. 182..... No....... ....... ....238 . 164. No... .No.... No.... No.. 1067...240 .265 . 196..... No.....253 238 .Reverse... No. 168. No.257 ........ 1273 No.... ................ 183...... No.263 ....238 231 167. No...227 . 1251 No.. No..239 .. No.. Reverse............. . No. 1101 . .. ......237 .......1306.... No.... 1034 .. 1193 .. 934.255 .... 275 .. No. 1307....... 1057.. 1039 .... 1044 171..245 174..267 .Reverse... Nos... 181.268 268 268 269 269 ........ 1305 ..... .... 1033......... 195...... 1188 179.. ...... No.. 185... 188. 184....... No.. ...... 1292 . 1036 ... 1201 . 186...... .227 163....... No..... No... No...1211.... 194...... 256 ..242 ...1174... 246 246 177... 1254 No.... Nos.. 176....262 ... 1103 .. 1243 . ........ 1363 . Reverse .... 257 258 259 263 .

. 205... XV...... .............. 206............ 296 296 ......... .................... ............ ......... 1419 ......... .. No.. PLATES I.... IX.. . 208...................... 1425 .. 287 288 291 292 No... TYPES XVII-XIX VII.. 198.. TYPES I-III TYPES IV-V TYPES VI-VIII TYPES IX-XII V................ 201... ..294 . 199....... ..... ....... . .... . XII... II... VIII........ 207.... No.. .. ...... No. No..... .............. .... No... 281 282 285 . 1469 ............... 1559 . 210........ No. X.xix Page 197. ... No...... 1479 ......... 1522 . XI.. XIII. No. .... No.... IV.Reverse .......... 1392 .. No. 204. . 203........... ..... ..... 1366 ....... No......... 1507.... ......... No.. III. .. .. TYPES XIII-XVI VI....... 1542 ...... XIV. 202............ 1471 ......... 1557 ......... TYPES XX-XXII TYPE XXI TYPE XXI TYPES XXIII-XXV TYPES XXVI-XXVII TYPE XXVII TYPE XXVIII TYPE XXVIII TYPE XXVIII .... No.......... .287 ... 1453 .. 1424 .. 209........ 276 278 281 200..

XXII. XXVII. XIX. XXIX. XXI. TYPES XVIII-XXVII INSCRIPTIONS. TYPES XXVIII-XXXI . XXIII. XXX. TYPE XXVIII TYPE XXVIII TYPE XXVIII TYPE XXVIII TYPES XXIX-XXX TYPES XXX-XXXI TYPE XXXI TYPES XXXII-XXXIV TYPES XXXV-XXXVII FRAGMENTS OF TYPES XXII-XXIV FRAGMENTS OF TYPES XXIV-XXVII FRAGMENTS OF TYPE XXVII FRAGMENTS OF TYPE XXVII FRAGMENTS OF TYPES XXVII-XXVIII INSCRIPTIONS. XXVIII.. XXXI. XX. XXIV. XVII. XXVI. TYPE XXVII INSCRIPTIONS. XXV. XXXIII. TYPES XXVII-XXVIII INSCRIPTIONS. XXXII. XVIII.xx XVI.

INTRODUCTION .

Fremersdorf: Fritz Fremersdorf. B.: Monuments et Memoires pub. Arch.: 'AQXYloXoyltOv AEXTiov. A. Jb.H.: Bulletin de Correspondance Hellenique. Walters.: Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archaologischen Instituts.: Art and Archaeology.A.eQ(i. I. in Sitzungsberichte der Koniglich Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.: Notizie degli Scavi di Antichita. Les Vases Grecs a Reliefs.S. Lambpenaus Vindonissa. C. Waldhauer: Oskar Waldhauer. C.: Revue Tunisienne.: Corpus inscriptionum graecarum.ABBREVIATIONS. I. Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archaologischen Instituts. Rev.J. Courby: F. Mon. Fink. Bull. 1900. Fink: J. Piot. B. R.: Corpus inscriptionum latinarum. Annalid.: Journal of Hellenic Studies. : 'AQXcaoXoY 'Eq0pY. Ath. des Inscriptions.. pp. 'AXo 'Eg. 685-703. Courby. txh Art and Arch. Formen und Stefmpel Romischer Tonlampen. Fondation Piot. Rmische Abteilung. 'AQX. Romzische Bildlampen. par l'Acad. etc. J. Dalm. I G.: Inscriptiones graecae. Tun.: R6mische Quartalschrift fur Christliche Altertumskunde geschichte.: Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archologischen Instituts. Athenische Abteilung. Scav.H. Catalogue of the Greek and Roman Lamps in the British Museum. Die anliken Tonlampeen der Kaiserlzichen Ernmitage.I. und fur Kirchen- .txa: IoQaxT1xa t fi Ev 'A0rivalt 'AQoatoXoytxfi 'EtalQiag. Arch. L. Mzt. Adlr. Inst.: Bulletino di Archeologia e Storia Dalmata. Rom. Loeschcke: Siegfried Loeschcke. MitLt. Philosophisch-philologische Classe.: Annali dell'Instituto di CorrespondenzaArcheologica. Rom. HlQax. Walters: H. Quart. G. Not.: American Journal of Archaeology. Arch. C.: Revue Archeologique.

Of greater importance is the relation of the ancient lamps to questions of commerce and industry. and the archaeologistsof today are realizing that all the archaeological material at our disposal must be made to give up its secrets if we are to have a proper understanding of life among the ancients.deal almost exclusively with lamps of the Roman period. From this point of view the lamps from Corinth are more importantthan those from other sites because of the geographical position of the city. forms of amusements. . 7. The Greek lamps. being for the most part undecorated. referred to by several ancient writers. The importance of the lamps in this respect is manifold. domestic and social life among the ancients. Horace.ALTHOUGHthe ancient lamps were early studied and published by students of antiquity. In fact all the more important works on ancient lamps. vii.For this reason the earlier lamps have been hitherto so neglected that as yet no satisfactory typological and chronological study exists of the pre-Roman lamps. etc. and Strabo. apart from the museum catalogues. and the like. C 378.are in this respect of less interest. The importation of certain types of lamp and their influence on local industries will be pointed out in the discussion of each separate type. Considered by themselves from an artisticpoint of view only certain types are important and those are for the most part of comparativelylate date. The Roman and some of the Hellenistic lamps are particularly interesting because of the light they throw on contemporaryworks of art. See Bibliography. and the introduction of new types of lamps is in most cases due to importation. questions of mythology and religion. Odes. 2. If the numerous collections of lamps from all the ancient sites were available for study they would offer material for an important chapter on ancient commerce.' it is only within recent years that they have received the attention they deserve. Extensive trade relations with both the East and the West. Fortunately the attitude is changing. I.2 existed throughout antiquity.In 1 The monumental works of Licetus and Santi Bartoli et Bellori both appeared in the seventeenth century. The Roman lamps have been more justly treated. 2 Cf.

throughout the entire ancient era. C.The method of production. of course. The several types of lamps are sufficiently differentiated so that in most cases even small fragments can be identified with certainty.by a careful study of the development of the different types and the technical skill that went into the creation of each type. in the main. that we can appreciate how craftsmanship differed from one period to another. each lamp can have been used only for a comparatively short period. from the sixth century before to the fifth century after the birth of Christ. and its almost total cessation in the fourth.4 CORINTH some cases it is comparatively easy to trace the origin of new types. Lampsherds are found in almost every stratum of a classical excava- tion. but this is not sufficiently known or varied to be of use for dating. The coins are. D. It is only by tracing the history of a particularkind of common commodity. can be more conveniently studied than. and.The use of the lamps and. The lamps. nor are they always well enough preserved to be identified. and the latest probably belong to the twelfth or thirteenth century A. but coins are not found in every place. From a technical point of view the lamps are no less important. such as the lamps. the most accurate means of dating. whereas the coarse pottery was so much alike at all periods that its chronology would be exceedingly difficult to establish. D. For this reason the lamps are often more trustworthy as material for dating than more valuable objects. it is possible to arrive at an understanding of the evolution and decline of the ancient arts and crafts in general. hence were broken and thrown away at all times.. the common kitchen ware. and thus the one throws light on the other. unlike articles made of metal. The lamps were in common use in every home. coincides with the method employed in the manufactureof other pottery. being a particular kind of household pottery in common use during the entire classical period. Nothing can give us a better view of the decline of artistic activity in Greece in the third century A. for example. To the excavator a knowledge of ancient lamps is essential as a means of dating other objects. The only other class of objects found as commonly as the lamps is the coarse household pottery. Moreover. chiefly because the lamps from most sites have either not been published at all or not satisfactorily published. The earliest lamps included in this publication date from about 600 B. the general featuresremained the same throughout the whole classical period.which varied greatly in the different periods and often determined the type of lamps produced. During these . but often this cannot be done. than a comparison of the lamps of these two centuries with those of the one preceding. but the degree of usefulness and practicability as well as artistic decoration varied greatly from time to time.

Ant. I0. fig. found at several Greek sites5. p. 285. Roman and Early Christian. which for the sake of convenience have been grouped in four large classes: Greek. plates XXXI and XXXVII. I49.7 the earliest kind of Corinthian lamps is the cothon. I39. Bosanquet. Hogarth. and Byzantine.. S. p. fig..LAMPS 5 many centuries numerous changes in shape and decoration were made. H. a common type of Corinthian vessel. Pfuhl4 argues for the Egyptian origin of the Minoan lamps. Arch. C. p. S. 'Ep. The earliest lamps from Corinth have a bridged nozzle. Clay lamps of a simple form were made as early as the neolithic era'. VIII. S. 93. 468. and VazultedTombs of Mesara. 'Aye. 4I.3then about the end of the seventh century they came into use again and continued in use all through ancient times.. 6J.. 4. pp.S. VII. 9. Mon. 34).c.908. 8i. 128. One early form of lamps. 139. and on the basis of these changes the lamps have been divided into thirty-seven types. B. 72 ff. XXXI. p. See Furtwaengler. p. Ure and Burrows. Whether or not these early Greek lamps had any connection with those of the bronze age is difficult to tell. 3 In Homer the word lamp appears only once. p. with overhanging rim and no nozzle. as have most of the Minoan clay lamps. fig. fig. I8. Though this undoubtedly belongs to an earlier development than the lamps with bridged nozzle. it by no means follows that the unbridged type went out of use as soon as the later form had developed. pl... . I912. i. I. . I. I908. fig. Deonna. r. . XXXII. pl. fig. There is. J. [911. fig.H. and according to him the lamps were reintroduced into Greece with the oriental influence in the seventh century. A. advanced by Ure and Burrows6and adopted by Pfuhl. p. Long before the classical period certain types were in use which do not greatly differ in shape from those of later times. A. Pernier. 1911. 7 L. XIV. B.2 In the Mycenaean age clay lamps were rare and large stone lamps with flat top and two or four wicks were used. and there it is Athena who carries a x-QveovXvyvov (Od. Jb. but the straight sides without rim and the fact that they are made by hand are sufficient proof of their early date. I904. io. xix. although the well developed rim and black glaze show that they do not belong to the earliest phase of Greek lamps. 88. 'AX. 482. XXVII.. 'ET. pp. XXXI. no real evidence to I906. H. however. The Homeric home was illuminated by torches. p. Hellenistic. See Xanthoudides. and in Early and Middle Minoan times a much more developed type of lamp was common in Crete. Aegina. has an unbridged nozzle. According to a theory. This is evident from certain lamps in the Acropolis Museum in Athens on which the nozzle is unbridged. During the geometric period lamps were apparently unknown. 52 ff. 4 6 2 'See Soteriades.

The Hellenistic lamps fall into two groups. C. and the only important difference between these early lamps and those of the fourth century B.a flat rim was added which gradually became wider and closed in on the top. with the result that the top finally became closed by the rim. since in most cases there is no hole at all or a mere depression on the top. No. If this is the correct explanation. In order to prevent spilling when the lamp was carried. I88o. as compared with the lamps of the subsequent periods. Their characteristicfeature. the original purpose of the knob was soon forgotten. and a raised base became the rule about the end of the sixth century. and on the former it cannot have served any practical purpose at 1 The example cited by Ure and Burrows. 16I in Walters' Catalogue. At the same time the body was made narrower and deeper. so that there is really no break between the two periods. and there are no lamps of this early period which could form the transition between the two kinds of vessels. is the increase in depth and the closing of the top of the latter. however. The purpose of this knob has been explained by Dressel in his publication of the lamps from the Esquiline Cemetery in Rome2 on the theory that the wick needle when not in use was kept in the small hole through the knob. . except for a small hole in the centre through which the oil was poured. It continued. On certain lamps without handle (Type IX) the shape of the knob suggests that it was used as a support for the index finger when the lamp was lifted. wheel-made and moulded. to be added on lamps both with and without a handle. 267. A new feature which developed about the beginning of the Hellenistic age is the small knob on the left side of the lamp. they can have had no influence on the development of the early Greek lamps. LII. p. Inst. is the open top. is more probably a lamp-filler than a lamp. At that time all the essential features of the Greek lamps had been formed. this development can be traced step by step from the simple flat lamps made by hand to the common forms of Greek lamps of the fifth and fourth centuries. about the end of the seventh and the beginning of the sixth century. The type of lamps which shows the greatest resemblance to the cothons belongs to a date when the latter were no longer in common use. with the exception of a few early examples. Parallel to the closing of the top other parts of the lamp also developed: the nozzle became longer and the wick-hole smaller. the cothons were already in common use. were formed on the wheel. As we shall see under the discussion of the separate types. The Greek lamps. 2 Annal' d. a horizontal handle was added on most types. The former developed directly from the Greek lamps. and even if they were.6 CORINTH show that the cothons were used as lamps. At the time when this development began.

but the old technique did not readily lend itself to this kind of decoration. p. On the fourth century lamps (Type VII) the handle is usually omitted altogether. as early as 200 B. In the distribution of these imported goods Corinth played the leading role. the first moulded lamps came into use. That it originated from the moulded Hellenistic lamps has often been pointed out.but at that time Rome was the receiver and not the distributorof the transported goods. From the wheel-made lamps it was introduced on the early moulded lamps. but soon new elements of decoration were added. In the time of Augustus the roles were changed. but before long it was in vogue in every part of the Greco-Roman world. Although lamps continued to be made on the wheel until the end of the first century A. The question how this came to assume its shape and from what earlier types it developed has never been adequately discussed. and on the Hellenistic and later lamps it is the only kind in use. and after the moulds were ready it was no more difficult to produce a lamp with reliefs than a plain one. also continued to be made throughout the Hellenistic and Roman periods. At first the shape remained unchanged (see under Types IX and XI). A vertical handle is found on rare examples of early Greek lamps. Ferguson. 2 See A. Lamps without handle. At the time when the industrial centre of the world was transferredfrom the Aegean to the Tiber. With the new method of production the decorations were made once on the matrix from which the moulds were formed.s..LAMPS 7 all. J.since each figure had to be made and added separately. a new kind of lamp developed which soon crowded out the existing types. I927. This was the Roman relief lamp. . 337.In rare instances moulded figures were applied on the wheel-made lamps (cf. The high base. 264. Intimate commercial relations between Rome and Greece were established as early as the third century B. XXXI. The new technique seems to have originated in the East. C. 148). C. No. and on the preceding types it is regularly placed horizontally or nearly so. The shape of the handle on the Hellenistic lamps also differs from that on the Greek types. A. p. however. Hellenzstic Athen. is less common on the later types.2. invariably found on lamps of the fifth and fourth centuries. where it became an element of decoration. but the great difference between the two calls for some further explanation. An unprecedented industrial activity came to life in the capital of the empire as well as in some of the dependent Italian cities.. for which the new technique was especially adapted. and from that time the manufactured goods used in Greece came chiefly from Italy. D. Cf.

Waldhauer. IV. Fig. Nos. 508-518. a vertical ribbed band . exactly the same shape appears on the early Roman lamps as on the Ephesus lamps. C. but these are certainly later than lamps like Walters' No. 65 ff. The nozzles on 'early Roman lamps are of three main shapes: triangular. 6. : Cf. Thus we can show an unbroken line of development between the Hellenistic types of lamps and the Roman relief lamps. 51. 44. and later. 472. but it is not always clear whether this term is meant to describe or to date the object. whenever the handle is present. and the lamp shown in figure 6. and blunt or straight ended. both wheelmade (cf.handle added separately after the moulding of the lamp.' It is true that the finest relief lamps. almost every feature of the latter can be traced back to Hellenistic prototypes. Walters. 324). 2).4 These are also found on unmistakable Hellenistic lamps such as our No. it is the moulded Hellenistic types (XVIII and XIX) which are most important in this connection. 4 Cf. 325. when the relief lamps with triangular nozzle developed. Fig. The ornamental attachment above the handle. it is usually made in the mould. 52. 3 Cf. Loeschcke. 1) and moulded (cf. The For the different methods of making the handle see Fremersdorf. This kind of handle. The first of these is the common shape on types XVIII and XIX of Hellenistic times. though that is probably rather an isolated case than a step in the regular line of development.3 On this type we often find two earlike projections on the sides and the same appear on certain Roman lamps without handles. To begin with the handle. fig. appears commonly on Hellenistic bronze lamps. In the postAugustan types (XXIII-XXVI). both of which continued in use well into the Augustan period. such as type XXII. pl. is found on one lamp of type XIX from Corinth (No. in fact. p. with blunt nozzle and ribbed band-handle. rounded. which is the characteristic feature of type XXI (Loeschcke's Type III). too. It is true that because of the extensive exportation from Rome to every part of the empire the Roman arts and crafts left their imprint on nearly every kind of commodity that was manufactured in Greece during the Roman period. but it is equally true that those articles which made Roman manufacture famous were produced chiefly by craftsmen from the East who merely modified and perfected existing models. I . Since the types of Roman lamps with which we are here concerned were made in moulds. 522. the latter of which is a good example for showing the transition from the Hellenistic to the Roman lamps. 6.2 and from them it was copied on clay lamps.8 CORINTH As a general rule the term Roman is applied to antiquities found within the confines of the empire and dating from the first century B. pp. 2. are usually without handles.

has not been followed by anyone else. LII. which is one of the earliest kinds of Roman relief lamps. Soc. en Afrique. de la LanmpeAnt. Loeschcke. 6. Fischbach. 'Nos. et d'Arch. 10 Cat. zu Muinchen. '1 Pauly-Wissowa.4 Fischbach. the possibility that the wick needle when not in use was kept in the small hole. most writers on ancient lamps agree in calling it an air-hole. 279. and Hug. Classe. 290. vol. Romische Bildlampen. I. on moulded types. but only in order to reject. XIII. 34. K. 96. Carton'2. I88o.8 Fink suggests. p.'3 Cardaillac'4 denies the necessity of an air-hole for feeding the flame and explains the 'Cf. Real-Encyclopddie der Classischen Altertumswizsenschaft. 1916. Ravenstein. Wollmann. d'Oran. but appears also. de Geogr. XXXVI. too. One feature. IV Jahrg. That view is given by Ravenstein and later repeate by Dressel". though rarely. Roma Aeterna. 125-127.. et d'Arch. fasc. This explanation was given by Kenner2 and later adopted by Persson. This. d'Oran. p.GWollmann. has given rise to so much controversy that it seems desirable to discuss it here at some length. de Geogr. Philos. Inst. 14Izst. iVagra Studzer i Romerska Lerlampor. 7 Romische It is quoted by 8 P. which. Nos. No.LAMPS 9 rounded nozzle of type XIX appears with slight modification on lamps such as type XXI (Loeschcke'sType III). p. 353. Waldhauer. Minz. p. 900oo. d. ? Lampen aus Poetovio. ' P.und Antiken-Cabinetes zu Wien.5 Loeschcke.-Pizlol. such as types XVI and XVII. as we shall see. 1924.7 and Waldhauer. 15. 4 Les Lampes Antiques du Musee de Saint Louzs de Carthage. 2 9 Sitzungsbericht d.p. 157I.9 His explanation. 1890. 12 Bull. Akad. 260. du Musee de . This is the small hole usually on the neck of the lamp but sometimes on the discus near the nozzle. Soc. The blunt or straight ended nozzle is not found on any relief lamps from Corinth. in Bull. Die Antiken Thonlampen des K. No. Finally. I regret that I have not been able to consult this work. " Annali d. Bayer. p.' It was probably taken over from the wheel-made lamps. and from this developed the shapes of nozzle found on types XXIII and XXIV (Loeschcke's IV and V). Hence the simplest explanation seems to be that through it a needle was inserted for the regulation of the flame. which is found on most types of Roman lamps. belongs to an early tradition. X. p. The fact that this small opening. 687. Introduction. Fremersdorf.3 Delattre. Walters. Fremersdorf. 10. 2 p. but elsewhere it is a common shape. CXLIV. Fischbach and Loeschcke offer as one suggestion among others that it served to receive the overflowing oil and bring it back to the wick. is nearly always near the nozzle suggests that it has something to do with the wick. Wissensch. is that the hole was made by a wooden stick which was used for holding the top while the two halves of the lamp were joined by soft clay. 508-529. I0. so far as I know. whenever present. Tonlampen.

can be dismissed without much discussion.the air-hole also served to supply air to the nozzle in order to produce a better flame. and pl. fig. If. auraient trouble la regularite de la combustion. See Loesch-cke. See Deonna.10 CORINTH presence of the small hole as follows: Cepetit trou meparait plutot avoir ete destine au des degagement bulles d'air qui. II. however.1 and in some cases there are two similar holes on the same lamp. As Persson has pointed out. Loeschcke. It is easy to see.C. On the face of it that seems unlikely. . en s'echappant brusquement. Thus we see that the widest range of opinion obtains concerning the question. for example. on the other hand. inasmuch as it has not been adhered to by any later writer. the two filling-holes would be closed while the oil flowed into the infundibulum. As in the case of the clay lamps it is confined to certain types and even within any particular type it is far from general. XVIII. pl. p. fig. 4. B. p. I908. XXXII. s'echappantde l'huile surchauffee.but so would the air-hole if found within the raised edge. 466. It is evident. and Walters. that the bronze lamps are 'generally' provided with the small hole. holes of the same kind are found on bronze lamps.the spout of the latter could not so fit the hole in the lamp as to allow no air to escape. which is most commonly the case on Roman relief lamps. and on lamps with two filling-holes3 one would afford free escape to the air while the oil was being poured into the other.se seraient sans cela accumulees a la partie la plus eleve'ede la cuvette inferieure et. pl. 4. that this theory can apply only to lamps on which there is no other outlet for the air. however. that this theory is incom1 It is not true. The theory advanced by Fink. 42. I. If. Similarly Cardaillac'sexplanation has made no appeal to later writers on lamps and can consequently be passed by without further comments. the oil was poured into the depressed top.H. Hence this theory is applicable only to lamps on which the small hole is on the neck. 2I9. as Persson states. First of all it is supposed to afford an escape to the air in the lamp while the oil is being poured in. On the whole it is less common than on the terracotta lamps. fig. In order to give validity to this view it is necessary to postulate a wick which so completely fills the nozzle as to make it airtight. 3 That is almost invariably the case on factory lamps with masks on the discus. 2 For the shape of the lamp-fillers cf. but repeated experiments with ancient lamps has convinced me that such was the case. In discussing the term 'air-hole' (Luftloch) it will be necessary to take up separately two theories which have given rise to this name. According to the other view. 4 That must have been the method used with certain types which have a number of small holes on the top instead of one large filling-hole. however.4 which on the factory lamps is surrounded by a high edge. the oil was poured directly into the filling-hole by means of a lamp-filler2. suggested by Fischbach and Loeschcke and adopted by Fremersdorf and others.

3 That the straight point was sometimes used for poking up the wick before the lamp was suspended is likely enough. 6. Cf. He admits that the needle can be inserted in the hole of the factorylamps but that it would be impossible to move the wick forward or backward. He was thinking. however.) or Steckloch (Fremersdorf. . As a rule. 3. cit. it has been found in the filling-hole.825) in the same museum has an iron point in the filling-hole. also pl.that we know well enough the instruments used for this purpose. Wollmann has shown that on some clay lamps the hole at the base of the nozzle was oblong and quite large enough for the wick to be regulated through it4. and pl. no doubt. He refers to the illustrations in Laaipen aus Vindonissa. p. but in all these. fig. so far as I know. IV.' and three possibilities have been suggested to justify the application of this term. however.2 According to another more widely accepted theory the wick was pushed forwardwith a needle inserted in the small hole in the neck of the lamp. but I am inclined to believe that its presence is accidental. Loeschcke. p. 2. Op. 1905). the others without numbers). 529. p. 3 In Walters. 8. a similar hook with a straight point is attached directly to the lamp and cannot have been used for poking up the wick. In the Musee Borely there is one factory lamp (No. c. of a needle used only for poking up the wick and hence he was. 1. 97. Practical experiments with the lamps have also shown that it makes no difference to the flame whether the small hole on the neck is open or closed. page 455. One of the other terms used to designate the same small opening is needlehole. how could any amount of air admitted into the neck of the lamp pass through the wick-hole so as to influence the flame? The wick could not stop up the nozzle below the wick-hole. 96. with a small piece of iron attached by rust to the handle.LAMPS 11 patible with the one we have just discussed. 34). Several lamps have been discovered with the needle still preserved. is misleading. I. and it is more likely that a small needle was inserted 1 2 The German term is Stocherloch (Wollmann. but the implements shown there are bronze hooks which certainly were employed primarily for the suspension of lamps. since the latter in the case of Roman lamps is always narrower than any part of the neck. but there is no reason for believing that any of these instruments were ever used in connection with terracottalamps. If the wick so completely filled the nozzle that no air could escape through it. 324. fig. Fremersdorf rejects this on the ground that the hole is not large enough for this purpose.right in rejecting his own suggestion. Among the lamps from Tunis in the Louvre there are three examples with iron needles in the filling-hole (No. Fink's suggestion that the needle might be kept in this hole when not in use has already been referred to. and it is not unlikely that it was so used in exceptional cases. pi. the hole is too small for such a purpose.But his statement. A relief lamp (No.

however. These. showed another defect which gave rise to further changes in shape. On most relief lamps. but in order to account for the origin of the small hole we must go back to the earlier periods. The earliest types of Greek lamps. The first step taken 1- 3 Figure i. which are very shallow and have no top and almost no rim. must have been very difficult to carry about when filled with oil. toward a remedy was the addition of a broad flat rim which helped to keep the oil from spilling over the edge. in turn. It was too difficult to pour the oil into these lamps. and when any of it was spilled on the outside it had no way . and by a gradual widening of the rim and narrowing of the body the whole top was finally covered with the exception of a small hole in the centre. Five Lamps in the National Museum. These explanations are undoubtedly correctin regard to Roman lamps.12 CORINTH in order to hold the wick. the hole is so small that it can only have served as an air-hole. But the result of this development was that the top became convex and shapes like those of types X and XI were obtained. Athens. and this defect was soon observed by the ancient lampmakers.

and one of the same I 2 3 Figure 2. Three Lamps in the National Museum. On the reverse is incised IWNOC. In figure 1. 4 and 5?. probably as early as the beginning of the second century B. Plainly the lamps with this edge were made in the same moulds as those without the edge. A moulded type of lamp from about the same period is shown in figure 2. prevent the oil from flowing away. and in figure 1. type with a high edge enclosing the entire lamp appears in figure 3.. and the raised edge is found both on wheel-made and moulded lamps. 2 and 3. C. is shown a type of wheel-made lamps common in Greece about this period (cf. our Type XIV). and if the oil had to be poured from a pitcher or bowl it would be very difficult to prevent spilling. 1 . that the new technique of making lamps in moulds came into vogue. In order to prevent this waste a high edge was added about the top. 4 Inventory No.LAMPS 13 of flowing into the infundibulum'. the surrounding edge would. The comparative rareness of lamp-fillers shows that they cannot have been found in every house. That this edge was an additional feature which had just begun to appear at this time is apparent from the small knob on the left. 3 Inventory No. 2 The lamps of figure I are all uncatalogued. Signature in raised letters on the reverse illegible. Athens. 3. It was about this time. to be sure. 14. are shown two similar lamps also turned on the wheel but with a high edge round the top.side which is not only useless on a lamp of this kind but is actually in the way for the high edge. Since practically no change had been made in the shape of the body. but it was necessary to provide some means Though lamp-fillers with a narrow spout have been found. 3251. 3145. we are not to assume that they were always used.

there is usually a shallow depression. Fig. and sometimes only a single hole (cf. there is a low moulded ring round the top connected by a shallow channel with the wick-hole.14 CORINTH by which it could flow into the lamp. On the Ephesus type (XIX) the raised edge when present encloses as a rule only the top of the lamp. Hence small holes were made near the raised edge as in figure 1. and both l No inventory number. While the lamp is burning the oil is attracted to the wick-hole through the action of the heat and keeps oozing out over the nozzle. rarely one or two (cf. 493). unless there is a channel to lead it back into the filling-hole. But by tilting the lamp forward the oil will reach the end of the wick faster through the nozzle. The channel developed about the same time as the raised edge. both wheelmade and moulded. and from that time the small holes became a common feature on Hellenistic lamps. Between this edge and the central filling-hole I 2 3 Figure 3. 41). i. but without the raised edge. and Fig. 2 and 3. 1. 355 and 345). Athens. and in order to prevent the oil from collecting there three small holes. Three Lamps in the National Museum. ' Loeschcke explains the purpose of the tongue as well as of the channel on the earlier factory lamps by saying: Tropfen 01 zugefiihrt Das zu trockene Dochtende sollte durch iVachvornneigen der Lampe vom Spiegel aus uber sie einige erhalten (p. These oil saving devices were very popular in the second century. were made round the centre. more commonly only two. . one on each side of the nozzle. and figure 3.2 The purpose of this channel is easily made clear through practical experiments. Nos. On some lamps of the same type. 1-3. In some cases there are four small holes.

. Athens. The small holes on the sides are omitted in this example. Figure 1. Besides this there is one hole on each side of the neck which the filling-hole provided an inlet for the oil that collected in the deep depression round the top. This is the so-called Esquiline type. made for the same purpose. If it was found convenient thus to hold the wick in place through this hole its original purpose would soon be forgotten. Lamp in the National Museum. but there was nothing to prevent it from taking on a different function later. Rome. but that is a rare exception in lamps of that kind.LAMPS 15 devices were introduced with the moulded technique and in some cases are found on the same lamp. It cannot have been intended as an air-hole. hence a separate opening had to be made for this purpose. Annali d. A similar development can be traced in one type of wheel-made lamps. even though the shape of the lamp is exactly the same. this does not seem likely. i880. This is too high to be an oil-hole and it was most likely intended to hold the needle. An interesting specimen of this kind is No. The fact that they are almost invariably found on lamps with the high edge but never on lamps without the edge. and pl. Lamp in the Wollmann Collection. 9. Nos. Figure 5. 4. 0. except for the fact that the top is closed. No. ' The nozzle is incorrectly restored. 1 shows a lamp with high edge and a single small hole on the neck. ' There are at least two distinct types among the lamps from the Esquiline Cemetery. however. but I am referring in particular to the type with straight sides and flat top. LII. The third small 'hole in the channel was undoubtedly first Figure 4. 3.. Inst. It might be conceived of as an air-hole. 6. because the air could equally well escape through the two holes on the sides. 2771 (Fig. 7. The broad channel on the neck is not connected with so that the oil could flow into it. shows that they are part of the improvement for the prevention of spilling oil. Like the latter it is oblong in shape and large enough for a wick-needle to go through. 15. These cannot by any stretch of the imagination be anything but oil-holes. pi.2 which does not materially differ in shape from the common Greek lamps of the fourth century. but since it is never found on lamps of the same type without the high edge. P. See Dressel. 5)1 of the Wollmann collection in Rome. 8.

6 Inventory No. That these cannot be air-holes appears from the fact that they are generally lacking in other lamps of the same type which ~~~~~~~~~I 2 Figure 6. are so made that the oil could not collect on the lop. Nos. Nor would there be any use in having two or three small holes if they served only to let out air. pl. Athens. and the lamp in figure 6. and these are commonly provided with one or more small holes near the base of the nozzle. in which case there is usually only one large hole in the centre.Others have a convex top2 or decorative rings about the central orifice3 which prevented oil spilled on the top from flowing down through the filling-hole. cit. ' Inventory No.16 CORINTH On some of these lamps the top slopes gently toward the filling-hole. No. Figure 6. 14 shows a large lamp of a shape resembling the Esquiline type with two small oil-holes near the nozzle. 2. ' Cf. Dressel . 3235. 0. " Ibid. The latter clearly was meant to serve the same purpose as the other op. 7. 3. I Jbid.. 3152. No. Two Lamps in the National Museum.5 has three small oil-holes in the top and one in the neck. 6 and 15.

When the oil was poured into the concave top the air imprisoned within the lamp had now no escape when the nozzle was stopped up by the wick. which in most cases consists only of conventional patterns or simple floral designs. whereas the other served as outlet for the air. and it was a great step forward when the form of the lamp was changed so as to leave the whole area of the top free for decoration. and this feature together with many others was taken over by the new type of lamps. since the moulded mask is so placed that the oil could not flow from the nozzle to the top. unless there was a special hole made for that purpose. and the same is true here. But in some of the Hellenistic types in use at the time when the first relief lamps developed there was a single small hole near the nozzle. When any radical change appears in the shape of the lamps. It is an important fact for showing the development that in the earliest relief lamps the small hole is much less common than in the later lamps of the same types. it can in almost every case be explained on the basis of usefulness. on the other hand. That at least is the case with early lamps of types XXI and XXII. On the typical Hellenistic lamps. and the Roman lamps is the and On the latter the top is concave usually carries the chief mo/if. the top is small and plain and the rim carries the decoration. In view of these facts we need not hesitate to assign the origin of the small hole to the Hellenistic lamps. because the space on the rim was too narrow for elaborate designs. whereas the rim is little more than a moulded frame surrounding the relief. Such lamps could never become very decorative. in which it was at first intended as an oil-hole. In the relief lamps there is never more than one of these small holes. That the shape of the Roman lamps was not invented in order to allow more space for 3 . which is another indication that it did not originate as an air-hole. The chief difference between the Hellenistic shape of the top and the moulded decoration. Its size is also larger in the earlier lamps. The increased length of the nozzle made it desirable to anchor the wick through one of these holes. It was soon observed that in the lamps with such a small hole there was no difficulty in pouring the oil. In the Roman lamps with concave discus there was no need of a raised edge. since no oil would be spilled on the sides. but in the factory lamps there are often two. These are as a rule larger than in the relief lamps and were doubtless intended also as needle-holes. At the same time both the wick-hole and the filling-hole became smaller than in the preceding types. and with the disappearance of the high edge the small oil holes became unnecessary. and hence it became common in all the Roman lamps. one in the neck and the other in the discus.LAMPS 17 three.

18 CORINTH decoration can be seen by some transitional specimens where we find the broad flat top carrying the same decorationas does the rim of the ordinary Hellenistic types. Athens. 3 has neither rosette nor knob but has a high edge round the entire lamp. leaf pattern which is typical on lamps of type XVIII. both with the same kind of leaf pattern. 8. 2 and 31. Three Lamps in the National Museum. In figure 7. The latter has on the discus an imbricated 3 Figure 7. are shown two other lamps. also from Athens. . as well as on the Hellenistic bowls. but here the high edge encloses the 1 The lamps in figures 7. No. 368 from Corinth (PLATE VI) and one lamp in the National Museum in Athens shown in figure 7. 1 is a further development of the same kind of lamp. 2 has the usual watch shaped body with a rudimentary elongated knob on the left side and a rosette on the right No. To this class belongs No. No. i'. and 9 are all uncatalogued.

5. This was discovered authors. the former of which has a figure in relief. according to the Terracotten aus Odessa. while the broad flat top is decorated with the imbricated I 2 Figure 8. Pavlowski and Stern. Our No. Athens. leaf pattern.2 This kind of development can also be traced in type XIX.. pl. Two Lamps in the National Museum. Athens. Two Lamps in the National Museum. vol. 367 (PLATE VI) is a common I Cf. I. of figure 8.LAMPS 19 top only. in Kertch and is probably. X.' It is essentially the same type of lamp as those I 2 Figure 9. of local manufacture. An early relief lamp of a somewhat similar kind is shown in Derewitzky. figures 95-99. the knob is placed outside the edge and a similar knob takes the place of the rosette on the right side. The connection between the three is unmistakable and the result is the shape of an early Roman relief lamp. . Walters. 1 and 2.

Nos. also No. missing so that one cannot tell for certain whether it was rounded or triangular. . Of even greater importance than any of the specimens mentioned above are two lamps in the National Museum in Athens. When the name was incised the more popular forms were used. which are shown in figure 9. On No. i has the capital form. the three lamps were doubtless produced by the same manufacturer. 368 (PLATE VI) has a similar but lower edge and a flat top decorated with a common rim pattern. the volutes. 3179 and 3155 (Fig. In the centre of the discus is a small medallion with a comic figure in relief. 368 it is a fully developed shoulder volute such as is common on the relief lamps. Although the signature is written differently. PLATE VI. from Corinth. with the signature 7IITTATPOY in raised letters on the reverse. and surrounding the medallion is a row of stamped rosettes. The end of the nozzle is. whereas Ion signed his name with incised cursive letters. 10. 1 and 2. 2. Athens. Two Lamps in the National Museum. The signature of the former appears in raised letters made in the mould and always with capital forms of omega and sigma. Rudimentary double volutes appear on two lamps of type XVIII in the National Museum in Athens. as is shown by the signatures of the two lampmakers Ariston and Ion who both produced lamps of type XVIII.20 CORINTH Ephesus lamp with the additional feature of a high edge. but the' difference is due to the method of writing. and No. On the reverse is incised the name :WnATPOY. flat band-handle and volutes at the base of the nozzle. unfortunately. from the Ceramicus. 367 it is a spiral relief which forms a part of the neck decoration. Te last two show also the beginnings of another feature common on Roman the lamps. (Cf. 1 and 2. 1 2 Another lamp of type XVIII. so thlat we can only guess at its form. but on No. The other has the shape of an early Roman relief lamp with narrow rim. whereas the cursive form is used on that in figure 10.) The former is a common Hellenistic lamp of type XVIII.) These do not differ greatly from the volutes on lamps of types XX and XXI. the same name incised on the bottom. Unfortunately the nozzle on the latter is not preserved. has Figure io. 310. The omega on the lamp in figure 10.

This is shown by the fact that lamps of type XIX have been found in many places in the same strata as early Roman relief lamps (Types XXI-XXV). hence to the time of Augustus. Figures of this kind began to appear already on the wheel-made lamps (cf. with decorative attachment above the handle and usually two nozzles. a transitional variety between the Hellenistic and Roman lamps. Cf. whereas in the case of others (Types XXIV and XXV) the change was more gradual. 2 229 ff. A third type. But the fragment from Corinth. 22).Cf.4. I928. From what has been said above it is plain that two distinct types of relief lamps developed about the same time: one with narrow rim and broad discus. PLATE VI and 458. and imported Terra Sigillata. One characteristicfeature of Roman lamps is the common use of human and animal figures for decoration.pointed out by Loeschcke. This is the kind of lamps which Loeschcke discusses under the caption. On the Cnidus Pp. A. and the connection is less clear than in the case of the former. XXXII. Nos. . It goes back directly to types XVIII and XIX and is to be explained as the Italian parallel to our type XX. and 335 ff. recur in another class of transitional lamps of which a single small fragment (No. 768-770. but this feature. since the Hellenistic types continued in use well into the Augustan period and probably did not altogether cease to be made before the beginning of our era. There is.LAMPS 21 The development outlined above applies only to certain types of Roman lamps (Types XXI and XXII). shows both by clay and glaze that it belongs with the earliest lamps of type XXII. 458. wheel-made lamps of type XVI.. group 3. originated on the Hellenistic lamps. 148. Tonldmnpchen hellenistisc/er Art. The fact. PLATE XXV) has been found in Corinth. and it is sufficient here to show its connection in the evolution of the Roman relief lamps.No. which is certainly earlier than any of the lamps of type XXIV. p. although the rim afforded too little space for such mofis. PLATE XXV).2 The rim decoration on the two kinds of lamps is so similar that the connection is unmistakable. one kind of lamp (Type XX) which connects the lamps of type XXV with their Hellenistic prototypes. that this variety was produced in the time of the empire does not invalidate this explanation.1 and explains as 'eine friihzeitige Abart des TypusV' (our Type XXIV). To these two lines of development we can relate most of the common types of Roman relief lamps. P. Its relation to the earlier types will be pointed out in the discussion of the type. and rounded nozzle with volutes. i. 367. Its wide rim. too. e. A. however. also Walters. The early examples of this kind are rare. small plain top. the other with broad decorated rim and small plain discus. 452. is related to the formerbut was strongly influenced by Hellenistic bronze lamps. Nos. Fig. 451 and fig. (Cf.

I. the Greek world-bore the same stamp. p. On several examples the raised base is' slightly concave in the middle so as to form a rudimentary base-ring. both very late. 562. In Italy wheel-made lamps resembling our type XVI were in use as late as the first century B. 30. Nos. 12). That stamp. C.. etc. At the time when Roman relief lamps first came into use the East and the West were so thoroughly amalgamated by commerce and travel that the commodities used in Italy and. Nos. p. Most of the lamps used for illustrating this development are from Greece and Asia Minor. and on two lamps of this type (Nos. however. 335. 6i6. 11. Harvard Excavations at Samzaria. before the time of Augustus. The Greek lamps began to be imported into Italy at an early date and by the third century a local industry had developed producing wheel-made lamps of Greek shape but with certain local characteristics. which on the Cf. and on type XIX masks and human heads are often found on the neck (cf. 9a. or perhaps earlier. Walters. which seems to indicate that the Roman relief lamps developed outside of Italy.' although no such examples have been discovered in Corinth. 302 and 483 . I Cf. is only partly true. 615. 1265 and 341 from the Wollmann Collection in Rome). a type closely related to the Greek lamps of the third century B. I. 80o. fig. 2191 and 21 55). vol. 1 and 2 (Wollmann's Nos. This. Walters. I20. 1 Nos. a base-ring is clearly marked. which is the common form on the Roman lamps from about the middle of the first century A. (See Fig. 320. No. and this arrangement is often found on early Roman relief lamps. Fremersdorf. Fig. and some of them undoubtedly imported from Greece. D. 1 and 2. Because of the convex top and the comparativelylarge filling-hole the figures were generally arranged in two separate groups or in a circle round the centre. fig. From lamps of this type developed the wheel-made lamps which continued to be made down to Roman times. These have generally a flat top surrounded by a raised edge. That more ambitious designs were sometimes attempted on Hellenistic laIips we know from other collections. From lamps of this type it is only a short step to the early Roman lamps with plain top such as are shown in figure 12. The transition from Hellenistic to Roman lamps which has been traced above took place during the first century B. 192. 735. The chief difference is the nozzle. was Hellenistic throughout. . Such are the lamps from the Esquiline Cemetery. too.2 Most of the moulded Hellenistic Lamps have a flat base only slightly raised. On the lamps from the first half of the same century the raised base-ring is more common and for that. C. 324 and 325). we find parallels among the Ephesus lamps.22 CORINTH lamps (Type XIII) masks are common as rim decoration. C. etc.

but the rim is wide and rounded and the top small. During the greater part of this century the imported Italian ceramics domi- I 2 Figure 12. nated the Greek market. Rome. Wielamp gand and Schrader. It also has the bluntly triangular nozzle. Cf. This lamp belongs to the second line of transition which resulted in lamps of type XXV. 452. These were exported from Rome to all parts of the empire and served as prototypes for the lamps made by the local industries which I 2 Figure I . Two Lamps in the Wollmann Collection. and out of the transitional types of this period developed the relief lamps of the first century A. The products of the Arretine factories were distributed to all the parts of the empire. according to Dr. and rim decoration was found at Priene. The lamps from 1 Found in Rome but. PLATE VI). channel on the neck. . Wollmann. Hence we see that the change from the Hellenistic to the Roman lamps went on simultaneously in Italy and in the East. In figure 13 (Wollmann's No. 1. 2545)1 there is a good illustration of an early form of volutes on a different kind of lamp from the same period (cf. D. and the Roman lamps were no less common. Rome. but this did not seriously affect the industry and trade of the empire. p. A somewhat similar with rudimentary volutes. Two Lamps in the Wollmann Collection. our No. which was concentrated in the capital. i86. This tremendous impetus which Roman industry received under Augustus and his immediate successors resulted not only in the wide distribution but also in the perfection of its products. began to spring up in the colonies toward the end of the first century of our era. fig. The lamps of this period are unsurpassed in the gracefulness of their shapes and the artistic quality of their decorations. The local craftsmencontinued to put out cheap goods for the home market. But this high perfection of the Italian products did not endure. of South Italian make. such as our type XVI. much like that in figure 12. Priene.LAMPS 23 Roman lamps has volutes on the sides. 310.

a general decline in art. unbeautiful factory lamps were most popular at this period. particularly during the reign of Domitian. The lamps in question belong chiefly to the Flavian period. Apart from the portrait sculpture. in other words. This is probably an accident. The exquisite Arretine ware was imported from Italy as late as the middle of the first century. but they. The correctness of this view has been confirmed to me by Dr.2 The evidence from the lamps alone would not be P. 240. there was a decline of artistic activity in the last part of the first century. and this is most noticeable in the household goods of that period. but the pottery used in the Flavian period is a poor quality of imitation.. which lasted to the end of the second century. the most commlon type of the late first century A. to the old Attic lamps without top. Types XXII and XXIV both continued in use. too. Rhys Carpenter. This decline continued into the reign of Trajan and was followed by a revival under Hadrian. as Loeschcke suggests. were made either without discus reliefs or with very simple motifs. That this cannot be the reason is shown by the fact that the lamps of types XXII to XXIV from the Claudian period have more elaborate no/ifs than the earlier and later lamps of the same types. Figure 13. Not a single preserved specimen of this type from Corinth has a decorated discus. besides. betrays a lack of taste for the beautiful. Such a preference for simple. Rome. artistically inferior articles. It is chiefly in type XXV. type XXV was more common after the time of Claudius than during his reign. discus go back to the lamps of early Augustan times such as types XIX and XX rather than. a kind of art favored by the realistic tendency.24 CORINTH the last third of the first century often lack any kind of discus decoration. and the figures when found at all are carelessly modelled. The broad decorated rim and small plain Wollmann Collection. who holds the opinion that the sculpture of the second century is as a rule superior to that of the late first. that we see evidence for the decline of the Italian lamp industry. but the preference for the undecorated top is nevertheless important. Loeschcke1 explains this 'offenkundiges Streben nach Schichtheit' on the basis of the 'klassistischer Geschmack' of the Claudian period. The plain. and the relief lamps then in vogue were mostly undecorated lamps of type XXV. mostly without figures. D. and some of the small discus fragments with figures may well belong to this type. 2 . Lamp in the the art of which is marked by severe realism.

No new forms were created. 3 P. What other period of Roman history can boast of such patrons of art as Hadrian and Herodes Atticus. 479. On the other hand. The Socialand EconomicHistory of the Roman Empire. Besides it would have been easier to make forms from already existing lamps than to invent entirely new types.. There is no doubt that the wars had a great deal to do with the change. A failure to recognize this fact has led to much confusion among students of Roman antiquities. who generally hold the view that the decline of Roman art began in the second century and continued until the fall of the empire. I66. D. In fact the factory lamps have certain features which make them more practical than the more decorative lamps. According to Fremersdorf3the apparatusof the potters. he says: "At the same time as industrial activity was becoming decentralized. The rise and development of the factorylamps have been explained in various ways. but there are other indications of the same thing. I take the liberty to quote a passage from Rostovtzeff's recent book. whether they were produced in large factories or in small shops.' After discussing at some length the decentralizationof industry in the second century A. no new ornamental principles introduced. but it is not likely that such a wholesale destruction of potters' shops took place as materially to influence the types of lamps.LAMPS 25 sufficient to prove this decline toward the end of the first century and the revival in the second. including the forms for making the relief lamps. the ceaseless wars of VesP. The sense of beauty which had been dominant in the industry of the Hellenistic period. In this respect they show a striking contrast to the products of the third and fourth centuries in which the lack of technical skill is more apparent than the neglect of decoration. gradually died out in the second. 4 . the same author refers in passing to "a temporary revival of creative forces2"but no mention is made of a decline in the first century.D. was destroyed during the turbulent times following the reign of Nero. 125. 2 P. In speaking of the artistic inferiority of the lamps from the late first century it is importantto bear in mind that this was not accompanied by a decline in technique The lamps are well made and would be just as serviceable as those of the preceding and subsequent periods. the goods produced were gradually simplified and standardized."This is hardly doing justice to the art of the second century. whose activities fall within this period of supposed decadence? In the last chapter of his book. and the plain factory lamps resulted from a hasty reestablishment of the lamp industry. the devastating revolutions of the year 69. and still prevailed in the first century A.

It originated from a combination of the elements of the factory lamps and those of type XXV. third century this industry grew to such an extent that its products began to be exported to other parts of Greece including Corinth. It would be interesting to know the causes underlying this trsanfer of the centre of manufacture from Corinth to Athens.it seems likely that the city . and not until the end of the Antonine period did the Athenian potters supply their home market with lamps. Beginning with the reign of Trajan a change took place in the industrial activities of the empire. The political history of Greece during this period is so imperfectly known that it is difficult to find an explanation. The plain lamps were in demand because they were cheap. Throughout the second century Athens imported most of its lamps from Corinth. and the lack of beauty which characterizes the goods of this period indicates how far reaching were the economic effects of the political unrest of the times. About that time the centre of productionwas moved from Corinth to Athens. Plain lamps had always been made for and used by the poor people. To judge from the comparatively small number of coins as well as lamps found in Corinth from the third century. In Corinth a new kind of lamps (Type XXVII) developed. During the revival of art under Hadrian and the Antonines a demand for more decorative lamps resulted in the perfection of type XXVII. particularly in the East. were not conducive to artistic development. but soon a more artistic type developed. From Corinth this type was exported to different parts of Greece and in many places became the prototype for other local varieties. later followed by the expensive wars of Trajan. The undecorated lamp types of the first century strongly influenced the Corinthian industry in the beginning of its existence. but in times of peace and prosperity there was a greater demand for decorative lamps. A local industry began to grow up in the colonies. and the distressing years of Domitian's reign.26 CORINTH pasian. the products of which vied with the Roman goods for the market. and for this reason the plain lamps did not become popular during the first two thirds of the first century. and in the. whose artistic merit is unsurpassed even by that of the best lamps from the Augustan period. and half a century later it could no longer supply the home market. and because of the great demand for cheap lamps large factories were established where they could be produced at a minimum cost. The Athenian lampmakers began as early as the second century to produce lamps patterned after the Corinth type. At first type XXV was copied without change. Toward the end of the second century the Corinthian lamp industry began to deteriorate. which soon became more popular than the imported lamps. much less export its goods to other cities.

of Anc. the reverse took place in the late third and all through the fourth. In the case of the lamps. Hist. makes the apt remark: <The mighty current of artistic production is reduced to a mere muddy rivulet. C.but they were no longer able even to imitate existing models. Not only had the lampmakers of this period ceased to create anything new either in shapes or in decoration. however. speaking of Roman art in the time of Constantine. In Italy and North Africa a kind of lamp was then in vogue. The development of the ancient lamps can be traced without a break from the seventh century B. and soon the Athenian lampmakers began to make lamps of the same shape. which belongs almost entirely to the fourth and fifth centuries. In the fourth and fifth centuries lamps were again imported to Corinth from outside of Greece. but this may not be peculiar to Corinth alone. most of which did not appreciablyinfluence the shape of the lamps manufacturedin Greece at that period. Throughout this century the deterioration of the old lamp types continued until they lost every trace of beauty. The lamps from the fourth and fifth centuries are more numerous than from any other period either before or after. 693. the fact remains that just as Corinth had supplied Athens with lamps in the second century. from which the ancient world never recovered. beginning with the third century. In early Byzantine times there was a marked improvement due to the rekindling of the imagination through the influence from the East. p. and for the next three hundred years lamps seem to have been Mitchell. 1 Mrs. The fourth and fifth centuries mark the low ebb in European civilization. D. There was certainly a marked decrease in population in the third century throughout the Roman empire caused by the incessant wars and rebellions and the general poverty of all classes. Then the development stops. .LAMPS 27 at that period was much smaller than either before or after. which is generally known as the Christian type (our Type XXXI). Whatever was the cause of this change. The decline of the Corinthian lamp industry followed a general decline of art. Most of the lamps used in Corinth continued to come from Athens.1 and nowhere is that more evident than in the products of the common craftsmen. This was imported to Greece in large numbers. to the second half of the sixth century A. This is due to the large role which the lamps played in the church service of the early Christians.. Type XXVIII alone. Sculpture. the new impulse came to Greece via Italy and North Africa and did not greatly influence the native manufacture before the end of the fourth century. The form of relief lamp which developed in the time of Augustus continued to be made with various modificationsthroughout the late Roman and early Christian era. comprises more than one third of all the lamps from Corinth.

as in the case of the third century. Here again. A few examples of unusual shape may belong to this period. 2 See Procopius. reduce the population of Corinth to such an extent that no remains exist from the subsequent period? The devastations caused by the inroads of the barbarians about the same period is another factor to be taken into account. With those of the early Christian era the final stage in the development and decline of the classical lamp has been reached. The lamps of medieval Greece. The deviations will appear from the discussion of the date of each type. such an arrangement would be too confusing. went out of use in or about the sixth century A. and the type that follows has only the remotest relation to these. Whatever the reason may have been the moulded lamps. C. 22-24. ii. and then for the following three hundred years they are very few. do not properly belong to a discussion of ancient lamps. From the end of the third century until and including the reign of Justin II (565-578 A. D. which harrassed all Greece and Asia Minor in the time of Justinian2. In the main this order is also chronological. D. where the types overlap too far. Until the coins from Corinth have all been catalogued and studied this must remain a tentative conclusion. as in the middle of the nineteenth.' The reason for the scarcity of finds from the end of the sixth to the tenth century cannot be explained until more of the site has been excavated. D. when it was laid waste through an earthquake and the population left the site in ruins and fled to other quarters? Or did the terrible plague.. scarcity of coins from the excavations corresponds to that of the lamps. but they differ from each other to such an extent that they cannot properly be called a type.) the coins are plentiful. .28 CORINTH almost unknown in Corinth. which for the sake of completeness have been included in this work. which continued in a direct line of development from the second century B. This development can best be traced in the illustrations on plates I-XXIV. As in the case of the third century the evidence for these statements is based chiefly on finds from the last four years. May it not be that Corinth suffered the same fate in the sixth century A. but in certain cases. where specimens from all the periods have been arranged in typological order..

CLASSIFICATION .

but rather a group of related lamps showing the first traces of certain features which later developed and became the characteristicsof the various types that follow. shows clearly how it came into being. The earliest variety is made in the shape of a shallow bowl with flat bottom. discovered by the former ephor of Crete. Guzideto the Candza Mu2seum. PLATEI. A more developed form is that shown in profile 5. in a temple deposit at Gortyna. 34. and this is particularly true of the ancient lamps. Hatsidakis. Before a type could be developed it had to be preceded by an experimental stage during which the separate features were formed and a number of different shapes were tried. Xanthoudides. figure 14 In dealing with the earliest products of an industry one does not expect to find at once any fixed type of objects but rather a great number of related varieties. Gradually the sides became more rounded and a rim developed by flattening the edge of the sides. the rim extending horizontally from The same kind of rim but more developed is found on a great number of lamps in the Candia Museum.p. however. J. This is in fact what we find in the earliest type of Greek lamps from Corinth. The perfectly open top was an obvious disadvantage when the lamp was carried about. the side of which is roughly vertical. For that reason it will be necessary to take up separately the different parts of the lamp and point out the variations which appear within the type. Cf. 1 Steph. nearly vertical sides. 1-43.because it allowed the oil to spill over the sides. Profile 4 shows a peculiar form of rim which is found only on three fragments of type I and does not reappear on any of the later types1. which. Profiles i-io. Strictly speaking it is not a distinct type in the same sense as the subsequent types. and the curving sides and overhanging rim were intended to remedy this defect.GREEK LAMPS TYPE I Catalogue Nos. and no rim at all (Profile 1). In profiles 2 and 3 there is only the slightest suggestion of a rim. .

Types I-XVII. 7 8 9 J $0 Al /9 20 g1 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 . Profiles of Wheel-made Lamps.32 CORINTH r 12 2 3 J <.3 J3 Figure 14. .32 33 34 3 36 37 38 48 39 A4 92 43 44 _4 _ 46 -7 4 49 50 5 J .5 6 . . 4.

is of three different shapes. Both No. PLATE I. Finally. A very primitive form. Only parts of two lamps and about half of the base are preserved. and a few examples have a slightly raised base. From the last three varieties (Profiles 5-10) can be traced the form of rim of all the wheelmade lamps of the Greek and Hellenistic periods. 42 and a single lamp of the same 5 . A lamp of particular interest is No. More commonly the flat rim projects both toward the inside and the outside. another (No. another is ribbed. The nozzle on all the lamps of type I is a spoon-shaped projection from the side of the lamp always bridged over on top. not found on any other. One lamp of type I (No. 17. with the upper edge bent over so as to close in on the top. is that of No. The vertical loop-handle. In most cases the wick-hole comes close to the edge of the rim but does not encroach upon it. has a high stem-like base. In this variety there is no sharp line between the side of the lamp and the rim. originally probably three. On the earliest lamps of type I the bottom is perfectly flat (Profiles 1 and 2). 31) has a base-ring. figure 15. type. The third variety is the horizontal handle (PLATE I. 35). a number of lamps of type I (Profiles 9 and 10) have rounded sides of more or less uniform curve. In one case it is made in the form of a flat broad band. 41. 31. are very small with a rim like that of profile 10. consisting of a flat knob projecting horizontally from the rim. The lamps themselves. 15). 1 5. 26) has four raised knobs or feet on the bottom. We shall find on later types that the nozzle becomes longer and the wick-hole farther removed from the rim. but is thicker and more rounded than those on later types. is found on a few lamps of type I (No. Fig. as is shown in profiles 6-8. which consists of a series of small lamps attached to a flat base. This variety is found with any of the first four kinds of rim and continues to reappear on later types down to the Hellenistic period. but very early in the development of the type there appears a kind of lamps with an open socket in the middle (Profiles 3-5) apparently made to fit on a peg on which the lamp was fixed. and No. The handle. common on lamps of the Hellenistic period. which is probably very late. which is the common form on lamps of the fifth and fourth centuries. I - Figure 15.LAMPS 33 the side toward the centre so as to leave the top partly closed. and with the wickhole slightly removed from the rim. No. 16). 42 (Fig. though not a common feature.

e. That this was the method used is shown by the fact that exactly the same part of the lamp is painted on the inside as on the outside. L. are made of a coarse grayish brown clay.. The glaze never covers the entire lamp.'~~. 490. XXXI.. No. The clay in all but two lamps of type I is of . . Nos. and some of the unpainted lamps have a thin wash of the same color as the clay. the others are partly covered with a dark brown or black glaze. PLATE I). contains almost no I2n Figure T6. of the others both the nozzle and the front half of the lamp have been dipped in paint (Cf. 444-463. 489. 1928. on those parts which would be covered with oil or hidden through the flame. XXIX. The explanation must be that the lampmakers. dipped the front part of the lamp in paint in order to render the clay impervious and thus prevent the waste of oil. and is absolutely free from mica.~~~~~~~~~~'sand and gritty substance. i. which shows that the lamps have been used.. but the nozzle in some cases is black from burning. Had the glaze been intended for decoration it would have been applied on the rim and the sides where it would show. 34) were found in the Athena Trench' in the same context as a great number of small votive cups which probably all came from the Sanctuary of Athena Chalinitis. Most likely both the cups and these small lamps were brought to the temple and dedicated to the goddess.for if that were the case the whole lamp would have been covered or some kind of designs would have been used. and XXXII. Shear. This is the typical clay of Corinth. in some cases shifting to pale ~ ' I?. pp. The same kind of clay appears in some of the later lamps but is not very common in Corinth. 29. In the case of No. according to the description by Pausanias.. 36 only the nozzle is painted. A. 38I-397. 7 and 8. This partial painting was not made for decoration. A.. pp. The difference between the two kinds is very striking.. Most lamps of type I are unpainted. The two exceptions. It is fine and well worked. which is familiar to all students of Greek pottery.having discovered that the oil penetrated the soft clay near the nozzle because of the heat from the flame. ~"'i~'"!~red. For the first three campaigns in this region see T.V a pale yellow color.34 CORINTH shape (No.. and seems to indicate that even as early as when type I was in use the importation of lamps had already begun. Some lamps of type II are painted only on the inside and the nozzle. the Sanctuary of Athena Chalinitis was. I927. pp.. 1925. containing a great deal of sand and particles of mica.J. From this purely practical device originated the practice 1 This is the trench made southeast of the theatre where. The lamps are so small that they can hardly have been used for lighting a house.

With the possible exception of one or two small lamps.inference follows that they are imitations of earlier lamps made elsewhere and imported to Corinth. to lamps whose dates can be approximately fixed I am inclined to assign the majority of lamps of type I to the first half of the sixth century. but no hand-made lamps except some of type I have been discovered in Corinth. by the shape of the nozzle that they do not belong to the earliestphase of the development of lamps. 7 and 8. The clay is similar to that used in other local pottery as well as in tiles of the Greek period. consequently. The two lamps of non-Corinthian clay. . the plain unpainted lamps of type I must go back to a period before 550. as we shall see in the next type. One lamp of peculiar shape (No. Profiles 1 13. 44. however. are. but it seems to indicate that lamps at this early period were not a common product of the Corinthian potters.LAMPS 35 of painting the lamps for the sake of decoration. whichwas famous in Greece about the time when these lamps were being made. and these in turn give rise to three separate types of lamps. figure 14 Among the later specimens of type I three varieties of rim predominate. Fig. the . 43. without paint. it is quite certain that type I is not later than the sixth century B. 1 7) probably belongs to the same period as type I. were manufactured in Corinth.53. In the second half of that century glazed lamps of excellent workmanship were already in use. with the exception of Nos. Since these show. PLATE I. It is made by hand. and the dull black glaze is common on the Corinthian pottery. C. The most common of these is the flat rim with projectSmall vessels of different shapes were often made by hand all through the Greek period. Both clay and glaze point to the fact that the lamps of type I. referredto above. With regard to the date of type I it can be stated with certainty that it is the oldest of all the types from Corinth. TYPE II - Catalogue Nos. of Corinthian clay. Only four of the very earliest examples appear to be made by hand. They show none of the skill and technique that went into the making of the Corinthian pottery. in fact. The fact that the earliest specimens are hand-made is not sufficient proof of their early date'. Judging from their relation Figure 17. two of which by further modification develop into later types. very probably examples of such importation.

whereas the rim of the second variety is flat or convex on top (Profiles 12 and 13). 49. 44. e. No. One of these is rather coarse and ilicaceous and thle color is reddisli brown 'or pink. those parts which are most readily visible. 52. more often by the color of the clay. and on still others it is applied in narrow bands on the entire rim (PLATE 47). the lanips of this variety the glaze is dull. Usually only the rim. is very similar to that of the two imported fragments of the preceding type. In all I. only the inside and the nozzle are painted.36 CORINTH ing outer edge (Profiles 6-8). This is the typical clay of Attica. but one fragment (No. A third kind of clay. The partial glazing of certain lamps of the preceding type was made for a practical reason. and the wick-hole is partly within the outer circumference of the rim. which is found in all but one fragment of the first variety. found only in a few fragments of this type. and tlie outside sometimes has a slip of the same color as the clay. but is usually raised in the centre. One lamp of this type. is the pale yellow. On some other fragments the paint covers also the inner edge of the rim (PLATEI. as is further indicated by certain fragments on which the rim is painted in bands of black and red (PLATE I. In some lamps of the first variety. differing in clay and glaze as well as in shape. The body is very shallow and the bottom is invariably without a base. 52). but in type II we can follow its development toward a decorative purpose. though still serving the same practical purpose as before. in other words. sometimes greenish. but more often the natural color of the clay is allowed to show. has become an element of decoration. The nozzle in the first variety is roughly of the same shape as that of the preceding type. g. In type II tliree distinct kinds of clay appear. Most fragments of the second variety are made of or fine red clay containing no gritty mnatter particles of mica.. The bottom and the sides are sometimes colored with . but in the second variety it is somewhat broader.. This clay. which is highly . This is essentially the rim which appears in type II in a more developed form. No. The red in some cases is produced by the use of m/lfos. On the second variety we nleet for the first time the glossy black glaze of the Attic pottery. The chief difference is that on the first variety the outer edge of the rim is slightly turned up so as to form a low flange (Profile 11). the quality of which is well known through Athenian pottery of the sixth and fifth centuries. There are two distinct varieties of this type. clay of the Corinthian ware. 45). the nozzle. No lamp of this type is preserved entire. and the inside bottom are glazed. but sometimes shifting from red to black.iltosso as to give them a bright red color. This shows that the glaze. Profile 13) shows that it had an open socket in the centre like that of the preceding type. has two nozzles placed directly opposite each other. usually of a dark brown color.

together with numerous potsherds of Corinthian and Attic make. too. plainly made in imitation of the Attic black figured lecythi. The latter have retained their lustrous glaze and highly polished surface unimpaired. is inferior and because of the mealy surface of the clay it peels off easily. This gives us an indication as to the date of type II. whereas the local imitations have lost practically every trace of decoration. It is the earliest type of imported Attic lamps. kindly presented to me by Professor D. The glaze. both kinds being often found in the same graves. but the difference in clay and glaze is apparent at first sight. From what has been said above it is plain that most of these lamps are importations. Numerous lecythi of local make have been discovered in sixth century graves in Corinth. and this surely began before the middle of the sixth century. the context in which it has been found. but in other respects they appear to be identical.M. All the lamps of type II are wheel-made. The latter are all black figured and of a kind that antedates the beginning of the fifth century. it would seem natural to connect this with the exportation of Attic pottery in general. Since type II marks the beginning of the importation of Attic lamps to Corinth. though fine and free from impurities. That this type cannot be later than the sixth century is shown definitely by. which was polished and covered with a coat of lustrous glaze. Several fragments were found in a well. whose products had hitherto been exported to almost every part of the Greek world. That they were playing a losing game should not have been difficult to realize. .LAMPS 37 polished and covered with a transparent glaze. and one can see how the local potters tried by imitation of the shapes of imported vases to hold the trade which was slipping out of their hands. is soft and mealy and will not take a high polish. but the nozzle was made by hand and added separately. The first variety was probably made in the same place as the imported lamps of type I. When the Attic ware was beginning to gain the market there was keen competition on the part of the Corinthian potters. Besides. The Corinthian clay.The same is true of the lamps from Corinth throughout the Greek period down to the end of the fourth century B. The shapes of the imported and the home-made lamps are alike or very nearly so. Since I know these lamps only from photographs. Robinson.' the second variety is of Attic manufacture. ' Lamps similar to the first variety of type II were discovered in the recent excavations at Olynthus. I cannot vouch for the similarity in clay with the fragments from Corinth. C. The black bands are made by the application of lustreless paint. but the lack of figured decoration makes it difficult to connect it definitely with any particular style of pottery. In some of the early tombs in Corinth and elsewhere we find the Corinthian vases and the Attic lecythi side by side.

that even if the clay is of a different color it seems most likely that the lamps are of Attic workmanship. The second kind of clay. 56. Most of the fragments have a clearly set off base (Profiles 14 and 15). because it will help to fix the date of some other types for which direct evidence is lacking. figure 14 The chief difference between types II and III is that of the rim. which on the latter does not project on the outside. The lamps made of this clay have a dull brown or black glaze applied in bands on the rim and covering the inside of the lamp. as appears both from the partial glazing and from its shape. of which there are only three small fragments. probably a survival of the open socket which is found on one early fragment of the type. which can be definitely dated in the sixth century. The nozzle is more closely related to that of type I and the rim is much narrowerthan on the second variety. pp. Hence it is connected with the third rim variety of type I (Profile 5). and the lamps of this kind have a lustrous black glaze. The existing fragments are very small. . and the bottom rises to form a conical projection in the centre (PLATE I. I3I ff. The dating of these two types is of the utmost importance for the chronology of Greek lamps. Profiles 14-16. Although the Attic ware is usually red. but the glaze is so much like that of the Attic pottery. both from stratification and from the shape. but it seems probable that they belong to about the middle of the sixth century. of which there is only one certain fragment of this type (No. The third kind is the local clay of Corinth. but the handle seems to be an exception rather than the rule on this type. With one of the fragments is preserved part of a flat horizontal handle. TYPE III Catalogue Nos. and in no case is the nozzle preserved entire. Art and Arch.38 CORINTH there is sufficient evidence. XXII. The fragments are so few that no definite date can be given.1 See Blegen. From the material at hand we can safely state that the second variety of type II belongs chiefly to the second half of the sixth century. 58). shown in figure 18. It is unsafe to draw conclusions from a few small fragments. The first variety is earlier. is bluish gray.. to show that type II was made at least as early as type III. I926. 58). 54-58. The clay is of three kinds. PLATE I. The date of type III can be fixed with reasonable certainty. 55. One lamp of this type. but enough remains to show that the wick-hole comes entirely outside the rim. was found at Nemea in a temple deposit discovered in 1925. one of which is micaceous and resembles that of the first variety of type II. a difference in the firing often gives it an entirely different color.

19). some figurines of the type generally called geometric with crudely formed face and large round eyes added in separate pieces. II?va .2 It has a high base-ring. Lamp from Nemea.' and one archaic terracottahead.The high base-ring and comparativelydeep body of this lamp indicate that it is later than the Corinthian lamps of type III. Athens. but also two or three late black figured vases. tion was scratched after the baking of the lamp.C. Both in clay and glaze they resemble the first variety of type II and are probablyimportations from the same place as these.I896. figure 14 Type IV belongs to the same development as the fifth variety of type I. a quantity of pottery.. TYPE IV Catalogue Nos. Profiles I7-2I. mostly proto-Corinthian.LAMPS 39 This deposit contained another lamp of the same type. Both clay and glaze show that it is of Attic make. The lamps made of the first kind of clay are in all probability earlier than the rest.'ETp.Figure i8. Lamp with Inscription th Figurn National Musp Inscription in the Museum. the rim overhanging. from which it differs chiefly in the use of glaze for decoration but also in the further development of body and nozzle..The inscrip. ' No. on which are found some figures of this crude type and some archaic figures with carefully modelled features. . probably the name of the owner. National Museum in Athens. I. Although this type was in vogue during a longer 1 That this type of figurines was made in the archaic period is shown by a group in the. 336I. See Kourouniotes. Both the pottery and the figurines from this deposit are unquestionably earlier than 500 B. The nozzle is small. Figure 19. 'AQX. hence it is safe to assume that the lamps also belong to the sixth century. Another conclusive piece of evidence for the date of type III is furnished by a lamp of the same type in the National Museum in Athens. on the inside of which is inscribed in small letters HYnEPROL. PLATE II.O (Fig.II. The forms of the letters show that it was made at the end of the sixth century or the beginning of the fifth. 59-90.

e. 82). An importantfeature for the dating of Greek lamps is the raised base. The shape of the nozzle shows the development more clearly than does the rim. and long. In the earliest examples the nozzle is short and flat as on the preceding two types. In other words. The longer the nozzle and the deeper was the less easily would the wick slip down into the infundibulum. figs.. . but the wider rim is not always the later. fronm shape of the nozzle and from the relative depth of the body to establish approximately the date of each individual lamp. the former of which belongs to the earliest. The Craft of Athenian Pottery. but the body is shallow and widens toward the top. There is no appreciable development of the rim within the type. pp. as can be seen in profiles 17 to 21. The gradual closing in of the top in this type is not achieved by a widening of the rim as much as by a narrowing of the body itself. g. About half the lamps of type III 1 Cf. The more common form is the horizontal band-handle attached to the side of the lamp. this raised surface was removed and the bottom made perfectly flat or rising in the centre. Io ff. 36). We have seen above that the handle is :found on some of the very earliest lamps from Corinth. and the base is not clearly set off from the body' (Fig. but this form is comparatively rare on Greek lamps. whereas in the later lamp the opposite is the case. The rim on the earlier lamp is actually wider. On some lamps of type I there appears to be a kind of base. however. and the wick-hole became farther removed from the rim (PLATE 71 and II. These changes in shape were made for practical purposes. 62 and 64). but this is more an accident than a regular feature. but a few examples are without one. Most lamps of type IV are provided with a handle. No. Richter.40 CORINTH period than any other type of Greek lamps. the lamp and the smaller the open top. In the more carefully made lamps of the later period. type II. This is best seen by a comparison of profiles 17 and 21. the It is possible. On the under side are some spiral marks made when the lamp was removed from the wheel. The width of the rim differs somewhat in the different lamps. 15 and I6. As the body became deeper the nozzle was made correspondingly deep. the latter to the latest phase in the development of the type. the base on these early lamps is nothing but the slightly raised surface by which the lamp was attached to the wheel. 56. hence its absence is not a sign of early date. Two small lamps of this type have vertical handles like those on some lamps of type I. the change in shape from the earliest to the latest examples is so gradual that it is difficult to differentiate separate varieties. and the wick-hole is close to the rim but not encroaching upon it (PLATEII. the more easily could the lamp be carried without spilling the oil.

The well developed base came into use toward the end of the sixth century and then became common on all types of Greek lamps. The clay of type IV is of three kinds. Two lamps of this kind of clay are glazed only on the nozzle. The lamps made of this clay are easily distinguished both by the color of the clay and by the glaze. Many of them have been found in the same context as types II and III. Another kind of clay of the same color as the Attic. the others have the same kind of reverse as type II. as can be seen on some mottled specimens. so that we may safely lay down the rule that the Greek lamps without raised base are earlier than 500 B. both of which antedate the fifth century. the nozzle is short and spoon-shaped. and the base is either lacking or very low. and inside. on the other hand. 58. and another has alternating bands of red and black on the rim (Fig. 62). we must conclude that the latest examples of type IV cannot be earlier than the end of the fourth century. The third kind of clay is the local variety which is found in nearly all the types of the Greek period. which is as well turned as the rest of the lamp and in most cases covered with the same kind of glaze. This must be distinguished whereas from the good red glaze on some lamps of the fifth century. No. on some lamps only small traces of black betray the fact that they were once glazed (Fig. These have in general the shape of profile 19. An exact dating of this type is very difficult because it was in use during a long period. 60.1 which Courby dates between the middle of the fourth and the middle of the third century. There is no doubt that the earliest examples go back to the sixth century. On some of the small lamps belonging to this type the spiral marks are visible as on type I. This is true of the lamps from Corinth but may not apply to all local varieties of Greek lamps. 3 the red glaze of the later period is a thin dull paint of inferior quality. The red is produced simply by the absence of glaze. The latter is dull and peels off very easily. 6 . In type IV. C. ? P. 73). The good Attic clay which appeared already in type II is comparativelyrare in this type. The latter is lustrous and has the same constituency as the black glaze. rim. These early lamps have profiles like 17 and 18. 63). 321. Some of the late specimens of the type have a red or mottled red and brown glaze such as is found on some of the early moulded bowls of the Hellenistic period.LAMPS 41 have a'well formed base. and these show by the shape of the nozzle and the shallow body that they are among the earliest specimens of the type. is much more common. only very few lamps are without base (Profile 17). The glaze on the latter is also much inferior to the Attic glaze and in most cases has largely peeled off (PLATE II.2Judging from that. No.3Most lamps of type IV belong to the fifth century. but all the rest have a carefully made base. but soft and mealy.

is a U-shaped bar-handle. rather deep lamps. The second variety (Profiles 23-25. They are large. the moulded or grooved rim. which differ both in shape and date. figure 14 The Greek lamps before the third century are characterizedin general by lack of decoration other than the glaze. Type V. If they were covered with glaze every trace of it has disappeared. the others are made of the local yellow clay and are covered with a poor black glaze. Among the exist- ing fragments only the nozzles and parts of the rim and side are preserved. It is an important fact that very few lamps of this type are of Attic make. 95). and PLATE II. 45 degrees to the bottom of the lamp. which is without a raised base. and have a nozzle shaped like those of the lamps in figures 58-60. which is always present.42 CORINTH are provided with a horizontal band-handle. and it seems more likely that they were left unglazed. as we have seen. Most Attic lamps of the sixth century have a flat rim (types II and III). the handle. also with flat rim. which has a raised band at the edge (Profile 22. however. but in the more developed specimens the whole rim is decorated with concentric grooves and ridges. 91 and 93). Type V falls into three varieties. the nozzle comparatively long. The earliest of these has rounded sides merging into the rim. and from these developed the fifth century Attic lamps (type VI). the handle. which. on which a single groove sets off the rill from the sides. and on the reverse is a raised base or base-ring. is a band-handle set at an angle of ca. Of the third variety (Profiles 26 and 27. PLATE II. One lamp of this variety without handle (No. whereas those of local workmanship are much more numerous. made of coarse clay of a brick red or pale yellow color. The sides are almost vertical. The latter were only rarely imitated by the Corinthian manufacturers. Profiles 22-27. and PLATE II. 98) only a few small fragments are preserved. the rim grooved and usually overhanging. so that . is deeper than the first and has a more angular profile. 9I-99. The influence of this type on later lamps is seen in types VII and VIII. when present. The nozzle is small and encroaches on the rim. which is the most numerous. 91) has the characteristicAttic clay and glaze. and PLATE II.who continued to produce type IV in competition with the imported lamps. was in some cases applied in bands of different colors. Most lamps of this variety are imported from Attica. has an additional decorative element. In some cases this decoration consists merely of a raised band at the inner edge. TYPE V Catalogue Nos.

20). which seems to be a local product. another (No. as is shown by its base. 100. and two lamps of this kind were found in graves together with pottery from the late sixth and early fifth centuries. distant from the outer edge of the rim. Three late I 2 Cf. shows that the former belongs to an earlier development. figure 14 The most common kind of Greek lamps in the fifth century is type VI. This shows that the rest of the lamp had already received one coat of glaze before the handle was removed. Thus we may conclude that the first half of the fifth century is the time when it was most common. but the later type shows the same kind of development of nozzle and body which has been traced in the preceding types. 100. The nozzle is comparatively long and deep. A comparison of profiles 28 to 30 with those of type III will show that the two are closely related in shape. 1928. which is the most common fifth century type. I00-II3. the wick-hole small and 0. 102) had originally a handle. and the sides are very nearly vertical. by its long nozzle. 109) there is a shallow groove at the outer edge of the rim. T. The rim is broad and slopes toward the centre..2 has been referred to above. Walters. . Cf. A. No. which has a U-shaped band-handle. Fig. 490-495. 20).01 5-0. In one case (No. IX. pl. The shape of the nozzle and the absence of the base on the first variety show that it belongs to the sixth century. XXXII. Fig.' The second variety is considerably later. 249. but on one fragment the upper edge 43 of a raised base can be seen. The places where the two ends of the handle were attached were pared off with a knife but were not polished like the rest of the lamp. showing that the two types are closely related. afterwards part of the lamp was glazed once more.027 m. Shear. but one lamp of type VI (No. has a U-shaped bandhandle. is probably contemporary with type VI. The shallow body of the second variety of type V. The third variety. The glaze in these two spots is so thin that the color of the clay shines through. and by its similarity type VI. The U-shaped bar-handle to is peculiar to type V. Most lamps of type VI have a broad horizontal handle. PLATE III. TYPE VI Catalogue Nos. Profiles 28-30. as compared with type VI. AJ. One exception (No. a feature which shows the connection between this and the preceding type. pp. which it resembles both in the depth of the body and the comparatively wide rim.LAMPS the exact shape cannot be determined. but this was removed apparently before the lamp left the shop where it was made. L.

Except for a few imitations made of local clay this type is of Attic manufacture. Thus the evidence at hand points to the second and third quarters of the fifth century as the period when type VI was most common. more often the natural color of the clay appears. hence type VI probably came into vogue in the beginning of the fifth. This and the following type are the most numerous of Attic lamps from Corinth. They continued. C. however. Since the two kinds appear on the same lamp there is no reason for dating this kind of brown glaze later than the black. It was most common in the middle of that century. but some fragments are buff or grayish brown in color. and. The fabric of the whole lamp and of the base in particular is unusually thick. As a rule the base is not glazed on the bottom. they were not found in any of the tombs from the sixth century. In a few cases the base has been colored red by the use of miltos. C. nor in strata earlier than 500 B. This brown glaze is not the same as that which appears on 100 Figure 20. from which type VI developed.and in some cases it is difficult to tell whether the lamp was glazed or not. but seems to be of the same quality as the black glaze. was apparently in use till about the end of the sixth century. No.the Corinthian specimens of types IV and VI . At this time the Corinthian potters no longer competed with the Athenian craftsmen for the Greek market.44 CORINTH specimens of local make belonging to this type are without handle. but some exceptions occur. On the other hand. which was applied before the glaze. This difference is probably due to the firing. An invariable feature is the raised base with rising centre. Type III. lamps of the third and second centuries B.The good glaze and fine workmanship show that it belongs to the period when the Attic pottery held the market in the Greek world. In the Athena Trench. The obvious advantage of the increased weight was to render the lamp more stable. which is painted black. lamps of this type were discovered together with sherds of red figured ware from about the middle of the fifth century. and along toward the end type VII was being produced. all through the Greek period to supply the local market with cheap ware. In most cases the clay is red. which makes the lamps very heavy. as well as to prevent breakage. For the dating of type VI we are dependent chiefly on the evidence derived from the lamps themselves. On the lamps of local clay the glaze has almost disappeared. 105 has a light brown glaze applied everywhere except on the inner edge of the rim. since the glaze is in all cases the same.

Fig. but differs from this by the presence of a well marked groove setting off the rim from the sides. but the flat horizontal handle is found in a few cases. 114. The shapes. In the earliest examples the sides of the body are comparatively straight and the rim flat (Profiles 31 and 32). From these late examples to the lamps of the next type is only a short step. Profiles 3I-35. figure 14 Type VII comprises a large number of lamps and fragments. A new feature which appears for the first time on this type is a small perforated lug on the left side. differing both in shape and in the quality of clay and glaze. which is borrowed from type V.LAMPS 45 show that a large proportion of the lamps used in Corinth was made by the local potters during the period when the Attic ware was at its height. In. and here we have a single specimen of a late Greek type showing that this form of handle did not entirely go out of use. p. TYPE Catalogue Nos. I4-I36. VII PLATE III. The . It is. As a rule there is no handle. It belongs to the same line of development as type VI. It is possible to trace in these lamps of local make a deterioration corresponding to a steady increase in the number of imported lamps. The clay is of three varieties. are less pleasing. the most common of which is the Attic. The Attic lamps of type VI also show a development from the more open and flat shape to the deep bowl shape with wide rim and small opening. 64. however. the only lamp from Corinth of the fifth and fourth centuries on which such a handle is found. 21) had a vertical bandhandle such as is found on a few lamps of the sixth ii1 Figure 21. A few early fragments have a double groove (Fig. 11 5). No. which shows close relation to type V. century.) The raised base with rising centre is found on all the lamps of type VII. 6. The nozzle does not differ from that of the preceding type. (For the purpose and later development of this lug see Introduction. though roughly the same as those of the Athenian lamps. among which several varieties appear. so that it is often difficult to determine the type of some of the local lamps. whereas the late lamps of this type are almost ball-shaped (Profiles 33-35). This feature. and one early specimen (No. and the types are not so well fixed. differentiates type VII from the other Greek lamps. the Hellenistic period the vertical handle again comes into vogue.

pp. in particular the Esquiline type. M. Dressel dates the finds from the Esquiline Cemetery in the second half of the third century (p.1 These several points of evidence indicate that type VII began in the fifth century and continued to be produced throughout the fourth2. LII. Another kind of brown paint of inferior quality also appears. yet the latter plainly belongs to a later development. The glaze is also of several varieties. on the latest lamps of this type has deteriorated into a thin glossy paint varying in color between black and light brown. Here the black glaze was first applied and later scratched away so as to leave the groove red. D. The Attic lamps have the character- istic black glaze. M. 134 and 135).. Two lamps (Nos. 136) is unpainted. 74.not unlike that on some late lamps of type IV. The majority. and the nozzle has the shape found on the latest lamps of type VI. .J. however. however.. The close similarity between types VI and VII shows that the two cannot be far apart in date. The good brown glaze found on some lamps of the preceding type is more common on type VII.46 CORINTH local variety is comparatively rare. and unpainted lamps were common in the Hellenistic period. Cf. found on one lamp of this type. A. so that it is very likely that type VII was in use as late as the beginning of the third century B. The thin brown glaze. belong to a later period. 340) but some of the lamps seem to be of a somewhat earlier date. The pierced knob on the side is a feature which belongs chiefly to third century lamps. Robinson show that this is one of the most common types as well as the latest kind of Greek lamps from Olynthus. consequently it seems certain that the type began to be made toward the end of the fifth century. The body is narrower and less open than that of the preceding type. p. 2 Some photographs kindly presented to me by Professor D. some imported specimens of type VII have been found together with lamps of type VI and late red figured Attic vases. which. A. which was destroyed by Philip in 348 B. Inst. XXXIII. made of dark gray clay. 265 ff.C. C. The great number of varieties within the type also indicates that it continued to be made during a long period of time. and one (No. Robinson. have a thin coat of dull gray or brown paint. Besides. I88o. Miltos was used on some of the Attic lamps for coloring the base and also the groove on the rim. Some of the late lamps with side knob are made of a hard dark gray or brown clay which is not found among the lamps of the preceding type. was used chiefly in the late fourth and early third centuries. ' Annali d. 1929.

It has the shape of a deep bowl with high base and broad flat rim. LII. 1749 of the Wollmann Collection in Rome. There is no handle. Inst. Profile 36. Type VIII is closely related to the Esquiline lamps. and there was really more of a change in the development of lamps a century later when the moulded technique came into vogue. the bottom measures no less than 0.01 5 m.. All the Greek lamps from the end of the sixth through the fourth century are glazed on the outside. figure 14 Closely related to type VII is a kind of lamps of which a single specimen and some fragments have been found in Corinth. I880.. of reddish brown color. PLATE III. Tav. 15) has exactly the same shape as our type VIII but is covered with a black glaze. TYPE IX Catalogue Nos. but on the left side is a perforated knob. figure 14 On the late ball-shaped lamps of type VII the rim continues from the sides in a uniform curve. which is less than on some of the later types. 274. One large example of this kind (No. This groove on some of the 1 One of the Esquiline lamps (Anna/h d. because. This type of lamps. like the latter. they are painted only on the inside. 8 and p. which was never very common. I37-I40. One specimen of the same type from the Ceramicus has the signature APXIOY stamped at the base of the nozzle. 0. PLATE IV. On type VIII the rim is so wide that the hole in the centre measures only 0. The inside is painted black. . have been listed with type VIII in the Catalogue. in thickness. set off from the sides by a deep groove. C. 138) is of unusually heavy fabric. belongs to the transition between the Greek and the Hellenistic lamps. are often without paint but have on the outside a fine slip of clay. Profiles 37 and 38. The nozzle is similar to that of the preceding type and the wick-hole is very small.051 m. The chief difference between the lamps of these two periods is that the Greek lamps are open on the top and the Hellenistic lamps are closed. Another similar lamp is No. A few fragments. but the groove sets it off from the body. and on the outside is a fine slip of the same color as the clay. and contains some fine particles of mica. too small to show to what type they belong.LAMPS 47 HELLENISTIC TYPE VIII LAMPS Catalogue Nos. In type VII a single very late specimen is unpainted and the wheel-made lanlps of the third century B. The division into two periods is purely arbitrary.1 and the shape shows that it cannot be earlier than the third century. 141-153. The clay is hard.

but on the left side is a knob which in one case (No. and added separately. There is no doubt that the moulded technique both on lamps and other pottery developed from this applique process. It is made on the wheel. 148. and hence the fragment in question is earlier than the first moulded lamps. which are probably of local make. which all through the fourth century continued to deteriorate. made in a mould. but at the base of the nozzle is a bull's head. Chapter XX. In no case is the bottom left rough as when the lamp was removed from the wheel. or perhaps modelled by hand. In determining the date we are chiefly dependent on the shape and its relation to other types.1 With the exception of the four unpainted lamps. since. the raised base on the earliest examples is an indication that it belongs comparatively early in the century. as we shall see. Two are unpainted. The nozzle is comparatively long and pointed and less deep than on type VII. A single lamp of type IX (No. This is important for the dat- ing of the type.Some early lamps of this type have a raised base (Profile 37). Both its relation to type VII and the 1 8 Figure 22. On the Cnidus type this process became common. and both these factors indicate that it did not come into use before the third century. The body is much flatter and more angular than that of the preceding type. It is found on a large class of Hellenistic bowls of Athenian manufacture. 141) is perforated.48 CORINTH latest examples is very close to the inner edge of the rim. One fragment (No. That these began to be 1 See Courby. but the only fragments of that type from Corinth are without decoration. 141) is made of Attic clay and has a coat of good black glaze. The early date of this specimen is attested by the well formed base and by the perforated lug. This is probably a late variety of the Attic glaze. the remaining four were covered with a poor black paint which has partly peeled off. In type IX we find the same kind of groove but so near the filling-hole that the rim proper has all but disappeared. The clay of the rest is buff or pale red. . On the other hand. There is'no handle. the rest are slightly concave on the reverse (Profile 38). This development is best seen by a comparison of profiles 33 and 34 of type VII with profile 37 of type IX. Fig.~- quality of clay and glaze point to this conclusion. it seems likely that type IX was imported from Attica. 22) is of peculiar interest because it is the earliest lamp from Corinth with decoration in relief. on some of the later wheel-made lamps the bottom has not been trimmed off.

to tell roughly the relative date of the different types of Greek lamps from their average II . There was no advantage.the wheel-made lamps were retained. in making these plain lamps in moulds.: :c Throughout the Greek period there was a tendency to decrease the width of the lamps and to increase their depth. Fig. :..1 Figure 23. A complete lamp of a similar kind in the National Musem in Athens is shown in figure 24. and in the beginning only sporadic attempts were made. TYPE X Catalogue Nos.. 23) belonging to this type. . Of the stand only the upper part is preserved. figure 14 .i N~~~~~~:. The latter had the advantage of being more decorative. 154-169. chiefly of type IV. To type IX also belong three broken lamps which were attached to a high stand. Athens. and at first the old shapes of. hence the price must have been lower than that of the moulded lamps. 149 in clay and glaze is an indication that all three were made in the same place. It has the same shape as the rest but is covered with a thin red paint. whose resemblance to No.. Lamp in the National Museum. but they did not succeed in driving out the wheel-made lamps until much later. PLATE *. however.:~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~ .LAMPS 49 made while type IX was still in use can be definitely demonstrated by a moulded lamp (No.:. making common pottery.:: L :. . it is possible Figure 24... 149. Two of these are well enough preserved to show that they had a knob on the left side and in one case the knob is perforated. We shall find in type XI two other examples of moulded lamps. The process of moulding clay vessels was undoubtedly first employed for the production of other pottery and later came to be used for lamps. .. and on the bottom is a high base-ring.. since they are as a rule too small for practical use. But the new technique came into vogue gradually.. Fgr 3. Apart from some small votive lamps. tacI! . which were made at different periods.. :. Lamps of this kind were most likely used as votive offerings in the sanctuaries..: i? : ~~~~~~~~~~ . The wheel-made lamps could be produced more quickly and with the instruments used for ii:. .. Profiles 39 and 40.. IV...

The only kind of coins found in Corinth in great numbers from the fourth and the first half of the third centuries are the small anonymous coins with Pegasus on the obverse and the trident on the reverse. On the rest the bottom was left without trimming after the lamp was removed from the wheel. and the corners project slightly so as to make it wider at the end than at the base. we often find the two colors on the same vase. which is transitional to the blunt ended nozzle on the Cnidus lamps with fluke-like projections on the sides. those of the latter are painted light brown and the paint is well preserved. Another difference between this and the preceding type is seen in the treatment of the reverse. 362.l In the filling of this basin were found some broken lamps of type X. One might be inclined to take this difference as an indication that the two varieties were produced in two localites. If it is true that Corinth. A. in fact. In the excavations of 1926 in the region of the temple of Athena Chalinitis to the north of the probable precinct wall a rectangular basin lined with stucco was discovered. The nozzle is short and obtusely triangular. and even the coins are of little help in this matter.. XXX. but this date is too general and too hypothetical to be of use in dating other objects. This gradual decrease in width continued into the third century and is best illustrated by type X. The dating of this and. 447.. watchshaped body and a groove round the filling-hole as on type IX. . and the same is true of about half the lamps of type X. It is one of the many instances of careless workmanship in the lamps of the Hellenistic period. contemporarywith these lamps. which shows that the difference was produced in the firing.J. numerous fragments of Hellenistic bowls of the kind dated by Courby2between the end of the fourth and the last quarter of the third century before our era. of all the Hellenistic lamps before the second century is very difficult. The clay is either buff or light red. L. A. after joining the Achaean League See T. p. C.50 CORINTH diameter. but the same is true of other objects from the same period. 2 P. On the relief bowls. Type X has neither handle nor knob on the side. All the lamps of the fonner have the bottom turned on the wheel so that the spiral marks are not visible. Shear. The lamps of the former variety are covered with a poor black glaze which tends to peel off. It is the earliest type with this kind of nozzle. and four anonymous coins of Sicyon and one of Corinth of the type referred to above. I926. No exact dating for the pottery has been worked out. In the British Museum Catalogue these are dated between 400 and 300 B. but that is not necessarily the case. It comprises a large number of lamps with small.

This form of nozzle goes back to type IX and is earlier than the triangular nozzle of type X. Profile 41 is transitional between types IX and XI. figure 14 as type IX. and its gradual disappearance is easily traceable. Another point of similarity between types IX and XI is the presence of a small knob on the left side. Profiles 41-43. It is found on some of the earliest Greek lamps and again reappears on a single lamp of type VII. which makes it easy . particularly in Italy. does not reappear after the fourth century B. TYPE XI Catalogue Nos. and the glaze on the lamps as well as on the bowls makes it certain that the date cannot be much earlier. The horizontal handle. this gives the terminus ante quem for these anonymous coins. C. C. In the first century of our era some types without handles again come into use for a time. I70-I82. since the lamps are all provided with a handle at the back. All the fragments of which part of the bottom is preserved have been trimmed underneath. ceased to issue the old coin types. This seems to indicate the middle of the third century as the earliest time for this deposit. but those are exceptional cases. Besides.LAMPS 51 in 243. but on the later Roman lamps the vertical handle is found almost without exception. on the rest the knob is solid and rather small. watch-shaped body to the deep double convex shape of the fully developed lamps of this type. but the body Type XI belongs to the same line of development is deeper and more angular. PLATE IV. On a single lamp of type XI a hole is begun on the upper side of the knob. which is not the case with the later lamps of the same type. A peculiarity of type XI is that the lower part of the nozzle extends beyond the wick-hole. But one of the Sicyonian coins from the same basin belongs to a type dated 250-1 46 B. C. on the other hand. Round the filling-hole is a deep groove as on the preceding two types. The handle is vertical and has a deep groove through the middle. On this type it has lost its practical use. and it continued in use throughout Roman times. In view of these facts it seems likely that type X began to be produced in the second half of the third century and continued in use into the second century B. In the Hellenistic period it became the common kind of handle on most types. there is evidence to show that the lamps from this deposit belong to the earliest phase of development of type X. This groove is present on about half the lamps of this type. The nozzle of type XI is long and pointed. It is possible to trace a gradual change from the flat. This is the first type on which the vertical handle appears as a regular feature.

with the exception of a single specimen (No. Two lamps (Nos. e. where the upper half is much deeper than the lower.52 CORINTH to identify the nozzle even when the rest of the lamp is missing. figure 14 In type X a change in profile can be traced from the watch-shaped body of which the upper and lower halves are roughly of the same shape (Profile 39) to the form shown in profile 40. That this method was followed is shown by some broken specimens in which the inside of the nozzle appears. This the kind of glaze is found on some of the lamps of the preceding type and is probably a late survival of the famous Attic glaze of Greek times. but -some of the earlier lamps are made of hard clay varying from pale red to dark gray. This can easily be seen on the bottom of the infundibulumwhere there are marks of the tubular instrument by which the hole was made. But on most lamps of type XII a different process was used. The clay is similar to that used in some of the common household ware of the Hellenistic period. The similarity of glaze and clay indicates that type. and the wick-hole was made separately. I83-I89. and the nozzle was made in the form of a tube with one end closed. The clay in the majority of cases is light red and the paint red or dark brown. the open end was then attached to the lamp where the hole was cut. i. which are made in moulds. Type XII resembles the later lamps of type X. PLATE IV. The common shape is that shown in profile 45. 181 and 182). One lamp and some fragments of type X are made of a greenish buff clay and are covered with a thin poor glaze of dark gray color. There is no base on this type and the bottom is always trimmed on the wheel. These are unpainted but seem to have been covered with a thin slip. It is the only type in . Profiles 44 and 45. On the two earliest lamps it was made in the same way as on the other wheel-made types. and no marks of the instrument for piercing the nozzle are visible on the inside. The nozzle is blunt and the wick-hole comparatively large. Profile 44 is made from an early lamp of the same type on which there is no depression on the top. it was added to the lamp as a solid piece and pierced later. The hole through the side of the lamp is always a little smaller or larger than the hole though the nozzle. have been referred to under type IX. 183) which has the double convex form. A hole was first cut through the side of the lamp. TYPE XII Catalogue Nos. both of which developed from type IX. but the edge round the filling-hole is raised so as to form a neck. The rest have the form of a low tea-pot with a depression on the top and the sides sloping so as to make the body wider below than above. XI is roughly contemporary with type X.

Near the edge of this depression is a narrow groove. but round the wick-hole is a deep depression to facilitate the pouring of oil. Cnzdus. Nlicholson Catalogue. The same shape of nozzle is common on bronze lamps. The nozzle is rounded with long. Halzcarnassus. 190-I92. As soon as these lamps were introduced. 47 ff. above all. The dating of this type is even more difficult than that of the preceding three types. figure 14 One of the commonest kinds of lamps in the Hellenistic period is the Cnidus type. It is the first type in which this kind of clay and glaze appear. and the wick-hole is comparatively large. and both these types were made in imitation of metal lamps. Nos. 379. PLATEV. or perhaps both. On the two earliest lamps the bottom has been trimmed. but it was used also for type XIX. and. Such indications are the rough untrimmed bottom. Museum Newton. 350-389. It belongs to the same class of small wheel-made lamps as these. . the metallic glaze and dark gray clay. 1 Walters. The Cnidus lamps were certainly produced either on some of the Aegean islands or in Asia Minor. but certain features seem to indicate that it developed later. 378. the local lampmakers began to imitate the new technique. is vertical but does not have the groove through the middle as do the handles of the preceding type. The body is double convex. Profiles 46 and 47. The more common variety is of ash gray clay and has a thin gray or dark brown metallic slip. Macdonald. The handle. which is found on all the lamps of this type. the deep body. The relation of type XII to the preceding types as well as to type XIII indicates the end of the third and the early second century as the most likely period for its production. pp. in the other it has been pared off with a knife. is apparently of Attic make and probably belongs to the early third or late fourth century. It seems to have been introduced first by the Cnidus type. resembling that of type IX. one of which is made of red clay and covered with a thin red paint. which in all probability was produced in Greece proper. and imported from there to Greece. All the rest are left rough as they came off the wheel. One early lamp of type XII which is made of light red clay and covered with lustrous black glaze.in one case on the wheel. In Corinth only a single broken example of this type and two related lamps have been discovered. The others are of two kinds. 393-6. so called because it was found in large numbers by Newton on the island of Cnidus'. and this doubtless accounts for the appearance of this kind of clay and glaze on type XII. pp. TYPE XIII Catalogue Nos. and Branchidae. fluke-like projections on the sides.LAMPS 53 which this method was used.

sometimes black.. The handle on the metal lamps of which these are imitations was made of a double rod held together by small hoops'.It is quite certain that the wheel was first used for the production of these lamps. Waldhauer.. C. That the latter is an early specimen of the type is shown by the absence of decoration3. XIX. Shear. but some of the Cnidus lamps in the British Museum have a vertical handle which in several cases shows imitation of metal lamps. io. B. The clay is very hard. C. the body of the vessel was made on the wheel and the decorations added separately.. 2 P. 6 Deonna. but the Cnidus lamps from Delos as well as the one from Corinth are wheel-made. I45. 1 See Walters. pp. A. They seem to have before 200 B. II 2. Nos. XXXII. color. Type XIII is quite numerous at Delos and in the eastern Mediterranean4 but apparently was not in common use in Greece proper. This process was used on a single lamp of type IX (No. A. It forms the transition between the wheel-made and the moulded lamps. Although the Cnidus lamps did not disappear from the market as soon as the new lamps came into vogue. 4 Deonna. p.54 CORINTH In type XII we meet again a high base. In Asia Minor the moulded lamps were used as early as the beginning of the second century5. The handle is not preserved.According to Walters2 this type is modelled by hand. 22). cf. o02I. 403. p. CXXXIX. but type XIII is the only type on which it became common. trimmed underneath. I922. 144-5. and compare with these his bronze lamps. Cf. Nos. dates the fully developed lamps of this type in the second century B. pi. VIII. cit. 358 and 366. 6 and 83. XXVI. 1. pl. but were most common in the first half of the developed second century6. c. H. C. op. and the glaze is thin and metallic in appearance. Another feature which shows the influence of the bronze lamps is the color of clay and glaze. and figures 7-9. 9I. But in the transitional stage. Fig. In other kinds of pottery reliefs were made for decoration at an early date. . The few isolated moulded examples which we have noted in the preceding types can hardly be so regarded. and fig.but in the West they did not become common until later. both in the case of lamps and in that of pottery in general. . 148. and the figures which were later added'were probably made in moulds. 8 For the development of this type see Deonna. 1908. On some of the other Cnidus lamps the handle is plain or ribbed. It has a deep groove in the middle as if formed of two bars round which is a small band (see under type XIX). also Cesnola Collection. of a dark gray. they certainly began to be made at an earlier date. and the process of moulding came into use long before lamps began to be made in motllds.

The former. They fall into two groups. It was a period of experimentation. Profile 49. 1 3). and four small holes in the depression between the raised edge and the convex top served as inlet for this oil into the infundibulum (see Introduction. But round the top is a raised edge which prevented the oil from being spilled on the sides. flat bottom. and the raised edge and of the second to which date small oil-holes are found on both these types. p. Type XVIII. It has a deep body. Type XII). There is no base and the bottom is left rough as it came off the wheel. TYPE XV Catalogue No. as we shall see. Only one fragmentary lamp and a small piece of another belonging to type XIV have been discovered in Corinth. No. 193) is made of the pale yellow clay of Corinth and had originally black glaze. a number of changes were made in the existing types of lamps and several new types were created. figure 14 55 In the early part of the second century B. which is probably imported. Only one complete lamp and some fragments of type XV have been discovered at Corinth. so that its termination is uncertain. the other (No. I93 and I94. 184. Profile 48. of which only faint traces remain. It is found so rarely that it can never have been very common. one of which is made of red clay and covered with good brown glaze. with the result that several kinds of lamps developed which did not remain long in the market. pointed nozzle with large wick-hole. figure 14 One means of preventing the oil from being spilled on the sides of the lamps was to add a long funnel-like neck round the filling-hole (cf. and this is the characteristic feature of type XV. No nozzle is preserved entire.LAMPS TYPE XIV Catalogue Nos. The aim seems to have been to produce a lamp from which the oil could not spill. I95. In type XIV we recognize an old form of lamp to which such a device was added. At the back was a flat loop-handle attached to the raised edge. PLATE V. PLATE V. resembles some of the fragments in Corinth of type XVIII in clay and glaze. One of these (No. 194) is made of red clay and is covered with good chocolate brown glaze. and even the groove round the fillinghole is present. The shape is roughly the same as that of type X. C. and a ribbed vertical handle extending from the neck down to the bottom. but it probably influenced the shape of the later wheel-made lamps (Type XVI). type XIV approximately belongs. the other resembles the Cnidus lamps both . and different devices were invented for this purpose. was introduced shortly before the middle century.

T.125 m. pp. This gives us some indication as to the date of the type. III. Fouilles de Delphes. and the angle formed by the side and the bottom is bevelled. the nozzle is short with pointed corners. 63. and was over 0.. is moulded. 1927. It is made of pale yellow clay and has. 187. Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen. which has almost disappeared.D. XXXVI. Wietype pi. V. In the third group (Pro- file 52) the sides are again rounded. In the first and third groups there is a very low base. 329-337. Profiles 50-52. Louzs. which show by their good black glaze that they were made at a period when the black painted ware was still in use. p. This fragment is an early example of a type of lamps which was in use in Corinth as late as the end of the first century A.. A. Keramopoulos. fig. is probably the first half of the second century. Roman Ehnasya. usually with a groove in the middle. Other parallels are: Soteriou. The lamp had a diameter of approximately 0. 'AQX. covered top surrounded by a raised edge. 1 See under gand. which. pl. p. XXXI. but the curve is less uniform than on the first group and the raised edge round the top is often bent out so as to produce a flare. deep. I030. The second group (Profile 51) has almost straight sides. The nozzle is short and blunt and wider at the end than at the base2. but the second group is flat on the bottom. TYPE XVI Catalogue Nos. VII. p. like that of the Cnidus type. p. not rounded. LXIX. and at the back is a horizontal band-handle. 21. 51 and 52. fig. 13 and pl. p. For a complete lamp of a somewhat similar shape see Fig. and Gauckler. . Musere Delattre. du Muse'e de St. 22. Petrie. i.III. 3 For a discussion of this type see A.. Aet. Les Lampes Ant. of which there are only four lamps and some fragments. then probably introduced from North Africa .56 CORINTH in clay and glaze. A nozzle of such a lamp is shown in PLATE V (No. Fragments of this group have been found in pre-Roman strata XXXVII and cf. The first group. fig. figure 14 In the third and second centuries B.. figs. II 2. p.06 m.. 6. Cesnola Coll. 132. 196). Of this kind of lamps no specimens have been discovered in Corinth. On the first group the sides are curved and narrowing toward the top (Profile 50). 1922. and on the outside is a good red glaze and on the inside a dark brown paint.3 The top is depressed so that the oil would not be spilled on the sides. Blanchere Nos. The type falls into three groups differing both in shape and in the qua- lity of clay. I9I7. 799 and 800. 189. CXXXIX. I96-293. PLATE V. a class of lamps developed in Greece with flat. Baalbek. The clay is pale red. 'AQX. The same type reappears in Byzantine times. 60. C. Alaouz. i6. To this class belong most of the lamps from the Esquiline Cemetery in Rome. but some fragments of large lamps of very much the same shape have been found.traces of brown glaze.ASXT.

.. ' ... .. The third group. These 'fragments are so few. '. 25. ? . that it is impos' . . sible to tell whether they belong to the period before or after the destruction of heated specimens are dark brown or greenish gray. ....: " .. .. It is made is very numerous. * ' 25' Figure . ?.. which of time.. . Two of these were bent out of shape in the baking (Fig. usually was in use durn a long period of a coarse gritty brick red in color.. These are . It is made of a dark gray clay resembling that of the Cnidus lamps and has the same kind of metallic glaze..... however. " ... . . The second group.~~~~~~~~~~~~~ .is even less numerous. ? .. .:?'...Corinth..C.. No....' (.. . i ::p?.. 281)."''('? i? ?:i ': ' ' '. i ?.LAMPS 57 and probably date from about the middle of the second century B.. Fragments of this group have been found in the same context as early Roman relief lamps and Hellenistic moulded lamps of type XIX.. and some others have a crack through the side made either when the lamp was dried or when it was being baked..... ' . .. but some over- 287^~8 of shape in the baking (i. clay. . . . .

The Craft of Athenian Pottery. The Corinthian clay is well known from the early classical pottery and has often been referred to in connection with the preceding types. In the fill of a well in the Athena Trench one lamp of this group was found together with a coin of Agrippina the Younger and two imported relief lamps.58 CORINTH great number of these lamps from Corinth is an indication that they are of local make. I and 55. The clay of type XVI. Cf. Nearly all the coarse pottery from Corinth of all periods is made of that same coarse red clay. The indications for dating the third group are briefly as follows: In the Athena Trench lamps of this sort were discovered in great numbers in the same context as late Hellenistic lamps (Type XIX) and early Roman relief lamps. one of type XXII. however. vol.but the difference is only apparent. At Phlius a few specimens were discovered. An isolated example like that was most likely brought to Rome by its owner. Some lamps of the same kind were found in a manhole to a drain in the Agora. but to the admixture of sand and loam which it contains and to a difference in temperatureat the baking3. p. One lamp of this type found in Rome2 is so much like the lamps from Corinth that it can only have been brought from there. since there are no indications that lamps were exported from Greece to Italy in Roman times. pp. not to the clay itself. Counting only the nozzles found in the Athena Trench and the Theatre in 1925 and 1926 we get over a hundred specimens. An objection to the conclusion that type XVI was produced in Corinth may seem to arise from the quality of the clay. is quite unlike the soft yellow clay of the Corinthian pottery.and one from Delphi has the same shape. No. This makes it sufficiently clear that the red color of the coarse ware is due. 187. V. 2525. by far the most numerous type from those two years' excavations. and the same is true of the earlier lamps of group 3.the scarcity of this kind of lamps from other sites both in Greece and elsewhere shows that they were manufactured chiefly for the local market. Richter. yet it is incredible that all that ware was imported. On the second group the bottom is sometimes trimmed on the wheel. the other of type XXIV. In the third group it is possible to follow a gradual change in profile from the shape resembling the second group with almost straight sides to the later shapes with bulging sides and flaring rim. which also contained lamps of type XXV and several coins 1 2 3 Fo2illes de Delphes. but on the later specimens it is so rough that the lamps must have been very unstable. Wollmann Collection. The workmanship of the later specimens is also poorer. Furthermore. . The same may be said of bricks and tiles from Hellenistic and Roman times. and fig. 798.

the price of which must have been much lower than that of the moulded lamps. Those who could affordto pay for these imported lamps preferred them for artistic reasons.A. we can see the reason for the great popularity of the plain wheel-made lamps. the latest and most numerous of which were coins of Domitian. and lamps were still being imported from the East. These points of evidence indicate that group 3 of type XVI began to be made in the time of Augustus or earlier and continued in use as late as the end of the first century A. D. the latter belonging almost exclusively to type XXVII. 2See A. which naturally meant that they could be bought at a lower price than before. If we consider that this was the period when the moulded lamps were all imported to Corinth.From there the relief lamps used in Corinth were being imported throughout the first century A. XXXI. In Greece the Ephesus lamps were the most common type. hence the simple wheel-made lamps continued in use and in fact became more common than in the earlier period.. 457-8. lamps of this type were common2. See Meritt.A. A.J. I am inclined to believe that the fill dates from the middle of the second century. D. 45I ff. At the same time local lampmakers were producing simple wheel-made lamps. XXXII. The lamp sherds from this fill belong chiefly to type XXVII and most of the coins date from the Antonine period. Hence the plain lamps continued to be made for the use of the poor and naturally came into great demand.LAMPS 59 from the first century A. Along toward the end of the first century B. 1927. Here no lamps of type XVI were found. It was not till the beginning of the second century that the relief lamps began to be made in Corinth. where the fill dates from about the middle of the first century A. The drain was literally filled with sherds of pottery and lamps. When the Roman colonists came to Corinth in the time of Caesar the lamp industry of Italy had not yet developed. The coins were very few and so badly corroded that they could not be definitely identified. About this time type XVI went out of use altogether. I928. it is a fair indication that by the time type XXVII was in common use in Corinth type XVI was no longer manufactured.. Two late specimens were discovered in the same drain but farther east where the fill was later. the Roman relief lamps developed and then Italy instead of Asia Minor became the centre of production. D. but for the poor people they must have been too expensive.. . This is shown also by the fill of a passage under the Odeum excavated in 19271. but on the south side of the Odeum. D. But the Italian relief lamps can hardly have been less expensive than the Hellenistic lamps. but one or two appear to be coins of Hadrian.J.. C. pp. Since only two broken lamps of type XVI came out of this mass of sherds. pp.

i. 287) with straight sides and flat bottom as on group 2. Single lamps probably belonging to similar stands 26 have also been found (see ?. No. below the base of the nozzle. Fig. .. Thus one lamp (Fig. 81). No. 42. 534). No. Hence it may be that the stands belonging to type XVI are attemptsby the local makers at producing something of the same kind. No. is a small rectangular hole through which the oil could flow down from the depression on the top. Profiles 53 and 54. No.Fgur No. 288) have lamps of this type attached to the sides. The stands as well as the lamps are made on the wheel. 285) has two nozzles directly opposite each other. but no handle. The shape of the body is almost the same as that of type X. such as were used in Italy in the first century A. and to the flange !t:^?. figure 14 Resembling the third group of the preceding type are a few small wheel-made lamps with rounded sides and large filling-hole in the centre and without handle. 25. Two fragments of lampstands (Fig. and on the top.Q>::~~~~~~B were attachedone lamp on each f~~~~~~~~:.i~ side. A few lamps of this type have two or three nozzles (Fig.F 'An. D. 284) and one (PLATE V. Two examples have . The top on the latter is open and surroundedwith a raised edge which probably was made to receive a lid.A. Some fragments of stands with relief lamps (cf.?I?. of a pale yellow clay. Both the top and the bottom of the lampstands are broken away so that the exact shape remains uncertain. Two lamps with rounded sides and convex top (Nos.. have been discovered in Corinth. 25.60 CORINTH A few lamps of peculiar shape belonging to type XVI require special mention. Parts of a hollow stem with a broad flange are ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~? preserved. Fig. 292 and 293) show by the shape of the nozzle that they are closely related to type XVI. has a short nozzle with rounded termination.:. but the form of the nozzle and the quality of the clay show that they belong to a later period. 294-300. and were once covered with a thick white paint of which only small traces remain. Ll>9 TYPE XVII Catalogue Nos. PLATE VI. 26. 291. so that there is no doubt that they were well known.

All the lamps of this type are made of the same gritty red or grayish brown clay which was used for the third group of type XVI. p. sometimes shaped like a cornucopia'. In a collection of lamps so varied as that from Corinth several types naturally overlap to a great extent.LAMPS 61 exactly the same kind of nozzle as type XVI (cf. and all are unglazed. and the similarity makes it certain that they belong to about the same period. . 379. the presence of the side knob. which is shown by its resemblance to some of the wheel-made types. 76. the rest have a pointed or roughly triangular nozzle (cf. which is one of the most common from the Hellenistic period. TYPE XVIII PLATE VI Catalogue Nos. We have already seen that by exception lamps of types IX and XI were made in moulds. long nozzle with triangular or pointed termination. 296). though obviously such a type as XVII comes chronologically after type XVIII. p. PLATE VI. Most of them have a very small top. comprises a great many varieties with watch-shaped body. On the left side is often a small knob as on type IX. but in some cases it has been smoothed while the clay was wet. No. No. PLATE VI. but the moulded lamps in general begin with type XVIII. See Courby. and a broad rim usually decorated with designs in relief. but from the Hellenistic bowls2. not from other types of lamps. This type. Although type XVIII is sufficiently common at other Greek sites. They are the only kinds of wheel-made lamps that survived after the introduction of the moulded types. These two types are the only wheel-made lamps for which this kind of clay is used. The one feature by which it differs from the wheel-made lamps is the decoration in relief on the rim. Type XVIII is apparently the earliest type of moulded lamps. since they do not differ in shape from the latter. The same nzotzfs often appear both on the bowls and on the lamps. and for this reason it has been necessary to deviate from a strictly chronological arrangement in order not to separate two closely related types. As a rule these designs begin from the handle and terminate at the nozzle. 301-311. 6. This is indicated by the shape of the body. the pointed nozzle. at Corinth 2 For a discussion of this knob see Introduction. often a moulded ring round the central orifice. and this is borrowed. A few moulded lamps have been grouped with the wheel-made types. 300). and the moulded ring round the filling-hole. and a flat vertical band-handle. The base is low and untrimmed. fig. Hence all the wheel-made types have been listed together. and these are the types from which type XVIII developed.

The formerhas a small knob on the left side and a rosette on the right (cf. 2 For the process of making moulds see Fremersdorf. and two small holes on the sides of the neck. our PLATE VI. If we examine closely these two groups of lamps. 5. In figure 2 (p. the others triangular. however.62 CORINTH only a few fragmentary specimens have been found. In these the lines are an organic part of the decoration and end in small dots or circles above. A similar lamp is Walters' No. a conventional floral design on the top. Numbers 3 to 5 differ from the others only in the width of the top. Numbers 1 and 2 are probably from the same mould but the former has a high edge. For this reason some photographs of lamps from the National Museum at Athens are included in order to show the development of the type. one of which has pointed nozzle. such as is shown on five lamps in figure 271 from the National Museum in Athens (cf. which accounts for this slight difference in the lamps. 13) are shown three lamps with ribs on the rim. In No. since it was not made in the mould. pp. 1 with pointed nozzle and knob on the left side. imbricated leaf pattern on the rim. we find that those with small top have a wider space between the design on the rim and the moulded ring than is the case in the other group. 14) shows a lamp almost similar to that in figure 2. 307). Figure 3.5. 2 is from a lamp of the same type but with triangular nozzle. and the same is true of 3. 1 and 2) are exactly alike except for the raised edge. i. were it not for the fact that two of them (Nos. Furthermore. but with the additional features of a high raised edge surrounding both body and nozzle and a small hole on each side of the neck. 484. the edge round the central hole had to be formed by hand. whereas there are only two in the other lamps. which in his catalogue has been incorrectly classed among the Roman lamps. 2 there are three sharp lines on each side of the nozzle. the mould was made from a lamp like No. This shows that the former were made in a mould at least twice removed from the original matrix. e. Figure 3. 303). 1 . whereas in No. the designs on the nozzle in 1 and 2 are much more indistinct than in the case of the others. It is evident that as the latter came out of the mould the lines were These lamps have no inventory numbers. One of the most common forms of decoration on this type is a wreath of triple leaves and small buds. added after the lamp was removed from the mould. 44 ff. PLATEVI. One might be inclined to believe that all five were made in the same mould and that the ring round the central opening was modelled separately.2 In the making of the new mould. and five small holes to take the place of the central filling-hole. 2 two of the lines are quite separate. which seems to show that they come from another mould with exactly the same rim decoration. 1 (p. The filling-hole varies slightly in size and shape.

LAMPS 63 so indistinct that the lampmaker found it necessary to retouch the lamp and then added an extra line on each side.. as in No.. Five Lamps in the National Museupm. It would lead us too far afield to discussin detail all the varietiesof this very interestingtype of lamps. This pattern is of particular importance because it was borrowed from the Cnidus lamps.One lamp fromCorinth(No. 4 has a raised edge but no small holes on the sides of the neck. Lamp No. Figure 27. both the high edge and the small holes are present. so common on lamps of this kind that their absence in this case can only be due to an oversight In lamp No. t ea se is a heart-shaped design near the handle and a circular shield towardthe nozzle. decoration is shown infigurcatios of tr r v. process. 309) has not only the same rim decorationbut also the shape of the Cniduslamps.only the form of the nozzle and the fact that it is mouldedshow that it belongs to type XVIII. 309) has not designs were addedby the appliq. in which the separate designs were added by the applied process.but it will be necessary to point out a few featureswhich . 3. however. Another common form of rim Athens. 1. These are. One lamp from Corinth (No.

Introduction. Another sign of late date is the disappearance of the knob on the side. 12) shows a lamp of a shape resembling those of type IX. LXXV. These belong to the period of transition between the Hellenistic types and the Roman relief lamps (cf. 6871.which occurs on several lamps of this type as well as on a great number of relief bowls. 3 Walters. on the other hand. amphoras. where apparentlyboth lamps and bowls were 2 Catalogue of Terra Cottas. No. PLATE V). and figure 1. 310. 195. which on the lamps with handle is only a survival. and No. 1 and 3. From what has been said above. PLATE VI.These are of great importance in showing the relation of this type to the Hellenistic bowls. Such a name is Ariston. we may conclude that the earliest form of nozzle on type XVIII is the pointed kind. vol.while his wares have found their way even as far as to Rome4. 1 ). pl. No. since the same names sometimes appear both on lamps and on bowls. 1 was borrowed from the wheel-made lamps such as that in figure 1.64 CORINTH developed from the wheel-made Hellenistic lamps like those of type IX with long pointed nozzle. 3 is from a lamp of the same type but with a raised edge around the entire lamp and two small holes on the neck. . which is crowded in between the raised edge and the side of the lamp. The shape of the nozzle is particularly important. L. 20). Figure 1. of which there are two examples from Corinth (No. I. Furtwaingler. Samml. The high edge. 3 (cf. A late variety. Type XVIII is the earliest type of lamps on which the makers' signatures commonly appear. p. which is the simplest and undoubtedly an early form of rim decoration. Catalogue of Terra Cottas. and it is evident that they cannot be far apart in date. E i6. In type XVIII it is most common on lamps with ribs on the rim (Figures 2. with the addition of the handle. and on one terracottafigurine'. I. E 69. and that the presence of the knob on the left side and the rosette on the right is another evidence of early date. XV 2. is found with either of these varieties and gives no indication as to the date of the lamp. He certainlyhad a factoryin Delos. ' C. 'Walters. Sabouroff. as is shown by the fact that moulds with his signature have been found in Athens2 and Tarentum3. The pointed nozzle on the lamp in figure 2. It even has the knob on the side. The triangular nozzle came in later and is almost invariably found on lamps with more elaborate designs on the rim. that the ribbed pattern is an early type of rim decoration. 31 1) have incised decorationson the rim 'and rudimentaryvolutes on the shoulder. 5 (p. Ariston seems to have carried on an extensive business in different parts of the world. The relation of these lamps to those shown in figures 2 and 3 is apparent at first sight.

302). croire que I'atelier d'Ariston est d'epoque relalizvement recente et ne rernontepas au-dela de 250 av. one important fact which makes it highly probable that the activity of Ariston in Delos belongs chiefly to the second century B. (PLATE XXX. and this does not appear on lamps from Delos. Athenian merchants and manufacturers then flocked to the island in great numbers and established their trade. however. which. In the National Museum in Athens there are several hundred lamps of this kind. and this is one with wide top like those shown in figure 27. Unfortunately we have no signatures preserved from Corinth to show where the lamps of type XVIII were produced. donnent a. C. The few fragments found there would. One fragment (PLATE VI. indications of early date. and in Delos it is the most numerous type of moulded lamps.2 Unfortunately we know too little about the chronology of Hellenistic pottery to be able to assign more definite dates. That Ariston had factories both in Athens and at Delos has been pointed out above. No. 365. It is not at all unlikely. that Ariston is the name of a firm. The only signature found on a fragment of this type begins IC r . 307) has a leaf pattern on the rim. as we have seen. when the Athenians took over the island at the instigation of the Romans and drove the old inhabitants from their homes. 3-5. to establish the date of his activity. then. C. 9 . The fact that such a common type is one of the rarest kinds of lamps in Corinth must be due to a specific cause. hence an early specimen of the kind. The bowls signed by him belong to the class which Courby dates in the third century. all of which are. C.. and in two cases the knobs on the sides are preserved. It is not easy. The importance of Delos as a manufacturing centre dates from the year 1 66.. and since they are very few it seems likely that the type had come into vogue shortly before the See Courby. Most of these fragments are either plain or decorated with ribs on the rim. P. but the same author comments on the poor quality of the glaze on the Ariston vases and the well developed apices on the letters of his signature. This can only be that the type was produced chiefly during the hundred years between Mummius and Caesar while Corinth lay in ruins.. however.. which may have been old and well known at the time when the Delos branch was established. belong either to the period before its destruction or to the time after its restoration under Caesar. at other Greek sites it is common enough. Although but a few small fragments of type XVIII have been discovered in Corinth. however. he says.LAMPS 65 produced '. and it is very probable that he was one of the manufacturers who came with the new Athenian colony to the island. There is. p. These fragments must belong to the period before 146 B. J. 365.

C. as is further shown by its relation to the Roman lamps. The body is double convex with a sharp angle between the two halves.I: i: "*? i. 363).u: r :I C :?? . When the central hole was made by means of a tubular instrument the clay would adhere to. and did not wholly disappear before the last half of the first century B. but certain characteristics make it 3:il ?:. . 316).. Wood in Ephesus.?' r p!'? '""- ?:' ??' ::?: ?? ? -. edge.? small holes were made. During the following hundred years it was the most common lamp type in Greece.covers the raised band and sometimes also a part of the rim decoration. At this time the Ephesus lamps were the most common type in use and probably drove type XVIII from the market. C. pose three holes were sometimes made in the depression between the filling-hole and the surrounding edge (PLATE VI. and for the same purFigure 28. Forschungen in Ephesus.66 CORINTH destruction of the city. On one variety the top is flattened and set off from the rim by a raised band (PLATE VI. Heberdey. 312-371. the others have a high edge surrounding the top. Several varieties appear within the type. however. The difference in shape and decoration between these early specimens and the late lamps of the type. such as No. that the lamp would function without these holes.?i. I. The purpose of the high edge was to facilitate the pouring of oil. 46) from the numerous lamps of this type discovered by Cf. hence they are lacking in a great number of examples with high edge 1 This is the term given by Walters (p. It is clear. which is not made in the mould but * . This ::. added separately. I79. so that the oil poured into the top could not all flow down unless the ? FSFIIRAPgii. TYPE XIX Catalogue Nos. .r? r? i' :?4? easily distinguishable from other types. or about the time when the Athenian cleruchy was established in Delos. PLATE VI The commonest kind of Hellenistic lamps from Corinth is the so-called Ephesus type'. p. We may thus with great probability date the beginning of type XVIII shortly before the middle of the second century B. the tube and cause the edge round the filling-hole to become slightly raised.?e ?r: ':I??? . 310 (PLATE VI). shows that a long period of development elapsed between the production of the two varieties. Hence the later kind must date after the restoration of Corinth.

in which case the channel is closed by the edge. These differences are not apparent in the case of small fragments. No. of which a great variety of patterns occur (see Fig. 28. The same patterns are sometimes found o0~~~~~~~~J o 00 00000 000 &7 (n. The reason is probably that the designs did not develop on the lamps themselves but were borrowed from Cf. The simplest kind of pattern is sometimes found on lamps with raised edge round the top. 89. A similar channel is found on some of the lamps with raised edge round the top. but in such cases the lamps usually differ either in size or in some other particular. In one example from Corinth (Fig. and in another lamp (Fig.LAMPS 67 (PLATE VI.5 47 4-8 49 50 Si .59 53 54 55 56 57 Figure 29. one toward the nozzle. 329). VIII. The rim in all but a few cases carries some decoration in relief.38 JjL Y 39 8 40 4. No. 355) there is a single hole toward the nozzle1. Rim Patterns on Type XIX. 96. ^ 4? 43 44 4. 29). and in this case there is a shallow depression between the raised band and the central filling-hole and a channel on the neck connecting the top with the wick-hole. The patterns are either geometric or naturalistic or a combination of both.^c NO00 a + XX g0000 0 / Q0000 <^^Y0 3 4 /5 6 7 00QC 9 S 0000< 0000C /9 0 0 0 0 27 0 0 00000 00^ O0 2i S2 W^ 23 94 25 26 00 o' 0Qo ?8 :00900 0 2 9 0 31 . pl. 91. Waldhauer.= 35 366 Ua oo 37 o o . 345) there are only two small holes in the top. but it is difficult to trace any development of the designs. . but among those which are nearly complete there are no two lamps in Corinth of this type which can have come from the same mould.0O 0 " 0? 0 Jd 39 33 34 o o. on two or more lamps. 323) without this edge are the three holes present. the other toward the handle. sometimes on the other variety. Only in one lamp (Fig. No.

mostly on late specimens of the type (No. 29. Courby. The triangular form is certainly the more common. More often a different pattern terminates the design toward the nozzle (see Fig. fig. so as to make the lamp perfectly symmetrical. A few rare examples of different kinds of nozzles occur. 324. no ooo 11 such lamps of this type have been 0 19 IO3 DsgsnthNekTyeX. most of the rim patterns have been borrowed from the bowls'. and on two late specimens this ring is fully developed as on the early Roman lamps. 7.made as if to hold the ribs together. On a single late lamp of type XIX (No. are imitations of bronze lamps. It is a vertical ribbed loop-handle added after the lamp was removed from the moulds. 343 and 370. In a few cases it is concave. Two handles of type XIX (Nos. Designs on the Neck of Type XIX. This kind of handle is found only on types XIII and XIX. The base is mostly oval in shape and slightly raised. whereo o as the others seem to indicate that 0 0 the decoration was designed for lamps without handles. but the two kinds seem to have existed side by side throughout the period in which the type was produced The handle is the least variable feature. p. 28). Fig. just as in the case of the preceding type. Fig. both of which.68 CORINTH other kinds of pottery. 76. .30). the handle was formed in the moulds and is decorated with the same pattern which appears on the rim. on the other toward it In order to avoid this incongruity the last unit of the pattern on the left side is often turned round so as also to point toward the handle. so that on one side it is turned away from the nozzle. 50-52). and the rim decorationis usually continuous under the handle. Only in a few cases is so much of the nozzle preserved that its shape can be determined. 31) have a cross-piece. however. so that the outer edge forms a rudimentary base-ring. The origin of the ribs on the handle can be explained on the basis of imitation of metal lamps. The nozzle is of two kinds. Less commonly the rim decoration begins at the handle and continues on both sides toward the nozzle. 29. 45. the latter with a wide rim round the wick-hole. Usually the design begins at the nozzle on the right side and continues round the whole lamp. 379. In such cases the handle was taken into account from the beginning. and in some cases there is a separate decoration on the neck (Fig. triangular or rounded. 324). o Ox 0\ 'Cf. Figure 30. A comparison of these lamps with the Hellenistic bowls will show that. as in the case of type XIII. as the metallic glaze further indicates. 13 Fg0r z found in Corinth.

C. Shear. * 0 . Nos. more often ash-gray. Besides Ephesus.: i: :^ . a fact which is easily explained by the geographical situation of the city and its commercial relation with Asia Minor... 343.. pp. 344 and fig. 1925. . of a dark gray or black color with metallic appearance.. In a few cases the clay is buff or pale red and the glaze light brown or greenish yellow. .. A.^': g^^^^^^^^^^^^^ .but is usually poorly preserved. composition of the clay or the quality of the glaze is evident from some mottled specimens on which both clay and glaze are light brown in spots and dark gray on the rest of the lamp. 8 Demangel and Laumonier.. pp. particularly at Ephesus. pp.. : iili. B.C. Notion3.... .. At the time when the Roman colony was established in Corinth the new settlers had to I 2 Walters.:. .. A. 4 . ::: 37. Though found at other sites in Greece they are nowhere so common as in Corinth.. Type XIX is most common at sites in Asia Minor.. That this difference is not due to the . ii~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~. B. Deonna..:. Hundreds of examples from there are now in the Museum in Vienna. I49 ff. XXXII. The glaze is thin. . Figure 31... 401 ff...H. XLIX.. I8. others in the British Museum1 and elsewhere.. .. the chief sites where this type has been found are Sardis2.LAMPS 69 The clay in some lamps of type XIX is dark gray as in the Cnidus lamps. XXVI. :. . These collections from Asiatic sites make it probabe that the type was produced chiefly in the East and that the lamps found at Corinth are importations from there. I908.. 1922. and Delos4.H. and figs. 16-22. 326-349.

40I. 2 A. The handle. I. which seems to date before the middle of the first century B. H 28. belonging to types XXI and XXII. Roman relief lamps and wheel-made lamps of type XVI. 'O Oeavp. cannot be later than the end of Augustus' reign. ROMAN AND EARLY CHRISTIAN LAMPS TYPE XX Catalogue Nos. There is no doubt that type XIX began to be made at an earlier date'. Svoronos wrongly dated it in the third century of our era. 'E(p. A. PLATE VII We have discussed in the Introduction the twofold trend of development from Hellenistic to Roman lamps. . pp. On the lamps from Corinth it is added separately.J. I922. it is very unlikely that the Roman colonists of Corinth continued to import their lamps from the East after the more artistic Roman lamps had come into the market. The shape resembles that of the preceding two types but the body is deeper and of a more rounded profile. and pl. but most of the examples from Corinth belong to the tilne after the rebuilding of the city under Caesar. but similar lamps from the Athenian Ceramicus and the Cave of Pan on Mt Parnes have a moulded handle like that on Roman relief lamps. which is preserved only in one case. the rim and the entire body have rows of raised dots. On the reverse is a raised ring. and a link in this development is formed by type XX. L. C. The nozzle is rounded and decorated with double rudimentary volutes. See 'AQX. The development of the Roman relief lamps belongs to the period of the Romanization of the Greek world under Augustus. and within 1 Lamps of this type have been found in a tomb at Sardis dating from about I90 B.. QbOrCov'AVTLxvUh&Qcov.. One broken specimen was found together with an early coin of Augustus in a small pocket in the Theatre. XXVI. p. which is very small. See T. and during that period the Hellenistic types went out of use. AJ. The local lamps produced at this period have been discussed under types XVI and XVII.C. 372). On the other hand. I923. A. The top. Shear. some of which. and from the volutes on the shoulder a raised line extends below the nozzle and separates it from the body (PLATE VII. 372-382. XXXII. and since the lamps of this type were already popular in Greece they were naturally brought into the new city in great numbers. I902. and in the Athena Trench and south of the Odeum2 numerous examples were discovered together with early. p.. 4. 83. sometimes also a row of raised dots. is usually plain or decorated with simple raised lines.70 CORINTH import everything they needed. resembles that on type XVIII but has only one groove through the middle. One undecorated specimen was discovered among the objects from the shipwreck at Anticythera. 146 ff. 451 and fig.

Besides. 372) it is upside down. but in the others it is brick red and very soft.LAMPS 71 is a large letter A'. which lacks both signature and raised dots. and earlier.. D. e. of a grayish brown or dark red color. Another indication of early date is the absence of the small hole on the neck.. . which is found on nearly all the lamps of type XX. At the Ceramicus. but in a few cases there is no glaze but a fine slip of the same color as the clay. Judging from the clay and the comparatively poor workmanship of these lamps.. . and the ribbed handle. That this is the place where the type was produced is further shown by its prevalence among the lamps from the Cave on Mt. 382 (Fig.. A grayish brown or purplish glaze covers most of the lamps. ~ ~u?! i?~i!i~~ !ii~11? :' Ei[ . usually written with the top toward the handle but on one example (No... went out of use .. In some specimens there are numerous particles of mica. but both their shape and the evidence from stratification make such a view impossible... some of which also have raised dots on the rim and rudimentary volutes (cf. Athens.g.. . occurs in the same form on several lamps of type XVIII.. The 'double volutes are found only on lamps of the first century A.. 771. one might believe that they belong to the late Roman period. Parnes. 1 has the Cf. which are probably to be accounted for by the admixture of sand in the clay. In. No. some of which show a direct connection with the lamps of type XVIII.. Figure 32.~~~. . added separately.r. . Walters. before the second century of our era. the close connection with the Hellenistic lamps shows that the type must have developed in the early Augustan age. In addition to the lamps from the Ceramicus there are two transitional specimens in the National Museum in Athens which make this connection clear. other respects the clay is so much the same that it seems likely that all the lamps were made in the same place. The large letter A. In the best examples it is rather hard. .. No. The clay of type XX is the typical red variety of the Athenian Ceramicus. too. since some of the other lamps are entirely free from mica.. all of which are without doubt of Athenian make.. The clay differs but slightly among the lamps of this type. 32)... shown in figure 33. One of these.. .'. which is commonly found on the moulded lamps after the time of Augustus.. . . numerous examples have been found. r. . Fig. 93)... Some variations occur. * t4. but is just like the rest in shape. Lamp from the Ceramicus.

then. two small fragments of this type were discovered. Hence it must be considered as an intermediate type between the Hellenistic lamps and the Roman lamps with broad rim and plain narrow discus such as type XXV. In the passage under the Odeum. but enough of it remains to show that it had no volutes. D. The lamp shown in figure 33. Two Lamps in the National Museum. . but on the rim is a leaf pattern like that on the preceding two types. The nozzle is missing.. Yet the number of sherds belonging to this type is so small in comparison with the other types from the same fill. in the evidence at hand to indicate that type XX was produced later than the first century A. was not common before the time of Tiberius. .which merely indicates that it is earlier than the beginning of the third century. On the other hand. That the raised dots were used as rim decoration on the latter is shown by No. That it was still in use as late as the first century A. which shows that the type was in use as early as the first century A. Athens.72 CORINTH same general shape as the other lamps of this type. In the Athena Trench a few such fragments were found together with imported Roman relief lamps. and 10. Parnes'. 38. :. 2 shows a further step in the development of the type.. It differsfrom the Corinth lamps only in the shape of the nozzle. because the moulded handle. pl. 6. Its place in the ':v. the rounded rim and small plain top show that the type does not fit in with the same development that resulted in types XXI and XXII. D.?:: 1 Rhomaios. These two specimens show conclusively that type XX developed directly from the Hellenistic lamps and cannot be a late off-shoot of Roman Figure 33. 51 1 (cf. which is without volutes and has a broad rim round the wick-hole like that on some lamps of type XIX. whereas its relation to type XIX points to an earlier date.'E(p. I906. that it can hardly have been a common type' in Corinth at the time when the relief lamps were imported from Italy. 1 and 2). which is found on lamps of type XX from the Cave of Pan on Mt. only the leaves are set far apart and the space between filled up with raised dots in rows.A furtherindication of date is given by fragments of type XX discovered in 1926 and 1927. Fig.. .which was filled up in the time of Alexander Severus. . lamps. D. is not unlikely. 'AQx. There is nothing.

just as their predecessorsa century and a half earlier had done. 383-417. the time when the Roman relief lamps evolved from the earlier types. these Athenian lamps enjoyed a short popularity. D.but enough remains of the original to show that it was formed as a separate piece and added together with the attachment On the bottom is a broad base-ring within which are traces of an inscription in Greek (PLATE XXX. To produce a comparatively cheap lamp with all the elegance if not the durability of metal lamps could hardly fail to be remunerative if successful.LAMPS 73 development from the Hellenistic to the Roman lamps makes it very probable that it belongs chiefly to the reign of Augustus but may have continued in use throughout the first half of the first century A.as a periodof experimentation in the lamp industry. and the result of this attemptis seen in type XXI. The most natural thing for the lampmakers to do at such a time was to turn to the bronze lamps for models. terminating in two spirals below and surmounted by a palmette with cable patterns. Thus while the Ephesus lamps were still being imported from the East and before the Roman lamps had completely conquered the market. PLATES VII-IX We have alreadyspoken of the second centuryB. Its characteristic feature is a decorative attachment above the handle. 383. C.They are all made of a dark gray 10 . it is possible to group them in two distinct varieties. Several fragments of other lamps similar to this but not all of the same large size show that this variety was not uncommon in Corinth.. 383). PLATE VIII) in almost perfect preservation. the artistic merit of which made the Roman lamps justly famous. On the sides are two flat projections and over the handle is an attachmentin the form of a slip-knot. Another such period was the second half of the first century B. which resulted in the productionof the very practical as well as decorative lamps of late Hellenistic times. That they were not able to compete with the fine relief lamps from Italy is not to be wondered at TYPE XXI Catalogue Nos. To the first of these belongs one large lamp (No. As a rule the lamps of this type are large and they often have two nozzles. C. The rim is flat and narrow and on the discus is a pattern of tongues forming a rosette. The efforts put forth in the invention of new types at this period were chiefly directed toward an artistic product and resulted in the making of several new types. The lamp has two rounded nozzles with double volutes and raised decorations on the neck. which is commonly found on bronze lamps of the Hellenistic and Roman period. Although the shapes vary considerably within the type. The handle has been partly restored.

On the latter there is no flat band at the outer edge of the rim. 473. 383. so characteristic of these two types. are not found in any of the later Roman relief lamps. and the base-ring are all characteristics of Roman lamps. the prototypes from which both developed are the Hellenistic bronze lamps which are often provided with two nozzles and an attachment above the handle'. PLATE VI) has projections on the sides. and No. Rim Profiles of Roman Lamps. our type XXII. the second variety. the examples of which are more numerous than those of the first. is the same as Loeschcke's type III. there is every reason for believing that the second variety of type XXI was produced in Italy. This goes to show that the first variety belongs to the transitional period between Hellenistic and Roman times. One specimen of type XIX (No. and a flat base-ring but has all the other characteristies of the Hellenistic lamps. 44. Rim profile 1 (Fig. hence it is an earlier form than Loeschcke's 1 See Loeschcke. Furthermore. Types XXI-XXVII. 34) is made from a fragment of type XXI. the flat top with the chief decoration on the discus. and. . 325. and fig. pp.74 CORINTH clay and covered with a black metallic slip like that of type XIX but of better quality. the double volutes on the nozzle. 472. after the lamps with triangular nozzle. The clay and glaze. as we shall see below. On the other hand. resembling those of No. 393 has a similar but narrower rim. These points of similarity indicate that type XIX was still in use when type XXI developed. In his Lampen aus Vindonissa it comes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 I 12 (3 ? 4 S [6 Figure 34. The similarity between type XIX and the first variety of type XXI gives us some indication as to the date of the latter. The second variety. but the rim on some of the Corinth fragments shows that it belongs to the earliest development of Roman relief lamps.

A. The handle with its attachment in the case of the smaller lamps is made in the same mould as the lamp. 342.the latter with some kind of decoration in relief on the front. Loeschcke.. 2. XXI. 36. Loeschcke. figs. The latter appears on late Roman lamps from Asia Minor. The most usual shapes of handle attachments are the two-lobed leaf3 (Fig. L. Dixieme See T. and XXXI. 410and 411). d. 1927. The clay is so similar to that of type XXII that there can be no doubt that both were produced in the same place. and Walters. 414 (PLATE VII) is a lamp of that kind.lnuel . like those of the first. which is found on the earliest lamps from Vindonissa. 851. p. 2 Cf. Lamps with triangular nozzles and single volutes belonging to this type are found. 413). pl. fiztt. p. and nothing is more likely than that Corinth.6 The clay of all the early specimens of the second variety is 406 buff in color and very porous. d'Arche'ologie Chretienne. though rarely. Mus6e d. cf. lighter and softer. VII. IV) calls them representations of the cpiiPaLcayuvaLxsla. pl. 412 (PLATE VII). and Walters. Fig. and the similarity between these and the early lamps from Italy makes it very probable that they are of Italian make. There are /I / Figure 35. and VII. It resembles the Corinth clay but is Figure 36. Rjm.' and in all probability our No. Fig. 35. PLATE (PLATE VII. 96. which was t See Loeschcke. St. XV bzs. pl. pl. XIII. 400. A.4 As a rule the lamps of the second variety. pl. 1922. Shear. V-VIII. which is very much later than the rest and has nothing in common with type XXI except the attachment above the handle. Stuhlfauth. 59... but some have a flat bottom. The glaze is chocolate brown and tends to peel off. 409. Such an example is No. IS98. 3. consequently the attachment is hollow and often has a small hole on the back for letting out the air at the firing of the lamp. XXVIII.LAMPS 75 Schulterform I. Leclercq. 8 Bachofen (R6mische Grablampen. 224. Louis. fig. pl. have a base-ring. Les Lampes An. 396). 3. In some cases there are animals' heads instead of volutes on the shoulders (PLATE IX.5 and on some of the Christian lamps from Africa it is found in the form of a reflector. The nozzle is much the same as that on the first variety but is usually longer and narrower and the volutes are more developed. 401). p.A. see also MIzusee Lavigeriez. plates 4 The last two shapes are common on bronze lamps. Herculaneum et Pompezi. 406. of a lamp from Herculaneum.J.. 407. IX. p. Ser. Delattre. No. XXVI. . 34I. vol. the crescent 410 411 the triangle (PLATE VII. fig. 24. Types XXI and XXII belong to the period when the Italian manufactured articles were being exported to all parts of Roman empire. 223. also other considerations which favor such a view.

' With the exception of two late lamps (Nos. p. In Loeschcke'sprofile I the outer band of the rim. and since the latter date from the time of Tiberius and later. probably from near the end of the first century A. but the numerous Arretine sherds with signatures discoveredtogether with the early Roman relief lamps show the extent of importation from Italy to Corinth in the first century A. 446. 2. is flat.2 will show that our profiles 4-7 roughly correspondto his I-V.76 CORINTH settled chiefly by Italians.P. our profiles 4-6). 412 and 413). and the gradual widening of this flat band is seen in his profiles II-IV (cf. XXXII.L. The most distinguishing feature of the present type is the broad nozzle with triangular termination and volutes at the base. 418-453. are consequently earlier than any form of rim on the Vindonissa lamps. AJ.A. Our profiles 2 and 3. On the latest form of rim of this type (Profile 7) the outer band has a marked declination toward the outside as on the two subsequent types. XXX. A gradual development in the shape of the nozzle can be traced from the earliest to the latest examples of the type. should be among the first to import goods from the mother country.D. 2-7 are shown the chief variations in the profile of the rim. 465.. which has been so thoroughly discussed by him that it will be sufficient here to point out how far the evidence from Corinth agrees with that from Vindonissa. That lamps of this kind continuedto be made for a long time is shown by the late fragments mentioned above. though not much wider than the inner two. TYPE XXII Catalogue Nos. Shear. 1928.. D. 466. and a comparison of these with Loeschcke's profiles. Unfortunately these lamps have no inscriptions. 213. fig. A still 1 Cf. of which the outer ring is rounded and narrowerthan the second. PLATE VII Type XXII is the same-as Loeschcke's type I. See also AJA. Most examples of which the rim is preserved belong to the earliest shape of the Vindonissa lamps or to a still earlier development. . which are made of a different kind of clay from' the rest. T.3 without corresponding forms from Vindonissa. the second variety of type XXI is synchronous with the early lamps of type XXII. This is best indicated in Loeschcke's figure I. in which three different variations of the nozzle are given which roughly correspond to the shapes in our figure 37. which leaves our profiles 1 . pp. D. Some of the fragments with sloping rim and animals' heads instead of volutes are also of later date. . 1926. the earliest lamps belonging to the second variety of type XXI must date near the beginning of the first century A. In figure 34.

Here the volutes are so far apart and the end of the nozzle so narrow that a line drawn tangent to the outer circumference of the body and the volute does not touch the corner of the nozzle. 453. 419 (PLATE XXV). but probably from two different centres. such as are common on the first variety of type XXI and again appear on a variety of type XXIV. 420. 12). those of 5-7 have flat base.LAMPS 77 earlier form is shown in our No. 555. rim of these. but some variations occur. . and the simi- larity of the others with the lamps from Italy shows their Italian origin. In a few instances the clay is red and the glaze brown or dark red and as well preserved as in the next two types. 34). 103). Among the earliest specimens of the type simple patterns such as rays and tongues are common. Thus all the lamps with rim profiles 2 and 3 have base-ring. the others a flat base. Some specimens (Nos. 620. Fig. and several examples of the same type in the British Museum1 and elsewhere show that a handle was often added. and 418) belong to the same variety (cf. The clay and glaze in the majority of cases are like those of the second variety of type XXI. etc. has two ear-like projections on the sides. which resembles that in profiles 2 and 3 (Fig. The gradual development within the type indicates that it must have been in use during a long period of time. Of the latter Walters. Nos. 453 is sufficient to show that the lamp was not made in Greece. Type XXII is the only kind of Roman lamps from Corinth without a handle. The earliest lamps of type XXII have a base-ring. in which case it was not made in the mould but attached separately. also Fig. which has the signature LVCI on the reverse. as well as the shape of the nozzle. The 422 481 432 Figure 37. and a study of the reliefs will point to the same conclusion. A miniature lamp of type XXII (No. Both are doubtless importations from Italy. and in some cases the discus is perfectly plain. shows that they antedate the earliest lamps from Vindonissa. The Latin inscription on No. 453.

D. PLATE X)'has' a rim like profile 8 (Fig. the compositions are often very elaborate but the details are less accurately rendered. 432. the period when the artistically inferior lamps of type XXV were common in Corinth. which is the same as Loeschcke's type IV. Its comparatively late date is shown by the broad outer band of the rim. but of this variety only a single example has been found in Corinth (No. D. The best reliefs are found on lamps with rim profile 3. TYPE XXIII Catalogue Nos. The latest variety of the type with slanting rim and very wide nozzle is much inferior in workmanship to the earlier lamps of the type. a moulded handle with three grooves. note 60. 37) can be dated by the context in which it was discovered at about the middle of the first century A. 454 and 455. the wide nozzle and the flat base. 218. On the lamps of the later development. One lamp with rim profile 6 (No.1 but the Corinth lamps of this type all belong to the first century A. 431.D.. It was found in a well in the Athena Trench together with a lamp of type XXIV (No. rounded nozzle with double See Loeschcke. p. 209). 37). 34). It has already been pointed out that some lamps of type XXII from Corinth are earlier than any of the lamps from Vindonissa and hence must belong to the Augustan period. . one wheel-made lamp of type XVI (No. a feature which belongs to the early part of the first century A. D. In certain localities type XXII continued to be made throughout the second and early third centuries. with the outer band sloping toward the outside. 454. only a few fragments have been found in Corinth. In all the earlier lamps the rim describes a complete circle to which the nozzle is added. The marked decline of the latest variety indicates that the type continued in use in the second half of the first century. 459). Both the presence of the tongue and the simplicity of the discus decorations connect these early lamps of type XXII with the Hellenistic prototypes from which they developed. Theonly one well enough preserved to show its shape (No. Although this type was produced throughout the first century A. but figure 12 shows two such lamps from Rome. profiles 5 and 6. PLATE X Of type XXIII. and also by the fact that the volutes of the nozzle encroach upon the rim.78 there are few examples CORINTH from Corinth. and a coin of Agrippina the Younger. These undecorated specimens generally have the earliest kind of rim and nozzle and often a tongue or channel on the neck. Fig. Fig. it was most common between the beginning of Tiberius' reign and the middle of the century.

. 2 and 3. Arch. indicate by the form to the Hellenistic of their rim and volutes that they cannot be later than the time of Augustus. and twQ specimens from figure 5. p. e. XXVI. 34).D. 216.which is common on lamps with Latin inscriptions but does not occur on any of the Corinth lamps with Greek signatures. 3 P. enough remains of the horizontal stroke to make that reasonably certain. The letters are almost certainly Latin. in Greek letters. although it did not become common until the second quarter of the first century A. but too little remains to identify the figure. The discus carried a relief. as is shown by the capital form of the M. I903.1 The clay in most cases is pale red and the glaze dark red or brown and well preserved. 22. if at all. p. Dalm. and a heart-shaped design on the neck. i.4 Hence we may conclude that type XXIII goes back directly prototypes. a number of lamps of type XXIII close connection with the Hellenistic the Museum in Geneva. 1 That the ovule pattern occurs on type XXIII in exceptional cases is pointed out by Loeschcke. About the middle of the century types XXIV and XXV had already become common in Corinth and type XXIII was only rarely imported. 225.LAMPS 79 volutes encroaching on the rim. cannot be anything but a Latin L. shown in Loeschcke's in the National Museum in lamps. A lamp of this type was found in a tomb at Nona together with coins of Augustus and Agrippina. in view of the fact that the types which we know were manufactured in Greece are always signed. which are very small. resemble the one described. 2 See Loeschcke. The close similarity between this and the following type is an indication that the two were made in the same locality and are not far apart in date. On the reverse is a broad base-ring and an incised inscription (PLATE XXX) of which only one letter and part of another are preserved. note 75. perhaps a gladiatorial scene. None of the extant fragments has decorations on the rim. The second letter. Furthermore. incised or stamped. Bull. The other fragments of the same type.9 That type XXIII developed directly from the Hellenistic of the transitional nozzle has been pointed out by Loeschcke. p. Between the letters are marks of punctuation indicating that only the initials were given. 228. The Latin inscription is sufficient proof that type XXIII was imported from Italy to Corinth. See de Bersa. letters are found mostly on relief lamps with rounded lamps of Roman manufacture. but one has a rim like profile 5 (Fig. The abbreviated signatures with negative.3 and the double volutes which are characteristic of this type are found Athens show on two types period (Types XX and XXI).. too.

the most common of which is by far the ovule pattern. and the gradual modification of the narrow rim has been traced. and 15. the other with narrow rim and large discus with figures in relief. Rim Patterns on Types XXIV. XXV. The latter of these two kinds has been discussed under the preceding two types. 456-504. and XXVII. either plain or decoratedwith simple raised rings. merge into a single type.QOoO I0 009 3 1 2 _ 4- - 6 & 9 00 _ 2_ '23 2-5 26 Figure 38. Those patterns which appear on lamps of typ X e 6. . and a broad rim usually with a stamped ovule pattern or a raised design (PLATE X. 8.80 CORINTH TYPE XXIV Catalogue Nos. Most lamps of this type with figures on the discus have a narrow undecorated rim separated from the discus by one or more deep grooves (Rim profile 7. PLATE X The two-fold development from Hellenistic to Roman lamps gave rise to two different shapes: one with broad decorated rim and small plain discus. In type XXIV these two lines of development meet and . In figure 38 are shown the most common rim patterns on Roman lamps of the first and second centuries A. Fig. 34). Another variety has a small discus. 467). 463. D.

456). make. The clay of this type is in most cases red and the glaze red or brown.The reverse is flat and usually set off from the -sides by a single circular groove. All the lamps of type XXIV from Corinth have a grooved handle' made in the moulds. 459 (PLATE X) is made 4s9/ Figure 39. It is easy to see that the nozzle of type XXIV developed from that of type XXIII. The volutes on the earliest types of Roman lamps are an artistic device rendering the connection between the nozzle and the rim less abrupt and rather emphasize the fact that the nozzle is an addition which is not allowed to interrupt the circular shape of the lamp. But as soon as the wider rim developed the nozzle began to encroach upon the rim in such a way as to seem to grow out from it. and the workmanship indi- cates that is of Italian. That the type as a whole was imported to Corinth is evident from the color and quality of the clay. 1 On the lamps from Vindonissa belonging to type XXIV. On the former the rim continues round the lamp and is set off from the nozzle by means of the two volutes. No signatures appear. and both clay and glaze of No. but it is impossible to account for all the variations in that way. but in some cases it is slightly raised. On two fragments. On the present type the rim is divided at the base of the nozzle and the two ends terminate in volutes. but on some lamps there is a stamped circle in the centre of the reverse and similar circles on the rim close to handle and nozzle.LAMPS 81 The chief difference between types XXIII and XXIV is the shape of the nozzle. but some variations occur. the handle 11 is a rare exception. This difference was sometimes produced by the firing. Loeschcke's type V. and then the volutes at the shoulders were omitted. but the grooves. probably belonging to this type (PLATE XXV. . the handle was not made in the moulds but added separately. This is further shown by a small fragment (No. as in' the case of the next type. 461. whereas the Italian lamps of the same type are generally provided with a handle. are found only on the upper half of the handle. Thus No. 487 are dark gray. of a greenish buff clay and covered with chocolate brown glaze. since they were no longer needed to tie the two parts of the lamp together.

127..L. This incription appears on a fragment from Vindonissa which. the first of which ends in -VS.. The considerationthat the latter extended down to the very end of the first century B. most of them from the time of Domitian. These points of evidence all indicate the second half of the first century A..II.. PLATE X). 604. as the time when type XXIV was in most common use in Corinth. PLATE X) was found in a well together with a coin of Agrippina the Younger. Another lamp of the same type (No. In Loeschcke's figure these wreaths do not appear.I. Only the legs of the are SABINVS the figure to the right are preserved. . On each side of the group is a wreath with two ribbons. 467.82 CORINTH The inscripFig. one wheel-made lamp of type XVI. the lower ends of which are visible on the fragment from Corinth. 336. or perhaps later. 6244a. it does not follow that this development took place at the time when the earlier type was going out of use.makes it easier to bridge the gap between the Hellenistic and the Roman lamps. a lamp of this kind in the possession of M. 95. The marked artistic decline shown in many of the reliefs as compared with those of type XXII. C. In an article by Villefosse in . With it were found one lamp of type XXV with heart-shaped nozzle. and several coins. See A. and the common occurrence of stamped circles on rim and bottom are all indications to that effect.A. C. on which the rim terminates toward the nozzle in a curved line and sometimes forms a knob on the side Before this fragment was discovered I had already concluded on the basis of clay and glaze that this type was imported 2 from Italy. according to Loeschcke (No. two gladiators represented above. .J.1 tion is in two lines. To this type also belong a few 'lamps without volutes. 459. I. Piot.Mon. Le antiche Lucerne Sepolcrali. XXXI. 458 (PLATE XXV) can only be transitional to type XXIV. as is indicated by a lamp of this type (No.2The two names and POPILLIVS. XV).there is evidence to show that type XXIV is directly connected with the Hellenistic lamps. the absence of a base-ring. Although it is true that the nozzle developed from that of type XXIII. but there are many indications that it was in use during a longer period of time. and a similar lamp is illustrated in Baur's Stoddard Coll. This question has been discussed in the Introduction and it is sufficient here to point out that lamps like those shown in Loeschcke'sfigure 6 and our No. Type XXIV is dated by Loeschcke chiefly in the second and third quarters of the first century A. I. belonged to a lamp with triangular nozzle. a fact which has not hitherto been taken into account. 39) on which part of a Latin insQriptionon the discus is preserved. note 2. discovered in a manhole to a drain at the west end of the Agora. Martinetti in Rome is reproduced in fig. p. It seems to have continued in use as late as the end of the first century. No. II3 and pl. XV. On the contrary. See also Bartoli-Bellori. p. D. the second in -IVS. D. 1895. 22. On the other hand it is unlikely that the type was fully developed and in common vogue before the middle of the century.

Blanchere 8 See under type XXVII. pl. Loeschcke. Hiller von Gaertringen. which is common on type XXV but is omitted. the second gave rise to type XXV with its wide deco1 Walters calls these projections handles (p. . 76). which ozl.3~~~~~~~~ not found on any other lamp of type XXIV. and pi. Thera. Other lamps of related shape (Nos. 473. XVI. XVI. Cf. XVII. 56. PLATE X and 475. 505-525. No. . One of the many varieties of lamps produced in Greece about the beginning of the second century. 637. Nos. 91 and 92. pp. 632. VII. On the rim of one of these is a stamped leaf pattern. Cat. and Gauckler. pl. before type XXVII had developed. 633. PLATE X Of the two lines of development of Roman relief lamps. f is common on alodsapddsu rim of one of these is adbtomadtinglrtrmnto a stamped leaf pattern. pi.47. XVII. 242. Hercul. . 633. XXXV.Okh h type XXV but is~~~~~~~~ fon nayohrlm not~ ~~7 duced in Greece about the ftp 164 beginning of XV the n ftemn second aite before type flmspo XXVII had~~~~~~'. du Musee Alaoui.'5 Figure developed~~wasmodelled sides after lamps like 475. That this kind of lamps belongs to type XXIV is shown by two lamps from Vindonissa2 with volutes 'at the nozzle as on the other examples of the type. III. and fig. 40) have ? .n/. 24. with the 40. X pls. I8o. et Pompeii. 616. our projections. 474. but the fact that they are found on lamps of many different types with or without handles shows that they are purely decorative. almond-shaped discus and bottom and triangular termination of the nozzle. PLATE X). fig..3 TYPE XXV Catalogue Nos.LAMPS 83 as on the volute lamps. 187.. .*:iGil Figure 40~~~~~~~~~~~~. with the projections on the sides omitted. 712. Loeschcke. One variety of this kind has a channel on the neck and earlike projections on the sides resembling those on the first variety of type XXI' (cf. No. from a union of which the preceding type was formed. Cf. No. p. Fig. century. Walters. 475. ~ . . p. 8. 632. 508 5L8. was modelled after lamps like our No.

It is true that in the first half of the first century A. which is one of the most common forms of rim decoration on this type. such as those shown in figure 38. discus. since the dart is never found on the Roman lamps. 458-so that it cannot be definitely demonstratedwhether they belong to type XXIV or type XXV. Fig. 38. 521 and 522 (cf. 50-52). but the broad rim and small plain discus make it reasonably certain that Nos. Unfortunately the fragments of relief lamps on which the loop patterns appear have no part of the nozzle preserved-except the transitional fragment No. but it is less likely that the ovule pattern developed from it. Fig. and it is from lamps of that kind that type XXV developed. 38. 38.84 CORINTH rated rim and small. 458 (PLATE XXV) show that the development from raised to impressed rim decorations was also made on type XXIV. 38.types seem to have developed simultaneously. 3) which go back directly to the rim decorations on the Hellenistic lamps (cf. It first appears on Roman lamps as raised loops or tongues (Fig. Fig. But. the loops are slightly higher than the rest of the rim but the inside of each loop is hollowed out and on the outside indentations are made to set off the pattern from the rim. so that the two. i. A raised egg-and-dart pattern is found on some of the Hellenistic lamps (Fig. hence they continued as raised patterns throughout the . The raised design is certainly the earlier. Unfortunately the fragments from Corinth are too few to prove conclusively how early the type first came into use. 5) and make the whole loop negative. 38. This is further indicated by the fact that other raised patterns. 29..A similar change can be traced in the development of the ovule pattern. were in use early in the century. the one borrowing from the other. D.and from it developed the impressed decoration. The next step was to stamp the same pattern (Fig. 29. 38. Other forms of rim decoration.. etc. 13-16) could not easily be made by stamps. and then from a gradual decrease in the size of the loops the common ovule pattern (cf. 8 and 9) developed. such as our type XX and Loeschcke's type II. as we have pointed out above. The shape of the leaves is exactly the same as that of the stamped leaf pattern (Fig. appear on fragments of this type. e. 4 the design of which is partly raised. lamps like No.An intermediate step is shown in figure 38. It would be a mistake to consider this as a last step in a long line of development from lamps of type XXII with narrow rim and large decorated discus. 54). 4 and 5) both belong to type XXV. 2 and to. (Fig. On the other hand. the narrow rim prevailed. Thus we find on one fragment a rim pattern of raised leaves arranged obliquely with respect to the rim (Fig. lo). lamps with wide decorated rim. 11). tendrils. usually plain. whereas the broad decorated rim is the more common on lamps of the second half of the century. 38. but there are indications that some of the fragments belong to the early part of the first century. such as vines.

7. Osborne. In the next three varieties the order of development can easily be traced. fig. The encroachmentof the ranozzle thele on o rim. see Loeschcke. The nozzle is rounded and added in such a way as to encroach but slightly upon the rim . p. 237. 1246. Thera. and the wick-hole comes partly within the outer circumference of the lamp. arranged in their probable order. also found on this type. Fig. 3) Cf. . Lychnos et Lucerna. Four variations of the nozzle of type XXV are shown in figure 41'. but are more com- mon on later lamps. 49. where the entire width of the rim on the most fully developed variety is interrupted by the nozzle. fig. pl. 187. is very pronounced in the present type. 2) is probably as early as the heart-shaped nozzle. Walters. of development The first variety is roughly heart-shaped. That this is an early form appears from the fact that it is common on lamps with raised rim decoration and on those with plain narrow rim but is comparatively rare on lamps with impressed rim patterns. 237. It is the least satisfactory of the four varieties. 41. III. It is only a variation of the circular form of nozzle. Loeschcke's 2 For this variety p. ber of lamps of which no examples have been found in Corinth. 7 K. No. It seems to be limited to lamps with plain rim and is found on some small fragments of which the rim is comparatively narrow and perfectly horizontal like rim profile 6. and that is probably the reason for its being comparatively rare. 71. 41. The straight line which separates the rim from the nozzle makes the latter look like an addition which is not organically connected with the lamp. 451.The second form (Fig. 3 For examples of such lamps see Hiller von Gaertringen. 908). The third variety (Fig. 1). fig. though not on any specimens from Corinth2. and this in turn goes back to the Hellenistic lamps rather than to the preceding types of Roman lamps. discus (cf. it seems to have continued in use as long as the others and appears again on lamps of the third and fourth centuries (Fig.LAMPS 85 Roman period. The heart-shaped form probably originated from the presence of small stamped circles at the edge of the nozzle toward the. 41. 6 and PLATE XIII. An intermediate form of nozzle is found on a relatively small numFigure 4I. I286. Nos. They are found on both types XXIV and XXV. Although it is certainly an earlier form than the third and fourth varieties. Both the form of the rim and the reliefs connect these with type XXII. figure 34. Four Varieties of Nozzle of Type XXV. IV. which has been referred to under type XXII.

A single fragment belonging to type XXIV shows the same technique. and about the same period the importation of lamps from Italy ceased. 41. The fourth and most common variety (Fig. There can be little doubt that most of them were manufacturedin Italy. The reverse is flat and set off by a single circular groove and often has a stamped circle in the centre. which was given up as soon as the industry became well established. This was the time when Roman relief lamps began to be made in Corinth. Thus we have established the approximate date for the end of Type XXV. The lampmakers of the Roman period met with the same difficulty and solved it by omitting the glaze altogether. and the fact that the glaze has mostly peeled off points to the same conclusion. which was probably filled up in the time of Domitian. which is found on all the specimens from Corinth. some of which cannot be accidental. The quality of clay and glaze indicates that most lamps of type XXV were imported to Corinth. and the glaze red or light brown. The clay in most cases is red. The handle of type XXV. showing the development from the second to the fourth. In the two lamps. Nos. In connection with the Greek lamps we have discussed the quality of the Corinthian clay and the fact that the glaze easily peels off. Fortunately one of these lamps (No. like that of types XXIII and XXIV. 507 (PLATE X) and 51 5. Thus several fragments. Here the nozzle exterfds only part way across the rim but sufficiently to leave no room for the rim decoration.86 CORINTH is intermediate. the clay of which is red or buff. But two lamps of type XXV seem to be of local clay. No inscriptions have been found on this type from Corinth. 82). These two lamps are very importantin showing the relation between the imported lamps of the first century and the locally manufactured lamps of the subsequent period. and the resemblance between this and the preceding type makes it likely that both were imported from the same region. That this industry was still in its experimental stage is shown by the slavish imitation of the imported lamps. The rim . is like that on the two preceding types. But a number of other varieties of clay and glaze are found. How early it first came into use in Corinth is more difficult to determine. It is sometimes found with plain rim but is more common on lamps with ovules and oblique leaf patterns. we probably have two early specimens of the Corinthian lamp industry which in the second century became famous in Greece. It came from the manhole mentioned above (p. though probably not all in the same locality. 507) can be dated with a fair amount of certainty from the context in which it was discovered. have a good red or brown glaze over a coat of white paint. 4) is rare on lamps with plain rim and is chiefly found with stamped rim decorations and raised vine patterns.

LAMPS 87 in some cases is the same as that found -on lamps of type XXII. The only two lamps of this type with the bottom preserved have a low base-ring.. 213. his type A. Loeschcke. This type has been so thoroughly studied by Dressel. which were the most common kind in the West toward the end of the first century A. within which is the name MYRO (PLATE XXX.. The clay of the first variety is light red and the glaze red or brown. The top is deeply depressed and the rim slopes abruptly toward the outside (Rim profile ' De Bersa reports that lamps of this type. D. The first variety. Masks and other simple figures sometimes appear as discus decorations on this type but not on the lamps from Corinth. in which there is sometimes a small hole. 526. PLATE XI The so-called factory lamps (Loeschcke's types IX and X). vicinity 2 i. and the evidence from Corinth indicates that it began to be imported about the middle of the century and continued in common use till the end. Profiles 8 and 9). Dalmnz. 239. especially as there are only a few lamps of this type from Corinth. and others that a lengthy discussion here will be unnecessary. XXV. Bull. Loeschcke2 dates type XXV-his type VIII in the second third of the first century. and in some cases these holes are altogether lacking. p. 1902. Sometimes there is a similar hole in the discus and none in the neck. but usually nearer the nozzle. TYPE XXVI Catalogue Nos. That factory lamps have been found in Corinth is another indication of the close commercial relations between the Roman colony and the home land. with gently sloping rim (cf. although the development of the type goes back to Augustan times'. Arch. All the lamps of the first variety have a moulded handle like that of the relief lamps. The nozzle is long and rounded at the end and on the neck is a narrow groove. were found in at least ten graves in the of Nona together with coins of the time of Augustus. On the rim are two knobs in some cases placed at equal distances from nozzle and handle. 526-53I. Of the second variety only two fragments have been found in Corinth. D. .. and it is unlikely that any of the preserved fragments from Corinth are much earlier than that. which is the more common. 527) in raised letters. dating about the middle of the first century A. has a rim profile like that of figure 34. were never imported to Greece in great numbers. chiefly because the local industries filled the need for cheap lamps. The type falls into two groups differing in profile and in the quality of the clay. 10.

The name MYRO occurs on factory lamps from Pompeii.88 CORINTH 11. IV. It is of very heavy fabric. p. Such an example is No. pp. XI. Nos. XV. 533. Cf. One lamp (No. pl. is a further indication that the latter are also of Italian make. p. III. the other (No. and the close resemblance in clay and glaze between the first variety from Corinth and most relief lamps of the first century A. of red clay.544. Walters. . signed TANAIS. The earliest relief lamps of Corinthian make belong to about the time of Domitian. which resembles the factory lamps in lack of decoration and by the presence of knobs on the rim. In the National Museum in Athens there are two specimens both resembling our second variety. 1924. I30 and pl. of which only the handle is preserved. 540. P. ioI if. the only factory lamps found at excavations in Greece. 497-503. 277. 3 For a discussion of this kind of lamps see Loeschcke. and covered with a dull red glaze. and the common appearance of the makers' signatures on both these types shows a similar relation. and apparently there was no handle. and WollRoma Aeterna.. The lamps are made of a hard brick red clay without glaze. so far as I know. The latter certainly derived the knobs or panels on the rim from the factory lamps. One of those (No. Loeschcke dates the beginning of the factory lamps in Italy about the year 7 5 A. hauer. 43). is of uncertain provenience. The Latin signatures on all these factory lamps in Greece show that they are importations from Italy'. D. 34). LAMPS OF PECULIAR SHAPE Catalogue Nos.. The knobs on the rim are very high. but has a short rounded nozzle and a triangular handle rising obliquely at the back. was brought from Smyrna. 92. Fig. and at that period. 3315). formae 22 and 23. which has a mask on the discus and the signature LVCI on the reverse. Only about ten lamps and fragments of the type have been discovered in Corinth and these are. D. PLATE XI and Figures 42 and 43 Before taking up the lamps of the second century A. See Loeschcke. 532.L. all importation of lamps from Italy to Corinth ceased. is especially important because it is the only specimen from Corinth of a Roman wall lamp3. These two varieties of factory lamps are certainly both imported from Italy.2 and from the context in which they have been found in Corinth it is likely that they are not later than the end of the first century. Funde aus Haltern. mention must be made of certain lamps of peculiar shape which cannot be classified under any particular type. Waldmann. Their relation to the lamps of the second century also favors such a date. 532 (PLATE XI). 269. C. 3313). D. No nozzle of this variety is preserved. or shortly after. pi. Fig. LI.

are not numerous at Corinth. The lamp is broken. and other objects. but some specimens of that class have been found. One 534 Figure 42. . 537) is signed by the Corinthian lampmaker Secundus. and on the back higher up is a filling-hole. 538. Unlike his other lamps. Two fragmentary lamps are made in the shape of a human head. 42). which are unpainted. One lamp (No.: . From the base a semi-globular nozzle extends to the left of the figure. Fig. this [:. whose activity falls chiefly in the second century. _ ' :??!!~I Figure 43. 535. but enough remains to show that it had a gladiatorial scene on the discus. which are common in Italy. Fig. altars. of these (No. boats. Fig. An interesting specimen in the shape -of a barrel (No. 534. has a thin coat of chocolate brown paint. 43) has the shape of a statuette standing on a base and holding some object in front. of type XXII. is attached to the head of a figurine of which only the upper part is preserved. 12 . of different kinds of animals. 43) is signed in two places by Crescens.LAMPS 89 Lamps in the shape of the human head or feet. who also made lamps of type XXVII. One lamp (No.

is small ' Cf. It has in common with the factory lamps two small knobs on the rim and a raised band about the discus. Both the ovules on the rim and the rays on the discus are impressed. 2 . On the first of these (see PLATE XI. Waldhauer. either plain. and on the reverse the signature flPEIMOY. On the discus are four dogs in relief arranged in a circle round the central filling-hole. No. the discus. PLATES Type XXVII. 19-23) or. decorated with a row of large impressed ovules (cf. but the fragments are too small to show the shape. in a few cases. The discus. PLATE XXVI) (cf. pi. 34) sometimes lacks decoration but more often has a pattern of rays. On the second group (see PLATE XI. XII. sometimes three. LXXV. is closely related in shape to type XXV. the handle. It has the same kind of nozzle with rounded termination and the wick-hole partly encroaching upon the rim. 556) the rim is wide. PLATE XII). Another kind of lamps. has a mask on the discus. grooves on the edge. 12). They are characterized by a great number of moulded rings on rim and discus'. Samml. 38. A small fragment of a similar lamp (No. PLATE XI). which is a common kind of decoration on the factory lamps but is also found on early lamps of type XXVII 702. which is surrounded by a narrow raised band (Rim profile 14. The nozzle is not preserved. the bottom is set off from the sides by a single groove and has as a rule an inscription incised in the clay. Fig. 409 and XLI. Fig. 545-785. the lamps of type XXVII fall into four distinct groups. 570) the rim has a raised pattern of vines (Fig. 17 and is) but no panels2. Apart from a few either very early or very late examples which do not conform to the regular type. which comprises a very large number of lamps. 421. is probably also transitional between the factory lamps and the later relief lamps. not made in the mould. 542. 38. more commonly. 551. tendrils (Fig. XXVI-XXIX Catalogue Nos. and in some cases globules and cable patterns are used as rim decorations (Fig.90 CORINTH A single lamp (No. 8) but lacks the panels which are found on groups 3 and 4. has usually two. pis. but in other respects it resembles the relief lamps. 38. 34. XL. 541. which is made in the mould and perforated.Sabouroff. One lamp from Sparta with a vine pattern and panels on the rim is published by Furtwangler. of which a few small fragments are preserved. belongs in this connection. On the discus is the figure of Attis. which shows the relation between type XXVI and group 4 of type XXVII. as on the preceding group. 566. or. TYPE XXVII XI. One fragment has a grooved knob on the rim.

The main difference lies in the fact that type XXV like all the preceding types of Roman lamps is painted. 110. 700). but the great majority have human or animal figures and often very elaborate compositions. 2. Between the nozzle and the discus is a raised ridge with spreading ends. and a similar example from Delphi has the Two lamps of this type in the National Museum in Athens (Nos. 'AQx. The first and second groups. Since both came from the same area. 51 1). 4. and when present it is usually not raised but merely marked off by a double groove (Rim profile 16. A similar example was found at Nicopolis. is found on two fragments of type XXVII (Nos. 34). and one has a nozzle like that in figure 41. 546) has a heart-shaped nozzle'. has neither slip nor paint of any kind. Fig. and its top is lower than the top of the rim. p. 548. sometimes a rosette or a wreath. 545). Fig.'Ecp.1922. a single sherd (No. which resemble each other in their lack of reliefs on the discus and in the absence of panels on the rim. are most closely related to type XXV.. 12. Fig. fig. 679. cf. either plain or decoratedwith small impressed ovules (Fig.the two lamps must have been in the possession of the same person. and in one case (No. The discus carries some relief. signed JJlINIKIANOY. The nozzle is very small. 582. whereas type XXVII. The band round the discus is often lacking (Rim profile 15. 9).LAMPS 91 and surrounded by a raised band and invariably has a ray pattern. On the discus of the latter were scratched after the baking the Greek letters FAAY (PLATE XXX. 695. 3121 and 3122) have heartshaped nozzle. Fig. 34). l . except for a few late examples. 73. One such lamp is No. 137) a geometric pattern. 3111 in the National Museum in Athens. It is chiefly in the first group that we can trace the transition between the two types. In the fourth group (see PLATE XII. for example. 691. Fig. The oblique leaf pattern. probably the beginning of the owner's name. which is the most common rim decoration on type XXV. 34) interrupted by a panel on each side. and on each side is a raised panel at the cross axis of the lamp. 38. and 549). 702) there is a shallow channel on the rim (Rim profile 13. with straight sides converging toward the discus (Fig. has a rather narrow rim. its sides converge toward the discus until they meet in a point. All the extant lamps of this group have figured reliefs on the discus. The third group (see PLATE XII. and the same letters scratched in the same way are found on a fragment of type XXV (No. a well known maker of type XXVII. The nozzle on all the first three groups is similar to the fourth variety of type XXV. 603. Among the earliest fragments we find certain elements common on the types of the first century but quite foreign to the fully developed lamps of type XXVII. 4). 598-600. Besides these there is a class of transitional lamps of oblong shape with a triangular termination of the nozzle. 41. Philadelpheus. which is by far the largest.

cf.. 744) has a signature beginning AWU . Hautcoeur. The relation of this variety to the imported Italian lamps has been pointed out under type XXIV. on which the grooves continue below the seam but do not extend down to the lower end of the handle. 1 ou'lies de Delphes. As in the case of the preceding three types it was formed in the moulds and consequently has a seam in the middle where the two halves of the lamps were put together. on which the raised vine pattern is so much higher than the rim as to be roughly on a level with the raised band.1 in Corinth. until finally in the following type the hole disappeared altogether and the handle became a solid knob. The size of the hole through the handle also indicates relative date. as is sometimes the case. and that only on the earliest specimens of the type. On groups 1 and 4 it is comparatively large. Corresponding to the development of the handle there is a gradual change in the size of the ovules on the rim.92 CORINTH Some fragments of oblong lamps of this type have been found signature ANTWNIOY. but on groups 2 and 3 a gradual decrease can be traced continuing on the late imitations of type XXVII. as is the case on the lamps of the preceding period. No. Another feature which shows the relative date of type XXVII is the handle. On types XXIII-XXVI the grooves are regularly made in the upper half of the mould only. as is shown in rim profile 14. Musee Alaoui. 2.. where there are three grooves on the upper half. V. I87. but on group 3 they are much smaller.. one of which (No. The grooves on the edge of the handle were also made in the mould. On the first group they are as large as on types XXIV and XXV. This is also common on types XXIV and XXV but is not found on the later lamps of type XXVII except on the second group. figure 34. Suppl. and in most cases the grooves on the lower half do not follow in a sti-aight line with those above. XCV. If we compare with these the handle on type XXVII we find that only in exceptional cases is the lower half ungrooved. On group 3. The triangular shape of the nozzle without volutes is a late development from type XXII. the handle is always grooved both above and below. An intermediate stage is shown by a few lamps. the lower half has usually only two. and the lower end of the handle is left plain.. pi. With these indications in mind it is possible to tell even in the case of small fragments to which of the four groups the lamps belong. 509. mostly of the first group. Furthermore. It is significant that on these transitionallamps and on all the lamps of the first group of type XXVII we find the raised band round the discus. p. Among all the handles of these types there are very few exceptions to this rule. which probably was the last to develop. . as is shown by a break at the seam.

3135. XLVII. Bull. 62171 in the Museo delle Terme.5 Nikopolis. 1214. 3120) 7 Five lamps of this type in the National have come from Sparta. XXX. Arch. it now remains to show where and at what period this change took place. 1217. 132. pp. p. No. The most important sites where it has been found are. Museum in Athens (Nos. and cf. No. I. three of which are signed and one KAAAICTOY. XVI. p. I014. s Bull. and 'AQX. 1230.. where it is one of the most common types of Roman relief lamps. I204.2 certainly of Corinthian make. I215. in Palatio et in foro (C. pp.. the channel on the rim can be traced back to lamps like No. 83 ff. 9. L. Pars II. One is recorded by Dressel as inter lucernas 4 rep. 1913. 38. XVIII. 5 There are about 60 lamps of this type in the National Museum in Athens and some 20 among the lamps from the Ceramicus. No. 3108. type XXVII. These are AOYKIOY. We are then quite certainly dealing with a type which was manufactured in Greece and chiefly for the Greek market. It has the curious signature nPEIMII. PLATE XII. 1893.7 Corfu. G.8 Delphi. much like our No.3were found in the vicinity of Salona. 1230. p. 1219. pp.. Walters. 3105. 1223. is probably to be accounted for in the same way. Philadelpheus. In the small Museum at Brindisi there is one unsigned specimen with plain rim and panels and a wreath in the centre. 2 1907. 6 Heaxwtxa. Four such lamps in the Museum at Spalato. I895. 541 (PLATE XI). IX. Dalm. I924. 635 (PLATE XXVII). That type XXVII was produced in Greece is shown by the fact that it is practically limited to Greek sites. if indeed it was not brought to Rome by a modern collector. 187. . which must be a corruption of fnPEIMOY.6 Sparta. and the same is true of the Museum in Palermo. 1209. V. NO.1 From what has been said above it is evident that type XXVII developed from types XXV and XXVI.. The knobs or panels on the rim. Nos. There are other examples of this type in the local museums of Italy. See also Walters.. No.9 Among the lamps and fragments from Corinth there are more than 500 handles of this type ' See. According to the Curator of the Museum it was found in Brindisi. 845-853. developed from the suspension lugs on the factory lamps. No. Walters. 702. In the large collection of lamps in the Museo dei Conservatori there is not a single example of this type. and the use of masks as discus decoration is common both on the factory lamps and on the early lamps of group 4. 8 I. XV. 3106. No. 1222 from Athens. 835. 577. Arch.. besides Corinth: Athens. found also on group 3. Dalm. which has the same relief as our No. which in turn developed from a fusion of types XXV and XXVI.LAMPS 93 The influence of the factory lamps in the development of type XXVII is most apparent in the shape of group 4. probably a stray example brought over from Greece by its owner. 1231. vol. 546. p. Pars I. 'Ecp. 1922. Nos. 9 Fouilles de Delphes. 698. 6886b).4 but they are so few that they can only have been brought from Greece. 66 ff. 184 ff.

The quality of the clay is a less reliable test.1 although as yet only a small part of the Roman city has been excavated. We have also seen in the case of type XVI. but the clay was apparently used unmixed. however.but their products must have been intended chiefly for local consumption. in the majority of cases the clay is light buff. Whatever local manufacturesmay have sprung up outside of Corinth. that the clay in most cases is of a red color.94 CORINTH alone. which will be discussed below. Sparta was never 4 great centre of ceramic craft in Roman times. The panels on the rim are certainly borrowedfrom the factory lamps. and the exportation of lamps from Athens began with the development of the following type. 2 . If all the handles had been kept since the beginning of the excavations they would number in the thousands. 695 and 696) and both signed by Posphoros. But the clay was never used without an admixture of fine sand or loam. In the case of the Corinthian pottery of the Greek period this seems not to have been the case. and it usually contains a few small particles of mica. Some of these may have started as branches of the Corinthian factories. Although Corinth was certainly the chief centre from which type XXVII was exported all over Greece. as is shown by two lamps apparentlyfrom the same mould (Nos. the other pale red. some indisputably Corinthian lamps of this type have been found both at Sparta and at Athens. and some late specimens found in the Ceramicus are of Attic make. and Corinth is apparently the only city in Greece where these were in use. 1More than half of these have been found since 1925. it is self-evident that the type was imitated by local lamp industries in other towns. it is most unlikely that any lamps were imported there during the time when the Corinthian lamps held the market.2 Sometimes. Besides. yet so far as it is possible to tell without a chemical analysis. Some of the lamps from Sparta are made of a different kind of clay from that of the Corinthian lamps. and when so used it is always free from mica. the difference in color is due to the firing. On the other hand. consequently all the signatures appearing on lamps of type XXVII actually found in Corinth are in all probability names of Corinthian lampmakers. whereas those of local make are later. one of which is ash gray. the evidence from the signatures and the reliefs. which is surely a local product. is sufficient for showing the Corinthian origin of type XXVII. the clay of this type is of the local variety. hence there can be no doubt as to where the type first developed.This astoundingly large number is itself a convincing proof that Corinth was the chief centre for the production of these lamps. and the character of the lamps themselves points to the same conclusion. Though different shades of color appear. and that probably accounts for the presence of mica as well as for the reddish color of some of these lamps.

191. As a rule these two types are not found in the same context. Cf. so that we have to allow some time for type XXVII to develop. We know from a papyrus that minium and gum-water were used in Egypt for the lamps. The lampmakers of Roman times were doubtless aware of this difficulty and decided that it was better to omit the paint since it could not be made to remain on the lamp.' and it is very probable that something of the same kind was used elsewhere. and Dorpfeld. of the Antonine period. whose artistic excellence is unsurpassed even by the best lamps of the first century. Fouzlles de . Hence about the beginning of the second century the importation of lamps from Italy ceased.LAMPS 95 It is hardly an accident that the lamps of type XXVII are unpainted. 2 1 See Petrie. p. is plainer than the more fully developed groups 3 and 4. and this is certainly due to its close imitation of type XXV. but continued to be made all through the second century. Groups 1 and 2 did not go out of use after the more decorative groups 3 and 4 had developed. I90. During the Antonine period it was the common type in Greece2 and was probably fully developed in the time of Hadrian. 255. and that must be the time when type XXVII came into vogue. We have mentioned above the difficulty encountered by the Corinthian potters of the Greek period in making the glaze adhere to the clay. the local wheel-made lamps (type XVI) disappeared from the market. The fabric of type XXVII is so thin and the clay so porous that without some such treatment the oil would surely ooze out when the lamp was burning. We have pointed out above that group 1. In the late specimens there is a marked decline in workmanship and a return Romnan Ehnasya. Alt-Ithaka. the coins of Trajan from Corinth are comparatively few. which is the earliest of this type. The finds of that period from Corinth are very few. This type has been found in tombs together with coins Delphes. The local imitations of type XXV were produced about the end of the first century. p. It was during this revival-the Greco-Roman civilization. In fact. so that the exact date of the earliest lamps of type XXVII is difficult to establish. and likewise those of Hadrian and the Antonines. we have already shown under type XXV that they tried their hands at painting the lamps before they gave it up. and this is probably the chief reason why it became impossible for them to compete with the Attic potters. and yet their development falls in the period before the artistic last creative period of the revival under Hadrian. Whereas the coins of the Flavian Emperors are rather numerous. and type XXVII came into use. Probably about this period a new method of treating the lamps was invented whereby the unpainted clay was rendered impervious to the oil. pp. I. 13.that groups 3 and 4 developed. V.

C. 6355. When the nominative form is used a verb like ?tCOIeL must be understood (cf. In the passage under the Odeum. but the rim with a sunken band appeared on group 3 (cf. See B. 6282. Since the change is very gradual it is impossible to give any definite date for the transition. the hole through the handle became smaller. XV. pp. and we may with great probability assign the painted lamps of this type to a time after 200 A. usually a single name in the genitive case. but some fragments belong to group 1. 582 and 700. and on the reverse were usually two circular grooves instead of one. D. No. . less often in the nominative. The genitive can best be explained on the analogy of Latin inscriptions on lamps. XXXI. sometimes in the genitive. 555. The painted specimens stand on the border line between types XXVII and XXVIII.96 CORINTH to simple patterns. In the late period of the type the ovule pattern gradually disappeared. In the great majority of cases the lamps carry on the reverse the lampmaker's signature in Greek letters. A. Meritt. were further set off from the rim by deep lines. 6250: MAXIMVS L FABRIC MASC FECIT. which often have EX OF[FICINA]2followed by the genitive of the name. though still slightly raised. L. Nos. the panels and nozzle. for which there are also Latin analogies. e. I.. the band round the discus was merely indicated by a double groove. always with some accessory decoration. 'EaQLv6g. D. J.. Another important change was the return to the use of paint. but the vine pattern on the rim became crude and indistinct. This is an indication that type XXVII was in use till about the end of the second century. A. 457 ff. and the same kind of signature is found on an early lamp of type XXVII from Corinth (No. PLATE XII).l which went out of use not later than the reign of Alexander Severus. found sometimes in are the nominative case. 1927. there were no painted fragments among the numerous sherds of this type. etc. etc. On the Italian lamps of the first century A. such as rosettes and rays. The reliefs when found are either indistinct copies of those on earlier lamps or crude productions with the details of the figures generally neglected. 6542. The inscriptions on type XXVII are of great importance. No. 2 Cf. 6627. 3 Ibid.and the rim of group 3 became plain. g.3 Some names. not only for the light they throw on the chronology of the lamps but also because they furnish additional indication that Corinth was the chief centre for the production of this type. 1). group 4 almost disappeared. The deteriorationof the type correspondsto the general decline of art at the close of the Antonine period. 383). Group 3 was the most numerous. though some of the handles belong to a late phase. group 2 was common. the signature often appears in the form of three initials. but the line of transition is not clearly marked.

3 Nos. 259. Nos.8CEKOYNAOY. s . BIibliotheque Nationale. 301. Bu/l.. We know of a lampmaker. The signature CRESCENSappears on factory lamps of the second century A.9ZUWCIJLAC. L. pp. No. . 297. 6684. XV. Mlusee Borely. p. No. d.1 who signed his lamps M I A. 5 No. p. 696. A4rch. Cf. XII. XV. XV.. Loesclicke. Loeschcke. 285. .3 AOYKIOY. 566. No. 1277. Nos. L. Louvre. de Bersa. 1.. 893.. Cf.882. 799 a. Loeschcke. 787. No. Kunsthistorisches 'Museum. . a remarkably large number of signatures are Latin names in Hellenized form. XIII. Only the letters J1 and A are preserved but between them is room for just one more where a part of the bottom is broken away. p. This is not surprising if we realize that the population of Corinth in Roman times was overwhelmingly of type XXVII Italian. Vienna. 74. C.. No. Cf. also Bulic. 755.4 JJAPKIANOY. I414) of type XXII has inscribed on the reverse OKTAYIO MINOAQCPOY. 488. 9 Nos. (.. 673. XV. 296. 553. Walters. A-eibl.. etc. the signature p. 5r6. 762. A more common signature is CRESCES. C. C. Most of these names are found on factory lamps.7 ' nPEILLOY. C6. Cf.. and 538. fnst. is written out M. 2195. 8 Nos. J. 6 No. No. XV. 13 . Cf. 6355 (?). made on 679 the analogy of the Greek genitive masculine participial form. Arch. I. Moreover. 689. Kunsthistorisches Museum. 4Nos. 6788. Loeschcke IAdm.. Baur. Cf. and it is highly probable that the lamp in question bore the same signature. Kunsthistorisches Museum. Kulsthistorisches Vienna. 282. Loeschcke. 6583. 5304.6 ONHCIJJOY. Cf. Vienna. On a lamp in the Vienna museum. L. 603. 514. Although no Latin inscriptions are found on the lamps of type XXVII. note 235. This is probably a Hellenized form of the Latin genitive of Crescens. There were no letters before the JIl or after the A. Loeschcke.Jahresh. C. L. p. I909g p. 694. I. Nos. Loeschcke.. p. p.0 OKTABIOY. 296. Three of his lamps in the museum at Nona are factory lamps. 1915. Museum.. X\. This correspondence of signatures on the factory lamps and on type XXVII is so striking that it is tempting to believe that it is more than an accident 1 Cf./. zr/. Burgmuseum. 1). p. No. No. National Museum. Nos. Jahrcsh. 2237.. Fink. r nst. I L. XXXVIII. Athens. 1.. No.LAMPS 97 PLATE XXX).. Vienna. 6585. 689. p. hence there cannot have been more than three. sferr. XV. Bibliotheque Nationale. 583. These are: KAPIOY. the most common type in Italy about the time when type XXVII developed in Corinth. i66. 1909. That the letters are Greek is shown by the cursive form of the ?L. Nos. Vienna. IVNIVAESCINVS. Fink. d. L. Cf. e.s. C. Osterr. XII. 296. Cf. 3315. and if we are right in our identification of the name on the Corinth lamp we can thus connect our type XXVII directly with the factory lamps. No. 6336. 783. 743. Stoddard Coll. p. 6545. Latin PRIMVS. Kunsthistorisches Museum. L(. p. 2248. C. Dalm. Paris. Paris. Cf. 6679-81. which does not occur in Latin signatures. p.which is only a shorter form of the same name. Bibliotheque 10 No. 760. 819 a. No. b. b. 754. etc. and Fink. XV. 516. which were in all probability the initials of the maker's name.. A lamp in the Louvre (C. No. 219. Paris. 752. Vienna. No. 643. XV. no less than nine of the signatures on the lamps from Corinth appear in their Latin forms on Italian lamps. 5287. Marcus Iunius Aescinus. 582. Bull. 6390. Burgmuseum. Nationale.2 KPHCKENTOC. 6595. 259. Vienna. L. A. L... L.. pp. 473 a. Cf. 248. 4020. No. 80. 1890. Arch. 4935. 6573. 74.

and it is natural to suppose that many of them had worked in the large lamp factories in Rome and that upon their arrival in the new colony they established factories of their own. of course. 38I: Ezoixovg ctVa8}ulavTo toi sEC?. Strabo. Fig. 2 . but it is only in exceptional cases that we can identify with certainty the originals.98 CORINTH We know that a large part of the population of Roman Corinth consisted of freedmen. She is nude to the waist and the drapery hangs down from the hips and is collected in a knot at the front. AiNumsmza/ic C(omnmentary on Pausanizas. but the figure of Eros is omitted. and it is not surprising that she is represented on one of the lamps (No. viii. Imhoof-Blumer and Gardner have pointed out that the figures of Eros on the coins are probably mere attributes.2 on the reverse of which the goddess is standing. but with her head turned to the left looking into the shield of Ares. See Imhoof-Blumer and Gardner. That the lampmakers of ancient times borrowed most of their motifs from existing statues and famous paintings is self-evident. p. On some of the coins there is a small figure of Eros holding up a wreath toward helr The pose of the goddess on the lamp is exactly the same as on the coins. who at their manumission received the names of their former masters. A few of the Figure 44. A discussion of this subject will appear in some journal as a separate article. 26 and pl. 44). but the great number of similar signatures lends probability to the supposition. only a small fraction of what once existed.UsvQOeLouyivovIS jieioTovS. not a part of the original statue. D. 590. G. The identification of the statue with the "Armed Aphrodite" of Pausanias is certain from the fact that she is sometimes represented standing in her temple on the top of the citadel. Instead of this there is some object on her left side which must be meant for a dolphin. One of the most famous statues of Corinth in Roman times was the so-called Armed Aphrodite on the citadel. because what has been preserved of 590 591 ancient sculpture is. and the same may be true of the dolphin. The reliefs of this type are particularly interesting because of the light they throw on the art of the second century A. figures on type XXVII deserve special comment in this connection. Since only one name is given in the Greek signatures it would be futile to insist that the correspondence of names in every case amounts to identity of persons. The form of the statue is known from a series of Roman coins from Corinth. Although there is almost Cf. front view.

v.... The Corinth lamp is interesting also from another point of view. unfortunately is not well enough preserved to give the details. position of the arm. that this was not always the method used. This seems to have been the procedure in the case of the first group of type XXVII.. .. the torch. Corinth (cf.. i. The figure on the discus was apparently not formed in the mould but modelled by hand...Two Terracotta Figurines from Corinth.. .. and the ovules on the rim were stamped separately. . the modelling was done directly on the lamp. but sometimes. 45. has the same figure of Aphrodite. . . and in the lamp with the Aphrodite figure we probably have the result of an attempt by an ordinary workman to produce something more elaborate than he was accustomed to make. It has on the reverse the signature FAIOY. found at Ephesus and now in Vienna . and in one case there is one Eros on each side. The modelling is very poor and gives one the impression of having been made by an unskilled potter who was trying to imitate a well known work of art Though we know little about the distribution of labor among the ancient craftsmen. the figure of Eros is sometimes on her right.... !. Nos. 44 ff..1. See Fremersdorf. and in the field are three of the attributes of Eros: the bow. . T"'a Fi g u i ' Fgr . w T..u I~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ . however.2 We have evidence to show. Franz Miltner this lamp was brought to my attention. and from it new forms were made..~:.. sometimes on her left side. A fragment of a figurine found in the Athena Trench in 1925 (Fig.. Another lamp of type XXVII.~-. .. especially in the case of the plainer lamps. 1 2 Through the kindness of Dr. however. . The matrices used for making the moulds were made by special artists and sold to the different shops. Both the type of the lamp and the figure of the Corinthian Aphrodite show that the lamp is of Corinthian origin. l) is certainly a copy of the same statue but ". The Figure 45. ' .LAMPS 99 no variation in the statue itself on the different coins. it is self-evident that the common workmen in the potter's shop were not able to model the figures on the lamps. pp. and the sizula. . and the shape of the drapery show beyond a doubt that the figure is that of Aphrodite with the shield. 706 and 717).....i. which is also found in.i ' t T..

592. Nutiimti'sa/i . On some of the coins of Corinthl the goddess is represented sometimes Figure 46. Comm enar. The top of her quiver appears over her rig-lit shoulder. and (Gardner. It represents Artemis the Huntress. figure 46. At first glance it appears to be the same as that on No. clad in a girt chiton and holding a spear in her left hand and a torch in her right. which is most unusual for Hermes. moving to the right. 584 figure 46. 3. 585 (PLATE XXVI) there is another figure of Artemis. but there is no strap in front. Most likely both the coins and the lamp are free copies of some large statue. perhaps the one mentioned by Pausanias. on? Pausanias. and in the place of the dog he has his ram. The likeness of the two figures is so apparent that it cannot be accidental. She is moving to the left accompanied by her dog. holding a large torch in her left See Imhoof-Blumner : Book ii. That the original wrasa statue of Artemis rather than one of Hermes is indicated by the drapery. 5. On No. . sometimes to the left. The variations on the coins are probably due to the fact that the figure is seen frolm different sides. but the figure is not Artemis but Hermes. as well as to the free rendering on the part of thle die maker.10( CORINTH Another figure almost certainly borrowed from a statue is that on No."' Another figure which must go back to the samle original is that on No. and the pose is exactly the same. the drapery is just like that of Artemis. Where she holds the torch and the spear he has his caduceus and money bag. 1). and the pose is approxinmately the same as on the lamp. She appears to be holding a torch in one hand and a bow in the other. and always accompanied by the dog or by both the dog and the stag. and the coins mentioned above point to the same conclusion. pl.which is thrown over his shoulders and flutters behind. 584. Witlh the exception of the chlanmys. LXV-LXVII.

593 and 594). He wears a loin cloth and has the galerus on his left shoulder. whose opponent. Only two groups of combatants appear: the -reftia-ius with his opponent. 665. I65. The former wears no helmet but often has loose flowing hair. which appears on fragments of four lamps (Fig. The figure of Hermes. 644 shows the two in close combat. cit. The fact that several of the figures on this type of lamps also appear on Corinthian coins is another indication that the lamps are of local make. pl. The re/tiarizus and secduor are most commonly pictured on these lamps. . so fragmentary Figure 47. 3 Rom. but the identity of the two figures is unmistakable. or oval as on No. 558. and has a short sword in the right The fhra-axlike his opponent wears heavy armor but has a curved sword and a pair of greaves and his tunic is loose and overhanging at the waist No. PLATE XXVII) and the rectangular (cf. unfortunately. the hoplomachus. the secutor. One of the most common moti/z/ is the gladiatorial combat. fights with the sword in his left hand in order to render the shield of his opponent useless. that the kind of gladiators cannot in every case be identified with certainty.2 and in every instance of which I am aware the armguards are also on the left arm. Walters. fortunately... op. 560. Mitt. 45. of which several hitherto unpublished scenes appear on 4Figue 4b9 type XXVII. 123).3 It is always the combatant on the right who is so represented. Behind her is the stag. Nos. and the left arm is heavily bandaged down to the hand. p. He wears tunic and helmet and has a long shield in his left hand. note r. No. and the f-trax. 47. 2) found in the Northwest Stoa in 1925 shows the same figure of the goddess and is. A figurine (Fig. Figures of gladiators with the dagger in the left hand are quite common. but here the thrax holds the dagger in his left hand. 644 (Fig. XXXII. Both the oval (cf. having lost his shield. 639 PLATE XXVIII) I 1 form of the galerus appear. better preserved than the lamp. One might be inclined to interpret that as the strategem of a gladiator. who wears greaves and full armor. 645 (Fig. This was probably omitted on the lamp for lack of space. but the armguards on his left arm are against such an interpretation. but this is Imhoof-Blumer and Gardner. The net is never visible. 634.LAMPS 101 hand. E. 1917. which she touches with her right hand. either rectangular as on No. No. LXXXVI. who. is armed very much like the seczitor but has both legs well bandaged instead of wearing greaves. Nos. 122). may be the same as that on some coins of Corinth' seen from a slightly different angle. Some of them are. The explanation of Wollmann seems the most plausible. that the lampmaker purposely changed the position of the weapons so as to be able to show the action more clearly.

as in most cities of Italy. Apparently a monument of Roma stood somewhere in or near the marketplace. 1877. 282 I5I. and for that reason they have all been classed together under type XXVIII. J. another important Roman colony in Greece. fig. Among all these late Roman lamps the change is so gradual that it is impossible to speak of separate types. Cf. Nos.' The net was used chiefly at the opening of the combat. but it is not surprising to find it on a lamp made in a city of Roman XXVIII inhabitants.. Wollmann. The numerous representations of gladiatorial scenes on type XXVII corroborate the view that it was produced in Corinth. sometimes his adversary (cf. 634. te Oud of Nimeguen. If he lost both net and trident he had to fight with his short dagger. with the result that a great number of varieties developed. 630. PLATE XXVII) is represented as victorious. 452. 4. XXXII..The chances of winning were not all on one side. 8 See Lampros... 35. Theater en Amphitheater ff. A. Thus on one lamp in the National Museum in Athens. XXXI. . which was undoubtedly made in Corinth. A. See Meritt. since he was less protected than the secutor. 121. Ath. orzinthe. II. p. 4 p. D. because by that he could still keep his opponent at a distance. Nos. the separate features of which can in most cases be traced back to the lamps of the second century. 5 Another instance of this sentimental attachment of the Roman colonists in Corinth to the city on the Tiber is furnished by inscriptions discovered in I927 on which four of the Seven Hills of Rome are mentioned. xxxi. The same group appears on coins of Patras.4 Such a picture would hardly have been made by a Greek in the second Century A. and F. there is a representation of Aeneas carrying Anchises on his shoulder and accompanied by the boy Ascanius. 1Mitt. Dio Chrys.102 CORINTH probably due to the difficulty of fitting into the discus of a lamp a scene which naturally required a great deal of space.. and if the throw was successful the heavy armed secuolr was at the mercy of his foe..2 Some of the other reliefs. too. If it failed the retiarbis had to depend on his trident in the first instance.J. 786-1412. Epist. PLATES XIII-XIX The gradual deterioration of type XXVII which began about the end of the second century continued throughout the third and fourth. 635. For the same reason it is difficult to make any satisfactory chronological division among the several RoJm. Julian. pp. 633. I917.5 TYPE Catalogue Nos. Gladiatorial where. there was an amphitheatre. 1927. Mitt. Inaugural Address at the University 1Cf. de Waele.3 performances also were introduced into Greece by the Romans. on this type are thoroughly Roman in character. and in that kind of combat he had the disadvantage. and at Corinth they were particularly famous. 1928. but sometimes the retiarius (cf. PLATE XXVII).

4 5 6 7 A ^ j JQj ' 17. . Principal Rim Patterns of type XXVIII. I5 ?16 2r ?9 (9)j.p I . J^0 21 "?~~~L~ ~' 24 25 7~~~~~~~2 Fiue48 rncplRi aten f yeXXII 22 213 25 Figure 48.LAMPS 103 2 z.

and his article will appear shortly in the Athenzsche ihttezlungen. deterioration. which is most numerous among the lamps from the Ceramicus. which. The ovule pattern 1 This type. however. 12 to 15.104 CORINTH varieties. 19-23). figure 48. and on the present type is one of the commonest forms of rim decoration. or rather of the type. later by two or three stamped circle. Most of these can be traced back to the lamps of the preceding type. For a more exact dating I refer to Dr. g. The raised band round the discus. 38. The next three varieties. figure 38. plain panels on the preceding by two parallel lines and a herring-bone The Nos. 4. From the tendril pattern in the channel on the rim of certain late lamps of type XXVII. Fig. It is an important fact that with the deterioration of the rim patterns goes a decrease in the size of the lamps (cf. 6 to 8. is indicated on the earliest lamps of the present type by a double groove. as we have seen. for presenting me with the photograph for figure 32. From this kind of rim developed the wavy line pattern which is very common on type XXVIII. found on most lamps of group 3 of type XXVII. 12-15). There is little difference between rim pattern 24. On each side of the herring-bone pattern is usually a deep groove which is a survival from the channel on group 4 of type XXVII. are late forms of the vine pattern found on group 2 of the preceding type (cf. 5-8).one of which has a dotted square to indicate a panel. Karl Kilbler. If we can then fix the beginning of the type and again date approximately some lamps at a particular stage of the development. probably developed the herring-bone pattern. by a study of the separate features of each individual lamp to place it approximately in its proper order in the development. The gradual change from the earliest to the latest lamps of the type is most noticeable in the rim decorations. The next four rin varieties. the principal varieties of which are shown in figure 48. appears already on the earlier type (see PLATE XII. Three variations of this pattern are shown in figure 48. has been thoroughly studied by Dr.1 It is possible. I am indebted to Drs. the prototype were first indicated on of which is the rim in group 3 of type XXVII. . 48. 9-11. 1-4. Kiibler's forthcoming publication. No. In the fourth variety lines and stamped circles. 700). are late forms of the same pattern but without any trace of the panels. e. we can in that way arrive at a satisfactory chronology of the different varieties. 48. show four stages in one line of development. 5-8. and 5. 1-4. type XXVIII type pattern. Bruckner and Kiibler for permission to 'study the lamps from their excavations. 582 (PLATE XII). which gradually increased in width until the outer groove came near the edge of the rim as in figure 48. the latter of which also has indications of panels. and for much valuable information about the date and development of type XXVIII. and finally by a single there is no indication of panels at all. but in some cases they are so modified as to be almost unrecognizable. One rim decoration which also appears for the first time on late lamps of the preceding type is the wavy line pattern (Fig. Fig.

18 and 19). but is comparatively common on the earliest lamps of t)ype XXVIII. Rim design 20. Rim patterns 21 and 22. on group 3 the ovules disappeared already in the second century. the latter with a dotted square indicating a panel. Type XXVIII. is the double spiral pattern (Fig. twelve of which are given 14 . The of stamped circles. both point to such a connection. On one of the latest varieties of type XXVIII this pattern reappears (see Fig. 12). One form of rim decoration which is not found on any lamps of tvpe XXVII from Corinth.ozzle. the latter a degenerate form of the double volutes. are simple . is found on a few lamps of late date. 23 and 24. two varieties of the type. 48. The raised dots on body and rim and the design at the nozzle.LAMPS 105 is less commllonon type XXVIII and is often combined with a pattern of globules. 2 3 4 5 5 o 7 a 6 \ 9 10 Figure 49. figure 48. but there it is plainly made in imitation of lamps of type XXIV. 12 rows of globules. Rim varieties 16 and 17 go back to group 1 of type XXVII. 25. is less common. are found only on late lamps The last design. figure 48. Principal Varieties of . have an impressed foot on the reverse and a double pendant below (PLATE XIV. 1059). but is interesting because it shows relation with the lamps of type XX. as is shown by the absence of panels. figure 48. all of which the handle The nozzle also shows a great number of varieties. figure 48. 49.

birds. In most lamps of this type the handle is not pierced as on the preceding type but is a plain solid knob. almond-shaped. such as palm branches. The inscriptions are not so common as on the lamps of the second century. In some cases there is a double groove on each side (Fig 49. but instead of being raised above the rim it is merely set off by grooves at the sides. is the ray pattern (PLATE XIV). and often a single groove runs through the middle of the nozzle (Fig. crude human figures. which has come down from the earlier lamps. 2). in rare cases. and in some cases the groove is triple above and double below or double above and single below. Besides the signatures a great variety of designs occur on the reverse. of which No. and. all those on the present type are pure Greek. The ovules on the rim and the volutes. . 2 and 4). 6. 8-1 1 show different varieties of nozzle with channel on the neck and some kind of decoration at each side. In connection with the preceding type reference has been made to the fact that toward the end of the second century the single circular groove on the reverse was replaced by a low base-ring. 7 is a degenerate form. 2. The later lamps of the same group have the same forms of nozzle and rim as are common on type XXVIII (see PLATE XVI). Stamped circles either at the base of the nozzle or on the rim on each side serve as accessory decoration. Almost without exception it is grooved on the. 41. sometimes with a triple groove. the handle is perforated. No. 1. but the oval bottom is also common.106 CORINTH in figure 49. edge. crosses. circles. and on some distinctly later lamps. usually signed XIONHC. sometimes with a double. It is important to note that whereas a large percentage of the signatures on type XXVII are Roman names. In type XXVIII the double circular groove is the most common. In a few early examples the hole is begun on each side but not pierced through. found on the best specimens of this group. the last two generally connected with the wick-hole by an open channel. A very common discus decoration. A less common form of nozzle is No. This goes back to the second form of nozzle of type XXV (cf. or square. The first five are modifications of the common form of nozzle on the preceding type. but a few names are written out in full. Sometimes the rays are straight (PLATE XIV. Nos. Fig. show that these are poor imitations of type XXIV. at first slightly raised and later simply indicated by a double groove. The designs on the discus can be grouped into five varieties. 49. the human foot. 927). particularly on the early varieties. 12 belongs to a special group of late lamps all of which have the bust of Helios on the discus. In most cases they consist only of one or two letters. By exception a herring-bone pattern or simple hatchings fill the space between the grooves. A common form is the plain discus (PLATE XIII) which is either circular. 3-5).

LAMPS

107

sometimes twisted so as to produce a spiral effect (PLATE XIV, 952); and either form
occurs, though rarely, with the outer ends of the rays parted in two (PLATE XIV, 957,

959). 3. By. far the most common design is the rosette, either with a single ring of loop-like petals (PLATE XIV, 1042, 1059), or, less often, with a smaller rosette inside he larger one (PLATE XIV, 965). On the lamps of the preceding type the petals of the rosette are two-lobed and usually eight in number, arranged symmetrically with reference to handle and nozzle. This form of petals occurs on a single early specimen of type XXVIII (PLATE XIV, 1088), but the symmetrical arrangement ig lost. The number of petals of this early form is always eight, but on the lamps with single petals the number varies without regularity. A few rare examples have large raised rosettes on which the veins are indicated on the petals (PLATE XIV, 1085). Even on

i1m'

1.13

1145.

Figure

50.

the lamps with square discus a degenerate form of the rosette is often present
(PLATE XV, 1070, 1080). 4. A less common pattern is the pecten shell (PLATE XV,

1089, 1093, 1098), which is not found on type XXVII, but occurs frequently on
. The figured reliefs are comparatively rare on this lamps of the first century A.D. type,1 and those found are repeated ad nauiseam. A certain figure, for example, found on one of the earliest lamps of the type, has been copied from one lamp to another

until one can barely recognize the design (see PLATES XV-XIX). The marked decrease in size in a given series of lamps with the same relief shows that the copying was done by making the moulds directly from the lamps. Each time this process was repeated the size of the lamps would decrease because of the shrinkage of the clay,
On the lamps from the Ceramicus belonging to this type the figured reliefs are much more common than on those from Corinth. The reason for this difference is that the majority of lamps from Corinth are of a later date than those from Athens, which shows that the reliefs are less common on the late varieties of the type.

108

CORINTH

and this went on in some cases for centuries. Sometimes the lampmakers would
touch up the moulds when the figure was too indistinct, and in that way we can account for slight variations within the series (see lamps on PLATE XVIII).

Sometimes certain elements which were at first made in very low relief have
disappeared altogether in the later specimens of the same series, as for example on the lamps with Eros playing Pan's pipes. The drapery fluttering behind and in front

on the best reliefs (No. 1 33, Fig. 50) is barely indicated on the later copies (No. 1143, Fig. 50), and on the very latest every trace of it has disappeared (No. 1145, Fig. 50).
Many of the reliefs on this type were borrowed from the preceding types, and not a few are found on other pottery from the same period as the lamps. Several

examples of this kind have been found at the Ceramicus in Athens, and in the Odeum at Corinth a similar piece was discovered in 1928 (Fig. 51). It is the figure of a bull walking to the left with a fillet hanging from
his horns (cf. Nos. 1241, 1242, PLATE XXIX). The

Figure 5i. Bottom of Plate with Relief from Corinth.

figure was .not stamped or moulded directly on the plate but was made as a separate piece set into the bottom of the bowl. On type XXVIII both pagan representations and Christian symbols appear, and in many cases it is impossible to tell which significance a certain relief was meant to have. Many symbols of the Christian Church were adopted from mythology and from

pictures of every day life, e. g. the bonus pastor, which is the same motif as the kriophoros.The common craftsmen, who were not too well informed either about the figures of pagan mythology or those of the new religion, often confused the two and added new attributes to existing molifs. Thus only' the presence of some indisputably Christian design, such as the cross or the monogram of Christ, makes it certain that the figures have Christian significance.1 A number of animals appear as discus decoration on this type, but these are in most cases no more symbolic than on early Roman lamps. It is doubtful whether the two fishes are meant to be a Christian symbol, since they appear on lamps of the third century before Christian symbolism
The Lampes Cross, Antiques'; to Tertullian 'line Collection de (Contra he.reses, 40. Cf. H. Nicolas, too, according Rev. Tun., I907, p. 28) was used by the worshippers of Mithras as a sign on the

forehead of the soldiers in order to attract Christian converts to the worship of Mithras by using the same symbols as those used by the Christians, but in matters of this kind one cannot always give credence to the early Christian writers who espied dangers to the Christians from all sources.

LAMPS

109

came into use.' On the other hand, such a figure as the dove perched on a basket (No. 1292, Fig. 189) is very likely a Eucharistic symbol, since it does not appear until very late in the type. Four late lamps have crude representations of armed Athena of the Promachos type (No. 1 109, PLATE XV).2 An interesting group referred to above has the face of Helios on the discus. This variety, which is very common, is of special importance because it is made in imitation of Roman lamps of the first
century A. D. (Type XXIV). The best of these, though crudely made of soft brick red

clay like most of the lamps of type XXVIII, have an ovule pattern on the rim, single volutes at the nozzle, and a base-ring (No. 1 148, PLATE XVI). The handle, however, is merely a flat solid knob. By good fortune a single fragment has been preserved of an early Roman lamp (No. 489, PLATE XXVI) with the head of Helios on the discus and ovules on the rim. The treatment of the hair and the features of the head on the later lamps are so much like those on the early fragment that the copying is unmistakable. It is inconceivable that the lampmakers of this late period could form
a head so well as is done on some of these lamps. On the later examples of the same group the volutes and ovules are lacking, and the bust of Helios has degenerated into a shell-like figure (cf. No. 1167, PLATE XVI). As the features became obliterated they

were remade by simple scratches in the mould producing raised lines on the lamp, such as we see in PLATE XVI, No. 11 58. Lamps of this variety were found in great numbers in the Cave of Pan on Mt. Parnes, and on one of them some of the rays on the head are combined to form a nimbus as on the bust of Christ.3 If this is the correct interpretation it seems to indicate that the cruciform nimbus developed from the rays on the head of Helios. That we are right in disclaiming any symbolic meaning for the figures which appear on the early lamps of this type is shown by the fact that the unmistakable Christian signs do not appear until comparatively late in the type and then become
Delattre meaning Bibl. Illust. d. Mizzs. Carth. I88o) sees a symbolic de Carthage', ('Lampes Chretiennes in the figure of every animal. Fiihrer and Schultze (Die Altchrzstlichen Grabstdtten Szciliens, pp. 274 ff.)

on the other hand, take the view that the animals with the exception of the fish are usually not symbolic. There is a possibility that the two fishes, the ram, the lion, the bull, etc. stand for the signs of the zodiac, but the non-occurence of the other signs makes this interpretation doubtful. 2 Exactly the same figure appears on an early Roman lamp in the British Museum (Walters, No. 775) of the same shape as our type XXIV. Skias, speaking of a similar lamp from the Cave of Pan on Mt. Parnes, says that the figure of Athena appearing on a lamp of this late date indicates that the 'Ecp., [918, p. i6. But lamps with pagan motifs and pagan worship continued into mediaeval times; 'AQX. even with obscene pictures on the discus have been found in the Catacombs of Rome and Sicily (cf. Le
Blant, JMelangesd'Arch. et d'Hzst., VI, I886, pp. 229 ff.; Fiihrer and Schultze! op. cit., p. 275; P. Orsi, Ronm. to such finds. Quart., 1895, p. 482, and I897, p. 488), so that one should not attach too much significance

3 See

Skias, 'AQe. 'Ecp.,1918, p. I6, fig. 9, No.

2.

1 ()

CORINTH

quite common. They are of two kinds, the Christian Cross and tlhe Monogram of

Christ The former always has the Greek form with the two bars of about equal length,
but some variations in shape appear. In figure 52,1-4, are shown the chief variations of the cross found on these lamps, and in the same figure; 5-10, are shown six varieties

of the Christian Monogram. The latter is formed from the Greek initials of the name of Christ, and three distinct forms occur. The first is made by a combination of the letters chi and rho, but the rho in all cases but one has the loop turned to the left. The
second form looks like the first with the loop of the rho omitted (Fig. 52, 7), but may stand for the letters iota and chi, the initials of 'INcorv XQtT6o'.1 A combination of

1

2

3,

4

i

.

/

:

4

6 o'1(7 Figure

IO 52. Varieties of the Cross

,? and Christian Monogram

9 on type XXVIII.

the two symbols, the cross and the chrisma, gave rise to the third form of the monogram (Fig. 52, 8 to 10), which is a simple cross with a loop on the vertical bar to form a rho.2On this form, however, with two exceptions (cf. Fig. 52, 10)the .iho is
turned in the right direction, but the loop is usually left open below so as to look more like a pendant than a part of a letter (cf. Fig. 52, 8-10).The three forms are also found on coins of the fourth century. The first, which is the most common, begins to appear as early as the time of Constantine the Great. The second form appears for the

first time on coins of Valens, and the third is apparently not found on coins before Theodosius I. On the coins the rho is always turned in the right direction, as might
be expected on objects bearing the official stamp of the empire. The fact that the opposite is true in the case of the lamps indicates that the separate elements of the
Cf. Delattre, op. cit., p. 53. 2 Cf. M. A. Franz, A.J. A., XXXIII,
I929. p. IO.

LAMPS
monogram were forgotten by the illiterate public, to whom the whole

111
combination

was a single symbol of Christ.1 The most striking difference between types XXVII and XXVIII is the quality and color of the clay. The pale yellow clay, so characteristic of the former, is found only in a few cases of the latter, and these seem to be among the earliest lamps of the type. Apart from these few examples of local make two different kinds of clav appear. By far the largest number are made of a brick red clay which sometimes has turned grayish brown through overheating. To the same variety belong a few lamps of a pale red or buff color, which are underheated specimens. The earliest lamps of this variety are covered with a good brown glaze, but all the later specimens are unglazed. The second variety of clay is dark red, very hard and well baked, and usually
contains white particles of lime. The lamps of this variety are invariably unglazed by fine

and differ from the rest also in shape and workmanship. They are as a rule better
made than those of the first class; the decorations on the rim are rendered

lines; and the reliefs, though often indistinct, are generally well modelled. Several different shapes appear among the lamps of the second class corresponding to those of the first, but they are as a rule flatter, the sides of the body slope more toward the bottom, and the nozzle on all but the earliest examples is little more than a wick-hole on the rim of the lamp. The only signatures on this class are KY and Cm, both of which are also among the most common on the first class.2
The great difference in the clay of types XXVII and XXVIII indicates that the two types were produced at two different centres. It has been shown above that type XXVII was produced chiefly in Corinth and from there was exported to different parts of Greece. Toward the end of the second century, however, imitations of the

Corinthian lamps were produced in other localities, notably at Sparta and Athens. Among the lamps from the Athenian Ceramicus one signed by Minikianos and
a few other fragments are of Corinthian make. Besides these there are some lamps of the local red clay carrying the signature EYNOMOY, which does not appear on any of the lamps from Corinth. They are all of the third variety of type XXVII, but several features indicate that they belong to a late phase of the type. Another potter

who also made lamps in Athens is Preimos, but his lamps are later than those of Eunomos. Since his signature is found also on earlier lamps of indisputably
same monument. also in figures

Cruciform monograms with the rho turned in opposite directions are sometimes found on the Cf. M. A. Frantz, op. cit., p. I3, fig. 2. Lamps of the second class appear on PLATEIS XIII, 829, 883; XIV, 927; XVI, II8i; XIX, I325;
153, 155, 174, 179, I85.

112

CORINTH

Corinthian origin, it seems likely that the Athenian factory was a branch of the one in Corinth, unless we are dealing with two separate firms of the same name. It is

interesting to note that this is the only signature of Latin origin on the lamps made
in Athens. Contemporary with Preimos were two other Attic lampmakers, Pireithos and Elpidephoros, neither of whose names has been found on lamps from Corinth.

The activity of these three seems to have fallen in the early third century, i. e. the
time when the Corinthian lamps were no longer exported to any great extent. The signatures on the later lamps of type XXVIII, from the middle of the third century

and later, are all names of Athenian potters. They have been found in large numbers
in the Ceramicus, where numerous discarded lamps bearing the same signatures have also been discovered. The earliest of these signatures found on lamps from Corinth, is that of Eutyches, usually signed EY. The evidence from the German excavations

in Athens shows that his activity did not begin before the middle of the third century.
He was preceded by Naumachios who copied the lamps of Preimos, and both these

signatures appear on the same lamps. When a certain lamp factorywas taken over by
a new firm it was customary to put the old signature in the centre of the reverse and add the initials of the new maker above. Gradually the old name disappeared and only that of the new firm was given. By a study of these signatures it has been

possible to establish the relative dates of the different lampmakers from the Ceramicus. The lamps from Corinth belonging to the first class of this type are exactly like those from Athens, so that there can be no doubt that they are imported from there. They have also been found at other Greek sites, chief of which are Vari' and the Cave of Pan on Mt Parnes.2 The lamps of the second class, of which no examples have been found in Athens, are apparently imported from some other locality, where lamps of the Christian type were also produced (see under
type XXXI). The fact that two of the Athenian signatures appear on lamps of this

class does not prove that they were made in Athens. These signatures are both very
late, and it is not impossible that some of the Athenian factories in the fourth century established branches in other parts of Greece just as the Corinthian lampmakers of the late second century seem to have done. The signatures are both very indistinct,

showing that the lamps are copies out of moulds made from other lamps. The originals were undoubtedly of Athenian make.
The lamps signed by Eutyches belong to the earliest form of type XXVIII,
1

2

See S. E. Bassett, A.. A., VII. I90, pp. 338 ff. See K. Romaios, 'AQX. 'Ecp., I906, pp. iio ff.; and Skias,

'AQX. 'Ecp., I918, pp. 15 ff.

LAMPS as is shown

113

by the size, the comparatively good workmanship, and the partly perforated handle. As has been mentioned above, these early specimens belong to about the middle of the third century. The passage under the Odeum, referred to above (p. 96), also gives some indications as to the date of the type. The coins from the fill of the manhole in the orchestra date from Hellenistic times to the reign of Alexander Severus, the most numerous being coins of the Antonine period. Only unpainted lampsherds of type XXVII and some earlier fragments were found together with *these coins. If these unpainted lamps continued in use as late as the beginning of the third century, we can safely postulate that the painted lamps of the same type, such as those signed nPeIMOY and KPAYFATOY, are of a later date. These would then belong to the same period as the Preimos lamps from Athens, or, roughly, the first half of the third century. About the middle of that century the. lamp industry of Athens developed rapidly, and from thlat time until the end of the fourth century the Ceramicus lamps were being exported all over Greece. The earliest lamps of type XXVIII fronm Corinth, as has been pointed out above, belong approximately to the middle of the third century. The shape of these is roughly circular, as is the case in the preceding type, and the nozzle is clearly set off from the rim by deep grooves. Gradually both handle and nozzle became less clearly marked off, with the result that the lamps became more and more elongated as they gradually decreased in size. The deterioration of the type, which can be traced through several stages, must have taken a considerable time. In three lamps (Nos. 1 1 5, 11 89, and 11 90) shown in PLATE XVI three such stages appear (cf. also No. 11 88, Fig. 1 78). The best of these (No. 11 85), which is signed EY, belongs to the earliest phase of type XXVIII, and between this and No. 11 90 we must allow for a long period of decline in the lampmakers' craft A comparison of type XXVIII with the lamps from Vari shows that they are roughly of the same date, though none of the Vari lamps is as early as, for example,
our Eutyches lamps. The coins found in the Cave at Vari date the lamps from there

in the fourth century, hence the earliest of the Corinth lamps must belong to the third. These early specimens, however, are comparatively few, so that most lamps of type XXVIII belong to the fourth century and later. It is practically the only type found in the late fill of the Odeum, which is dated by numerous coins in the fourth century. Both the Odeum and the large theatre seem to have been in use till near the end of that century and were probably both destroyed by Alaric.1 In both these places numerous lamps of this type have been discovered. In the area south of the
I Cf. B. I). Meritt, A.J. A., XXXI,

1927, p. 460 and T. L. Shear, A.. A., XXX,

1926, p. 454.

15

The clay is brick red. 141 3). PLATE XX In the preceding section (p. To this category belongs type XXIX. usually the shape of handle and nozzle. in some 2 See A. 52. of a good quality. XXX. The first group2 (PLATE XX. Fig. Just as there is no definite starting point at the beginning of the type. In the majority of cases they consist of simple rosettes so conventionalized as to look more like a circle of loops than a flower. 109) it has been pointed out that certain types reappear after an interval of several hundred years. and rounded nozzle. PLATE XVII. 189) were found in a large jar in a room on the floor of which were numerous coins of the late fourth century. and this leaves sufficient time for the modification within the type. Athens. The numerous representations of the Cross and the Monogram of Christ also point to the fourth century as the time when type XXVIII was being made.but some of the letters are uncertain (see PLATE XX. We may thus conclude that it continued in use from the middle of the third century until the beginning of the fifth. 3247. Within the base-ring is an inscription in raised letters arranged in a circle. flat solid handle. TYPE XXIX Catalogue Nos. although some of the poorest specimens are still later. 1491. All the lamps of this variety have the same inscription. The reliefs are mostly type XXVIII borrowed from earlier types. on which is a tongue pattern like that shown in figure 29. and the more elaborate molofs are badly executed. 52. Were it not for certain features. Parallels: Walters. 1415) is made up of pear-shaped lamps with broad rim.J. it would be difficult to place these in their proper relation to other types. From an artistic point of view is the least interesting of all ancient lamps. p. No. I413-I425. 1413. from which a double or triple ridge extends to the handle and double raised lines on each side of the nozzle.114 CORINTH Museum two lamps of the same type (Nos. .. and one lamp in the Museum at Brindisi.' Both these belong to a late phase of the type. National Museum. so the dividing line between these lamps and the fully developed Christian type is arbitrarily drawn. and 1292. The distinguishing feature of the type is its similarity to the lamps of Hellenistic times. which betray their late date. Thus some of the Christian lamps are certainly earlier than the latest specimens of type XXVIII with pagan motzis. of which there are four groups. A. 1272. I926. No. which seems to read OAVMACIC. Underneath is a base-ring. a moulded ring round the filling-hole.

since a period of over four hundred years elapsed between the two. which this variety further resembles both in clay and glaze. but the latter seems more likely. which it resembles in many respects. Fig. Fig. but the top has some kind of decoration in relief. and there is no glaze. The only possible explanation is that the pre-Roman types lived on somewhere outside of Greece and were brought back at some time in . The second group. No. The handle is like that on the first group. Only five lamps belong to this group. which is the grouped with this type. No. is even more closely related to the Hellenistic lamps than the first (cf. PLATE XX and 1419. 3284 from the National Museum in Athens.LAMPS 115 cases highly micaceous. usually solid handle similar to that on the first variety.the broad rim is a pattern of raised hearts and round shields as well as some small stamped circles. rounded nozzle. PLATE XX) of type XXIX. and the clay is of a coarse drab variety. Underneath is a low base-ring. and flat. resembles the Ephesus type in shape. 201). 1420-1422) belong a few specimens. 1419) has on the reverse a large letter A. The figure of an Orans preserved on one fragment of this variety (No. from which a double raised line extends toward the top on each side of the nozzle. The fourth group (No. Below the handle are traces of pendants. 200) shows that it belongs to the period of the early Christian lamps. small depressed top connected by a broad channel with the wick-hole. The obvious connection of type XXIX with the Hellenistic lamps can hardly be explained on the basis of a direct imitation. It is clear from the shape of the handle and the base-ring that this variety cannot be earlier than the Christian lamps. 3. of which only two fragments have been found in Corinth. characterized by a circular flat body. This is just like that on some lamps of the Dreceding type. To the third group (PLATE XX. On . The circular shape and flat body as well as the quality of the clay show similarity with the smaller lamps of type XXXII. are sufficient proof that the second variety was manufactured in the Athenian Ceramicus and is contemporarywith the later lamps of type XXVIII. the handle ribbed and solid. 1425 (Fig. These points of similarity and the fact that several lamps of this kind have been found in Athens. 1424. exactly like that on the early lamps of type XXVIII. of which two specimens are preserved (Nos. 3). 199). shown in Fig. broad rim with raised patterns. is unique anmong lamps from Corinth. 1423. the nozzle is roughly triangular.Whether it was made in Corinth or was imported is difficult to say. One example (No. There is no glaze. the top is small and either plain or decorated with a ray pattern. No nozzle or reverse is preserved. and the rim has raised designs. 1418.

3 Cf. 2 See also Harvard Excavations at Samar7i. shows beyond a doubt that the development of the lamp did not follow the same course in Egypt as in Greece and Italv. 3. 1059. LVI. II 2. Most of them have two nozzles. which is also found on lamps of Egypt.of the same shape were common in Asia Minor4 and in Egypt in early Christian times. 70.. I. Petrie. pl. The earliest kind of handle. CXL. 911 (PLATE XIII). Hellenistische und Koptische iunst.. Cf. The typology established by Petrie. pi. three. Lamps. cit.2 Although the second group of type XXIX is doubtless of Attic make. LXI. PLATE XIV. consists of a cylindrical stem surmounted by a small loop.J. Lychnos et Lucerna.116 CORINTH the third and fourth centuries. Vienna. One handle of this type (PLATE XX. the handle of which is placed in the centre of the discus so that the lamps could be suspended. 6 Cf.C. There the shapes in use during the second and first centuries B. 5 Similar lamps have been found in Cyprus (Cesnola Coll. 1927. pp. this does not prevent it from being modelled after imported specimens. pl. In the case of the third group a direct importation is more likely. 132. which was not made in a mould but added separately. This is best illustrated by such lamps as are shown on plates LIX- LXI of Petrie's book on Roman Ehnasya. fig. A. Petrie. A. pl. No. Shear. op. it is For the relation between Hellenistic and early Christian art in Egypt. 317 ff. and four nozzles occur. on the Corinth lamp. III.5 That a close connection existed between the lamp industry of Greece and that of Egypt about the time of Constantine is shown by certain patterns such as that on our No. vol. 1039-104I) and Baalbek (Wiegand. 1426) without ribs is made of a dark gray clay and has a metallic glaze like that on the Ephesus lamps. L.' also points to such a connection. also the nozzle with Petrie.. . however. 1426-1450. 24. Such a survival of old types can be traced in Egypt' and in the East. p. and vol. are found with comparatively little change down to early Christian times. LVI. R q. p1. 1309) which is an exact duplicate of Osborne's No.. Ergebnissc dler Alusgrabungen. XXXI. cit. IV. PLATES XX and XXI Type XXX comprises a heterogeneous group of lamps of widely different dates. p. TYPE XXX Catalogue Nos. The shape of the handle divides them into two different groups. op. 1902. Baalbek. vol. fig. 7 Osborne. Roman Ehnasya. II. usually ribbed. 4 See T. but examples with one. see Strzygowski. R o. 59). Unfortunately the great collections of lamps from Roman Egypt have not been satisfactorily published. plates 8i and 89 g. L 5. Since this kind of clay and glaze belongs to the Augustan period and earlier (see under" type XXI)." One lamp of type XXVIII (No.

1429. Only part of a female figure is preserved wearing long hair and a polus and holding a palm branch in the left hand. Two signatures appear. D. and on the edge are two or more grooves. 733 and 734. 1446) is signed XIONHC. of the imported Italian relief lamps and certainly belong to the same period. 1428 and 1431). At the top is a hole for suspension. and one example with four nozzles (No. Walters. Most lamps of this kind are glazed. and the clay is of the pale yellow variety characteristic of type XXVII. but the lamps probably did not differ much in shape from the later lamps of the same variety. These points of evidence indicate that although the second variety of type XXX probably began to be made during the period when type XXVII was still manufactured in Corinth. 1448 (PLATEXXI). These later fragments are all unglazed. are two filling-holes. of which there are several fragments.' The second variety of handle is formed in the mould together with the rest of the lamp (PLATE XXI. 1437. 1439. Two of these are large enough to show the shape of the lamps (PLATE XXI. All the other lamps of this variety. both of which are found on lamps of type XXVII. it is roughly contemporarywith type XXVIII.LAMPS 117 safe to conclude that suspension lamps of this shape began to be used before the beginning of the Christian era. 1434). the nozzle is rounded.One lamp of this kind (No. This is sufficient to show that the unglazed suspension lamps with the first variety of handle belong to-the second century A. is made in the shape of a boat with figures in relief on the top. Several fragments of the first variety are covered with brown or red glaze similar to that. The handle is like that of the earlier lamps. are included with this type. Nos. 1449 and 1450) are too small to show the shape of the lamp. however. and in some cases there are volutes on the shoulder. which is always plain. 1436) is unglazed and made of Corinthian clay. the rest have two nozzles directly opposite each other. ZWCIMACand OKTABIOY (PLATE XXXIII. but a single handle (No. It is usually flat and considerably shorter than that on the first variety. 1433). 1433) has a single nozzle. One of these.one of the most common signatures on the late lamps of type XXVIII. Only some handles of these early suspension lamps have been preserved (PLATE XX. resemble type XXVIII both in shape and quality of clay. No. one on each side of the handle. cf. A similar lamp has been found at the Ceramicusin Athens. Three fragments of late Roman lamps. the rim has usually an ovule pattern. (PLATE For other examples of lamps with the handle in the centre and only one nozzle. and were manufacturedin Corinth. 1447). which do not admit of classification. and on the top. The other two fragments XXI. .

is probably its close resemblance to the palm branch. which on the lamps of the second and third centuries (Types XXVII and XXVIII) extends but slightly outside the rim. studded triangles. and for that reason it has been necessary to class some lamps with unmistakably Christian symbols with type XXVIII. but the herring-bone pattern is common both on the Christian and late Roman types. and the similarity of the two types is dae to imitation on the part of the Greek lampmakers. 204). which are vely common on lamps of this type from Italy and North Africa.. the distinguishing features of which are: a solid. there are no lamps of type XXXI from Corinth with pagan mootils. 1471. 1468. 1472 and 1474) it may have some meaning unknown to us. as we shall see. This merging of the two types is not to be explained on the basis of a gradual development of type XXXI from type XXVIII. Three early fragments . knob-like handle without grooves. and the nozzle. 53).and in the few cases where it seems to be ornamental (Nos. so common on these lamps. Although Christian designs appear on late Roman lamps.118 CORINTH TYPE XXXI Catalogue Nos. Among the lamps of type XXVIII there is a gradual approach toward the shape of the Christian lamps. Type XXXI contains all the fully developed Christian lamps. on those of the late fourth century is longer but less clearly set off from the body than on the earlier lamps. birds. developed outside of Greece. 1451-1500. and a base-ring from which a ridge extends to the handle. broad shallow channel from the discus to the wick-hole. which here has symbolic significance. and the messenger with a cluster of grapes (No. there are only two examples from Corinth. For decorations on the rim several different patterns are used which do not appear on the earlier lamps. The former. Several different kinds of clay appear in this type. that of Abraham offering up Isaac (No. Of pictures from the Old Testament. Fig. wheels. The reason for its presence on the Christian lamps I I 1468 Figure 53. Raised dots and circles are probably used as pure decorations. etc. The body became more and more elongated as the type developed. are undoubtedly symbols of the Christian Church.but the small palm trees. depressed rim with raised decorations. on which pagan motils predominate. PLATES XXI and XXII Between the late Ronlan and the early Christian lamps there is no break. Fig. hearts.Likewise the design on the discus is nearly always of distinctly Christian character.

Only two kinds of discus design.4 and in the Cave at Vari. so that in some cases. the bird (PLATE XXII. Parnes. on the rim of which are impressions were of coins of Theodosius II (401-450 A. 481. no lamps of type XXXI discovered. p. pl. I886. 9I. d'Arch. according to Paolo Orsi. The latter is particularly interesting because it shows a confusion in the mind of the makers between the palm tree and the Christian cross. No lamps of type XXXI. AEkT. XXXVI. 'Rom. 1484 (PLATE XXXIII). have the maker's signature. 3. See also Blanchere and and Gauckler. XCVII. ct d'Hist. 1493 and 1499). Both the trunk and the branches of the tree are studded as if to indicate jewels. and these are identical with the late lamps from Corinth.LAMPS 11 9 (Nos. p.). Keramopoullos. and the three imported fragments of bright red clay mentioned above are probably as early as that3 The majority. I. Suppl. These are better made than most of the others and are certainly imported. II. : Cf. resembles some of the lamps found in Syracuse. probably from Italy. and in the later examples of this group the tree has assumed the shape of a cross. 1451. but it is unlikely that any examples from Corinth are later than the sixth century. however. No. but it is not easy in every case to distinguish this clay from that of the others.e Alaoui. Le Blant. 'Un fragment de lampe chTetienne et une lampe entiree. 1486 and 1489) and the palm tree (PLATE XXII.D. 104.. Lamps of this type have been found elsewhere. can have been made only in Athens. with one possible exception. Rev. p. 1454 (PLATE XXII). must belong to the fifth century. 1499 (PLATE XXII). 2 the lamps from the Athenian Ceramicus there Among 'AQX. I897. ituse Alaonzi plates XXXV.1 One group of sixteen lamps is of Athenian make.. One beautiful example. appear on this group.' They are comparatively small and made of the same soft red clay which is used in nearly all the late lamps of type XXVIII. which. but there are few lamps from Athens that the lampmakers' quarters were removed after the destructions caused by the barbarian invasions at the end of the fourth century. are not many specimens of this of any type as late as these. in which were found several coins from the end of the fourth century. The other lamps belonging to this type are made of different kinds of clay. 4 Muset.color. Melanges . The reason is probably type.. See Delattre. one variety of which is like the second class of type XXVIII. Hautecoeur. p. are importations from Africa. The late lamps from the Cave on Mt. 7Tun. The Christian type of lamps developed in the West as early as the fourth century.. No. 1452. e. No. and the new quarters have not yet been discovered.. 230 and pl. Quart..g. and 1453) are bright red and have a slip of the same. How long the type continued in use is difficult to determine. it is difficult to tell which of the two symbols the maker had in mind. I917. III. which show a direct development from the lamps of the fourth century.

is decorated with reliefs. did. From the context in which type XXXII has been found it can be dated approximately in the same period as the Christian lamps. p. 206). Max Bauer. The third variety. 18-28. 488 and pl. p. as well as the small. and the clay of the first two varieties is also similar to that of the Syracusan lamps. the nozzle was lengthened by the introduction of the channel on the neck. But with the Christian lamps other types also developed. IO-13. Tonlampen. Cf. 2I. The peculiar shape of type XXXII shows that it did not develop from any of the more common types in Greece. Quart. In the discussion of type XXVIII has been of the'Roman lamp from the circular shape with well developed nozzle to the boatshaped lamps of the late fourth century. 1909. The separate features again became more distinctly set off from each other. also Not. Corinth is apparently the only Greek site where it has been found. According to Paolo Orsi it was produced at Syracuse. 1507. On the reverse is a base-ring. rosettes. but no distinctly Christian symbols have been found on lamps See Ront. consisting of rows of dolphins. where numerous lamps of this type have been discovered. from which rises a cone-shaped knob-handle.' Not only is the shape of the lamps from Syracuse the same as that of the Corinth lamps.not find their way to Greece. is type XXXII. The nozzle does not appreciably project from the rim but consists merely of a circular wick-hole. Two sniall lamps are made of porous clay of a drab gray color. Cf. The third variety is brick red and rather hard. is probably a Greek imitation of the imported lamps. Friihchristhlcher with the latter our Nos. but the patterns are the same. within which there are in some cases raised dots or circles or crude birds in outline form (No. The rim. fig. of which only two examples have been found. It comprises a small number of flat circular lamps with broad rim. PLATE XXIII.. 25. and besides.120 CORINTH TYPE XXXTT PLATE XXIII traced the gradual modification Catalogue Nos. The best examples are made of a pale red clay of good quality resembling that of the imported Christian lamps. and thus the lamp became more elongated in shape. Fig. leaf patterns. A peculiar kind of lamps. I897. 363. p. Scav. Der Bilderschmuck . however. With the introduction of the Christian lamps the shape was further changed. I501-I5I0. of which a few examples have been found in Corinth.. on which the nozzle merges into the rim. slightly depressed discus. resembling that of the second class of type XXVIII. circles. and all sorts of conventional designs. most of which. III. The clay is of three varieties. 1502 and i506. The decoration according to Orsi is Christian. above all.

. See B. indicates that the colony existed several centuries later. 32. 15II-5I5. Nicolas. vertical. 1 51 5). These figures are not modelled but are made from incised lines in the mould. 157.LAMPS 121 of this type from Corinth. Studti Cathohica. Tun. 1512 (PLATE XXIII). In type XXXIII.3 it is significant 1 2 that it does not appear on any lamps of Roin. 'Uit de could be either Christian or (Geschiedenis 3 van Korinthos in de Dagen van Paulus'. See H. 1506 (PLATE XXIII). but later he inclined toward the view that it is the latter. note 60. and F.1 One small fragment. 1511 (PLATE XXIII).J. p. p. they are probably intended as a single arm. Rev. Corznth. p. I907. de Waele. The guilloche pattern on No. Outside of this decorated rim there is often a plain slanting surface which extends down to the seam formed by joining the two halves of the lamp. which has the form of a cross. XXXII. 1903. 'Une Collection 16 . whereas the rim proper has degenerated into a narrow channel either plain or decorated with a row of raised dots. I64. J. as well as some Hebrew gravestones. have a crude figure of a bird on the discus (PLATE XXIII. M. which are exactly alike. We know from the New Testament that there was a large Jewish colony in Corinth in the first century of our era. therefore. Three lamps of this type. 1928. Since they lack the small knob at the ends. which the other arms have. No. Concerning this technique Inscriptzons see Wollmann. de Lanimpes Antiques'. not be surprising to find that the Jews had their own lamps with symbols different from those of the Christian Church. It would. A. has on the discus a figure which may have been meant to represent the Seven-Branched Candlestick. and an inscription from a Jewish synogogue2 found east of the Lechaeum Road. A. If this interpretation is correct we may have here a fragment of a Jewish lamp. and from the similarity in rim decoration between this fragment and the other lamps of the type it seems likely that they all belong together. Delattre was first of the opinion that the Mosaic Candlestick Jewish always (Lamnpes. Three are preserved on one side and there probably was an equal number on the other side. in one case. seems to be purely ornamental. Powell. VII. which seems to have developed from the Christian lamps. this slanting surface is decorated with raised lines. but usually oblique. I880. Mitt. p. No. but the fragment is too small to show for certain how many branches it had. The top branch seems to be divided in two. Though the Seven-Armed Candlestick can also be a Christian symbol. 39). p. and the same is probably true of the dolphins.Cre'tiennes de Carthage. with the result that a shallow depression was formed.. PLATE XXIII On the Christian lamps the rim design was usually impressed after the lamps were taken out of the mould. TYPE XXXIII Catalogue Nos. but that may be due to the presence of the filling-hole between the two prongs. 1917. from 3..

with depressed top. 'AQX. ISI7-I546. the only lamp of its kind found in Greece. op. and a wick-hole at the other end of the lamp. Nicolas. p. I897. 32..differ from those of the prehistoric age. though it may be from different centres since they are not all of the same kind of clay. See II. 'ElatQiaL. 21 ff. open loop-handle much like that on the wheel-made lamps of Roman times (Type XVI). Philadelpheus without comment as to date and classification. The lamps of type XXXIII are probably all imported.. 1516. are not included in our Catalogue. but the nozzle is not set off from the body. so that there can hardly be any doubt that the Corinth lamp was imported from there. XXIV The history of the ancient lamps from Corinth might well close with type XXXIV. It may be a crude representation of the Mosaic Candlestick. The shape. a single filling-hole near the handle. certo siciliane.122 CORINTH the Christian type from Corinth or on the late Roman lamps of type XXVIII. C't. p. This kind of handle is not found on any of the Roman lamp types later than the first century A. Those published by him. though Byzantine pottery by A. pp. At the back is a large. The lamp in question is apparently made by hand of coarse. PLATE XXIII Of type XXXIV there is only a single example in Corinth.II e che deriva da fabbriche /orse siracusane. Quart. drab-colored clay and lacks decoration other than some raised lines on the top resembling a tree or a palm branch. dates the type in the fifth and early sixth centuries. The design seems to have been made by impression. In clay and shape the lamp from Corinth is exactly like those from Syracuse. TYPE XXXIV Catalogue No.2 Concerning this type he says further: E unaforma chedeve aver-avutogran voga nei secoli V. 487 and pl. but is common on the later lamps of the Byzantine period. 3 A number of Byzantine lamps from Corinth together with some other in A?TtiOV Tlri XQLTr. of oblong shape. 2 Rom. were published . D. 1923.1and on some lamps from Syracuse with a similar design Orsi recognized the rosary chain round the centre. so far as I know. which closely resembles that of the Christian lamps. and this is. II. The last three types belong to a later epoch and differ from the lamps of the classical period as much as the latter . It is small. Th. BYZANTINE TYPE Catalogue LAMPS3 XXXV PLATE Nos. which are now in the Monasteraki Museum in Athens. where the type is very common.

and it has no handle and no glaze. The lamps of type XXXV are all wheel-made. but this was attached to some kind of a stand. with the exception of a few early specimens.LAMPS 123 The reason for including these late types in the same publication with the classical lamps is rather to show the contrast than the relation of the two classes. corresponding to the wide rim of type XXXV. one of which is shown in PLATE XXIV. but on the later lamps it is turned down in front of the wick-hole. and the depression formed by the rim and the top. and. This arrangement rendered the small semi-globular top useless. Another lamp. 1 518. That the type originated from lamps like those of classical times seems likely from certain transitional specimens. and sometimes the rim at this point is bent down so as to form an open nozzle in which the wick rested. of the later specimens. 1520) is of practically the same shape but had a vertical handle attached with one end to the edge of the rim and with the other to the top near the filling-hole. The closed top is surrounded by a narrow depression. It is important to note that both these lamps are unglazed. they are covered with a hard glaze which is characteristic of mediaeval pottery in general. but this may be wholly accidental. 1517 (Fig. This leaves very little space for oil below the wick-hole. hence the wick was no longer inserted in the wick-hole but left on the outside. as are also a few of the fully developed examples of the type. but the top gradually becomes more convex in shape and smaller in diameter. and the nozzle is nothing more than a small hole pierced at the very edge of the rim. They have the shape of a shallow bowl with a convex top surrounded by a broad rim which slopes toward the centre. The relation of these two to the rest is quite apparent The lamp which comes nearest to them in shape is No. One glazed lamp without a stand (No. The top is not clearly marked off from the rim. 1519 (PLATE XXIV). consequently the wick must have been placed at the edge of the rim. There is at least a superficial resemblance between this lamp and type XXXII. In the earliest examples of the type the body is comparativelv deep and the top less convex than in the later lamps. On most of the lamps with brown glaze the rim is perfectly circular. so as to leave a deep depression between it and the rim (see PLATE XXIV. 1530). This shape continues in the main throughout the series. On the side of the top is a small wick-hole. . which is near the bottom of the convex top. showing the early development of the 1517 type is No. 54) which has a handle like that Figure 54. as in the later specimens. filled with oil.

which comprises a number . in turn. which was pinched up so as to form a nozzle.J. continued until the top completely disappeared. 1546. Corresponding to the gradual development in shape of type XXXV a development in the use of glaze can be traced. but this is comparatively rare. Of a later date is the green glaze.124 CORINTH and the burning end extended over the' rim.of lamps set on See A.' TYPE XXXVI PLATE XXIV Catalogue Nos. pp. From these. which has been traced in the preceding type. and the relief ware and incised decorations went out of use. This is essentially the shape of type XXXVI. and the same can be said of incised ware with brown glaze. it is safe to state that the brown glaze on Byzantine lamps is distinctly earlier than the green and that the latter did not come into use much earlier than the tenth century. The periods naturally overlap to a great extent. The date of type XXXV can be fixed with reasonable accuracy from the stratification in a series of late Byzantine houses excavated behind the Museum in 1926. I547-I550. I926.. and at a still later period the designs were painted on the pottery.2Since this agrees well with the development in shape which has been traced above.1 Numerous lamps of this type with brown glaze were found in the same rooms and at the same level as coins from the time of John Zemisces. whereas the lamps with green glaze were found at a distinctly higher level in the same area. 3 It would be rash to fix a definite chronology of the pottery on the basis of the evidence from the lamps. but the great majority has a hard brown glaze covering the top and the inside of the rim. In the excavations conducted in I929 to the north of the Peribolus of Apollo similar results were obtained. and then to green and. the other with green or yellow glaze and usually with incised or painted designs. Relief ware with green glaze is also found. 1545) the wick-hole is altogether too small for a wick and on another (No.A. developed the incised ware. These form the transition to the next type.yellow. but in the main the development seems to be from unpainted ware to brown glaze. Similarly the earliest form of decoration on the pottery consists of raised figures on which details are often added by incised lines. which is found on a few lamps of type XXXV and is the most common glaze on the following two types. . In one of the late lamps of this type (No. A few of the earliest specimens are unglazed. 49 ff. 2 XXX. Corresponding to these two classes of lamps there are two classes of Byzantine pottery: one with brown glaze and figures in relief. PLATE XXITV) it is merely indicated on the outside. and what remained was an open lamp with unbridged nozzle formed by the bent up rim. The gradual degeneration of the convex top.

The lamps are double.. No. UNCLASSIFIED Catalogue Nos. Keramopoullos. That these lamps were not meant to be carried about is shown by the absence of the handle found on both of the preceding two types. 'AeX. Both the shape and the glaze show that types XXXVI and XXXVII are roughly of the same date. 4 and 5. PLATE XXIV Closely allied to the preceding two types is type XXXVII. No.e. 1558 (PLATE XXIV). 129 ff. 1926.. It resembles a type of mediaeval lamps common in Egypt. i. but sometimes the lower part of the support is left unglazed. I923. consequently later than the tenth century.. . I558-1560.. is probably much earlier than the others. which is unglazed. 34. but the latter is in no case preserved. striking similarity In Egypt and Syria the old lamp types continued . 21. 1552).LAMPS 125 a high stand. One of these. but the close relation of the two types makes it likely that they are not far apart in date. pp. AeXk. and cf. p. 56. Ae^?k1ov trs XQLot. probably belonging to this type. 2 The of this lamp with certain Hellenistic types is hardly accidental. which on this type projects over the upper lamp and is usually hollow or pierced at the end.' which are usually covered with a green glaze. TYPE XXXVII Catalogue Nos. which is probably a survival of the convex top on the preceding type. 'AQX. which was made for suspension. See references under type XV. which continues below the lamps and forms the support. X. Most lamps of this type have a green glaze. p. PLATE XXIV Three late lamps which cannot be classed with any of the types above require special mention. The upper lamp has a conical projection in the centre. 1551-1557. consisting of two lamps joined by a cylindrical stem. Lamps of ' For whole lamps of type XXXVI from Corinth see Philadelpheus. In the preceding type several lamps with green glaze were set on a stand. Two or three lamps are attached one above the other to a cylindrical stem. so that a chain for suspension could be attached to it. figs. but one fragment (No. 'EraLQia.' These lamps with standards apparently gave rise to type XXXVI.with little change in shape and were brought back to Europe centuries later. The glaze on type XXXVII is usually either green or yellow. has brown glaze. As to the date we can only state that type XXXVI belongs to a later development than the preceding. and it is likely that the two existed side by side for a long period of time.

seem to belong to a much later date.126 CORINTH a somewhat similar shape. No. found in Carthage. In XXIV. Loti s. Blanchere and Gauckler. Musee Alaoiti. 32. but the fact that they are wheel-made and covered with green glaze shows their late date. 1559 (Fig. p. 210). ' elattre. One. St.1 The other two lamps. which are glazed. pi. dl z . Lcs Lamp's Ant. are dated by Delattre at the end of the Byzantine or the beginning of the Arab period. XXXVI. 1560) resemble earlier types with well shape these two lamps (See PLATE developed nozzles. Cf. . 52. was found behind the Museum in the fill of a cesspool of late Byzantine or Turkish times.

CATALOGUE .

the width (W. The first of these is the catalogue number. in the top are referred to as filling-holes. . p. top (used instead of discus in the case of pre-Roman lamps and sometimes as a general term including both rim and discus). The small hole in the neck or at the edge of the discus is called sometimes oil-hole sometimes air-hole (see Introduction. For the oil-container the Latin term znfundzbulumis used. are designated "Theatre Area". Thus No. The third is his serial number. Some fragments from the same excavations. 9-17). VII. not included in Professor Shear's inventory. that at the end of the nozzle as wick-hole. 860 in the Corinth Inventory of Terracotta lamps.) are given.. p. diamenter (Diam. Walters. 1903.) includes the nozzle but not the handle. and lamp No. No.) is the distance from the bottom to the top exclusive of the handle. In the case of certain lamps of circular shape (types XXXII and XXXV) only two measurements. The part between the nozzle and the discus I call the "neck" in preference to Walters' term "base of the nozzle". 260 in Professor Shear's Inventory of Finds. Three measurements are usually given of each complete lamp. The large hole.EXPLANATORY NOTES All the lamps in the Catalogue have two numbers and some have four. The length (L. 46 in the same inventory.) is measured across the lamp at its widest point. nozzle. 34I). sides. The second (within parentheses) is that of the Corinth Inventory of Terracotta Lamps. 220 in the Catalogue is No. the latter not being an essential part of the lamp. and reverse are commonly used in other publications (cf. and the fourth is the number of the lamp in his inventory. The names for the parts of the lamp: handle.) and height (H. AJ.. xiii. pp. which is used in all the references to the lamps in this publication. and Bassett. A. discus. or holes. rim. The third and fourth (within parentheses) are the numbers given by Professor Shear to the lamps discovered in the excavations conducted by him in the Theatre and surrounding area. the height (H. This is written with indelible ink on the lamps after the legend C L (Corinth Lamp).

unglazed. L. W. 7.045. Slightly curving sides. micaceous. Resembling the preceding but with a more angular profile. L. H. 0. flat narrow rim projecting toward the outside. Curving sides.022. W. 0. made by hand. no glaze. Same shape as the preceding but with narrow flat rim. ca. W.082. U unlessotherwise stated the Greek lamps are made on the wheel.075. 0. Similar in shape. Mottled red and buff clay. no handle. 6 (1).' Cf.02. 0.051. 7 (2). 17 .016.GREEK LAMPS TYPE I 1 (3). Nozzle and front part broken away. 0. Reddish brown clay. narrow rim.023. L. H.085. nozzle as above. W.076. W. 0.021. Handle missing. Nozzle and front part missing. L. Pale yellow clay. Made by hand. rounded reverse. 0. PLATE I. Straight sides. Nozzle restored. unglazed. (1344). 0. 0. small spoon-shaped nozzle with large wick-hole. 5 (716). Yellow clay.062. Pale yellow clay. 0. central open socket. 0. unglazed. slightly raised base. unglazed. Yellow clay. H. 2 (4). nozzle as above. unglazed. Curving sides merging into rim. 3. W.098. pl. 0. PLATE I. H. 0. 0. Waldhauer. H. H. flat vertical handle. no base.096. (. no rim.065. 0. Yellow clay. 4 (7).026. I. unglazed. made by hand. no base.

W.016. Pale red clay. Similar. W. W. 0. Bottom and part of side broken away.062. Similar. W. Similar shape. H. unglazed. H. 0. 0. Yellow clay.11. End of nozzle broken away. 20 (711). flat rim with outer edge slightly projecting. L. Nozzle and front part broken away.059. Pale yellow clay. Pale yellow clay. Nearly straight sides.019. unglazed. very low base. broad vertical handle. unglazed. 13 (5). L. Similar in shape. vertical ribbed handle. clay. Similar in shape but with triangular horizontal knob handle. 19 (710). micaceous. Fragment. unglazed. Part of bottom broken away. . Similar in shape but with rounded reverse. H. 0.075. PLATE I.019. 16 (6). H.06. unglazed.069. unglazed. no handle. 0. Similar shape. unglazed. W. PLATE I. 0. W. L.130 CORINTH 8 (71 7). Similar profile. 0. 0. L. 0.073. raised rim with edge turned out. Figure 15. no handle. no handle. Fragment. Straight sides.025. flat rim projecting toward the inside.016. Pale yellow clay. 0. W. L. H. 0. 10 (1341). 0. no glaze. L. nozzle as above.05.051. 0. unglazed.061.02. 0. 0. H. 11 (1340). Pale yellow clay.065. small nozzle close to rim.017. H. Yellow 12 Figure 55 14 (8). central socket. Figure 55. 0. but the rim projects more toward the outside. unglazed. 0. Pale yellow clay. 18 (715). 0. 0. H. unglazed. 12 (1342). low base.059.079. L. 0. raised base.016. Pale yellow clay. unglazed. 0.015. Pale yellow clay. W. 0. Curving sides. 17 (10).053. Similar shape but with no central socket. 9 (14). open. Reddish brown clay. 0. 15 (708). 0. Yellow clay. unglazed. H. W. Fragment.093. 0.052. no base. Fragment. Pale yellow clay. Similar.

0. PLATE I. 0. H.021.016. 0. Similar. no handle. L. W.058. Similar but with no base. Similar. H. front half of lamp dipped in black glaze.081. 0. Similar. 25 (719). 0. W. unglazed. . 0. 0. Similar but with wider rim. Nozzle missing. W. Yellow clay. Similar shape but with raised base and no knobs.075. Pale yellow clay. unglazed. front half dipped in black glaze. 0. L. four small knobs on reverse.036. 0. 0. 0. unglazed. flat rim projecting toward the outside.051 . 27 (720). unglazed. very low base. H. 0. H.065. 30 (9). 0.02. 0. nozzle and front part dipped in poor black glaze. W. H. Similar shape. L.017. W. W. 0. front half dipped in black glaze. 0. 0. H. 0. 0.017.084. Theatre Area. PLATE I. nozzle as above. 0. L. Pale yellow clay. 31 (11). L.062.015.024. reddish brown glaze on inside and reverse. 24 (709). 0. Fragment. 0.026. 0.038.021. 0.06. Similar in profile but with raised base-ring on the reverse and flat horizontal handle. 23 (714). L. low base.078.078.LAMPS 21 (712). Small lamp with curving sides merging into the rim. Pale yellow clay. Figure 15. 131 26 (718).07.07. W. Similar. L. 0. Pale yellow clay. Pale red clay. Pale yellow clay.073. 0. W. 28 (721). H.064. H. 29 (722). L. Fragment. 0. 0. End of nozzle restored.064. H. Pale red clay. Similar. 0. front half dipped in poor black glaze. front half covered with red glaze. Pale yellow clay. Yellow clay. 0.073. W. 33 (25).049.013. W. W. W. Pale yellow clay.06. 32 (1343).058. unglazed. open central socket.01 7. unglazed. Pale red clay. H.06. L. 0. Similar in shape but without base. 0. L. Yellow clay. 0. H. 0. unglazed. 22 (713).014. Curving sides. H. 0.049. Similar. 34 (826). Pale yellow clay. L.

078. 37 (723). unglazed. Nozzle and front Small lamp of the same shape as No. Figure 56. Figure 57. unglazed.065. Pale yellow clay. large nozzle with the wick-hole well removed from the rim. Figure 16. only parts of two such lamps are preserved but probably there was one more. broad flat base. W. Similar in shape but without handle. H. H. W. the nozzle is covered with reddish brown glaze. H.039. 40 (28). 0.018. 0. Fragment of a flat. part missing. no handle. Pale red clay. PLATE I. 0. front half dipped in black glaze. 0. CORINTH L. Small lamp with curving sides merging into a wide rim. 0. 42 (827). The lamps were made separately on the wheel and attached to the base. Figure 57.04. 0. crescent-shaped base. 0. Similar. 0. Pale yellow clay. 0.047. H. L. L. W.018. Pale yellow clay.03. 0. 0. . Handle broken away.015. 39 (27). Figure 17. 0. 43 (1331). handle at the back.014. Yellow clay. L. 3r 39 Figure 57. 36 (24). 35 but with wider rim. 0.065. 0.066. unglazed.065. 0. W. 0. H. H. W. 41 (31). 0.052. Pale red clay.056. L.014.048. Curving sides merging into the rim. 0. unglazed. Similar in shape but with horizontal handle. on which small lamps of the same shape as No.051.042. front half dipped in poor black glaze. Figure 56. no rim. 0. L. Theatre Area. small nozzle with large wick-hole close to 36 the rim. high stem-like base. unglazed. Lamp shaped like a flat-bottomed boat with straight sides and square infundi- bulum. Pale yellow clay. unglazed. W.016. 38 (724).132 35 (1326). 34 were attached. Yellow clay. Pale yellow clay. Handle and nozzle broken away. W. 0. Similar. H.

inside and nozzle covered with reddish brown glaze. 49 (874). 48 (35). fine black glaze on nozzle. slightly micaceous. inside painted red. Similar in shape. Similar in shape. concave on the reverse. Fragment. inside. broad flat rim projecting toward the outside. Grayish brown clay. slightly micaceous. Similar shape but with two nozzles.LAMPS TYPE II 44 (12). 4i (1012). nozzle. one opposite the other. Fragment. 50 (1013). Theatre Area. inside. Red clay. good black glaze on nozzles. Reddish clay. micaceous clay. large wickholes partly within the outer edge of the rim. and alternating spiral bands of black and red glaze on the rim. flat rim projecting toward the outside and with outer edge turned up so as to form a flange. Curving sides. 51 (1552) (T432-L97). Similar in shape. Fine red clay. 52 (878). Fragment. Buff clay. Fragment. and top of rim. 133 Fragment. the outside polished and partly colored with miltos. PLATE I. and outer band of rim with yellow glaze. thin yellow slip on the outside. thin. Pinkish clay. highly micaceous. flat bottom. Similar in shape. Theatre Area. Similar in shape. nozzle. central socket. yellow slip on the outside. 45 (13). Similar shape. and inner edge of the rim covered with a poor brown glaze. inside and inner band of rim covered with black glaze. Fragment. and inner edge of the rim covered with a light brown glaze. Red. rim. rim and inside covered with fine black glaze. short triangular nozzle with wick-hole close to the rim. and inside. bottom polished and colored red. dark brown I glaze applied on the inside and in bands on the rim. Grayish brown clay. 47 (1345). PLATE I. inside. PLATE I. Fragment. Fragment. Theatre Area. . Fragment. Curving sides. Good reddish clay.

56 (101 1). Same shape.085. Pale red clay. Red clay. Fragment. Pale yellow clay.134 CORINTH 53 (876). 0. PLATE II. 55 (34). The handle and right side are missing. H. red clay.066. 0. Similar in shape. micaceous. black glaze on the nozzle. Straight sides diverging toward the top. the IV . W. ca. 0. 0. Theatre Area. 60 (17). red clay. 0. PLATE I. dark brown I. Curving sides merging into a slightly overhanging rim.075. slightly micaceous. brown glaze on the inside and in bands on the rim.022.075. W. Pale yellow clay. narrow flat rim not projecting toward the outside. L. raised base. nozzle. brown glaze applied on the conical projection in the centre and in bands on the rim. Similar in shape but with a raised base and with no handle. Soft. Fragment Similar shape but without raised base. Handle restored. horizontal band handle. Grayish brown clay. poor black glaze. PLATE 58 (877). H.015. PLATE I. slightly glaze on the inside and in bands on the rim. no base. dark brown glaze on the inside. conical projection in the centre. largely peeled off. L. 0.072. TYPE III 54 (1336). Similar shape. 0. broad flat rim. 0. Fragment. TYPE 59 (36). rim and inside. Soft. dull black glaze covering the whole lamp. Fragment. Fragment. Almost straight sides. micaceous. W. 61 (1562) (T471-L112). H. no base. Similar in shape but with narrower rim. 62 (18).053.092. and in bands on the rim. W. Fragment. 0. small nozzle with wickhole close to the rim.026. Theatre Area. black glaze on the inside and in bands on the rim. PLATE I. H. Grayish brown clay. Grayish brown clay. Curving sides Inerging into the rim. Pale yellow clay. 0. slightly micaceous.02. on the rim alternating bands of yellow and mottled red and black glaze. Fragment. 0. raised base. open central socket. 57 (1014). L.

Theatre Area.096. The handle and parts of the side are broken away. 0. L. Pale yellow clay. Part of the right side is restored. 0. I. 0.068. Pale yellow clay.025. mottled black and brown glaze. L. 67 (1530) (T580-L161).074.093. 0. 65 (21). 69 (813) (T73-L21). The handle. and inside are covered with black glaze which is largely peeled off. H. covered with dull black glaze. W.7~ k */~~~~~? w ~~~~~~~~~~~~i Figure ()G 59. 63 (19).072. 70 (875). pl.025. H.09. The handle and right side are missing. 0. 0. 0.018.029. Same shape. Same shape. 0. dull black glaze. PLATE II. 0. Buff clay. 0. Buff clay. nozzle and handle as on the preceding. horizontal band handle. Red clay. L. 0. 0. W. right side.026.075.093. 0. Figure 59. Only the front half is preserved. black glaze on the whole lamp except on the base and bands on the rim. gently curving rim. 68 (16). Cf. dull black glaze. Soft red clay. Figure 58. small nozzle with the wick-hole removed from the rim. 0. partly peeled off. largely peeled off. raised base. raised base. black glaze covering the whole lamp except the base. W.LAMPS 135 nozzle.072. 9. Waldhauer. W. 0. Curving sides merging into a slightly overhanging rim. in other respects like the preceding. 63 (5 Figure 58. faint traces of black glaze which once covered the whole lamp. W. L. .095.066. 0. H. H. Figure 58. L. 0. 0. Good red clay.074. Figure 59. H. Similar in shape but deeper and with wick-hole farther removed from the rim. 0. W.021. 64 (20). rim. Same shape.092.023. mottled red and black glaze. Red clay. :. 66 (1528) (T736-L1 64). The handle and end of the nozzle have been restored. H. Sides almost vertical. 0. W. H. Almost straight sides. and nozzle are missing. Same shape. L.

79 (1544) (T410-L89). Reddish buff clay. PLATE II. Similar shape. The handle and nozzle have broken off.029.026. 0. 0. 0. Reddish buff clay. 0. faint traces of black the whole lamp. Similar in shape but with a wider rim and no handle.025. H. W. 0. H. L. H. 72 (1529) (T747-L165). The handle and end of the nozzle are missing.028. H. Parts of the rim and right side are broken away. glaze which once covered shape. dull black glaze. Similar shape. 81 (873).066.03. W. 80 (22). 0. 0.095. 0.022. 0.10. 0. W. Red clay. W.06. 75 (1325). W. 0. W. The handle is missing.061. 73 Figure 60. 0. H.066. dull black glaze. 0. Like the preceding but with sides more curving. 0. 0.063. Similar in shape. H. The handle and right side are broken away. good black glaze. W. The handle.028. nozzle. H. Buff clay. mottled black and brown glaze. 0. Similar in shape. L. W. 0. Red clay. The handle and end of the nozzle are missing. largely peeled off.095. thin. W.136 71 (1324). Similar in shape but with the rim less overhanging. mottled black and brown glaze.071. The handle is missing. Soft. Reddish clay. H. Pale yellow clay.072. 0. ca. H. 78 (53). Same shape. 0. The handle is broken away. Theatre Area.065. largely peeled off. L. Pale yellow clay. Figure 60. reddish brown glaze. dull black glaze. L. 73 (23). 0. H. 76 (814) (T51-L16). good black glaze. red clay. Theatre Area.023. Similar in shape but with a rim more overhanging.066. and right side are missing. red glaze. 0. mottled black and brown glaze.085.069.03. broad nozzle with the wick-hole well removed from the rim. L. The end of the nozzle and part of the left side are broken away. H. Reddish clay. Similar shape.028. 74 (812). 0. Similar W. 77 (815) (T74-L22).024. CORINTH L. . 0. 0.099. 0. 0.086.09. 0. 0. Buff clay. L.

0.07. black glaze. no base. Buff clay.057. Curving sides merging into the rim. 0.041. Similar.041. TYPE V 91 (792).LAMPS 82 (816) (T279-L54). 86 (1328). 89 (29).078. 0.025.054. . W. Ash gray clay. 0. traces of black glaze which once covered the whole lamp. Buff clay. dull black glaze. short nozzle. PLATE II.05.04. 0. L. L. L. Similar in shape but with a low base. H. 0. The handle is missing. PLATE II. H. 0. 87 (26). 0.015. 85 (15). H. The nozzle is broken away. mottled black and red glaze. W. W. 0. Buff clay. slip of' the same color as the clay on the rest of the lamp. 0. Pale yellow clay. 83 (55). Small lamp of similar shape with horizontal handle. W.014. ca. Grayish brown clay. 90 (1137).054. W. no handle. 0.085. The handle and part of the bottom are missing. L.017.018. 0. Similar in shape but without a handle. partly peeled off. 88 (30).058. Small lamp almost spherical in shape. Good red clay. Buff clay. H.03. 0. largely peeled off. 137 Similar in shape but deeper. Small flat lamp with curving sides merging into the rim. horizontal handle.06.058. 18 Figure Figure 6 61. black glaze on the rim and inside. black glaze.029. L.032. 0. H. H. low base. L. 0.015. 0. Reddish clay. the inner edge of which has a raised band.043. H. W. 0. mottled red and black glaze. 0. Only the right half is preserved. 0. W. 0. Fragment. black glaze. Small lamp of similar shape but without the handle. vertical band handle. dull. Red clay. H. 84 (54). The end of the nozzle is missing. The nozzle and front part are broken away. mottled red and black glaze. PLATE II. 0. 0. Figure 61. no base. the wick-hole is close to the rim.075. 0. 0. The handle is missing. mottled black and brown glaze. H. Similar in shape but with a wider rim. L. W.

0. 96 (1351). L. flat U-shaped handle. Fragment of a large lamp with curving sides. 0. H. Shallow lamp with curving sides merging into the rim. 0. I. raised base.087. long nozzle with small wick-hole. broad overhanging rim.072.095. Theatre Area. 95 (32). buff slip. PLATE II. Similar in shape but deeper and with a longer nozzle. partly peeled off. flat rim with a raised band at the inner edge. 0. 0. 101 (817) (T50-L15). H. Fragment. 93 (1532) (T613-L162). 94 (33). Same shape. triangular band handle set at ca. PLATE II.072. 0. black glaze except on the base. dull black glaze. which is colored red by mi/los. W. H. broad overhanging rim. black glaze.07. 98 (1009). L. Red clay.-0. Similar in shape but with an overhanging rim decorated with concentric grooves. Pale yellow clay. Nearly vertical sides. W. Red clay. Almost vertical sides. black glaze except on the reverse. partly peeled off. Buff clay. Red clay with a buff slip. end of the nozzle. H. 0. 99 (1010). Theatre Area. 0. 0. 97 (1017). raised base-ring. TYPE VI 100 (1015). pl.022.089. Figure 20. Fragment. broad rim with a deep groove at the outer edge. W. Soft. no glaze. Nearly straight sides.107. H. L. 92 (1531) (T717-L163). the inner edge of which has a raised band. The handle is partly restored. and part of the bottom have been restored. small nozzle with a large wick-hole encroaching upon the rim. 45 degree angle to the bottom. long nozzle.022. Fragment. Similar in shape but with two grooves on the rim. wick-hole well removed from the'rim.089. Waldhauer. Nozzle and part of the side of a similar lamp. no glaze. PLATE II.138 CORINTH L. red clay. U-shaped bar handle. .018. Cf. good black glaze. 11. dull black glaze.07. 0. Theatre Area. Red clay. 0. W.032. The handle.029. Buff clay. Reddish buff clay. 0. no trace of glaze. 0. W.

The handle. 0.. .LAMPS 139 horizontal band handle. The handle and parts of the rim have been restored. L. H. : 104 Figure 62. nozzle. 104 (39). 0.10. 105 (37)..04. W. The handle and end of the nozzle are missing. 107 (41). . 0. Fragment.038.10. 106 (1016). black glaze except on the base. Similar shape but with a shallow groove at the outer edge of the rim. 0. . Red clay.of the' rim is 'smoothly polished. Buff clay. pl.065.. L. 103 (38). The handle and end of the nozzle are missing. Figure 63. Same shape. III. good black glaze. L. raised base.. 109 (818) (T114-L27).The end of the nozzle has been restored. Waldhauer. Buff clay. 0.:. H.038. Figure 62. black glaze except on the base.034. L. except on the reverse 'which is colored with miltos. Same shape. Grayish brown clay.. III. dark brown glaze on the rest. Red clay. PLATE Similar in shape. 102 (40).095. W. H. 110 (1539) (T401 -L84). and part of the rim have been restored. W. 0. and the places of attachment were covered with glaze. Fragment Same shape. Same shape. H.073. good black glaze except on the base which is colored with millos. Same shape. Theatre Area.. good black glaze except on the base. Red clay. 0. PLATEIII. the inner edge of the rim and part of the side and the inside are covered with black glaze. W. 0. W. brown glaze elsewhere except on the base. 0.. the inner edge . 0. good black glaze. ca. The handle and nozzle have been restored. 108 (42). The handle was broken away in antiquity. 27. Similar shape..0. . Buff clay. Fragment. Red clay. Red clay.067. :. 0. Cf. black glaze with spots of brown. 0. the inner band of the rim covered with black glaze.07.034.08.115. H. 0..

Figure 64. Similar in shape but with the sides more curving. wide flat rim with a groove near the Figure 64.057.064.036. largely peeled off. 0. ca. black glaze. 0. 0.03. long nozzle.085. end of the nozzle.06. Similar in shape. Red clay. W. black glaze. ll'< Fi-ure' 65. On the neck is scratched in the clay APOA . The end of the nozzle is broken away. Similar in shape. 0. Pale red clay. 0.036. 0. Curving sides. except on the base and in the groove on the rim.054. L. Figure 64. long nozzle.07. 0. L. broad flat rim with a deep groove at the outer edge. H. Red clay. outside 115 (1020). W.032.140 CORINTH Nozzle of a similar lamp.03. 119 (821) (T268-L49).083. Shape like that of No. bottom. good black glaze. 118 (47).. H. Almost straight sides. I1- 116 (46). W. L.062. black glaze. L. Fragment. pointed Figure 21. Red clay. and part of the right side are missing. long pointed nozzle. The handle. no handle. 117 (1485) (T514-L136). except . 0. 0. dark brown glaze. outer edge. Red clay. 0. Pale yellow clay. The left side is missing. H. traces of black glaze. 0. except on the base and in the groove on the rim. 113 (56). TYPE VII 114 (1018/1335). 110 Figure 63. 112 (57). the groove on the rim is colored red. raised base. 0..091. Buff clay. H. no handle. black glaze.052. light brown glaze on the and black on the inside. Buff clay. the inner groove on the rim is colored red. W. 111 (819) (T48-L14). H. dull glaze of a grayish brown color. Red clay. W. W.032. W. Parts of the nozzle and sides have been restored. in other respectslike the preceding. Buff clay. no trace of glaze. 65. Similar but deeper and with sides converging toward the top.087.038. 102 but without a handle.. Nearly straight sides. 0. H. thin. flat vertical handle. PLATE III. 0. 0. PLATE III. Similar in shape but with two deep grooves on the rim. 0. 0. 0. H. Figure 65.

W. Figure 67. . 0. ca.073. The end of the nozzle is broken away. H. 0. Similar in shape but with a horizontal band handle.07. 0.The end of the nozzle is broken away. 0. Similar in shape. Red clay. Red clay. Figure 68. 124 (823). 121. W. ca.068. L. 0. Similar in shape. Fragment of similar lamp. L. traces of black glaze. 0. black glaze. black glaze. 0. PLATE III.04. 0. Same shape as that of No. H. W. 0. 120 (822) (T202-L39). Buff clay. 127 (49).095. Figure 66. 125 (1019). H.067. 0. W. 0. Similar.06. largely peeled off. The end of the nozzle and the back are broken away. Figure 66. W. 122 (1095). 128 (1430). 0.04. 0. black glaze. PLATE III. L. 0. 121 (1334). Red clay.034. 126 (48). Red clay. Buff clay. Similar.066. dark brown glaze. H. Figure 68. Red clay.10. thin. W. except on the base and in the groove on the rim. L. Figure 67.03 7. Fragment. W.038. 123 (51). Red clay. ca. W.102. Similar but with sides more curving.095.067. light brown glaze.028.074. The nozzle and front are broken away. no trace of glaze. largely peeled off. 0. 0.048. H. The nozzle is broken away. The nozzle is missing. mottled red and black glaze. 0. no trace of glaze. Theatre Area.LAMPS 141 on the base and in the groove on the rim.041. On the rim is incised K. 0. The end of the nozzle is broken away. good black glaze. Pale yellow clay. 0. The left side is broken away. Similar in shape but with low base-ring on the reverse. I 29 1F e 129 (824) (T288-L58). H. H. Pale yellow clay. H. 0. except on the base and in the groove on the rim. Similar in shape.

037. The handle. 0. perforated lug on the left side. The end of the nozzle is broken away. black glaze.069. 0. 0. unglazed. H. 0.142 CORINTH partly peeled off. top. Resembling the preceding but without the raised band on the rim.065.04. Red clay. 134 (726). W. Brown clay. H. 0. Cf.09. Red clay. 135 (50). 131 (44). H. W. dull yellow slip.039. L. The nozzle and handle are broken away. 0.09. Dark gray clay with a slip of the same color. L. but colored black from firing. Red clay.09. The back is broken away. H. H. L.09. The perforated lug on the left side is broken away. The handle and nozzle are broken away. 0. 0. 0. Ball-shaped lamp resembling the preceding but with a raised band round the central orifice and a groove lower down. 31.059.036. 136 (58). except on the base and in the groove on the rim. Shape like that of No. 132 (1553) (T437-L98). perforated knob on the left side. Buff clay. 0. 123 but with a perforatedknob on the left side. PLATEIII. light brown glaze. 0.08. ca. 0. Similar in shape but seems to have had a covered top. L. 133 (43). Similar in shape. The end of the nozzle and the lug are broken away.06. 0. dark brown glaze. W. pl. W. Similar in shape. ca. H. Resembling the preceding but more ball-shaped. 0. 0. black glaze.062. and end of the nozzle are missing. Red clay. Waldhauer. 130 (45). III.062. thin. The handle and most of the top are missing. 0. except on the bottom and in the groove on the rim. W.038. 0. 0. L.061. H. W. W.035. 0. . ca.036.

curving sides. W. Theatre Area. W.065.043.105. Fragment of a lamlt of heavy fabric. pointed nozzle.slip. Red. the bottom measures 0. groove round the filling-hole. ca.051 m. Deep body with nearly vertical sides. 0. PLATE III. 0. 0.062. 145 (73). 0. unglazed. 111 . Reddish clay. perforated lug on the left side. unglazed. PLATE III. 138 (1333).07. W. 0. black glaze. Similar shape but with the knob on the side small and solid. PLATE IV. Length of nozzle 0. Length of nozzle 0. 0. largely peeled off. Dark gray clay. . dark brown glaze.092. Long pointed nozzle of a lamp of uncertain shape. H. PLATEIV. Figure 69. l l Figure 69. Long nozzle of similar shape.076. H. Similar shape. TYPE IX 141 (71). Red clay.03. H. LAMPS W. the inside covered with black glaze.027.091. The end of the nozzle is broken away. 143 (825) (T1 56-L35). 140 (1021). no handle. raised base.076. 0. H. The nozzle and part of the right side have been restored. L. 0. Broad flat rim. black glaze.065.027. 0. Like the preceding but with the groove on the rim nearer the filling-hole. high. W. Figure 69. 0. 0. H. Buff clay.095. Buff clay.032. L. Similar but with the groove round the filling-hole farther from the edge' no base. nozzle as 'on the preceding. 0. broad flat rim with a groove at the outer edge. 0. narrow base. L. Red clay. concave underneath. 0. W. Clay and glaze as above. 0. yellow. Dark red clay. The end of the nozzle has been restored.035. but a perforatedlug on the left side. 0. L. 144 (72). H. Watch-shaped body. in thickness. unglazed.061.041. micaceous clay with a slip of the same color on the outside. 139 (1022). 142 (70).The end of the nozzle has been restored.LAMPS 143 HELLENISTIC TYPE VIII 137 (820) (T1 19-L30). the rim nearly covers the top. raised narrow base.

The nozzle and most of the stand are broken away. 148 (92). Reddish buff clay. Fragment of a lamp like the preceding with the upper part of nli Figure 70. L. 151 (1337).04. Part of the left side is missing. W. Resembling the preceding but without the groove round the filling-hole and with no raised base.059. 0. Figure 70. Watch-shaped lamp resembling the preceding type butwithout the knob. Dark red clay with a gray slip. largely peeled off. narrow groove round the filling-hole. 0. poorly preserved.025. The nozzle is broken away. Small lamp resembling those above but set on a high stand. 0. 0. Dark gray clay with a slip of the same color. 149 (74). raised base. H. 150 (52). L. PLATE IV. Buff clay. H. largely peeled off. PLATE IV. W. 152 (79). no handle. ca. dark gray glaze except on the reverse. 0. Fragment of a similar lamp. Buff clay. 147 (1473). perforated knob on the left side. The nozzle and the knob on the side are broken away. W. The handle and the stand are broken away. light brown glaze. the stand preserved. H. 0. brown glaze. partly peeled off.144 14() (1472). dark brown glaze.085. 0. H. dark brown glaze.06. dark .03.095. Red clay. On the neck is a bull's head in relief added by the applique process. black glaze.03. W. Moulded lamp of a similar shape with a high base-ring and a solid knob on the left side.057. thin. Like the preceding but apparently had a handle at the back. L. 0. W. Buff clay. 153 (80). Red clay. Reddish buff clay. 0.089. thin. black glaze. 0. 0.026.052. H. Figure 22. TYPE X 154 (65). L. 0. Figure 23.05. The end of the nozzle and the right side are broken away. CORINTH Similar in shape but with slightly raised base. Similar.035. large knob on the left side. 0. 0.

but the reverse is turned on the wheel. L. Like the preceding. Like the preceding. Figure 71.028. 0. red glaze. 165 (61). The end of the nozzle and part of the left side have been restored. Reddish clay. 158 (87). 0. Pale yellow clay. 0. 0. Reddish clay. chocolate brown glaze. 0.LAMPS 145 155 (64). Figure 71. 0. 7I. Triangular nozzle with projecting corners. Low base. The nozzle and most of the top are broken away.054. Part of the side is broken away. Same shape as that of the preceding. L. chocolate brown glaze. 160 (1474). 160 162 (59). 0. Red clay. W. W.05. W.072. 163 (62). W. 0. Buff clay. 19 . 0. H. Figure 72.05.028. H. The end of the nozzle is broken away. H. 0. 0.032. Shaped like the preceding. but the upper half of he body is deeper than the lower.055.052. 0. H. W. Greenishl buff clay. H. 0. W. 0. 0. W. 164 (60). The nozzle is broken away. Reddish buff clay. Figure 72.026. 0.082.076. L. 0. light brown glaze. Like the preceding but without a raised base. Buff clay. 0. Reddish clay. good. 0.028. 0. thin. turned on the wheel.077. Shaped like the preceding. Like the preceding but with the upper half deeper.06. W. Like the preceding. H.077. brown glaze. chocolate brown glaze.052.025.027. W.025. dark brown glaze. 0. mottled yellow and gray glaze. PLATE IV: L.028. 0. Shaped like the preceding.056. 157 (66). H. 0. Buff clay. H. The nozzle is broken away. but the reverse was left rough underneath. The nozzle is missing. 0. Same shape. 161 (63).058. chocolate brown glaze. H. W. L. mottled red and brown glaze. The nozzle is broken away. 159 (67).058. H.029. 156 (68). 0.

031. pointed nozzle. thin. dark gray clay. 167 (725). W. Figure 73. 0. 169 (727). deeper than the preceding but resembling it in other respects.051. The end of the nozzle is broken away. 0. 0. the reverse is turned on the wheel.025. 166 (69). reddish wash or paint. W. on which the hole is begun but not pierced through.09. low base. L.033. Same shape as that of te preceding. brown glaze. Same shape as that of the preceding. brown glaze. pinkish slip.058. 0. 0. knob on the left side. 0. traces of black glaze. Reddish clay.146 CORINTH Like the preceding. W. H.08. L.026. thin. The handle and nozzle are missing. Like the preceding but with the sides uniformly curved and with the groove farther from the edge of the filling-hole. ribbed vertical handle. Shaped like the preceding but round the filling-hole was a funnel-like neck which is broken away. W.03. . The nozzle and front are broken away. H. 0. H.101. The left part of the body is broken away. 0. 172 (77). Hard. Like the preceding.06. 0. solid knob on the left side. W. W. PLATE IV. thin.023. partly turned gray from firing. 0. 171 (78). Red clay. W. Small fragment of a lamp like the preceding. Red clay. 0. Pale yellow clay. Buff clay. Red clay. Red clay and glaze. Double convex shape. Low watch-shaped lamp like those of Type IX with a groove round the fillinghole. no base. L. 1 ti'i 168 (1386).059. dark brown glaze. The end of the nozzle is broken away. H. Parts of the handle and nozzle are restored. 173 (728).053. 0. 0. 0. TYPE XI 170 (1136). mottled red and brown glaze. Figure 73. H.058. partly peeled off. 0. long. H. 0. Reddish clay and thin wash or paint of the same color.064.

0.085. Same shape. Light red clay. W. Figure 74. Reddish buff clay. 0. H. The handle and nozzle are broken away. H. The end of the nozzle is broken away.06. Buff clay. The handle and end of the nozzle are missing. 177 (76). 0. W.058. (829) (T327-L70). Like the preceding but without the groove round the filling-hole. W.032.097. W. wick-hole at some distance from the end of the nozzle.092. reddish wash or paint. Same shape.033. WV. 0. dark gray.036. Pale red clay. W. H. pointed . 181 (828) (T318-L65). good. dark brown glaze. The handle and nozzle are missing.055. dark brown glaze. 0. 180 (832) (T275-L52). 0. 0.055. 0. The handle and end of the nozzle are broken away.036.035. mottled red and brown glaze. The handle and nozzle are broken away.054. 0. no base. The handle and nozzle are broken away.LAMPS 147 174 (1114). traces of red glaze. H. 0. 0.034. black glaze. Made in moulds. 183 (88). 178 (830) (T332-L72). 0. Same shape as that of the preceding but with a groove round the filling-hole. L.035. Shaped like a tea-pot with the edge round the filling-hole turned up. 0. red clay. W. 179 (831) (T280-L55). Greenish buff clay. H. W. Similar in shape. 0. Red clay and glaze.053. Reddish buff clay.061. H.056.054. Similar shape but without the groove round the filling-hole. thin. Made in moulds. 0.054. H. 0. The handle is missing. W. TYPE XII Buff clay. Watch-shaped lamp with a groove round the filling-hole. 0.038. W. 182 (1511) (T484-L121). 0. 0. Soft. H. Red clay and glaze. 0. 0. L. PLATE IV. 175 (75). 17f. Same shape as that of the preceding.032. the reverse is concave and turned on the wheel. Like the preceding. 0.038. vertical handle. PLATE IV. metallic glaze. H. H. 0. Similar in shape. L. mottled red and black glaze. 184 (82).

H. 1 i.052.078. L. 0. L.035. Figure 75.057. Red clay and glaze.03. W. raised base. PLATE IV. ca. PLATE V.082. Same shape. Dark brown clay and glaze. high base. Sides converging toward the top. 0. nozzle as on the preceding. 0. thin. turned on the wheel. L. H. TYPE XIII 190 (91). long. The handle is restored. Clay and glaze like those of the preceding. 189 (729). 0. W. 0. H. H. Wheel-made lamp of double convex shape with depressed top. 0. L.056. L. L. W. The back is broken away. flat vertical handle. W.038. The handle is missing. H.06. 185 (83). two nozzles with triangular termination and projecting corners.064.052. 0. reverse trimmed with a knife.03. H. H. 0. rounded nozzle with fluke-like corners. Sides converging toward the top. 0. dark gray. Same shape as that of the preceding.095. metallic slip of the same color. metallic glaze. W.085. 0. 184 Figure 74. edge round the filling-hole turned up so as to form a depression on the rim. red glaze. grayish brown glaze. thin. 0. The nozzle and part of the handle are restored.082. H. Dark gray clay and a thin. metallic glaze of the same color. 0.03. 186 (84). 0. 191 (89). 0. 0. 0. Ash gray clay. 0. W.032. Dark gray clay. thin.093. 0. 0.058.056. The handle and nozzle are missing. 192 (90). Shaped like the preceding but with a deep depression on the top. 0. largely peeled off. PLATE V.The handle and part of the nozzle are restored. PLATE IV. flat vertical handle. W. . The handle and end of the nozzle are restored. Shape like that of the preceding. W. Same shape. 0. Figure 75. flat vertical handle. Pale red clay. blunt-ended nozzle with a large wick-hole.148 CORINTH nozzle. 188 (86).024. Ash gray clay. The handle and part of the nozzle are missing.025. overhanging rim. 0. low base left rough underneath. 187 (85).

PLATE V. Nozzle of a large wheel-made lamp like the Esquiline type with a raised edge round the top. 0. Buff clay. Moulded lamp like the preceding.09. Grayish brown clay.0. raised base. vertical handle. Theatre Area. 0. very low base. Figure 76. nozzle. 0. the handle. 0.LAMPS 149 flat vertical handle. Put together from many fragments.057.055. Red clay. W. chocolate 195 (81). the reverse left unturned. short nozzle with projecting corners. PLATE V. no base. TYPE XVI 196 (977).045. no base. L. triangular termination of the nozzle with slightly projecting comers. gray glaze. PLATE V. vertical handle. pointed nozzle with a large wick-hole.081. flat vertical handle. Theatre Area. 199 (851). Theatre Area. W.029. Buff clay. traces of dark brown glaze. turned on the wheel. Red clay. H. H. Buff clay. traces of dark brown glaze. 197 (1453). 0. 1i97 Figure 76. like TYPE the preceding. Moulded lamp with rounded sides. flat top surrounded by a raised edge. four small holes in the depression between the top and the edge. 198 (850) (T31 7-L64). unglazed. Part of one nozzle is missing. W. Small fragment of a lamp brown glaze. ribbed. 'Reddish buff clay. brown glaze. traces of brown glaze. 194 (997). funnel-like neck round the filling-hole. 0. Nozzle of wheel-made lamp with high edge round the top. H.055.055. The handle and nozzle are missing. L. 0. thin. 0. XV Reddish clay. no base. blunt nozzle with projecting corners. The handle is broken away. W. PLATE V. brown glaze on the inside and red on the outside. Deep body narrowing toward the top. 0.03.032. Watch-shaped lamp like those of Type X with a groove round the filling-hole and a raised edge round the top. . H. TYPE XIV 193 (162). and parts of the body are missing.

W. H. 0. Buff clay. Buff clay..057. nozzle. L. micaceous. 206 (1424).06. mottled yellow and brown glaze. Buff clay. mottled light and dark brown glaze. Figure 78. and small parts of the body are missing. W. 205 (1418).150 CORINTH 200 (852). mottled light and dark brown glaze. thin. PLATEV. 201 (128). mottled light and dark brown glaze. chocolate brown glaze. 0. The handle and nozzle are missing. 0. raised base. W. nozzle as above. Buff clay. :: : .058. 0. 0. Wheel-made lamp with curving sides. 0.089. Same shape.029. 204 (1405). The handle and nozzle are broken away. 0. . H. W. 203 (853) (T256-L45).056. Put together from many fragments. 208 (856) (T38-L13). 0. flat vertical handle. H.031. Wheel-made lamp with almost vertical sides. thin. 0. The handle is missing. 202 (854).056. W.03. Buff clay. H. H. W. L.031. largely peeled off.059. 0. L.. Like the preceding. 0. Dark gray clay. W. Reddish clay. reddish brown glaze.077. Theatre Area.028. vertical handle. 2i 4 Figure 78. 0.065.063. The handle is broken away. gray. II. The nozzle and front are missing. L. 207 (855) (T331-L71).091. Fu7*:? Figure 7T. Dark gray clay. handle. 0. H.031. the handle. W. 0.085. 0.05. PLATE V.025. 0. flat vertical handle extending high above the top. The nozzle. 0.028. Buff clay. no base. unturned. unglazed.087. mottled red and brown glaze. Moulded lamp of the same shape. 0. Flat top surrounded by a high edge. 0. ribbed. Wheel-made lamp of a shape like that of the preceding. 209 (857) (T76-L24). 0. H. H. 0. and part of the top are missing. thin. Moulded lamp of the same shape. 0. 0. W. 0. Theatre Area. H.. L. flat top surrounded by a low edge. 0. metallic slip.047. H. W.024. Same shape. Like the preceding but with a concave top surrounded by a high edge. . Figure 77.037.

08. L. 0. unglazed.125. 212 (1493) (T480-L117). Dark buff clay.055. W. W. 217 218 (739). H. Deep red clay.062. Theatre Area. H.09. 0. 0.LAMPS 151 Like the preceding. 0. Red clay. 0.065. unglazed. L.026. 215 (1242). 216 (864) (T304-L59). the handle and parts of the body are missing. unglazed. W. Raised base left rough underneath. 0. Figure 79.058. 0. H.031. H.0. Same shape. Brick red clay.105. L. 0.072. H.05. 0. Put together of many fragments.057. unglazed.W. Red clay. L. The handle and part of the right side are missing. unglazed. 0. Same shape. Red clay. Theatre Area.023. 214 (871).037.029. W. The left comer of the nozzle is broken away.027. 0. 220 (860) (T260-L46). 0. Large lamp of the same shape. unglazed. W. L. 0. unglazed. 221 (1442). H. L.033. 0. Same shape. 0.085. Same shape. Part of the right side is broken away. Shaped like the preceding but with the base turned on the wheel.138. Red clay.076. unglazed. L. Put together of many fragments. . Same shape. 0. The handle is missing. unglazed. H. Red clay. 217 (131). H. 211 (1480) (T479-L116).092. 0. The handle is restored. 0.07.W. unglazed. Figure 25. 0. H. Figure Same shape. Red clay. no glaze. Same shape. W. The base is turned on the wheel. Brick red clay. 0. the handle and parts of the body are missing.10. The handle and top are broken away. Brick red clay. 0. 79. L. ca. Large lamp like the preceding.05. Red clay. 0. H.029. Red clay. W. Like the preceding. PLATE V. 0. 210 (859).065. 0. L. 0. 0. 0. H. 213 (133).095.084.032. W. 0. 0. W. unglazed. L. unglazed. Small lamp of the same shape. 219 (735). The handle and part of the right side are missing. 0. 0.041.059. The nozzle is broken away.

230 (132). The handle is missing. Mottled red and gray clay.031.2 (140). L. Same shape. 0. L.037. H. H. W. The handle is missing.034. W. The nozzle is missing. 0.065. Same shape. 229 (1399). H.034. L. 22. Deep red clay. Deep red clay. L. The handle is missing. 223 (1448). L. Same shape. Red clay. 23-5 (863) (T326-L69). W. unglazed.(144). unglazed. Red clay. W.09.03. H. CORINTH L. H.062. . Red clay. 0.152 222 (1447). 0. Red clay. Same shape.087. Same shape. 0. W.031. 0.066.09. 0. L. Same shape. The handle is missing. H. Red clay.09. 0. 23. H.085. The handle is missing.()35. W.062. Red clay. unglazed.065.096. 0. Same shape.035.(33. Same shape. L. 0. W. Mottled red and gray clay. unglazed. Same shape. 234 (737).064. The handle is broken away. 0. 0. The handle is missing. 0. 0. 0. unglazed. H.067. 0. H. 0. Same shape. W. unglazed. (736). 0. unglazed.093.029. 0.063. L. unglazed. 0. Same shape. unglazed. Red clay.065. H. Part of the top is missing. 224 (1465).069. 0. Same shape. 0.03. W. 0. 228 (1379). 0.07.037. unglazed. 227 (1385). L.()33. L. I.065. Same'shape. 231 (143). Red clay. W. unglazed.032.088.032. 0. 0. 0. W. L. W. 0. H. Figure 25. 0. unglazed. 0. W. 0. The handle is broken away. 237 (136). Same shape.031. 0. 236. 0. 233. Red clay. 0. W. Red clay.092. W. H. 0. 0. 0.065.098. H. unglazed. 0. unglazed.093. 0. 0. 0. H. unglazed.W. 0. 226 (1387). 0. The handle is broken away. L. Same shape. unglazed. The handle is missing.067. 0. The handle and nozzle are missing. The handle is missing. 0. L. Same shape.i5 (1451).09. H.(66.06. Grayish red clay. 0. Red clay.089.08.

Similar shape. W. Same shape. 0. H. L. W. Same shape. 0.033. unglazed. Similar shape but with a less concave top.091. W. 0. Similar in shape but with an almost flat top. Red clay. W. 0. 0. Red clay. 0. 0. H. Same shape. 0. 0. Same shape. The handle and parts of the body are 247 (155). Dark red clay. The handle broken away. unglazed.059. missing. 0. Red clay. and part of the nozzle are missing. 0. L.065.088. unglazed. 0. 0.061. 0. The handle is missing. 20 . 0. 246 (870). H.063. Deeply concave top.061 . H. 0. 0.(33.063.085. 248 (138).LAMPS 1. L. Brick red clay.()39. Same shape. 0.037. L. 244 (862) (T 1 5-L28). H.036. unglazed.089.(33. 0. W.08. 249 (148). unglazed. Same shape. Similar and part of the top are L. Red clay. 0.068. 243 (146).035. 0. 0. Red clay.091 . unglazed. 0. The handle and part of the top are missing. 0. Reddish brown clay. Same shape. H. The handle is missing. L. 0. Grayish brown clay. H. H. 0. W. unglazed. 0. H. L.065. W. 0. 0. 0. W.032. The handle and the right corner of the nozzle are missing.068. Reddish brown clay. Red clay. W.091. ().062.084.093. Same shape.061 . unglazed. 250 (784). H.033. 245 (137). The nozzle and part of the handle are missing.53 238 (142). Same shape. The handle is broken away. top. 239 (861) (T269-L50). unglazed. L. L. unglazed.059. W. 251 (869). shape.09. H. 240 (1138). 0. 0. H. 0. 0. 0. W. 0. The handle is missing. H.093.033.034. unglazed. The handle. W. The handle is missing.093. L.034. L. W. L.036. 0. 0. 0. unglazed.078.06. unglazed. W. L. 0. Brick red clay. H.065. 242 (141). 241 (738). Red clay.031.

0. .065. 0. Coarse. Coarse. nozzle. 0. red clay.034.034. H. unglazed. Reddish brown clay. unglazed. Same shape. W.034. unglazed. 253 (872) (T64-L19). and part of the top are broken away. The handle and part of the body are broken away. 0. The handle and part of the top are missing.06. 0. Grayish brown clay.064. 0. unglazed.093. Reddish brown clay. 261 (867) (T65-L20). Same shape. 0. L.033. 0. Small lamp of the same shape. Reddish brown clay. 0. 260 (868) (T53-L1 7). Reddish brown clay. Reddish brown clay. W. 0.037.154 CORINTH Similar in shape. 0.036. unglazed.065. unglazed. 252 (1 52). H. unglazed. Same shape. H. 0. unglazed. unglazed. unglazed. unglazed. Reddish brown clay. L. The handle and top part are brokenaway. 0.069. H. W. 0. Similar in shape but with a more concave top. 0. 0. 262 (147). Same shape. 0.029. L. 259 (1139). nozzle. 0.089. Dark red clay. H.025. H. H. Same shape. The handle. 0. 0. The handle is missing. L. 0. 0.03. unglazed.065. 0. 0.084. 263 (154). 0. 0. The handle and part of the right side are broken away. Same shape. L. 0. Similar in shape but with a less concave top. W. The handle is broken away.062.06. The handle and part of the top are missing.048. L. L. L. H. Part of the top is broken away. and part of the right side are missing. 258 (139). The handle and part of the top are missing.064. 0. 0. H. 0. Same shape. W. reddish brown clay. H. W.038. 256 (1408). Dark brown clay. Dark red clay. 0. W.09.024. The handle is broken away. W.091. 254 (1419). 255 (1420).085.035. The handle is missing.088. W. Same shape. H. 257 (1 542) (T408-L87). L. W.091 . W. Reddish brown clay. unglazed. 0. The handle.09. Same shape.07. H.

07. no base. unglazed. unglazed.067. W. 0. Same shape.081. 0. The handle is missing. 277 (866) (T210-L41).064. unglazed.092.06. 0. Dark brown clay. 270 (1422). The handle and part of the top are broken away. unglazed. The handle and top are missing. W. unglazed.037. Same shape. Dark brown clay. L. The handle and parts of thetop and nozzle are broken away. Like No.027. L.062.03. 276 (858).091.092.033. W. unglazed.09.LAMPS 264 (151). 0. unglazed. Dark brown clay. L. Theatre Area. 268 (1446).064. 0. 0. Same shape.029. Same shape.081. L. in other respects like the preceding. 0. 267 Figure 8o0. W.028. Dark gray clay. 0. unglazed.057. unglazed.078.067.088. W.064. 0. 275 (1140). Dark brown clay. H. W. 269 (1407). 0. 0. Same shape. 0. Sides almost straight. 0.064. The handle is missing. Same shape. Dark brown clay. The handle is missing. H. L.029. 0. The handle is missing. W. L: 0. Grayish brown clay. unglazed. unglazed. Dark brown clay. The handle is missing. 274 (1423). Same shape. L. 0.036. 0. Same shape. 266 (865) (T274-L51).057. 0. unglazed. 0. 0. L. The handle is missing. W.08. Same shape. Dark gray clay. 0. H.099. L. L. Dark gray clay. 0. 0. Same shape. H.031. H. 0.088.031. W. Mottled red and gray clay. 0. unglazed. 0. H. H. unglazed. 0. The handle is missing. Dark brown clay.027. 0. W. H.035. Figure 25. 0. W.034. L. 0. . H. 265 (150). 275. W.07. 0. The handle and part of the right side are broken away. 273 (1388). 0. 0. H.092.037. 0. 0. 155 267 (1445). Dark brown clay. W. L. 0. H. L. 0. L. Same shape. 0. 0. 0. Figure 80.063.085. Dark brown clay. 271 (1421). H. 0. the reverse is turned on the wheel.087. W. H.059. 0. Same shape. 272 (1383). H.

Red clay. unglazed. Figure 25.065. The handle and top are missing. Same shape but with three nozzles.095. 282 (1347) (T203-L40). Almost straight sides. 281 (149).098.156 CORINTH 278 (153). H.092. L. unglazed. Large wheel-made lamp with a raised edge round the central opening. 0. ca. 0. 0. flat top surrounded by a raised edge. H. reverse turned on the wheel. W.066. 0. unglazed. concave top with a central filling-hole and a small rectangular hole toward the nozzle. 0.081.06. Same shape.06. Nozzle and part of the side of a lamp like the preceding.091. 288 (1 56). H. unglazed. (. L. Same shape.038. W. Fragment of a similar lamp. 0. The handle and part of the top are missing. W. Reddish brown clay. the corner between the sides and the bottom is bevelled. Red clay. Cracked in the baking and discarded. 0. L. W.07. two nozzles like those above but opposite each other. on the wheel. two nozzles like those above. L. heavy ribbed vertical handle. Same shape. L. The handle is restored. H. Figure 25. Red clay. Dark brown clay.033. 0.036. brown glaze. The stand consists of a hollow stem with a broad . L. 0.031. 286 (979). 0.085. Dark red clay. unglazed. which is broken away. 0. 283 (134). 287 (1 30). unglazed. The handle and part of the nozzle are broken away. 0. 0. no base.03. 285 (1212). W. 0. 0. unglazed. 0. 0. Same shape.045. Dark brown clay. L.055. 0. 0. 284 (135). blunt nozzle with projecting corners. it seems to have had a central socket. H. Figure 25. 280 (1096). The handle is broken away. the reverse is turned PLATEV.164. Only the back half is preserved. 279 (145). only one of the lamps is preserved. Red clay. 0. H. Greenish gray clay. H. no base. thin.065. Fragment of a lamp-stand to which two lamps of type XVI were attached.. W. unglazed. unglazed. The lamp was pressed out of shape in the firing. 0. L. 0. W. The lamp was cracked in the firing and discarded. no handle. The handle is broken away.031. Straight vertical sides.09. H. (. Figure 26. Dark brown clay.035. W.076.

L. unglazed. Like the preceding. 290 (1378). Similar shape.066. 292 (129). no traces of paint 291 preserved. Theatre Area. 0. Red clay.026. short pointed nozzle. to which the lamps were attached. poorly preserved. low base. 295 (125). 0. Fragment of a lamp like the preceding.08. Buff clay. Figure 81. traces of white paint. 0.023. traces of white paint visible when the lamp was found. 298 nation of the nozzle bluntly triangular. once attached to a stand like those above. with curving sides merging into the rim. L. Dark gray clay.065.0.PLATEVI.068.072.0. Soft. TYPE XVII 294 (734). H.0. 296 (733). Only the bottoms of two lamps and a small piece of the stand are preserved. grayish brown wash or paint. Pale red clay. 0.063. dull brown paint on the top only. Similar shape but with the top slightly depressed and the termi299 ig 2 Figure 82. W. left rough underneath. 291 Figure 81. unglazed. porous clay. Fragment of a lamp-stand like the preceding. 0. Small wheel-made lamp. yellow clay. unglazed. 297 (126). 0. L. 0. . W. W. W. Single lamp. The handle is broken away. no handle.04.LAMPS 157 flange. unglazed. 0. 0. 0. (157). large wick-hole. thin.026.051.087. H. thick white paint. Curving sides merging into the rim.W.051. L.051.W. L. The handle and nozzle are broken away. The handle is missing. 0. Dark red clay. 0. Similar shape. Short blunt-ended nozzle with projecting covers. . Pale red clay. 0. W. the exact shape is uncertain. 289 (991) (T282-L57). 293 (1023).071 . L.0.05. Buff. H.028.057. broken away from its stand. Pale yellow clay. Grayish brown clay. resembling those of type X. 0. raised base. H. H.

Fragment 304 Theatre Area. flat vertical handle. on the reverse is inscribed ICIr. flat vertical handle. (PLATE XXX). :i05 Figure 83 Figure 84. 0. (1000). 303 (996). PLATE VI. TYPE XVIII 301 (998). H. metallic glaze. Red clay. PLATE VI. . Same shape of body.06. Figure 82. but the nozzle like that of type XVI with projecting corers. 300 (1034).054. mottled light and dark brown glaze. the right side. unglazed. Shaped like the preceding. small top surrounded by a raised edge. L. 0. PLATE VI. 0. 302 (999). W. Red clay and glaze. L.028. 0. raised edge round a narrow top.10. 0.. H. PLATE VI. 0. one small hole on each side of the neck. with ribs on the rim and a rosette on of a lamp like the preceding PLATE VI. Leaf pattern on the rim.W. 0. ca. dark gray. flat vertical handle. ca. Fragment 305 (1433).. L. Light red clay. raised edge surrounding the whole lamp. Ash gray clay. 0.. Plain rim.158 CORINTH 298 (124). 0.036. Shaped like the preceding. reddish brown glaze.027. L. unglazed. 307 (1550) (T426-L95). unglazed.078. dark brown glaze. Fragment of a lamp like the preceding with ribs on the rim and a knob on the left side in the form of a cornucopia.081. Fragment of a moulded lamp with ribs on the rim. Figure 82. 0.075.033.055. 306 (1410). Red clay. Figure 84. The handle and parts of the nozzle and top are broken away. of a lamp with ribs on the rim. high edge enclosing the entire lamp. H. W. Fragment.07. Red clay. dark brown glaze. Figure 83. small depressed top. 0. 0. Nozzle of a lamp like the preceding with grooves on the neck and a raised edge surrounding the entire lamp. 299 (127). Red clay. Red clay. H. brown glaze. W. Red clay. high edge surrounding the entire lamp. Red clay.

almond-shaped base. triangular nozzle with double rudimentary volutes. W. Narrow rim with incised double spirals. Theatre Area. The handle and nozzle are missing. 310 (1515) (T508-L132).096. H. concave top. parts of the nozzle.103. L. in other respects like the preceding. W. largely peeled off. 0.LAMPS 308 (1339). top. Pattern of hearts and circular shields on the rim.027. 4). floral pattern on the neck. small flat top. 0. and right side are missing. Plain rim. 0. W. 0.03. 159 Small fragment Leaf patternon the rim. 2). Nozzle and part of the top of a lamp like the preceding. H. 316 (94). slightly raised.028. 0. Red clay and glaze. mottled dark gray and brown glaze. metallic glaze.056.W. H. Light gray clay. PLATE VI. 0. H. dark gray. almond-shaped base. short triangular nozzle. Raised dots on the rim (Figure 29. surrounded by two low rings. Pattern of loops on the rim (Figure 29. Ribs on the rim (Figure 29.0. Pale red. Two rows of elongated .0. W. Ash gray clay. 0. 0. The handle is missing. 47).depressedtop. H. Ash gray clay. Figure 85.055. L. 313 (836). metallic glaze. 0. 0. L.057. 0. Figure 86. raised. The handle. 0. vertical handle. red glaze. traces of dark gray glaze. almond-shaped reverse. porous clay. 314 (97). Red.073. W. ribbed verticalhandle. Ash gray clay. L. shallow channel on the neck. L.047. dots on the rim (Figure 29. dark gray.053. 309 (113). 0. top surrounded by a raised edge.026.025.075. vertical handle. slightly raised base.053. 315 (93). TheatreArea. 46). ribbed.Yellowclay. 0.034.028.11. W.H. long nozzle with rounded termination.0.06. traces of light brown glaze. H.light brownglaze. vertical handle. Figure86. TYPE XIX 312 (1523) (T483-L120). 0. 312 314 narrow Figure 85. raised base. The end of the nozzle is restored. micaceous clay. 0. 311 (1512). PLATEVI. depressed top.

0. Row of leaves on the. 26). dark gray.11. L. Pattern of triple leaves between rows of dots on the rim (Figure 29. 12 Figure 87. 0.029. W. The handle and nozzle are missing. Rosettes and globules on the rim (Figure 29. circular base. dark gray. 34). to). Figure 28. Ash gray clay. H.061 . dark gray. 0.025. 321 (96). 5). W.57). Ash gray clay. H. 0. dark gray. in other respects like the preceding. Gray clay. W. in other respects like the preceding. 0. The nozzle is missing. metallic glaze. 0. micaceous. 3. 32:3 (730). 320 (835) (T281-L56). H. 322 (1456). 0.06. W. H. 324 (111). 0. H. heart-shaped design on the neck (Figure 30. Triangular leaves and raised dots on the rim (Figure 29.053. W. almond-shaped base.024. The. W. 0. Ash gray clay. handle and nozzle are missing.062. 0. H. 12). in other respects like the preceding. L.064. raised. raised base-ring.08. 0. a similar pattern on the handle. slightly concave top.03.06. . ca. the handle and part of the top are missing. On the rim is a row of globules between two rows of elongated dots (Figure 29. Pattern of triple leaves on the rim (Figure 29. 0. shallow channel on the neck.026. Parallel lines and herring-bone pattern on the rim (Figure 29.028.056. 0.108. H. L. 53). largely peeled off. Like the preceding but with an almond-shaped base. metallic glaze. 0. The handle and nozzle are missing. low. W.160 CORINTH triangular nozzle. rounded nozzle. metallic glaze. W. 0. H. metallic glaze. dark gray. Part of the nozzle is restored. ca. The end of the nozzle is restored. 14). in other respects like the preceding. 0. channel on the neck and three small holes on the top round the central filling-hole. 317 (833) (T306-L61). Ash gray clay. rim (Figure 29. metallic glaze. 0.064. The handle and nozzle are missing. '319' (834) (T321-L67). 0. handle formed in moulds. Figure 28. Figure 87. The handle and part of the nozzle are restored. 318 (95).031. channel on the neck. The end of the nozzle is restored. 0.029.

Theatre Area.063. Clay and glaze as Plain rim. ribbed handle. 334 (839). PLATE VI. 0. The handle and nozzle are missing. Pattern of rosettes. 0.055.064. 0. 0. 330 (838) (T261-L47). 49). double spirals on the neck.063. 7). in other respects like the preceding. 0. 0.031. Fragment of a large lamp of similar shape with loops and cable pattern on the rim (Figure 29. 161 Leaf pattern on the rim (Figure 29.063. Clay and glaze as above. dots on the rim (Figure 29. ear-like projection with volutes on the sides. W. The handle and nozzle are broken away. end of the nozzle. L. 0. 0. and part of the bottom are missing. terminating toward the nozzle in a hilt-like pattern (Figure 29. The handle. 0.065. 331 (937). H. 333 (1432). Clay and glaze as above. raised base. shallow groove on the neck. 0. 21 . W. Row of loops on the rim. H.032. 0. 32. W. slightly above. 328 (843) Raised (T333-L73). 0. 0. dark gray. Triple leaves and raised dots on the rim (Figure 29. 0.032. 0. otherwise like the preceding. W. The handle and nozzle are broken away. raised edge round the top.033. 327 (842). in other respects like the preceding.054. in other respects like the preceding. on the rim (Figure 29. H. alternating with triple loops.LAMPS 325 (849).024. metallic glaze. The nozzle is broken away. thin. H.03. W. PLATE VI. Pattern of loops on the rim (Figure 29. H. raised design on the neck as in figure 30. The end of the nozzle is restored. 326 (1443). The handle and nozzle are missing. Ash gray clay. 49). 6. H. 16). 3. in other respects like the preceding.029. H. Lozenges and raised dots on the rim (Figure 29.057. The handle and nozzle are missing. The handle and nozzle are broken away. H. low base. Theatre Area. W. 56). 27) and on the neck a raised design as in figure 30. 0. H.06. i). vertical handle. W. 332 (732). raised base-ring. W. raised edge round the top. Theatre Area. 17). 0. 0. otherwise shaped like the preceding. Ribbed. W. Theatre Area. 0.105. Greenish buff clay.028.9 (109). brown glaze.03.

336 (731). 1). Raised dots on the rim (Figure 29.162 335 (837) (T276-L53). otherwise like the preceding. Pattern of triple leaves and dots on the rim (Figure 29. shallow channel on the neck.065. bearded mask on the Lozenges and elongated dots on the rim (Figure neck (Figure 30. 341 (1338). Figure 88. light brown glaze. in spots shifting to brown. Theatre Area. H.033. 27). light brown glaze. 338 (110). 0. The handle and nozzle are missing. The handle and nozzle are missing. shifting to brown in spots. gray. 0.026. largely peeled off. Reddish buff clay. 0.035.062. H. H. small triple leaves.058.03.115. Egg-and-dart (Figure W. 0.20). ribbed vertical handle. H. H. W. CORINTH L. pointed. W. 0.033. in other respects like the preceding. metallic glaze. W. Figure 31. 0. black. closed by a raised ring round the top. low base. W.065. Raised dots on the rim. 0. Fragment Rosettes on the rim. raised edge round the top.065. The end of the nozzle and part of the left side are broken away. single volute on the neck. L. in other respects like the preceding. 0. H. The nozzle and handle are broken away. 12).103. 0. 29. 342 (847) (T305-L60). in other respects shaped like the Figure 88. Ash gray clay. The nozzle and handle are broken away. metallic glaze. 18). H. Soft yellow clay. W. metallic glaze. and elongated dots (Figure 29. 343 (1500) (T515-L137).06. 0. 339 (840). 54).048. 340 (108). pattern and raised dots on the rim 29. rudimentary base-ring. 0. the handle is missing. triangular nozzle. 337 (841) (T316-L63). rounded nozzle with a flat rim round the wick-hole. 0. On the rim is a pattern of globules. Light gray clay. 25). The end of the nozzle is restored. three small holes on the top between the raised edge and the central filling-hole.. 0. The handle and part of the nozzle are restored. Ash gray clay. . dark gray.032. preceding. 0. Double volutes and raised dots on the rim (Figure 29. 0.

W. 0. otherwise like the preceding. The nozzle and handle are broken away. 0. 11). 0. The handle and nozzle are missing. 0. ' 1_ Figure89. The handle and nozzle are broken away. Wheel pattern and raised dots on the rim (Figure 29. 346 (101). dark gray. low base. W. H. 0. raised edge and three small holes on the top. 0. 33). shifting to reddish brown in spots. 8). raised edge and two small holes on the top. The handle and nozzle are missing. W. dark gray. dark gray. Clay and glaze as above. highly micaceous. to). Figure 89.065. in other respects shaped like the preceding. raised edge and three small holes on the top.056. The handle and nozzle are missing. otherwise like the preceding.033. raised edge and three small holes on the top. 348 (846) W. The nozzle and handle are broken away. Ash gray clay. Heart-shaped leaves and raised dots on the rim (Figure 29. W. H. 0.033. three nozzles with rounded termination and a flat rim round the wick-hole. 351 (98). Oblique loops on the rim. Broken cable pattern on the rim (Figure 29.065. 0. 349 (107). 0. low base. Dark gray ware with metallic slip. 0. Ash gray clay. otherwise like the preceding. H. . 2) and a single row on the neck. H. The handle and nozzle are broken away. Two rows of circular dots between elongated dots on the rim. H. ribbed handle with a cross piece. The nozzle and bottom are missing. Triple leaves on the rim (Figure 29. Four rows of raised dots on the rim (Figure 29.028. Figure 89.06. in other respects like the preceding. 350 (105). 0. metallic glaze. metallic glaze. Row of dolphins (?) on the rim (Figure 29. 0.031. 34). 0. 345 (1437). (T322-L68).034. H. W. metallic glaze.062.026. low circular base. Ash gray clay.LAMPS 163 Double loops on the rim. 344 (103). 0. W.062. low base. 347 (1391). raised dots on the neck.063. The ends of the nozzles are broken away. H.031.

0. W. indistinct design on the neck. low base. 0. . Lozenges and elongated dots on the rim (Figure 29. rudimentary base-ring.035. 0. H. 0. The nozzle and handle are missing. 42). largely peeled off. H. 358 (844). 21). Ash gray clay. The nozzle and front half are broken away. 353 (1327). dark gray. W. 0.062. Theatre Area. 355 (1554) (T438-L99). Broken meander pattern and raised dots on the rim (Figure 29.075. 44).0. The handle and nozzle are missing. dark gray. H. 354 (1509) (T482-L119). 0. H. Spirals and raised dots on the rim (Figure 29. otherwise like the preceding. The handle and nozzle are broken away. H. 4). triangular nozzle.067.06.03. metallic glaze. raised edge and three small holes on the top. metallic glaze.11. Figure 9o. Figure 91. 356 (102).029. 359 (1439). Double spirals on the rim (Figure 29. metallic glaze. W. Fragment. 0. low base. L. W. The handle is broken away.034. Light gray clay. 0. otherwise like the preceding. 0. W. 357 (106).061. raised edge and single small hole on the top. 36). 38). W. Figure 90. Square rosettes and a cable pattern on the rim (Figure 29. shifting to brown in spots. traces of dark gray glaze. otherwise like the preceding. The handle and front are missing. . 31).041. On the top are some small incised lines which may be letters. W. Lozenges and spirals on the rim (Figure 29.035. The handle and nozzle are broken away. Gray clay. 0.otherwise like the preceding. Theatre Area. Leaf pattern and raised dots on the rim (Figure 29. 0. Double loops and raised dots on the rim. a single lozenge on the neck. a double spiral on the neck (Figure 30. 0.06.038. H.164 CORINTH 352 (938).066. 18). otherwise shaped like the preceding. dark gray. 0. H. 0. Figure 9I. indistinct design on the neck. Light gray clay.

027. figure 29. largely peeled off. 9). 367 (848) (T252-L42).51). 0. 165 Fragment of a large lamp like the preceding with spirals and raised dots on the rim (Cf. low base. Figure 92. figure 29. The nozzle and handle are missing. W. 28). 13). PLATE VI.113. W. in other respects like the preceding. 0.. 365 (845). 0. The end of the nozzle is restored. 0. 368 (112). raised edge surrounding the entire lamp. no channel on the Triple leaves and raised dots on the rim (Cf. H. The handle and front are broken away. Theatre Area. H. W. design of raised dots on the neck (Figure 30. Triple leaves and raised dots on the rim (Figure 29. 0. W. 0. 0. Leaves and raised dots on the rim (Figure 29.LAMPS 360 (1214). 0. 0. on the top is a row of spirals and . W. small hole in the depression on each side of the neck. Loops on the rim (Figure L. PLATE VI. otherwise like the preceding. 0.069. Clay and glaze as above. 38). Clay and glaze as above. metallic glaze. The handle and nozzle are missing. 363 (104). three small holes round the filling-hole.031. Clay and glaze as above. 32). otherwise like the preceding. 362 (99). 0. otherwise like the preceding. 0.shallow channel on the neck closed by a raised edge on the top. low base. H. H. 364 (1211).029. the handle is missing. 0. 343. 0.065. 29).033. 29. dark gray. H.06. Flat top surrounded by a raised edge. 29.034. triangular nozzle. 366 (100).06. neck. spiral design on the neck (Figure 30. W. figure r i- 2. H. 0. Triple leaves on the rim terminating in rosettes toward the nozzle (Cf. it probably had three nozzles like No.034.066. W. The nozzle and handle are broken away. 36Figure Figure 92. Light gray clay.055. Triple leaves on the rim (Figure 29. The handle and nozzle are missing. PLATE VI. only part of the top is preserved. 13). Fragment of the top of a lamp with spirals and raised dots on the rim (Figure 29.062. 361 (1508) (T488-L122). 38).035. H. 29).

Like the preceding without the row of raised dots on the reverse. Ash gray clay. Cf. Red clay. concave top surrounded by two raised lines. 0.032. W. ROMAN AND EARLY TYPE CHRISTIAN XX LAMPS 372 (115). The handle is missing. No. grayish brown slip. Same signature. PLATE VII. 0. small rounded nozzle with double rudimentary volutes.08. H. Light gray clay. a small hole on each side of the neck. red clay. 0. 0. volutes on the shoulders.033. L. metallic glaze. W. H. H.031. The handle and part of the top are restored. Clay and glaze as above.. 343. Walters. metallic glaze.034. PLATE VII. Figure 31. The handle and front are missing. the handle is ribbed and has a cross piece as on No. W.057. raised line forming a base-ring. L. Grayish brown clay.059. 0. narrow. Rim and sides decorated with small raised dots. Like the preceding except that the letter A (PLATE XXX) is turned with the top toward the handle. Fragment of a large lamp with lozenges and raised dots on the rim. Only the handle and part of the side are preserved.055. mould. figure 29. Clay and glaze as above. 41). 373 (114). mottled light and dark brown glaze. Like the preceding. vertical handle added by hand. The handle and front are missing. low base. Clay and glaze like those of the preceding. 370 (1449). XXXVII. H. The handle is restored. thin. Small fragment of a triangular nozzle. within which is a large letter A (PLATE XXX) turned with the top toward the nozzle. dark gray. 371 (1561) (T461-L109). 0. L. dark brown slip or glaze. W.08. dark gray. 375 (117). 0.06. 0. 374 (116).077. 3). a raised line sets off the nozzle from the body below. 0. Small fragment Convex top surrounded by a raised edge and decorated with globules and elongated dots (Cf. 369 (1107).0. Soft. but on the reverse round the letter A is a row of raised dots. .166 CORINTH elongated dots round the filling-hole (Figure 29. 0. pl. 1401.

L. 0. 0. metallic glaze. 380 (1133). Soft. brown slip or glaze.062. 0.W. The handle is missing.08. Soft. Like the preceding.08. H. 0. raised base-ring. grooved projections on the sides. W. L.057. 0. Reddish buff clay. L. mottled red and brown glaze. purplish brown glaze. within which is an inscription in two lines (PLATE XXX). 0. H. The handle and nozzle are missing. the upper line is illegible. thin. H. Like the preceding.146. L. 0. Like the preceding. Deep red clay. Dark gray clay. 73) XXI VIII.0.07.032. Same shape as that of the preceding but without the raised dots and without the letter A on the reverse. L. Fragment of the top of a similar lamp. H. 383 (176).034. brown slip or glaze. light brown slip or glaze. 0. Like the preceding.0. two small air-holes at the edge of the rim. red clay. highly micaceous. The handle and back are missing.055. W. TYPE GROUP 1 (See p. 0. micaceous clay. The handle and part of the right nozzle are restored. thin. 377 (119). no glaze. Same signature. H. black. 0. The nozzle is restored. PLATE Large decorative lamp with a handle attachment in the form of a slipknot surmounted by a palmette with a cable pattern and ending below in two volutes. thin. unglazed. red clay.245. plain narrow rim. a circle of twenty-one loops forming a rosette on the discus. Red clay.06. 0. W. W. two rounded nozzles with double volutes and floral designs on the necks. flat.06. Same signature. Figure 93.082.085. 0. micaceous. The handle and the back are missing. 0. W. H. the lower reads enOIel. 0. Figure 93. W. Soft. 382 (122).LAMPS 167 376 (118).035. Similar. 0. 379 (123). red clay. Figure 93.058. . Soft. 378 (120). red.032. 0. 381 (121).035. Same signature.

Theatre Area. On the discus is a rosette. Only part of the rim and of the shoulder volute is preserved. Clay and glaze as above. W. PLATE VII. 74) 393 (1029). Small fragment of the reverse of a large lamp like the preceding. Figure 94. on the neck a heart-shaped design glaze as above. 386 (1441). Same clay and glaze. Handle attachment of a small lamp.059. Clay and glaze as above. 391 (1251)..Clay and glaze as above. 390 (960). Fragment 389 (1250). Above is a palmette and below are two spirals. Ash gray clay. raised base-ring on the reverse. black. 383. narrow rim with a series of concentric grooves. dark gray.029.168 384 (1001). 388 (1249). H. and double volutes. PLATE VII.. Handle with attachment of a small lamp. micaceous clay.. 0.055. rosette on the discus. 0. GROUP 2 (See p. CORINTH Large nozzle of a lamp like the preceding. metallic glaze. Within the base-ring is inscribed I1K. Theatre Area. PLATE VII. . Porous. Clay and 387 (802). metallic glaze. micaceous. Similar clay and glaze. Small fragment of a large lamlp like the two preceding. Dark gray. 386 Figure 94. Fragment of a handle attachment like the preceding. Fragment of a decorative lamp like the preceding but smaller. brown glaze. 385 (1252). metallic glaze. of a handle attachment like that of No. Fragment of a large handle attachment with volutes on the sides and a floral design above. buff clay. (PLATE XXX). Width of nozzle 0. resembling the preceding. shoulder volutes and a heart-shaped design on the neck. grayish brown. largely peeled off. Small lamp with a handle attachment. Above is a triangular palmette and below are two volutes. Dark gray clay. The handle with the attachment and the nozzle are broken away. 392 (952).

dark brown glaze. a series of raised rings on the reverse. Front half of a large lamp of the same shape as that of the preceding with double volutes and a loop design on the neck. 0. rays on the discus. Reddish buff clay.039. Triangular handle attachment with a palmette and volutes in relief. Buff clay. 0. Theatre Area.079. brown glaze. 396 (1412). good. in diameter. H. shoulder volutes and a small hole on the neck.044. chocolate brown glaze. the wick-hole measures 0. Clay and glaze as above. Figure 95. PLATEVII. buff clay. mottled light and dark brown glaze. Figure 95.LAMPS 394 (1256). Fragment of a lamp like the preceding with a triangular handle attachment on which was a floral design. 0. Narrow rim with double groove.086. Porous. Fragment of a large lamp of the same shape as that of the preceding. 0. Figure 96. crescent-shaped handle attachment. porous clay. Only the handle and part of the rim and bottom are preserved. 397 398 (1463). W. W. Buff. PLATE VII. 401 (359). several parts missing.037 m. largely peeled off. Put together of many fragments. buff clay. 395 (1440). rays on the discus. 397 (1411). raised base-ring. mottled red and yellow glaze. Moulded rings on the rim. buff clay. 399 (758). Small fragment of a lamp like the preceding but with some kind 169 of a floral relief on the discus. dark brown glaze. 22 . volutes on the nozzle and a small oblong hole on the neck. The nozzle is broken away. 400 (1254). H. Soft. Porous.

PLATE IX. buff clay. Crescent-shapedhandle attachment. horses' heads instead of volutes on the shoulders. 406 (1257).195. Grayish buff clay. Large lamp with two nozzles and an attachment above the handle. Crescent-shapedhandle attachment. decorated by a leaf design in relief. red clay.33. 410 (1006).Porous. 409 (1373). Crescent-shaped handle attachment. 407 (1431). rosette in the centre. ca. Porous. Handle attachment in the form of a two-lobed leaf. buff clay. thin.170 CORINTH Fragment of a lamp with a triangular handle attachment. 411 (1329). Handle attachment in the form of a two-lobed leaf. chocolate brown glaze. Figure 35. traces of dark brown glaze. L. broad base-ring. Porous. 408 (1253). Fragment of a large lamp like the preceding with a dog's (?) head instead of volutes on the shoulder. Crescent-shapedhandle attachment. Hard. 0.068. The handle attachment. the right nozzle. Red clay and glaze. Buff clay.W. 402 (1255). 405 (1395). Coarse. reddish brown glaze. brown glaze. traces of brown glaze. ovules on the rim. largely peeled off. Handle Figure 36. Figure 96. Fragment of a lamp like the preceding with a dog's (?) head instead of volutes on the shoulder. Figure 35. Reddish buff clay. H. buff clay. attachment in the form of a two-lobed leaf. good. brown glaze. 401 404 (934). reddish brown glaze. 0. and parts of the body are missing. red clay. Theatre Area. red glaze. Light red clay. Clay and glaze as above. 0. . dark brown glaze. 403 (168).

Buff clay. Waldhauer. within the base-ring is a raised sign like the point of an arrow. W. buff clay. reddish brown glaze. Coarse. No. PLATE XXV.A. PLATE VII. Theatre Area.069. 0. 204. on the reverse is incised PA (PLATE XXX). PLATE VII. on the rim is a broad band with cross hatchings. PLATE VII. H. Reddish buff clay. 420 (163). .034. yellow clay. PLATEVII. brown glaze. 659. Two nozzles with shoulder volutes and a heart-shaped design on the neck. Fragment of a lamp like the preceding. volutes on the shoulders. twisted rays on the discus. Width of nozzle 0. No. light brown glaze. traces of brown glaze. 4 ! (1024). 0. dark brown glaze. narrow.032. porous clay. PLATE VII. 171 Small lamp with two rounded nozzles. (959). Nozzle of a lamp like the preceding. Nozzle of large decorative lamp with volutes. red clay. Grayish buff clay. Fragment of a large decorative lamp. VII. 0.034. On the discus is the figure of an Amazon raising a fallen comrade. Cf. Small triangular nozzle with shoulder volutes.07. raised base-ring. mottled light and dark brown glaze. in front and behind are two shields and below two double axes. Width of nozzle 0. Narrow rim with double groove. 0. Porous. Buff. Theatre Area. TYPE XXII 418 (1516) (T481-L118). W. Louvre. 414 (969). H. H. Nozzle of a lamp like the preceding. 41 ( (1003). pl.LAMPS 412 (167). 415 (1002). no handle. L.022. Width of nozzle 0. Grooved rim. The end of the nozzle and part of the discus are restored. Grayish buff clay. 41. The handle with the attachment is broken away. small nozzle with shoulder volutes and a circular air-hole on the neck. traces of brown glaze. 1414. 0. XX. of the relief on the discus only small traces are preserved.03. Buff clay. no handle. 0. narrow grooved rim. pl. 0. Walters. Cf. W. ovules on the rim. 417 (1004). Soft. Loeschcke.075. mottled light and dark brown glaze.046. 73. C. traces of chocolate brown glaze.plain top. thin. Handle attachment in the form of a single leaf.04.

W. pi. and cf. Theatre Area. Figure 97.Fremersdorf.J.p. H. On the discus is .028. Reddish buff clay. 0. and Loeschcke. The same figure appears also with his opponent. Theatre Area. Cf. X. traces of brown glaze. X. 0. 808. IX. XXVI. type 17. buff clay. 426 (1425). and the right hand is bandaged up to the elbow. H. 423 (882) (T60-L18). pl. W. red glaze. 0. Shaped like the preceding but without the tongue on the neck. he wears a pointed cap and loin cloth and a greave on the right leg. HI. Figure 37. 0. Cf.172 CORINTH 421 (887). the left side of the figure is missing. Figure 97. L. Loeschcke. shield in the right hand. H. 0. Waldhauer. mottled light and dark brown glaze. 0.093.065. 0. L. Like the preceding but with rays on the discus. 424 (891).098. 0.093. pl.062. On the discus is the figure of a gladiator to left with the right leg advanced. 92. On the discus is a single gladiator moving to right with shield in the left hand and dagger in the right. W. 126. 4. 0. W.086.065. H. 0. XII. he wears loin cloth and 423 boxing gloves but is otherwise nude. W. L. raised base-ring. The same figure appears with his opponent on a lamp of type XXI in the British Museum. See A. XXXII. red clay. and cap. pi. pl. 149. 425 (1444). Light buff clay.A. he wears greaves. Fragment of a lamp like the preceding. PLATE VII. and rosette on the discus. Soft.. The nozzle and parts of the discus are missing. 0. 142. L.0.031. Porous. p. loin cloth.028. Theatre Area. The left side and part of the discus are missing.064. 6. 452. 0. No. where the opponent is also represented. Shaped like the preceding but with tongue and air-hole on the neck. Waters. largely peeled off. 424 Figure 98. 422 (962). Figure 99. 0. traces of brown glaze. Shaped like the preceding but without fhe tongue on the neck. Figure 98.027.025. tongue and small air-hole on the neck. dark brown glaze. 1928. fig. Narrow grooved rim. Loescheke. on the discus is the figure of a boxer to right with the left hand advanced. 135.067. Buff clay.

No. 428 (1259). 427 (1450).LAMPS 173 the figure of a stag to right. and part of the discus are broken away. and one oblong shield. where Pegasus alone. buff clay. 199. also with the cross on his breast. the reverse. Shape as above. On the discus is the figure of Dionysus and a Maenad riding on a panther. is represented. 0. pl. The right side of the discus is missing. two curved daggers. Figure 100. but the rest of the figure is broken away. PLATE XXV.081 . 0. 430 (1462). the Maenad is in front holding the thyrsus. reddish brown glaze. StoddardColl. in front is a tree growing out from a cantharus and above one circular 4i9 9 Figure 99. behind Pegasus the feet of a small horse appear. traces of dark brown glaze. part of the figure is missing. Figure 100. 428 429 Figure Ioo. H. 621. Loescheke. Baur. Discus of a large lamp with the figure of Pegasus to right. Cf. Cf. Theatre Area. XVI. Fragment of a discus with the figure of Polyphemus to left holding a companion . The nozzle. W. on his breast is a small cross incised. Buff clay. and see Loeschcke. 429 (883). No. Porous. mottled light and dark brown glaze. attacked by a lion. Part of the discus with a grooved rim and the figure of a gladiator's weapons: two pair of greaves. Reddish buff clay. mottled red and yellow glaze. to right. a helmet. p.024. and one uncertain object. Light red clay. PLATE XXV. 254.

Cf. Buff clay. broad triangular nozzle with shoulder volutes. p. Fragment of a discus with a wreath pattern. chocolate brown glaze. 431 (903) (T75-L23). 389. 207. Cf. Buff clay.085. 432 (164). traces of brown glaze. palm branch in the left hand. Clay and glaze as above. Figure 101. Theatre Area. PLATE XXV. dark brown glaze. fig. Most of the discus is missing. VII. XI. H. 193. pl. Fragment of a discus with the figure of a Nike. On some lamps the same figure appears with Odysseus in front offering the bowl of milk. only the left wing and part of the palm branch are preserved. dark brown glaze. pl. XX. buff clay. Figure 37. fig. H. Reddish buff clay.174 CORINTH of Odysseus in the left hand. good. Figure 37. and pl.105. 0. Porous. 399. The same figure is found on lamps of type XXIII. III. p. 435 (956). Discus fragment with a grooved rim and a circle of loops. pl. Loeschcke. on the discus within a double groove is the figure of an animal to right. Cf. PLATE XXV. 0. Theatre Area. Cf. Cf. 434 (1455). Loeschcke. broad triangular nozzle with shoulder volutes. Loeschcke. brown glaze. porous clay. A-B.063. 433 (955). PLATE XXV. Buff. pl. with a pointed coiffure. 82. VI. Cf. 33. traces of dark brown glaze. 0. flat base. pl. . Light red clay. 437 (165). Loeschcke. Part of the top is missing. Grooved rim with a broad outer band. W.026. 436 (1030). W. tongue and air-hole on the neck. L. Fragment of a discus with a circle of loops. Slanting rim. Theatre Area. she wears a long chiton with apoptygma and her drapery flutters behind. V. Buff clay. brown glaze. Waldhauer. reddish brown glaze. 355. No. 830. Small discus fragment with the figure of a bear climbing a ladder (?). Loeschcke. L. 0. a tongue on the neck.025. 129. PLATE XXV. 436 Fragment of a discus with a winged Nike to front. flat base. Fremersdorf. Walters. 422. 438 (885). On the discus is the bust of Eros to front. 0. Reddish buff clay.074. holding a Figure ioI. 0.

Fragment of a discus on which is the figure of a dove to right with extended wings. 744. Small fragment of a discus with the figure of Athena to left casting the ballot for Orestes. only the hind part is preserved. the figure is crowded together to fit the circular space on the discus. PLATE XXV. Buff clay.LAMPS 439 (1409). dark brown glaze. PLATE XXV. dark brown glaze. Discus fragment with the figure of a horseman riding to left. Fragment of a discus with the head of Zeus Ammon to front. 447 (935). 446 (895). 175 Small fragment of a discus with the figure of Nike to left. PLATE XXV. dark brown glaze. PLATE XXV. but the Amazon is not present. The position of the horse is exactly the same as that of Walters' No. dark brown glaze. PLATE XXV. Fragment of a discus with the figure of a saddled horse to right. PLATE XXV. Buff clay. chocolate brown glaze. PLATE XXV. dark brown glaze. Nos. Theatre Area. 440 (1426). Buff clay. light brown glaze. red glaze. 445 (1350). Small fragment of a discus with the figure of a sheep to left. 442 (1458). Buff clay. Small fragment of a discus with the lower part of a nude male figure.Reddish buff clay. Buff clay. 444 (1 74). Cf. 441 (1406). Buff clay. only the middle part of the figure is preserved. Theatre Area. Small discus fragment with part of a seated figure to left. traces of brown glaze. the legs of a second horse appear behind. her left hand rests on her hip and with the right she is dropping the ballot. 443 (894). 455 and 581. 448 (951). Buff clay. dark brown glaze. Theatre Area. only the upper part of the figure is preserved. . XXV. PLATE XXV. Buff clay. PLATE XXV. PLATE Theatre Area. Buff clay. Fragment of a discus with the winged head of Medusa to front.

Figure 103. 452 (945). dark brown glaze. Theatre Area. blunt nozzle with shoulder volutes. only the head is preserved. Small lamp with a row of raised dots on the rim. W. Buff clay. 454 (900). Theatre Area. Fragment of a discus with the upper part of the figure of a flute player. reddish clay. Figure 103. red glaze. Small fragment of a discus with the figure of a horse to left. the handle was added by hand. Figure 102. TYPE XXIV 456 (1026). Reddish buff clay. within the base-ring is incised LVQ (LVCI) upside down. Theatre Area. heart-shaped design and an air-hole on the neck. Soft.055. rounded nozzle with double volutes. Red clay. PLATE XXV. 455 (975). Buff clay. Fragment of a discus with a wreath in relief. red glaze. a palmette on the discus. Pale red clay. Greenish buff clay. H. PLATE XXV. Theatre Area.176 CORINTH 449 (948). small slit-like air-hole on the discus. TYPE XXIII 453 X. PLATE Slanting rim. 440 and 581. Theatre Area. Nos. red glaze. only the right hand of the goddess and the urn on the pedestal are preserved. PLATE XXV. reddish brown glaze. moulded grooved handle. . 0. Pale red clay. no handle. 453 (1491) (T513-L135). PLATE XXV. chocolate brown glaze. plain discus with a raised circular line. 0. Fragment of a discus with the lower part of a draped figure to right bending forward. PLATE XXV. 450 (946). 452 Figure 102. but ear-like projections on the sides. reddish brown glaze.021. and the nozzle are missing. Cf. on the reverse within a base-ring is inscribed M L (PLATE XXX). 451 (886). Fragment of a lamp with a loop pattern on the rim. L.044. Fragment of a similar lamp with the figure of Athena casting the vote for Orestes. traces of brown glaze. parts of the sides. Theatre Area. Most of the discus with the design. 0.

Soft.03. 0. II 2. brown glaze. 0. moulded. Parts of the handle. Theatre Area. Fragment of a similar lamp with long loops on the rim. sloping rim. 459 (884) (T82-L26). plain discus. Discus of a similar lamp with a gladiatorial scene. concave 177 discus. 213. PLATE X. Cesnola Coll. the other has loin cloth but no greaves. Walters. PLATE XXV. 462 (1215). Waldhauer. Cf. 230. pl. 1. traces of dark brown glaze. light brown glaze. 460 Figure 104.033. Theatre Area. Reddish buff clay. H. 463 (888). 81 f. 0. Ovule pattern on the rim. See p. rounded nozzle with single volutes.LAMPS 457 (1262). on the discus is a gladiatorial scene and below a tabula ansata with the names of the gladiators. On the discus is the figure of Nike to front standing on a globe holding a wreath in the right hand and a palm branch in the left. 21 and cf. the figure to left wears a helmet. PLATE X. 6. reddish clay. L. L. 461 (881). The figure to right is falling backward toward his adversary who is stabbing him from behind. 1032. the figure is poorly modelled with deep incised lines. Theatre Area. CXL. and right side are missing. Theatre Area. Porous. 458 (932). rounded nozzle with single volutes and 23 . Broad rim with a tongue pattern terminating in volutes toward the nozzle. 460 (899). a rectangular shield is visible between the two figures.124. traces of brown glaze. Small fragment of a similar lamp with a narrow sloping rim. plain discus. grooved handle. chocolate brown glaze. The types of gladiators are uncertain. Figure 104. and greaves. XXI.). small. W. p. Theatre Area. Figure 39. 0. small. Greenish buff clay. 872. Narrow. 830. Reddish clay. reddish brown glaze. discus. buff clay. flat base.-moulded. (For a discussion of the fragment and for references see p. 0. Loeschcke. pl.084. Fragment of a lamp with a heart pattern on the rim and apparently a plain discus. loin cloth. Nos. grooved handle. H.115. fig. Light red clay.

034.078. Parts of the nozzle and rim are missing. 472 (1267).03. reddish brown glaze. H. Red clay light brown glaze. small plain discus. 0. flat. 0. Theatre Area. 0. H. Pale red clay. Fragment of a top. 467 (1 75). 470 (345). Red clay. Ovules on the rim. pl. 469 (880). 0. Theatre Area. 467. no part of the Sphinx itself is preserved. W.092.and part of the handle are broken away. Small fragment of a discus with a similar figure of a Sphinx. 0. 0. W. Ovule pattern on the rim. Grayish buff clay.067.109. XI. Small fragment of a top with a figure like the preceding. Fragment of a top with an oak leaf pattern on the rim and a plain discus. 473 (892). L. Red clay. W. No. Red clay. Parts of the handle and discus are broken away. brown glaze. stamped circle in the centre of the circular reverse. bottom. W. moulded handle. Red clay. rounded nozzle with tongue on . H. The nozzle. reddish brown glaze.03. Theatre Area. rosette on the discus. 0. 0. Theatre Area. Plain rim with stamped circles near the nozzle and handle. otherwise like the preceding. brown glaze. Plain rim with ear-like projections on the sides. reddish brown glaze.178 CORINTH an air-hole on the neck. 0. Figure 40. chocolate brown glaze. 466 (741). Red clay and glaze.07. circular base. Theatre Area. Parts of the discus and left side are missing. 0. reddish brown glaze. PLATE X. Theatre Area. grooved. 0. 464 (1380). Gray clay. Fragment of a top with ovules on the rim and the figure of a Sphinx like the preceding. otherwise like the preceding. 465 (890).034. 468 (949). The end of the nozzle and the right side are broken away. H. PLATEX. Broad plain rim with stamped circles at the nozzle and handle.092. 471 (889). Red clay. L. L. on the discus was the figure of a Sphinx holding a tendril-like object in the front paws. Like the preceding.068. Cf. Loeschcke. red glaze.

only partly preserved. channel and small air-hole on the neck. 479 (941). pl. purplish red glaze. Theatre Area. \.AGM/TENTS. Buff clay.LAMPS 179 the neck and rudimentary volutes. brown glaze. Plain rim. plain discus. Plain rim. 480 (974). Figure 39. 592. Theatre Area. only the wheel of which is preserved. The figure is the same as Walters' No. Rim and handle as above. Plain rim with ear-like projections as on No. 0. 475 (1377). red glaze. Reddish buff clay. 0. triangular termination of the nozzle. on the discus is the figure of a chariot. red glaze. Buff clay. moulded handle. on the discus is the figure of a bull to the left. Figure 39. traces of brown glaze.081. on the discus is the figure of a charioteer to left. Narrow plain rim. 474 (973). moulded handle. Pale red clay. plain oblong discus. Pale red clay. several missing. Cf. PLATE X.04. almond-shaped reverse. 0. Fragment of a lamp like the preceding. plain oblong discus. PLATE XXVI. PLATE XXVI. I 3) 47i8 Figure 105. L. but without the tree. Red clay. Theatre Area. flat base. 477 (976). Put together of small fragments. Red clay and glaze. Part of the right side is restored. XVI. 473. 'D . . 175. grooved. very indistinct. grooved. Theatre Area. Theatre Area. triangular termination of the nozzle. of the figure only the right hind leg is preserved. H.114. Theatre Area. chocolate brown glaze. Figure 40. almond-shaped base with a stamped circle in the centre. Figure 105. 478 (896). 4S1 (965). FR. grooved. on the discus is the figure of a crab. Plain sloping rim. Pale red clay. The right half is missing. PROBABLY OF TYPE XXIV 47(i (1 70). Impressed oblique leaf pattern on the rim. Waldhauer. Clay and glaze as above. moulded handle. vine wreath on the discus. channel on the neck. red glaze. W.

Theatre Area. Waldhauer. pi. 483 (940). Plain rim. Figure 39. 442. 486 (1119). See p. fig. red glaze. red glaze. micaceous. Begerus. Pale red clay. of the figure on the discus a single head to front is preserved. 'Ecp. dark brown glaze. Figure 107. ribbed moulded handle. 490 Figure 107. Q.7. p. brown glaze. traces of dark brown glaze. the figure on the discus is uncertain. Grayish clay. on the discus is the upper part of a nude male figure to left. Theatre Area. Ovules on the rim. p. the handle was added by hand. Plain rim. on the discus is the figure of a single gladiator to left wearing greaves and a shield and having a long spear in the right hand. Philadelpheus. 488 (1269). a lamp from Nikopolis. 1922. dark brown glaze.. . on the discus is the head of Helios. Reddish clay. CORINTH Plain rim. Grayish brown clay. XXVI. Theatre Area. 485 Figure Io6. PLATE XXVI. brown glaze. Ovules on the rim. PLATE XXVI. Light red clay. very indistinct Red clay and glaze. Thesaurus. Cf.180 482 (1384). 'AQz. on the discus is the figure of a goat to left. Plain rim. Buff clay. on the discus part of a mask is preserved. 109 and cf. Cf. 347. Reddish buff clay. 11. 487 (898). 490 (980). behind is a tree. Ovules on the rim. 484 (363). No. on the discus are the figures of two dolphins to right Gray clay. floral design on the discus mostly missing. Figure 106. 72. 1073. 491 (1117). Figure 39. dark brown glaze. 485 (1348). 489 (740). Walters. Plain rim. Red clay. on the discus is a boar attacked by a dog. PLATE Ovules on the rim. 346. the rest is broken away. XXXVI. III. Theatre Area. light brown glaze. Plain rim.

PLATE XXVI. 494 (1116). Eros is standing with crossed legs. Theatre Area. Fragment of a discus with the figures of Eros and Psyche. 496 (172). dark brown glaze. indistinct. without drapery. only the lower part preserved. Fragment of a discus with the figure of a dancing Maenad (?) to right. Buff clay. Reddish buff clay. PLATE XXVI. Grayish brown clay. only a hand holding a spear and a wreath are preserved. Buff clay. pl. Fragment of a discus with the figure of Nemesis in the form of a winged lion with human head and long flowing hair. red glaze. dark brown glaze. Figure 108. Cf. Grayish brown clay. Cf. PLATE XXVI. XXIV. Buff clay. holding short dagger in left hand. Ovules on the rim. XXIII. PLATE XXVI. below appears the head of a second figure.LAMPS 181 492 (929). No. Pale red clay. . chocolate brown glaze. Theatre Area. with a nude female figure advancing to left. 493 (343). The latter is nude below the waist and holds drapery over the right arm. PLATE XXVI. chocolate brown glaze. Dark gray clay. 225. 752. Walters. PLATE XXVI. brown glaze. Small fragment of discus with the figure of a nude gladiator. PLATE XXVI. Waldhauer. Fragment of a discus with the figure of a Triton to left holding a staff in the left hand. Figure I08. chocolate brown glaze. 498 (954). 499 (357). only the lower part preserved. Small fragment of a gladiatorial scene. reddish brown glaze. 500 (947). 495 (111 8). Fragment of a discus with the figure of Apollo to right playing the harp. PLATE XXVI. dark brown glaze. brown glaze. holding her right front paw on a wheel. indistinct Light red clay. 497 (1349). Theatre Area. No. front view. Fragment of a discus Theatre Area. 501 (1134). PLATE XXVI. Pale red clay. Theatre Area. Walters. Small fragment of a discus with the upper part of a bearded figure. on his back is seated a Nereid. 776. on the discus is the nude figure of Aphrodite to left. pl.

0. reddish clay. small plain discus. Fragment of a discus with the figure of a crane advancing to left. thin. 503 (897). brown glaze. PLATE X. PLATEX.182 CORINTH 502 (173). circles at the nozzle. red glaze. Grayish red clay. Fragment Plain narrow rim with stamped circles near the heart-shaped nozzle. nozzle and handle as above. The end of the nozzle and parts of the discus and bottom are missing. Three rows of raised dots on the rim. Light red clay. PLATE X. . Theatre Area. TYPE XXV 505 (893) (T123-L33). Plain rim. H. 508 (942). moulded ribbed handle. Broad rim with impressed oblique leaf pattern and stamped circles at the base of the heart-shaped nozzle. red glaze over a coat of white. W. Fragment of a discus with the figure of a pygmy riding on an elephant (?) to right Pale red clay. Red clay and glaze. 0. H.036. Theatre Area. broad plain discus. Gray clay. ca. Theatre Area.061. plain discus. Brick red clay. Parts of the nozzle and side are broken away. W. Fragment.032.03. chocolate brown glaze. H. red glaze. 0. L. reddish brown glaze. 504 (879). PLATE XXVI.3. brown glaze. Grayish buff clay. 510 (931). Soft. small concave discus with a central filling-hole and a small air-hole at the edge. flat circular reverse. Buff clay.081. Theatre Area. 0. 507 (1258).074. No. Broad rim with impressed oblique leaf pattern. Figure 108. 506 (1268). Left half of a lamp like the preceding. Figure 39. Fragment of a discus with the figure of a boy struggling with a goose. plain discus on which is incised FAAY (PLATE XXX) (cf. the upper part of the figure is missing. Fragment Broad rim with ovule pattern and stamped circles near the heartshaped nozzle. 511 (943). the nozzle has a shape as shown in figure 41. Theatre Area.093. 509 (944). 545). Red clay and glaze. Theatre Area. 0. 0. W. The bottom and half of the left side are missing. red glaze over a coat of white. 0.

grooved. Red clay and glaze. Buff clay. Light red clay. 0. Top of a lamp with ovules on the rim. rays on the discus. 520 (1265). chocolate brown glaze. 0. L. Theatre Area.037. H. Red clay and glaze. Fragment.125. circular reverse with an impressed circle in the centre. red glaze over a coat of white. light brown glaze. Fragment. 0. otherwise like the preceding. W. Fragment. Red clay. small plain discus.4. Top of a large lamp with ovules on a wide rim. 518 (930). Theatre Area.4. on the discus is a series of grooves and raised lines.081. red glaze. Ovules on the rim and stamped circles at the base of the nozzle. nozzle as in figure 41. Fragment Loop pattern on a wide rim. partly peeled off. raised edge between the discus and the rim. W. H. Red clay. concentric grooves on the discus.081.032. . plain discus with a central filling-hole and a small air-hole. filling-hole in the centre and air-hole toward the nozzle. 0. Raised tendril pattern on the rim.098. 517 (1120). Fragment. concentric grooves on the discus. Reddish buff clay. 0. chocolate brown glaze. 183 Like the preceding but with the nozzle extending to the edge of the discus as in figure 41. moulded handle. 513 (1031). 519 (961). Narrow rim with oblique leaf pattern in relief. dark brown glaze. L. plain discus. 51 6 (1374). red glaze. 514 (1266). 521 (1261). 0. 515 (1141). Grayish brown clay. Top of a lamp like the preceding but with a small air-hole at the edge of the discus. Light red clay. 0.067. Vine pattern on the rim. Pale red clay.LAMPS 512 (169). Raised leaf pattern on a wide rim. red glaze over a coat of white.W. nozzle as above. ca.

0. reddish brown glaze.024. Theatre Area. 529 (1270). H.074. grooved. Theatre Area. 523 (1264). depressed top. H. PLATE XI. PLATE XI. 525 (964). Greenish gray clay. Greenish buff clay. Reddish buff clay. Reddish buff clay.07. On the reverse within a raised base-ring is the inscription in raised letters MYRO(PLATE XXX). Impressed CORINTH loop pattern on the rim. low base-ring and within the signature MYRO (PLATE XXX) in raised letters.031. grooves on the discus. Theatre Area. 0. plain. 87) 526 (160). 526. plain discus. W. 0. Plain rim with raised knobs. H. Several fragments of a lamp like the preceding. Large ovule pattern on the rim. plain discus on which is a part of an incised inscription B . Fragment. red glaze. PLATE XI. dark brown glaze. Theatre Area. chocolate brown glaze. Sharply sloping rim with high knobs on the sides. 530 (1382). Fragment of a lamp like No.. 0.184 522 (1263). Part of the left side is restored. W. W. A small part of the top is missing. deeply depressed discus with . 87) 531 (963).037.045. Grayish brown clay. 0. Fragment. Greenish buff clay. Red clay and glaze. 524 (966). (PLATE XXX). GROUP 2 (See p. Two fragments of a lamp with an impressed oblique leaf pattern on the rim. TYPE XXVI GROUP 1 (See p. dark brown glaze. Theatre Area. Small lamp like the preceding. Reddish buff clay. 528 (957). long rounded nozzle with a closed channel and an air-hole on the neck.10. dark brown glaze. Red clay. moulded handle. L. Fragment of a lamp like the preceding. 527 (159). Fragment of a lamp like No. L. 0. red glaze. red glaze.074. 0. 0. 526 but with an air-hole within the discus.

1924. W. Handle of a wall lamp.11 5. 0. 0. the figure is draped on the sides and is holding some indistinct object in front. Light red clay. and all of the figurine below the neck.051 (not including the handle). are missing. On the left side is inscribed twice KPHCK6NTOC(PLATE XXX). Theatre Area. Greenish buff clay. Red clay. on the reverse is incised [CEKOY]NA[O]Y (PLATE XXX). triangular handle. Dark red clay. and four feet below. red clay and glaze. only partly preserved. L. Figure 43. Heft 7. Only the upper part is preserved. Light red clay. Figure 43. W. Figure 42. 538 (1 85). no handle.053. chocolate brown glaze. and the filling-hole above on the back. Lamp in the shape of a human figure standing on a high base. L. 537 (1060). Fragment of a lamp in the shape of a human head. 0. a vertical handle added by hand. Lamp of Type XXII attached to the head of a figurine. Red clay and glaze. The discus and the front part of the lamp. 535 (1332). 534 (166). plain discus. unglazed. 0. PLATE XI. the nozzle at one end. Heavy fabric. 536 (971). 24 . micaceous clay. Buff. unglazed. Almost straight sides diverging toward the top.073. Only the right half of the top is preserved. 0. Fragment of a lamp in the shape of a human head with the handle and the filling-hole on the top. LAMPS OF PECULIAR SHAPE 532 (161). H.034. Lamp in the shape of a barrel with the handle and the filling-hole on the top. Tafel 4. 533 (1271). broad rim with a grooved knob on each side.LAMPS 185 central filling-hole and air-hole at the edge. white paint with accessory colors on the hair of the figurine. nozzle below. flat reverse with a circular impression in the centre. The head of the figure is missing. On the discus was the figure of a gladiator's weapons. Only the back is preserved. Rorma Iclera ' IV. rounded nozzle. unglazed. H. Figure 43. Theatre Area.097. Cf. Wollmann. unglazed. 0.

Pale red clay. Figure 43. XLI. . 547 (1005). On the rim is a depressed outer band with a raised knob on each side. red clay. Small fragment. plain discus. 540 (171). Pale buff clay.031. 1230. TYPE XXVII EARL Y TRANSITIONAL 545 (981). red glaze shifting to dark brown in spots. Fragment. Cf. 420. unglazed. thin. Front of a large lamp with ovules on the rim. 546 (1277). Coarse. 544 (1275). 2. raised band round the discus. rays on the discus. plain discus on which is incised rAAY (PLATE XXX) (cf. Light red clay. and a series of circular grooves on the discus. flat. Plain rim. central filling-hole and four small figures of dogs arranged in a circle. Figure 43. Plain rim with stamped circles near the heart-shaped nozzle. H. no glaze. air-hole on the neck. Theatre Area. semi-circular nozzle as in figure 41. 34.12) and a series of grooves and raised bands on the discus. buff clay. No. Red clay and glaze. reddish brown glaze. 542 (950). Figure 109. Grayish buff clay. PLATE XXVI. buff slip. Grayish buff clay. brown glaze. Walters. 0. PLATE XI. Small fragment with globules on the rim (Fig. Cf. Fragment of a lamp like the preceding with part of a mask preserved on the discus. 511). Theatre Area. nozzle and rudimentary shoulder volutes. 543 (953). rounded Porous. moulded handle. The nozzle and part of the left side are missing. Theatre Area. pl. unglazed. brown glaze. grooved. unglazed. Fragment of a lamp with a triple heart-shaped nozzle. circular reverse. Small fragment with a depressed band and a grooved knob on the rim.186 CORINTH 539 (970). No. Buff clay. Theatre Area. Fragment of a lamp of uncertain shape with a rosette on top and a leaf-shaped attachment above the handle. Figure Figure i09. 541 (1358). Waldhauer.

553 (1276). circles at the base of the nozzle. 0. Plain rim. 0. ca. rays on the discus within a raised band.. 0. 552 (230).07. unglazed. Pale red clay. 549 (361). L.04.075.. Figure 110. Pale buff clay. Figure I IO.086.l .073. Pale yellow clay shifting to red on the right side. slit-like air-hole at the edge of the discus. 0. an air-hole is indicated but not pierced through.... .. 0.03... 0..H. Figure 111.. Buff clay. Like the preceding but with rays on the discus and three stamped circles at . The bottom and part of the nozzle are missing. otherwise like the preceding. L. W..081. L.086. Fragment of a small lamp with a stamped oblique leaf pattern on the rim. Pale red clay. Miniature lamp like the preceding. 0..:. signature TTOY[BAIOY] (PLATE XXX) incised on the reverse. unglazed. . straight sided nozzle extending to the edge of the discus. 0. plain discus. unglazed. . 54 GROUP I (See p. H. 0. parts of the sides missing. flat.. H. circular reverse set off by a single groove. Top of a lamp with an impressed oblique leaf pattern on the rim. Left half of a lamp like the preceding. 554 (350).:. Theatre Area. Put together of many fragments. smlall.?..::: .. straight sided nozzle extending to the edge of the discus. W. grooved. moulded handle.. unglazed.018.... . W.. 550 (1007). 0. Figure I I I.. 90) 551 (220). Parts of the nozzle and right side and reverse are missing. ? . H.. unglazed. rays on the discus within a raised band. moulded handle with a double groove. PLATEXI. Figure 112. 555 (1109)..LAMPS 187 548 (1032). Pale red clay. unglazed. 0. Theatre Area.028. plain discus.025. Pale buff clay. Fragment of a large lamp with plain rim and two holes through the handle. unglazed. W. Stamped ovules on the rim. the signature (?) [KAP]IIOY incised on reverse.

Figure I I 2. L.033. grooved moulded handle with an incised cross on the lower end. 0. straight-sided nozzle extending to the edge of the discus. Pale buff clay.033. Put together 00soNrOY (PLATE XXX). Pale yellow clay. Pale red clay. The front is missing. on the reverse within a single circular groove is incised the signature CYTTAOYA(PLATE XXX). W.hole and a small slit.W. 561 (186). 96). of a lamp like the preceding with the signature (PLATE XXX) incised on the reverse. Like the preceding. :. 1 [ I] A (PLATE XXX) incised on the unglazed.. A small part of the reverse is missing. unglazed. unglazed... W.081. . L. 0. H.. W. GlTArAGOY 559 (221).091.hole. Fragment 6TTArAOOY 560 (189). unglazed.. unglazed. 0. ca. Pale red clay. the signature reverse (see p. unglazed.0. small stamped circle on each side of the handle and nozzle. Wide rim with an ovule pattern. PLATE XI. 0. Pale of many fragments. 0. Fragment of a lamp like the preceding with the signature (PLATE XXX) incised on the reverse. unglazed. A small part of the left side is restored. 0. 562 (216). 0. 558 (242). 0. 557 (178).078. Like the preceding. the signature GTTArAOOY (PLATE XXX) incised on the reverse.like air.095. Parts of the nozzle and handle are missing. rays on the discus within a raised edge. Pale buff clay. but without the cross and the stamped circles at the lower end of the handle.081-. 0. . H. unglazed.082.087. central filling. on the reverse is incised JLINIKIANOY (PLATE XXX). L. On the reverse is incised yellow clay.03.03. Pale buff clay. . 0. Like the preceding but at the lower end of the handle are two large impressed circles. On the reverse is incised ArHJUlONOC (PLATE XXX).188 CORINTH the lower end of the handle. H. Pale red clay. H. Like the preceding.. some parts missing. 556 (190).

Left half of a lamp like the preceding with a vine pattern on the rim.LAMPS 563 (1375). unglazed: 568 (1135). L. on the reverse within a circular groove is incised the signature TTP61JLOY (PLATE XXX). Signature [CeB]HPOC (?) (PLATEXXX) incised on the reverse. L. 90) 566(.09. 565 (1115). GROUP 2 (See p. unglazed. (PLATEXXX) Fragment of a lamp like the preceding. 0. Pale red clay. H.083. Signature KA[AAICT]O[Y] the reverse. 0. 569 (223). 571 (218). Back half of a lamp like the preceding. Pale yellow clay.033. ca. Pale yellow clay. handle and nozzle as above. unglazed. Vine pattern on the rim. H. the nozzle and bottom are missing. unglazed.088. Pale yellow clay. unglazed. 570 (180). PLATE XI. are missing.085. handle and nozzle as above. signature KAAAICTOY(PLATE XXX) incised on the reverse. (187). 0. 0. unglazed. Pale buff clay. ca. unglazed. Put together of many fragments. Fragment of a lamp like the preceding. At the lower end of the handle are three stamped circles. unglazed. incised on 572 (224).033. rays on the discus. 0.10.101. Pale red clay. 56i4 (1359). Tendrils and rosettes on the rim. Fragment of a lamp like the preceding. The handle and part of the right side 567 (1279). Pale yellow clay. W. W. 0. rays on the discus. Fragment of a lamp like the preceding with a raised floral design on the rim. . unglazed. 0. unglazed. Pale red clay. Top of a lamp like the preceding with a tendril pattern on the rim and a stamped circle on each side of the handle and nozzle. L. Pale yellow clay. PLATE XI. 0. Grayish buff clay. W. 189 Like the preceding.

581 (338). perhaps ZWCIJ. 578 (349) (T179-L37). H. Toutain. Pale red clay. signature CYN(OPOY (PLATE XXX) incised on the reverse. 577 (207). unglazed. Similar. on the discus is the figure of Zeus to the front. Buff clay. Figure 113. Part of Similar. L. 4601.116. PLATE XXVI. 575 (200). Top of a lamp like the preceding.. GROUP 3 (See p.10. unglazed.032. W.LOY. 0. the discus is broken away.085. 0. 0. Pale yellow. 0. 0. unglazed. H. et Sagl. Hautcoeur Musee [Alaoui. Like the preceding but at the lower end of the handle is incised a cross. W. H. p. III. The handle is missing. 0. L. Pale yellow clay. thin. Ovules and flat panels on the rim. unglazed. 0. Fragment. Nos. XCVII. L. the rest of the figure is nude. Like the preceding. The front is restored. 1329.190 CORINTH 578 (198). 440 and 455). Szppl. Cf. reddish slip or glaze. Left half of a similar lamp. incised on the reverse. unglazed. X. the drapery hangs over the left shoulder.033. W. signature CYN4OPOY (PLATE XXX) buff clay. ca.033. L. Pale red clay. 0. the end of the nozzle and part of the side are missing.. Top of a similar lamp. Dar. signature TTWC4OPOY (PLATE XXX) incised on the reverse. W. Plain rim. 0. 0. 446. p. W. handle and nozzle as above. unglazed. . 0. 0. Ditdonaire des Anztiquities. Fragment. Put together of many fragments. Red clay. 580 Theatre Area. on the discus the bust of Athena to Figure II3. Vol.087.031. 9I) 580 (1131). III B. 0. flat panel on each side. 0. H.096.082.099. clay.023. 5. fig. 0. pl. H. 574 (197). Outer band of rim plain and inner band of wavy lines and triple dots. 582 (183). holding the thunderbolt in his left hand. Grayish 576 (201). Pale yellow clay. unglazed. Begerus. 57!9 (1036).10. unglazed. Yellow clay. indistinct signature. PLATE XII.081. on the discus is the figure of Athena casting her vote for Orestes (cf. Thesaurus.105. the signature [Tn]WC(OPOY (PLATEXXX) on the reverse. L.

Only the lower part of the figure is preserved. who.' with short sleeves. Figure 46. unglazed. Fragment of a discus with the figure of Artemis (?) to front holding a torch in the left hand. behind is her dog (for a discussion of the figure see p. 586 Figure 14. Theatre Area. PLATE XXVI. 4. she is dressed in a chiton extending to the knees. 583 (972). Pale yellow clay. unglazed. 100). Red clay. Theatre Area. on the discus is the figure of Artemis moving to left holding a torch in the right hand and a spear in the left. Pale buff clay. p. unglazed.A VII.LAMPS 191 left wearing helmet and aegis and holding a spear over the right shoulder. unglazed. National Museum. 584 (204). unglazed. 343. The right half is missing. she is moving toward the left holding her drapery in her left hand. Figure 115. Top of a lamp with ovules and panels on the rim. Pale red clay. she wears a long chiton with a fold at the waist. her right hand is extended in a gesture of flight. unglazed. is not represented on the lamp. Plain rim with panels. 1903. unglazed. Figure II5. 3108 and 3229. on the reverse within a double circular groove is incised AOYKIOY(PLATE XXX). Cf. and over her right shoulder appears the top of her quiver. 585 (236). V. behind her are two arrows and a quiver. 837. Pale red clay. 1207. signature [JLA]PKIAN[o]Y (PLATE XXX) on the reverse. A4J. Grayish red clay. 1-1 I/ 1 587 (284). however. she wears a long chiton folded over at the waist. Athens. .. chocolate brown glaze. fig. Foulles de Delp/es. Grayish buff clay. p. on the discus is the figure of Artemis surprised at the bath. Small fragment of a lamp like the preceding. PLATE XXVI. Theatre Area.Walters. Nos. 586 (344).No. on the discus is the bust of Athena like the preceding. 4. 588 589 (1330). Fragment. 192. Plain rim. 588 (356). Small fragment of a discus with the figure of Artemis to front holding a tall torch in her left hand. Fragment of a discus with the lower part of a figure of Artemnisdraped to the feet and holding the bow in her left hand. Red clay. Figure 114. Cf. very indistinct. fig. otherwise nude. Bassett. she is looking back at Actaeon.

Pale yellow clay. 448. 594 (286). Theatre Area. see p. Ovules and panels on the rim. draped to the knees. No. she holds the drapery behind in her left hand. with short sleeves. Walters.032. very indistinct. unglazed. unglazed. Ovules and panels on the rim. Pale red clay. 595 (287). the drapery is gathered round the waist and falls to her feet. Small fragment of a discus with the figure of a sheep on the right side. in his left hand is the caduceus. behind is the figure of a ram (for discussion. on her right side is the indistinct figure of a dolphin (for discussion see p. on the discus is the figure of Hermes to front looking to the left. Buff clay. indistinct. 0. 3105. PLATE XXVI. Pale red clay.. Figure 44. Fragment. (288). 100). he wears the winged cap but is otherwise nude. he is holding his money bag in his right hand and the caduceus in the left.' The front half is missing. Cf. unglazed. Figure 44. Pale yellow clay.034. National Museum. and chlamys thrown over left shoulder and fluttering behind. Only the top of the lamp is preserved. 593 (285). Part of the discus and front half of the lamp are missing. 0. Ovules and panels on the rim. The figures are not identical but nearly so. on the reverse is incised the signature (?) TT[AP]AOY (PLATE XXX). 592 (348). 0. Athens. Begerus. 59. 591 (1126). draped from the waist down. Figure 47.W. Pale yellow clay. Small fragment of a discus with the figure of a ram like that on the preceding lamp. unglazed. PLATE XXVI. p. no glaze. Figure 46. on the discus is the figure of Aphrodite to front. Pale yellow clay.192 CORINTH 590 (214). on the left side is the ram. H.085. AA. only the upper part of the figure is preserved. below are two small Erotes holding up wreaths. No. Two fragments of a lamp like the preceding with the head and lower part of Hermes preserved. Large impressed ovules and plain panels on the rim. Figure 47. 98). from Sparta. H. . on the discus is the figure of "Armed Aphrodite" looking into the shield of Ares.085. W. shifting to red in spots. on the discus is the figure of Hermes moving to the left. 0. signed CTTWCIANOY. 1216. unglazed. unglazed. Thesaurvs III.

0. Walters. for the figure of Tyche on a triangular attachment above the handle. Pale red clay. 0. in her left hand is a cornucopia and in the right a steering oar. 192. p. on the discus the bust of Dionysus (?) with large. signature CTUWCIANOY. brown glaze. of Tyche like the preceding. PLATE XII. Plain rim with panels. Cf. 59. on the discus the figure Figure Figure I I6. 0. Fragment of a discus with the figure of Tyche draped from the waist down. in the left hand is a palm branch. on the reverse is incised the signature KAAAICTOY (PLATE XXX). 193 Fragment of discus with the figure of Hephaestus to right holding the hammer in the right hand and tongs in the left. W. Light red clay.9 (192). PLATE XXVI. she wears a long chiton folded over at the waist with the right shoulder and breast bare. the drapery hangs over his left shoulder and a leopard's skin passes from the left shoulder under the right arm.103. No. H. unglazed. Plain rim with panels. The bottom and part of the left side are restored.082. unglazed. Fouilles de Delt/pes. 0. very indistinct. 0. unglazed. W. unglazed.A. Greenish buff clay. on the reverse is incised the signature CTTWCIANOY (PLATE XXX). 844.028. W. Cf. flowing hair and drapery from the left shoulder. V. Pale yellow clay.026. 1. The same figure accompanied by the leopard is found on a lamp from Delphi. 601 (759). on the reverse is incised CATTIAIC (PLATE XXX). PLATE XII. H. Figure 116. on the discus the figure of Dionysus to front holding the thyrsus in the left hand.099. the figure of Nike to front but Ovules and panels on the rim. H.087. 0. Grayish buff clay. Ovules and panels on the rim. L. 1903. p. 0. No. L. L.J. 844. fig.085. 834. on the discus looking to left at a wreath which she holds in the right hand. Cf. 0. VII. PLATE XII. he wears a pointed cap and short chiton exomis. Buff clay. A. fig. 0. 598 (191).077. chocolate brown glaze.029. 600 (1 79). Walters. ' (601 602 (177). 25 .LAMPS 597 (1111). Bassett. 339.

probably his pipes. fig. 7. PLATE XXVII. H.101. Pale red clay. 604 (181). PLATE XII.027. unglazed. a lamp from Nikopolis signed AOYKIOY. 606 (282). lamp in the Louvre. an illegible inscription on the reverse. p. No. Ovules and panels on the rim. W. PLATE XXVI. 605 (958). Tyche.081. Pale yellow clay. 0. 604 Theatre Area. 'AQX. p. 0.. 10. 13). 70. XIII. and the head of Medusa with the trzskelzs is found on coins of Sicily (Baumeister. 608 (1142). 6 and p.. II. Ovules and panels on the rim. fig. Cf. 14. unglazed. 4626. Pale red clay. PLATE XXVI. 0. PLATE XXVII. 71. 'E(p. W. unglazed. No. See Philadelpheus. only the tail of the dolphin is preserved. 609 (277). on the reverse is incised the inscription AOYKIOY (PLATE XXX). p. L. 607 (283).194 603 (182). 1898. he is holding a 'large torch over the left shoulder and a tablet in the right hand. very indistinct. CORINTH L. unglazed. 'A6o. Cf. A6sT. 0. Buff clay. on each side and on top is a bent leg. (Roscher's Lexzicon. Philadelpheus. . On a turreted late monuments the Gorgoneion is sometimes combined with a swastika which may be a development of the triskelis. 1918. 0. 1363. Denknm. S. s. on a dolphin. Pale red clay. Figure 117. below is a quiver and bow.v. unglazed. XII. 1922. Small fragment of a discus with the figure of winged Eros riding. p. Small fragment of a discus with the figure of Eros like the preceding. on the discus is a bust of Serapis to right. H. The former is often represented with crown. unglazed. Yellow clay. pls. 984). Small fragment of a discus with winged Eros riding on a dolphin and holding a straight object in each hand. unglazed. on the discus is the head of Tyche' with a mural crown and long wavy hair. Small fragment of discus with a figure like the preceding.087. Figure 117. 0. 9og.07. XVIII. I31..029.. H. Fragment of a discus with the figure of Eros advancing to right. Pale yellow clay. A marble relief with such a representation was found in a Roman villa near Lechaeum.IV. 2. J. 1 The figure is probably a combination of Tyche and Medusa. fig.

unglazed. no glaze. Fragment of a discus with the figure of Eros.LAMPS 610 (297). indistinct. The left side is broken away. PLATE XXVII. unglazed. on the discus the figure of Eros playing the pipe. PLATE XXVII. Red clay. unglazed. Pale red clay. 620 (270). Plain rim with panels. PLATE XXVI. unglazed. Small fragment with an indistinct figure of Eros. 61 3 (276). resting his left elbow on some object. No. Pale yellow clay. unglazed. Pale red clay. unglazed. but looking back. Buff clay. 61!) (225). he advances to left and his drapery flutters behind. only the feet of Eros are preserved. to front. PLATE XXVII. Cf. unglazed. on the discus the figure of Eros as on the preceding. 195 Small fragment with part of a figure of Eros like the preceding. he stands with crossed legs. PLATE XXVII. . unglazed. 617 (280). Red clay. PLATE XXVII. Ovules and panels on the rim. Red clay. 614 (274). 618 (281). 1084. Small fragment of a discus with a similar figure of Eros. on the reverse is the signature TTnWC[OPO]Y (PLATE XXX). Plain rim with panel. 615 (275). Small fragment of a discus with the figure of Eros to front. Fragment of a discus with the nude figure of a beardless Heracles to front. unglazed. 612 (279). Fragment of a discus with the figure of Eros to front but looking to right. probably the same as the preceding. only the left wing and arm preserved. Small fragment. PLATE XXVII. on the discus is preserved part of the figure of Eros resting. his left hand rests on his hip and from it his drapery falls behind him. only the left hand and part of the drapery are preserved. Walters. Pale Small fragment red clay. Red clay. looking to left. PLATE XXVII. 611 (278). 616 (199). Red clay. PLATE XXVII. on a pedestal. of a discus with the figure of Eros to front looking to left. Fragment.

Walters. unglazed. Ash gray clay. Small fragment of a discus with the figure of Triton and Nereid like that of . Red 625 clay. on the discus are the figures of a Centaur and a Lapith.196 CORINTH holding his club in his right hand. Theatre Area. Top of a large lamp with panels on the rim. hand and a curved dagger in the right. pl. Fragment. a small figure of Eros leans against the outstretched wing of the Swan. 626 (206). unglazed. band with raised dots arranged in quincunxes. Fragment of a discus with the figure of bearded Heracles to right. his shoulder over his left arm and is wound round his waist. PLATE XXVII. holding the head of Medusa in his left. Figure 120. Pale red clay. pl. 621 (1368). indistinct. Cf. Figure 119. 622 (269). 623 (340). he holds the club in his right hand and the drapery hangs from his shoulder down his back. Pale red clay. Walters. Figure 118. XLVII. an outer plain band and inner Fragment. Plain rim. on the discus is the figure of Perseus advancing to right 1' I Fragment of a discus with the figure of Leda and the Swan. Pale red clay. pl. Waldhauer. on the discus is the figure of Leda and the Swan. 623 622 Figure I8. 497. Cf. 624 (927). 627 (238). PLATEXXVII. the lion's skin thrown over the left arm. unglazed. unglazed. unglazed.. XXXIV. unglazed. XXXV. Only the front of the figure is preserved. Greenish gray clay. the Centaur advances to right and tries to release the hold of the Lapith who has seized his beard. Small fragment of a discus with a figure of Heracles like the last. PLATE XXVII. Theatre Area. red glaze. Figure 19. 1222. No. Grayish buff clay. a chlamys hangs from. 625 (202). Ovules and panels on the rim. 1223. Figure 120.

PLATE XXVII. a lamp from Nikopolis. unglazed. unglazed. 189. 4335 (364). 24. 629 (928). on the discus a gladiatorial scene like the last. fig. only the figure to the left is preserved. Fragment PLATE XXVII. 'AQX. of the Nereid only the lower part is preserved. 812. PLATE XXVIII. V. Theatre Area. unglazed. In front stands a retiarius with trident in left hand. PLATE XXVII.. and loin cloth. only part of the secutor is preserved. 434 (258). he is dressed in full armor. yellow clay. He wears loin cloth and galerus. Cf. 499. Light red clay. Small fragment Theatre Area. unglazed. 632 (267). prongs down.LAMPS 197 No. fig. and short sword in right hand. Ash gray clay. Fouilles de Delphes. pattern and panels on the rim. p. Ovules and panels on the rim. and has long flowing hair. No. Soft. Fragment of a discus with gladiatorial scene: on the right is a retiarius advancing to right but looking back at his opponent. Cf. Top of a lamp with ovules and panels on the rim. wearing helmet. 1922. unglazed. Philadelpheus. his shield lies on the ground. Pale yellow clay. Yellow clay. unglazed. p. Ovule figure of a seated Sphinx. unglazed. with the figure of a griffon to right. 12. greaves. Fragment of a discus. Pale red clay. a secutor. Pale red clay. he holds dagger in left . PLATE XXVII. unglazed. of a discus with gladiatorial scene: to left is the figure of a refiaritus Fragment holding a trident in the left hand. 628 (346) (T160-L36). on the discus is the of top. Pale red clay. Fragment. Small fragment of a discus with gladiatorial scene like the last. to right. PLATE XXVII. Gladiatorial scene: to right the figure of a seculor seated. PLATE XXVII.'Ecp. 630 (1061). 7. gladiatorial scene on the zalerus on discus: to left is a retiarius seated with dagger in right hand and left arm. 73. on the right is preserved the shield of a secultorindistinct. 6431 (259). only the of a discus rear half of the figure is preserved. advances against him with short dagger in left hand and shield in right. 3633 (293).

PLATE XXVII. 12. only the upper part is preserved. on the discus is preserved the lower part of a gladiator and a trident. PLATE XXVIII. 642 (266). Figure 121. p. unglazed. 73. only the feet of the gladiators are preserved. On the discus is a gladiatorial scene. Small fragment with ovules on the rim. on the discus a gladiatorial scene like the last. 637 (237). Small fragment of a discus with the figure of a gladiator like the preceding. Pale yellow clay. unglazed. in his left hand is a large dagger. PLATE XXVIII. Yellow clay. Pale yellow clay. Pale buff clay. Red clay. Fragment. unglazed. unglazed. 641 (265). Figure 122. PLATE XXVIII. only the head and part of the left arm are preserved. the rest of the figure is missing. 636 (227). Pale yellow clay.Philadelpheus. only the upper part of the figure is preserved. only the figure of the reiarius is preserved.1922. Ovules and panels on the rim.. 'Ecp. PLATE XXVIII. 'AQX. 19 and p.198 CORINTH hand and trident in right. fig. 640 (264). 72. 638 (987). 643 (983). Cf. No. Red clay. . Fragment of a discus with the figure of a re/iarius advancing to right. unglazed. unglazed. 644 (235). and his left arm is bandaged. unglazed. 636 Figure I21. On the discus is the figure of a retiarzus with a rectangular galerus on the left arm. Fragment of a discus with the figure of a gladiator advancing to left. behind is a trident which he seems to have dropped. the sector kneels and holds a large shield in left hand. PLATE XXVII. of the opponent nothing is preserved. Theatre Area. Small fragment of a discus with the figure of a gladiator like the preceding. Red clay. in Athe exergue a rectangular shield and trident. a lamp from Nikopolis signed EnlKTHTO.2. Theatre Area. unglazed. Fragment. Small fragment. 639 (263). Pale yellow clay. unglazed.

Panels and triple globules on the rim. 647 (260). V. 1. Pale yellow clay.'Ep. moves away to right looking back. Philadelpheus. Figure 124. 5 and 6. one signed CTTWCIANOY. opponent. 649 (262). dagger in right hand and shield in left. Red clay. a lamp from Nikopolis. 73. both wear helmets. L. 12.LAMPS 199 Fragment of a discus with a gladiatorial scene: on the left is a hoplomachus with straight sword. Pale yellow clay. W. unglazed. Philadelpheus.'E(p. 72. 0. Cf. 817. on the discus two gladiators: the ioplomachus right to 644 kneels on his left knee and looks back at his Figure 122. 0. 1922. straight sword in right hand and shield in left. PLATEXXVIII. Fragment of discus with the figure of a gladiator advancing to right.The figure seems to be the same on Walters. Pale yellow clay. PLATE XXVIII. p. he looks back at his opponent whose shield and left leg only are preserved. Cf. 18 and p. fig.101. fig. has a large shield in the left hand and a curved dagger in the right. in full armor. Pale red clay. 'AQX. his opponent. 'AQX. 1196. Figure 123. unglazed. unglazed. 189. Small fragment of a discus with the figure of a gladiator in full armor advancing to right. No. 1132. unglazed. 12. two lamps from Nikopolis. 645 (205). Fouilles de Delphes. fig. unglazed. Figure I23.081. 646 (355). Red clay. unglazed. Only the top part is preserved. Small fragment of a discus with the figure of a gladiator like the last. he has a dagger in his right hand and a shield in his left. The same figure as that of No. . p. 648 (261). No. 73. and facing him is the figure of a thrax with curved sword in left hand. Small fragment of a discus with the figure of a gladiator like the last. p. 1922. Theatre Area. the thrax. Figure 124.

Buff clay. unglazed. Pale yellow clay. Small fragment Plain rim. Fragment of a discus with the figure of a pygmy and crane like the last. Cf. PLATE XXVIII. PLATE XXVIII. 1224. Grayish buff clay. Figure 128. unglazed. 654 (271). Theatre Area. Fragment of a discus with the -figure of a pygmy fighting with a crane. 653 (362).} 3 659 (1457). Pale red clay. 657 (347) (T139-L34). Fragment of a discus with an obscene representation. Fragment of top. unglazed. only the feet are preserved. Figure 126. L. Figure 129. W. Red clay. 0. Grayish buff clay.. Fragment.085. Small fragment of a discus with part of a gladiatorial scene. on the discus a gladiatorial scene. 660 (290). ii. circles on each side of the handle and panels. Fragment. he carries a circular shield.)i Figure 128. Walters. 651 (268). Plain rim with panels and large stamped 656 Figure I27. unglazed. 652 (217). unglazed. Fragment of a top with ovules and panels on the rim. 0. Pale red clay. Plain rim and panels. No. unglazed. very indistinct. Grayish buff clay. 658 (1376). on the discus are two figures: the one . 655 (272). 653 654 Figure 125. on the discus is part of the figure of a gladiator(?). PLATE XXVIII. Pale yellow clay. 65F6(231). and on the left is a sword thrown away. unglazed. only the feet of the gladiators are preserved. a helmet. Gray clay. Plain rim and panels. Figure I26. Theatre Area. Small fragment with part of a figure like the preceding. on the discus an obscene representation. unglazed.10. (. and a long spear. Figure 125.200 CORINTH 650 (352). Small fragment with part of a gladiatorial scene. unglazed. Figure 127. unglazed. on the discus are two comic figures advancing to right.

unglazed. Pale red clay.an obscenerepresentation on the discus. unglazed. unglazed. (299). Reddish clay. the rest of the scene is missing. unglazed. unglazed. PLATE XXVIII. Fragment. brown glaze. Ovules and panels on the rim. 665 (203). Ovules and panels on the rim. PLATE XXVIII. 668 (300). PLATE XXVIII. unglazed. Theatre Area. PLATE XXVIII. 662 (1129). Small fragment of a discus with the upper part of a seated figure holding Figure I3I. Theatre Area. 666 Figure 130. Small fragment. Pale red clay. Small fragment of a discus with a nude figure holding cymbals.LAMPS 201 to right is seated. Pale yellow clay. Pale red clay. on the discus is a male figure reclining on his left side. Figure 131. unglazed. 666 (219). Small fragment with ovules and panels on the rim. unglazed. Grayish buff clay. PLATE XXVIII. on the discus to right is a nude seated female figure. Yellow clay. Buff clay. 26 . round the discus is a raised band with oblique hatchings. 661 (354). Plain rim. the other holding on to a tree with his right hand. 663 (291). Red clay. 669 669 (289). in front is a vine. Fragment. PLATE XXVIII. Figure 130. a tree in the background. Fragment. a shepherd's crook in the left hand. 664 (341). Small fragment of a discus with the upper part of two figures of an obscene representation. unglazed. the lower part of the figures is broken away. 667. the rest of the discus is missing. Small fragment with the upper part of two figures kissing. 660 Figure 129. on the discus is an indistinct human figure. Part of a representation like the last. Yellow clay.

at the lower end of the handle are a cross and two cross strokes. Theatre Area. Small fragment. unglazed. Buff clay. unglazed. on the . nozzle and panels. PLATE XXVIII. unglazed. on the discus a small human figure very indistinct. PLATE XXVIII. 672 (342). unglazed. Small fragment of a discus with a large youthful head wearing a Phrygian cap. Fragment. XXVIII. Plain rim. PLATE Plain rim with panels and stamped circles on each side of the handle. 0. unglazed. Small fragment with the upper part of a female figure touching her hair with her right hand. 0. 673 (1008). PLATE Small fragment of a discus with an uncertain representation. on the discus is preserved a helmeted head. 676 Theatre Area. Grayish buff clay. unglazed. XII. H. Theatre Area. 678 (234). the rest is broken away. XXVIII. XXVIII. 677 (939). On the rim are ovules. 675 (988). Fragment. CORINTH Small fragment of a discus with a nude female figure touching the left foot with the right hand. Pale red clay. PLATE Small fragment with ovules on the rim. W. PLATE XXVIII. Grayish red clay. PLATE Buff clay. Pale yellow clay. Red clay. unglazed. on the discus is the lower part of a bust. 671 (292). Plain rim. 676 (982). Grayish buff clay.095.082.033. Figure 132. L. Right half of a discus with a large mask filling the whole discus. 674 (240). unglazed. 679 (184). Theatre Area.202 670 (298). PLATE XXVIII. Pale yellow clay. 0. on the discus close to the handle is the head of a grotesque figure. Figure 132. on the discus is the figure of a seated lion looking back. and a tendril pattern at the outer edge. unglazed.

Fragment of a discus with the small figure of a dog (?) to left. 688 (995). Yellow 203 clay. Theatre Area. Fouilles de Delphes. No glaze. Buff clay. 686 (936). above are traces of another figure. PLATE XXVIII. unglazed. KPHCKCNTOC(PLATE XXX). 81 6. unglazed. Figure I34. Small fragment of a discus with the figure of a lioness to left looking back. Theatre Area. Ovules and panels on the rim. uncertain representation on the discus. Small fragment with an uncertain representation. Theatre Area. unglazed. 681 (1452). unglazed. 682 (365). on the discus is the figure of a tree. Pale yellow clay. Fragment. unglazed. 683 (1490) (T467-L110). 684 (994). Small fragment with a dog's head. unglazed. Theatre Area. Figure 135. 685 (351).Pale yellow clay. on the discus is the figure of a bull (?) carrying something on his back. 689 (1033). 687 (360). Small fragment with an uncertain representation. Figure 133. Red clay. Plain rim with panels. Pale yellow 682 685 136. Small fragment. Ovules and panels on the rim. PLATE XXVIII. PLATE XXVIII. on the discus is the figure of an ox to left. on the discus is the figure of a dog to right seated on his haunches. PLATEXXVIII. p. fig. unglazed. Fragment. Pale red clay. very indistinct. Ovules and panels on the rim. the rest is missing. 192. Figure 134. Figure 136. Small fragment. 680 Figure 133. PLATEXXVIII. unglazed.LAMPS reverse is incised the signature unglazed. clay. PLATE XXVIII. the fragment is blackened from fire. Theatre Area. Cf. Grayish buff Figure I35Figure clay.Pale red clay. V. unglazed. . the rest of the figure is missing. 680 (295). Pale yellow clay. Fragment. Plain rim. Theatre Area.

0. 0. . 692 (229). L. .087. 0. Pale red clay. on the reverse is incised the signature eTT6ITYNXANOY(PLATE XXX). The handle and part of the leftside are missing. 0. Ovules and panels on the rim. on the discus are two leaves. The handle and part of the nozzle are missing. 0.. unglazed. H. W. on the reverse is incised the signature ZWUCIJLAC (PLATE XXXI). on the reverse is incised the signature C6KOY[NAOY] (PLATE XXXI). Pale red clay. W. 0. Pale yellow clay. H. Figure 137. L. PLATE XXVIII... Pale red clay. L.. double rosette of eight petals on the discus. Red clay. unglazed.. 691 (188). W. H. Fragment.. 0. . the rest is broken away. unglazed.. Ovules on the rim.. Plain rim with panels. 693 (222). . double rosette of eight petals on the discus.. unglazed. .09. Figure I37.027. 0.W.091. 695 (194).. on the reverse is incised the signature TTPIJ&L[OY] (PLATE XXX). Reddish buff clay. 0. 0. unglazed. Fragment. unglazed.08.10.. cross + on the lower end of the handle..029.. .08. on the reverse is incised the signature TTU)COPOY (PLATE XXXI).08. 694 (193). Plain rim with panels. a rosette of eight petals on the discus. Ovules and panels on the rim. Figure 137. cross ? at the lower end of the handle.026.. 0. L. 0. on the discus is a star-like geometric figure.204 CORINTH 690 (296). PLATE XII.. . oblique loops on the discus.094.031.. H. Plain rim with panels.

W. dark brown glaze. Large lamp with panels and herring-bone pattern on the rim. W.095. 0.11. on the reverse within a single circular groove is incised the signature APICTON?IKOY (PLATE XXXI). on the 699 (1381). on the neck is a ridge parted toward the wick-hole. 0. H. L.13. 0. PLATE XII. 0.025. Red clay. Pale red clay. Pale red clay. on which is the figure of Orpheus to right. grooved moulded handle with a cross on the lower end. 701 (1191). 0. on the reverse within a double circulargroove is incised the signature TTWC4OPOY XXXI). Ovules and panels on the rim. L. unglazed. 0. H.106. 698 (208). a small part of the left side is missing. part of an illegible inscription on the reverse. both plain. W. 0. on the discus are three masks. H. thin. Figure 138. deeply concave discus with incised lines. Plain rim with panels. 0.06. Fragment. 0. L. Signature TTUWCOPOY (PLATE XXXI).027. Pale red clay. 0. Figure 139. the inner one depressed. playing his . unglazed. an uncertain design on the discus. unglazed.022. Pale yellow clay. red slip or glaze. Ash gray clay. 0. Pale yellow (PLATE clay. W. 697 (196). filling-hole in the centre and small air-hole at the edge. ca. small rounded nozzle. brown glaze. L. PLATE XII.093. cross on the lower end of the handle.08. 703 (232). on the discus a rosette of four double petals.LAMPS 205 696 (195). H. rosette of eleven petals on the discus. Fragment Herring-bone pattern on the rim. panel on each side. 0. Rim divided into two bands. 700 (1108). Like the preceding. unglazed. GROUP IV 702 (1110). Top of a lamp with plain rim with panels. discus is a wreath of vine leaves and a cable pattern. Put together of many fragments. on the reverse within a double circular groove is incised the signature KPAYrA[T]OY (PLATE XXXI).072. Part of the handle is restored. Figure 8 Figure I38. Fragment of a discus.045.

. unglazed.i~~~ Rim like that of No. on the discus is the figure of seated Serapis to front. Figure 140.206 CORINTH lyre and surrounded by animals. unglazed. PLATE XXIX. very indistinct. Cf. Figure 142. some of the animals in front of Orpheus have been broken away. a small bird. looking back at his opponent who advances. perhaps a dove. unglazed. on the discus is the figure of Eros advancing to right. 706 (215). . a snake. Shape as above. Fragment of a discus on which is preserved the lower part of a bust to front. On the discus is a bust to left. Walters. below the handle are two stamped circles. Handle and rim as above. He is seated on a rock below which some animal is lying. a crane. 702.ig-ure FigureI39. 707 (233). . right. Figure 141. below his feet is a crab. a horse. The handle. PLATE XXIX. and right side are broken away. No. The relief is exquisitely modelled. . shield in left hand and dagger in 704 Figure I40.~~~~~~~~~~~~? a sceptre in the left hand and touching the head of a dog with the right.Yellow clay. 577. Pale red clay. probably a portrait. 70. Pale yellow clay. Ash gray clay. on the reverse is incised the signature rAlo[Y] (PLATE XXXI). C(} 705 (273). 14I. a deer.:. holding )~~~~~~~? 1 . Fragment. 958. nozzle. Pale yellow clay. Figure Figure . Cf. and a duck(?). 704 (213). on the discus a gladiatorial scene: on the left a retiarius is fleeing. Walters. just above the lyre are an uncertain figure and an ape.. unglazed. Fragment. behind him are an ox. 705 707 I I42. * . 708 (239). . an illegible inscription on the reverse. unglazed. unglazed. playing the double flute. . No. . Greenish buff clay.

711 (1241). Grayish buff clay. (PLATE . No. Oblong bottom. Theatre Area. Pale yellow clay. 721 (318). unglazed. Pale red clay. from nozzle to handle. Signature FAAHNOY (PLATE XXXI). Fragment of a large lamp like the preceding. unglazed. 716 (1132). Pale yellow clay. 717 (307). Pale red clay. PLATE XXIX. Pale red clay. unglazed. PLATE XXIX. 715 (249). (PLATE XXXI). Theatre Area. 714 (315). 710 (339). unglazed. unglazed. National Museum. on the discus close to the handle is a mask. Signature [eA]PINOC XXXI). Signature APH .-(PLATE XXXI). Yellow clay. Signature LOlJ[CCTIXOY] 720 (301). 712 (366). unglazed. the rest of the relief is missing. (?) Signature [6]AP[INOC] (PLATE XXXI). INSCRIBED FRA GAENTS 713 (1274).LAMPS 207 709 (353). Grayish buff clay. Yellow clay. 3103. Theatre Area. Theatre Area. unglazed. unglazed. Signature BAA6[PIOY] AC (PLATE XXXI). unglazed. Reddish clay. Pale yellow clay. On the upper part of the discus is a tree with a small human figure underneath. unglazed. PLATE XXIX. Small fragment On the discus was the figure of a Triton of which part of one tail is preserved. unglazed. Cf. on the discus. (?) Signature [ANT]WN[IOY] (PLATEXXXI). Pale yellow clay. unglazed. unglazed. Fragment Lower part of a bust to left. PLATE XXIX. 719 (993). Fragment Rim and handle as above. Signature eAPINOC (PLATE XXXI). signature rA[IOY] (PLATE XXXI). Yellow clay. 718 (320). Athens.

Pale yellow clay. unglazed. Yellow clay. (PLATE XXXI). (PLATE XXXI). Theatre Area. (PLATE Signature eYTTOP[OY] 734 (257). (PLATEXXXI). unglazed. Within a triple groove is the signature eTuA[rAOO]Y (PLATEXXXI) written in a circle. unglazed Signature E6TIKTHT[OY] 731 (255). Yellow clay. XXXI). (PLATE XXXI). unglazed. XXXI). unglazed. 736 (1460). Grayish buff clay. XXXI). Pale yellow clay. unglazed. Signature . Pale red clay. Signature eYTTn[PO]Y 732 (212). Signature [eTTAr]AoOY 728 (253). Pale yellow clay. Signature eTTArAG[OY] 725 (1113). unglazed. Pale yellow clay. ?). 730 (926). unglazed.HIOY(TTOJ&TTHIOYReddish buff clay.. Pale yellow clay. 733 (245). Signature . . Pale yellow clay...Pale yellow clay. unglazed. Signature CAPINOY 724 (243). unglazed. (PLATE Signature CYnT[OPOY] 735 (312). (PLATE XXXI). Yellow clay. 729 (1475). Pale Signature [eY]TTOPO[Y]. unglazed. unglazed. (PLATE XXXI). yellow clay. unglazed. Signature eTTA[rAOOY] 727 (306). Signature [e]rTArAOOY 726 (250).. Greenish buff clay..IOY (PLATE XXXI). Signature [EITAr]A(OY. unglazed. (PLATE XXXI). unglazed.208 CORINTH 722 (319). Signature [eA]PINOY(PLATE 723 (317).

749 (1112). 743 (251). Signature AOYKIO[Y](PLATEXXXI). XXXI). Greenish buff clay. Red clay. XXXI). Grayish red clay. unglazed. (PLATE XXXI). 745 (310). Theatre Area. Almond-shaped base.. Grayish buff clay.AIKI[O]Y (PLATE XXXI). Yellow clay. (?) 27 . 750 (1130). 746 (311). unglazed. 747 (309). unglazed. Signature J. unglazed. Signature [AO]YKIOY(PLATE XXXI). 744 (308). Grayish buff clay. unglazed. unglazed. unglazed. unglazed. unglazed. Signature KAA[AICTOY] 209 741 (1281). Pale red clay. unglazed. unglazed. 751 (256). signature AUW . Pale yellow clay. Signature KA[PnOY](?) (PLATE XXXI). Yellow clay. Signature KAAA[ICTOY] 739 (210). Signature [O]IKON[OJO1Y] (PLATE XXXI). Grayish buff clay. Signature [AOYK]IOY(?) (PLATE XXXI). Yellow clay. unglazed. Signature AOY[KIOY] 748 (992). unglazed. Pale red clay. Yellow clay. (PLATE Signature [KAA]AI[CT]OY 738 (211). unglazed. Signature AOYK[IOY](PLATE XXXI). unglazed.--(PLATE XXXI) from nozzle to handle. Signature [KA]PnOY or TePnlOY (PLATE XXXI).LAMPS 737 (313). Red clay. (PLATE Signature KAA[AICT]OY 740 (254). (PLATE Signature K[AAAICT]O[Y] 742 (246). XXXI). (PLATE XXXI). Yellow clay. (PLATE XXXI).

Only the torch. . r' ?\ . micaceous clay. Signature [CeKOY]NAOY (PLATE XXXII). 761 (323). unglazed. CORINTH OKT[A]BIO[Y] (PLATE XXXI). 762 (324). Red.53 756 (1280). Figure I43. unglazed. Pale red clay. si ' I I : ?I? e Ii it '\'-' '?' ?. 757 (1454). Grayish red Signature OAYJlTTIANO clay. Signature CCKOYNLOY (PLATE XXXII). Signature CeKO[YN]AOY (PLATE XXXII).To Signature C[KKOYN]AO[Y] C .. Pale red clay. '' 757 Figure I44? s?.]OY. \. 7. Figure 143. Signature TTP[J1UOY] (PLATEXXXII).?i?r?ilB. Figure 144. 755 (252). Yellow clay. Signature 753 (1459). unglazed. unglazed.L. unglazed. Red clay.c: -% '' 'Ibc?Ij Zi.'. Signature . unglazed. unglazed. Signature ONHCIJLOY (PLATE XXXII). 758 (247). 759 (321).F?i:T"r. Within a raised base-ring is inscribed TPCII[J. unglazed. left wing and left hand are preserved. unglazed. Grayish brown clay. incised on the reverse. 763 (325).TTI . red glaze. Yellow clay. 754 (209). unglazed. Pale i r\ red clay.210 752 (1091). Pale yellow clay. unglazed.-. [Y]. Signature CeKO[YNAOY] (PLATE XXXII).. the same belongs a small fragment of a discus with the figure of Eros carrying a large torch. Yellow clay. 760 (322).(PLATEXXXII). (?) Buff clay. Double circular groove with the inscription TTP6[IJOY] (PLATE XXXII).

LAMPS 764 (326). (PLATE XXXII). Pale red clay; unglazed. Signature [ceKOYN]LO[Y]
765 (327). (PLATE XXXII). Red clay; unglazed. Signature [CEKOY]NAO[Y] 766 (328).

211

XXXII). Pale yellow clay; unglazed. (PLATE Signature [C6KOY]1NO[Y]
767 (329).

Signature CGKOtYNAOY](PLATE XXXII). Yellow clay; unglazed.
7(;8 (330).

(PLATE XXXII). Yellow clay; unglazed. Signature C6KO[YNAOY] 769! (331). (PLATE XXXII). Pale red clay; unglazed. Signature CCKO[YNAO]Y 770 (332). (PLATEXXXII). Red clay; unglazed. Signature CCK[OYNAOY]

771 (333). Signature [CCKOY]NAOY (PLATEXXXII). Red clay; unglazed.
772 (334).

Signature [C6KOY]NAOY (PLATE XXXII). Pale yellow clay; unglazed.
773 (335).

XXXII). Pale yellow clay; unglazed. (PLATE Signature C6K[OYNAOY]
774 (336).

(PLATE XXXII). Pale yellow clay; unglazed. Signature [ceKOYN]AOY 775 (244).

Signature [C]eKO[YN&OY](PLATE XXXII). Pale red clay; unglazed.
776 (1272). (PLATE XXXII). Pale red clay; unglazed. Signature CGKO[YNAOY] 777 (1273). (PLATE XXXII). Pale red clay; unglazed. Signature Ce[KOY]N[AOY] 778 (314).
(PLATE XXXII). Grayish buff clay; unglazed. Signature [CTTW]CIA[N]OY

779 (337).

(?) Signature [CTWUCIA]NO[Y] (PLATE XXXII). Grayish buff clay; unglazed.

212

CORINTH

780 (248). Signature CTe6[A]NOY (PLATE XXXII). Pale yellow clay; unglazed.
781 (302).

Signature [CWT]HPILA (PLATE XXXII). Pale red clay; unglazed. 782 (303). Signature [CWTHPI]hA (PLATE XXXII). Pale yellow clay; unglazed. 783 (304). Signature [CWTHP]IAA (PLATE XXXII). Pale red clay; unglazed. 784 (305). Signature [CWTHP]IAA.Yellow clay; unglazed. 785 (316).
On a raised base-ring is inscribed - - - YANO (PLATE XXXII).

Pale

red

clay; unglazed. TYPE XXVIII
PLAIN DISCUS, PLAIN RIM (Figure 48,
I-4)

786 (374). W. 0.072; H. 0.033.
on the rim by herring-bone pattern; stamped circles on each side of panels, handle, and nozzle; central filling-hole; air-hole at the edge of Panels indicated

the rim; grooved solid handle; straight-sided nozzle set off from the rim by
grooves; rudimentary heart-shaped design at the lower end of the handle; on the reverse within a double circular groove is inscribed KY. Reddish brown clay;

dark brown glaze. Part of the nozzle and left side are broken away. 787 (1160). PLATE XIII. W. 0.061; H. 0.034.
pattern; nozzle as above; grooved as above. The end of the Panels indicated on the rim by a herring-bone is a palm branch.

handle with the hole indicated on each side; on the reverse within a triple
circular groove Clay and glaze

nozzle is missing. 788 (1224). L. 0.10; W. 0.079; H. 0.036. Like No. 786 but without the heart-shaped design at the end of the handle; on
the reverse is a double circular groove. Clay and glaze as above. Parts of the

discus and right side are broken away. 789 (418). L. 0.075; W. 0.066; H. 0.033. Like No. 786, but on the reverse is inscribed EO (PLATE XXXII) within a triple
circular groove. Clay and glaze as above.

LAMPS

213

790 (419). Figure 145. L. 0.081; W. 0.07; H. 0.035. Like the preceding, but on the reverse within a double circular groove is

a herring-bone pattern. Brick red clay; brown glaze.
791 (765). L. 0.089; W. 0.07; H. 0.034.

Like the preceding; double circular groove on the reverse. Grayish brown clay; dark brown glaze.
792 (1284). L. 0.093; W. 0.075; H. 0.032.

Panels on the rim indicated by a double groove; below the handle is a rudimentary heart-shaped design; on
the reverse within a double groove is the signature CT. Brown clay and glaze. 793 (767). W. 0.062; H. 0.03.
7 Fig)0 / .

Figure

145.

Like the preceding but without the signature. Dark brown clay and glaze. 794 (807). L. 0.091; W. 0.07; H. 0.034.
No panels; the hole through the handle begun on each side; on the reverse

a series of concentric grooves. Red clay and glaze. The discus is broken away. 795 (1077). L. 0.078; W. 0.06; H. 0.031. Solid handle; circular groove on the reverse. Dark brown clay and glaze.
796 (1470). L. ca. 0.081; W. 0.07; H. 0.032. Similar. Part of the nozzle is missing. 797 (1054). Semi-circular design on each side of the
e

nozzle (Figure 49, o1); almond-shaped discus with channel to the wick-hole; solid handle; on the reverse are five stamped circles within a base-ring and three similar circles below the nozzle. Brick red clay; unglazed. Part of the sides is broken away. 798 (1195). L. 0.046; W. 0.031. Top of a small lamp with solid handle..Dark brown clay; unglazed.
PLAIN DISCUS, WAVY LINES ON THE RIM (Figure

I

.

Figure 146.
48, 5-8)

799 (1390). Figure 146. L. 0.093; W. 0.078; H. 0.035. Double groove round the central filling-hole; solid grooved handle; on the reverse
within a double groove is incised A. Reddish brown clay and glaze.

214 800 (744). PLATE XIII.

CORINTH L. 0.097; W. 0.08; H. 0.037.

Single groove round the filling-hole; otherwise like the preceding; on the reverse is incised A. Pale red clay; red glaze. 801 (1498) (T491-L125). Figure 147. L. 0.083; W. 0.072; H. 0.026. Same shape as the above; on the reverse is inscribed GE upside down. Blackened in fire. 802 (1404). W. 0.071; H. 0.032. Similar; on the reverse within a single circular groove is a palm branch. Red clay and glaze. The nozzle and handle are partly missing. 803 (436). L. 0.10; W. 0.075; H. 0.031. Rim and handle like the preceding; raised rim round the wick-hole; on the reverse within a double groove is a large A. Brick red clay; brown glaze. 804 (451). L. 0.093; W. 0.075; H. 0.036.

S01 Reverse.

Figure

I47.

Similar to No. 802 but with heart-shaped reverse and signature KY. Coarse, red clay; unglazed. 805 (531). L. 0.09; W. 0.07; H. 0.032. Similar. Almond-shaped reverse and the signature A. Soft, red clay; unglazed. 806 (628). L. 0.089; W. 0.07; H. 0.037. On the discus are three small holes and a central filling-hole; air-hole at the edge; almond-shaped reverse with the signature AC (PLATE XXXII); stamped circles below. Soft, red clay; unglazed. 807 (584). L. 0.122; W. 0.097; H. 0.042. Large lamp like the preceding but with perforated handle; almond-shaped reverse with the signature XIONHE very indistinct. Soft, red clay; unglazed. Parts of the discus and right side are broken away. 808 (493). L. 0.09; W. 0.07; H. 0.035. Like No. 805; signature A. Soft, red clay; reddish brown glaze. 809 (422). L. 0.054; W. 0.061; H. 0.02. Small lamp with three rounded nozzles. Brick red clay; unglazed. Reverse is broken away.

LAMPS

21 5

810 (437). L. 0.095; W. 0.074; H. 0.035. On the discus are four small holes round the filling-hole; the hole through the handle was begun on each side; almond-shaped reverse and the signature A. Soft, red clay; unglazed. Part of the discus is broken away. 811 (658). L. 0.094; W. 0.073; H. 0.035. Like the preceding; signature as above. Red clay; unglazed. Part of the left side is missing. 812 (423). L. 0.099; W. 0.07; H. 0.033. Small elongated discus; on the reverse within a double circular groove is inscribed M; otherwise like the preceding. Brick red clay; brown glaze. 813 (1205). L. 0.098; W. 0.073; H. 0.032. Elongated discus with four small holes; air-hole on the neck; perforated handle; otherwise like the last; on the reverse is the signature XIO[NHE]. Reddish buff clay; unglazed. Part of the left side is broken away. 814 (564). L. 0.089; W. 0.057; H. 0.035. Like the preceding; on the reverse is a palm branch and the signature C w. Soft, brick red clay; unglazed. 815 (1398). W. 0.066; H. 0.03. Four small holes on the discus round the filling-hole; broad channel and air-hole on the neck; pierced grooved handle; almond-shaped reverse with the signature XIONHC. Reddish brown clay; unglazed. The nozzle is broken away. 816 (1229). L. 0.096; H. 0.033.
signature XIONHC. Grayish brown clay; unglazed. The left

Like the preceding;

half is broken away.
PLAIN DISCUS, HERRING-BONE PATTERN ON THE RIM (Figure 48, 9-11)

817 (446). L. 0.10; W. 0.081; H. 0.033.
Solid grooved handle; rounded nozzle set off from the rim by lines; signature KY on the reverse within a triple circular groove. Brick red clay; brown glaze. Part

of the discus is broken away. 818 (445). L. 0.092; W. 0.075; H. 0.031. Similar; almond-shaped reverse and the signature KY. Grayish brown clay; blackened by fire.

216

CORINTH

819 (1401). L. ca. 0.088; W. 0.073; H. 0.035. Like the preceding; signature KY. Grayish brown clay; dark brown glaze. The handle and part of the side are missing. 820 (447). L. 0.08; W. 0.064; H. 0.033. Similar; signature KY within a circular groove. .Dark brown glaze.

red clay; reddish

821 (1069). L. 0.09; W. 0.069; H. 0.03. Below the handle is a rudimentary heart-shaped design; raised base-ring and the signature KA (PLATE XXXII) from handle to nozzle, perhaps for KY.Hard, red clay; unglazed. Part of the discus is broken away. 822 (430). L. 0.085; W. 0.063; H. 0.033. Similar; within a base-ring is incised mE from handle to nozzle. Reddish brown clay; brown glaze. 823 (425). L. 0.086; W. 0.071; H. 0.036.
Similar; circular groove on the reverse and the signature A. Grayish brown clay;

dark brown glaze. W. 0.072; H. 0.037. 824 (1501) (T490-L124). Similar but without the heart design at the end of the handle. Pale red clay; light brown glaze. 825 (748). W. 0.08; H. 0.035. Raised herring-bone pattern on the rim and a row of raised circles round the discus; double circular gro,ove on the reverse and an illegible signature. Hard, red clay containing fine white particles; no glaze. The nozzle and part of the right side are missing. 826 (750). L. 0.085; W. 0.066; H. 0.032. Like No. 821; signature KA, perhaps for KY. Hard, red clay containing white particles; no glaze. 827 (1164). L. 0.084; W. 0.065; H. 0.029. Like the last; signature KA, perhaps for KY. Similar clay and glaze. 828 (1538) (T400-L83). W. 0.071; H. 0.031. Row of depressed dots round the discus; raised base-ring; double groove on each side of the nozzle below. Pale yellow clay; unglazed. The nozzle is broken away.

LAMPS

217

829 (764). PLATE XIII. L. 0.085; W. 0.066; H. 0.03. Raised herring-bone pattern on the rim and dotted squares to indicate panels
(Figure 48, io); row of raised dots round the discus; channel on the neck; triple

circular groove on the reverse and within )K. Hard, red clay; unglazed. 830 (607). L. 0.09; W. 0.069; H. 0.035.
Like No. 827 but without the signature. Red clay with fine white particles; no

glaze. Parts of the nozzle and right side are missing. 831 (907) (T16-L9). L. 0.087; W. 0.066; H. 0.03. Similar but with almond-shaped reverse and no signature. Dark red clay; unglazed. 832 (450). Figure 148. L. 0.087; W. 0.071; H. 0.032. Pierced handle; round the filling-hole are five small holes not pierced through; within an almond-shaped reverse is incised KY. Reddish buff clay; unglazed. 833 (455). L. 0.095; W. 0.071; H. 0.034.
834 (1086). Figure 149. L. 0.087; W. 0.062; H. 0.033. Like the preceding; signature KY(PLATE XXXII) from handle to nozzle. Red clay; unglazed. The handle is missing. 835 (426). L. 0.09; W. 0.07; H. 0.034. Nozzle as in figure 49, 7; signature A within a circular groove on the reverse. Dark red clay; brown glaze. 836 (581). L. 0.10; W. 0.07; H. 0.038. Row of incised lines at the base of the nozzle; otherwise like the preceding; signature XIONHC within a single circular groove. Soft, red clay; unglazed.
.-:i;I4everse.

~32 RKevrse.

Figure

148.

Like the preceding but with solid handle; signature KY. Soft, red clay; unglazed.

Figure

I49.

837 (578). L. 0.093; W. 0.07; H. 0.033. Nozzle as in figure 49, 3; otherwise like the preceding; signature XIONHEwithin a double circular groove. Grayish brown clay; unglazed.
28

unglazed. Red clay.069. the signature Cr and small stamped circles. H. H. 846 (565). 2. H. unglazed. almond-shaped reverse with a palm branch in the middle. Fragment. almond-shapedreverseand within the signature n6. unglazed. W.064. Figure I5I. 0. signature XIONHCwithin a circular groove. 0. 0.066. 0. almond-shaped reverse with a palm branch in the middle.028. three small holes and a filling-hole on the discus. 0. W.065.08.035. 0. (PLATEXXXII) . 0. Part of the nozzle is broken away. H.029.069.039. Nozzle as in figure 49.032. Pale red clay. 2. 0.035. W. 0. 0. L. unglazed.035. 845 (579). H. unglazed. Red clay.092. H. 840 (655). 89-!} Reverse.029. on the reverse within a ring of small circles is incised A. red clay. almond-shaped reverse and the signature XIONHC. 0. Nozzle as in figure 49. W. 5. Like the preceding. Soft. The front is missing. 0.085. unglazed. L. unglazed. almond-shapedreversewith the signature C below a cross. 0. Part of the discus is broken away. Pierced handle. 0. 0. Figure 150. H.087. Figure 151. Red clay. I50.059. unglazed. 0. 0. W. 0. Reddish brown clay. almond-shaped reverse with the signature XIONHC.066. 843 (1435). The bottom is broken away. H. L. Like the preceding. Red clay. Nozzle as in figure 49. 844 (1394). Soft. Similar. 0. Figure 842 (1525) (T551-L158). Like the preceding but with a solid handle.062. 0.09. 839 (580). W. L. unglazed. 843 Reverse. H. W. Like the preceding but with a pierced handle. 0.033. L. red clay. 0. 0.218 CORINTH 838 (778). W. 841 (563). L. Red clay.09.

06. 0. 0. unglazed.06. H. Soft. 0. W. unglazed. unglazed. W. L. ca. 0.081. Similar. L. signature K within double circular groove. H. 0.H.088.081. 0. 5. W.029. unglazed. 0. W. 0. H.033. L. almond-shaped reverse with a palm branch in the middle and the signature ECw.LAMPS 219 847 (561). H. W.027. H.09. unglazed. 0. 0. unglazed.-17 Reverse. 0.078. 0. Small lamp of a similar shape. 856 (479). unglazed. 0. Similar. unglazed. unglazed.065. L. H.081.034. 848 (562). L. Soft. H.031. dotted squares to indicate panels on the rim (cf.02.032.035. 0. W. almond-shaped reverse with the signature nA. red clay. 0.062. no signature. red clay. Soft. 0.026. red clay. red clay. H. signature CLw with a palm branch below. Single filling-hole and an air-hole at the edge of the discus.05. Light red clay. signature XIONHC within a double circular groove. signature K within a circular groove. H. figure 48. almond-shaped reverse with the signature nA. 0.06. Like the preceding. Red clay. 0.068. 0. red clay. Nozzle as in figure 49. 0. Soft. 849 (486). L. W.053. 852 (1354). Part of the left side is 854 (472). red clay. Grayish buff clay. 0. 851 (485). 7. Similar. unglazed. W.059. L. Soft. Figure 152.033. 0. 0. 850 (663). Like the preceding. Similar. lo).083.033.069.059. 0.. signature KY. Red clay. 0. red clay.06. nozzle as in figure 49. 0. H. 0. L. Nozzle as in figure 49. Soft. 857 (665). W. Like the preceding. 0. 0.089. 855 (664).065. . L. signature KY upside down within a double circular groove.09. L. . 0. W. 5. 0. 0. unglazed. Soft. W. signature K within a circular groove. 0. 853 (1428). Figure 152. L. broken away.

Five stamped circles on the discus. 0.059. H. L. H. unglazed. 862 (424). 0. W.03. unglazed. W. irregular design of cross-hatchings and curved lines on the reverse. 866 (757).03. H. 0. red clay.092. The handle is missing. Almond-shaped reverse with a row of stamped circles in the middle.097. L. almond-shaped base with the signature C w and stamped circles below. 0. Reddish buff discus. H. o1. 860 (652).028.06.065. Red clay.073. 0. W. Similar. unglazed.093. 861 (643). L.093. signature KY. 0. 867 (661). 0. almond-shaped discus and reverse. 0. 0. almond-shaped reverse with a palm branch in the middle. Red clay. L. M within double circular groove. H.03. Red clay and glaze. Soft. 0. H. PLATE XIII. 0. Three small holes and a filling-hole on the discus. 0. 0. 0. 0. L.027. dark brown glaze.032. Herring-bone pattern on the handle. 0. 0. on the reverse within is the signature XIONHC. Five holes on the discus circular groove a double on the neck. W.055. channel on the neck. almond-shaped reverse . 0. W. Like the preceding. 865 (773). H. 0. unglazed.067. 863 (91 1) (T7. The and a channel handle and part of the side are broken away.059. 'unglazed. W. 0. W. L.081. 0.7-L25).06. 0. single filling-hole on the discus. red clay. L.037.064.036.220 CORINTH 858 (480). Almond-shaped L. 0. 0. Soft. unglazed. 0. unglazed. W.09. H. W. L. Red clay. Like the preceding.085. red clay. otherwise like the preceding. Almond-shaped discus with a channel to the wick-hole. almond-shaped reverse with the signature KY from the handle to the nozzle. 0.091. L. signature clay. 859 (566).033. 0. Nozzle as in figure 49. Red clay. H. Soft. 0.081.064. Three small holes on the discus. 0. H. 864 (1521) (T519-L141). W.031.081. 0.

032. 0. H.087. unglazed. nozzle as in figure 49. H. 0.089.033. 0. cross-hatchings between grooves on the handle. Red clay. 868. 868 (570). L. Palm branch and signature CLr on the reverse. 872 (494). 0. Part of the right side is broken away. W. Light red clay. 0.08. figure 49. Like No. W. red clay. 0. W. almond-shaped reverse with a large cross. W. . 0. Soft. 0. (. unglazed. Part of the reverse is broken away. 875 (567). W.033. 0. W.068. On each side of the handle is a leaf pattern. W. almond-shaped reverse with the signature ELU. L. 0.036.072. 0. W. 17. 0.048. The front is broken away. red clay.036. L.092. unglazed. 0. 0. 0. 876 (568). 874 (535). 0. PLAIN D/SCUSg. 0. Almond-shaped reverse with the signature CLU. H. Red clay. red clay. H.087. 0. 0.LAMPS 221 with an impressed human foot. L. 1-. 0. 13-15) 873 (481).036. unglazed. W. H. Similar. 0.061.058. unglazed. 877 (487). W. 869 (569).059.063. 871 (919) (T346-L75). Plain rounded nozzle with stamped circles at the base.088. 0. H.067. 0. Red clay. unglazed.032. unglazed. 0. Soft. Soft.06. Small lamp with a channel on the neck and a herring-bone pattern within an almond-shaped reverse. red clay. almondshaped reverse with a palm branch in the middle and the signature CLw. 870 (571). Red clay.024. unglazed. cross-hatchings between grooves on the handle. Soft. 8). L. four holes on the discus. unglazed.031. unglazed. H.089. 0. H.09.069. L.()031. 0. 0.059. Like the preceding. PLATE XIII. almond-shaped reverse with a palm branch in the middle and the signature CE . L. 0. Square discus. The reverse is broken away. Diamond-shaped reverse with five stamped circles. H. Broad channel on the neck (cf. L. 8. L. Purplish red clay.VE PAT4TERXi ON THE eIM (Figure 48. solid grooved handle. Four small holes on the discus.

Stamped circles on the discus. 0. Part of the right side is broken away. W. L. L.034.03. 22). unglazed. reddish brown glaze.093. almond-shaped discus.065. Triple globules on the rim.082.075. Like the preceding.Q78. L. almond-shaped reverse with a palm branch in the middle./ . H. 0.9.14 Figure I53. Like the preceding. unglazed.067. 0. Large globules on the rim and dotted squares to indicate panels (Figure 48.074. H. 0. circular reverse with a cross in the centre.884 (1560) (T446-L105).222 CORINTH Single hole on the discus. unglazed. VARIOUS KINDS OF RIM 881 (498). unglazed. 0.09. . 0. O. H.059. PLAIN DISCUS. 886 (752). 0. W. Globules on the rim and a herring-bone pattern to indicate panels. 0. H. L. Red clay. L.031. 0. 879 (1167). Al .087. red clay.079. 883 (495). Six small circles on the discus. almond-shaped reverse with the signature Q(?).06.032.i. Red clay. 0.03. . 0. W. 0.066. unglazed. 887 (751). H. The discus is II . W. 878 (1524) (T493-L127). W.03. H. I . W. W.095. 885 (496). unglazed.027. unglazed.~~~~~~~~~~ 882 (1040). 880 (534). i broken away. Red clay. 0.087. Red clay. L.031. almond-shaped reverse with small stamped circles and the signature TnA (PLATE XXXII). H. Like the preceding. 0. unglazed. L. Similar. PLATE XIII.058. Red clay. H. 0. on the reverse within a triple circular groove is incised X. W. Figure 153. Red clay. channel on the neck. Similar. 0. 0. 0. . purplish brown glaze. Soft. Palm branch within a double circular groove on the reverse. Only the top is preserved. . Red clay. W.057. Red clay. 0. 0. L. 0. Reddish brown clay. 0.064. H. 0. L. 0. 0. r: . unglazed. Red clay.035. 0.

Small dots on the discus. red clay. 0. Figure 156. H. 0. Pale red clay. unglazed.058. L. almond-shaped reverse with the signature XIONHC. W.03. L.077. Hard.033.064.064.026. H. 0. Soft. W.064. L. 223 890 (497). Large globules on the rim.09. 0. Soft. 0. H. Like the preceding. 0. reddish brown clay. Soft.088. Hard. red clay.037.08. unglazed. Soft. W. Reddish brown clay. 0. 896 (500). sS!i Reverse. 0. Figure 155. W.084. H. unglazed. 0. 894 (632).064. 891 (1227).09. 0. 895 (499). 0. red clay. H. red clay. The nozzle is broken away. unglazed. L.061. 0. L. red clay. Raised dots on the rim arranged in squares and triangles. Soft. 897 (502). 892 (634).03.03. pendants below the handle.088. Figure 155. H. unglazed.033. 0. H. W.033. 0. Figure I54. L. on the reverse is a design as in figure 156. red clay. unglazed. W. . 0. Like the preceding. 0. red clay. W. 0. unglazed.0. Large globules on the rim. L. The nozzle is broken away. Figure 154. _ I 895 Reverse. Circular depressions on the rim.064. 0.064.LAMPS 888 (1064). unglazed. Dark gray clay. Fragment of a lamp like No. W. H. cross-hatchings on the handle. 0. Soft. within the base-ring is an eight-pointed star.088. 0. H.03. 0. Like the preceding.063. unglazed. unglazed. W. H. 0. almond-shaped reverse with a palm branch in the middle and the signature CU . 893 (909) (T15-L8). L.0. 0. 889 (1535) (T394-L80). 0. channel on the neck. 888 Reverse. 883. Raised dots on the rim. almond-shaped reverse with the signature NH)AM (?). unglazed. circular groove on the reverse with an illegible letter. 0.03. cable pattern round the discus. W. Similar. 898 (501). 0.088.

red clay. Filling-hole and four small holes on the discus.058.028. 0. W. the right. L.082. A Figure 159. unglazed. . reverse as in figure 157. unglazed. 0.034. 24).037. 0. Grayish brown clay. W. ji? 9?03 Reverse. unglazed.224 CORINTH 899 (641). Red clay. Pale yellow clayi. pendants below the handle. Figure 159. Figure 158. 0. heart-shaped design at the base of the handle. loops at the base of the nozzle.(1081). red clay. unglazed. 0. 903 (642). 0. 0.029. raised base-ring. almond-shaped reverse with a line through the middle and two rows of circles. Large stamped circles and herring-bone pattern on the rim. brown glaze. W.W. 904 (633). red clay. Soft. red clay. 0. 0. reverse as in figure 158. 0. Shallow lamp with small stamped circles on the rim (Figure 48. Hard. 0.087.0. 0. 0. herring-bone pattern on the handle. Similar. H. 0. 0. impressed circles on the rim. 0.025. Raised base-ring and an indistinct design within. L. Soft. unglazed.059. Hard. 0. Hatchings on the handle.085. 0. The nozzle and bottom are broken away. H. L. Dotted circles on the rim.026.09.069. 907. Soft. illegible signature. dark brown glaze. L. row of small dots round the discus.054. 905 (1519) (T518-L140). unglazed. Stamped circles on the rim and discus. Raised double spirals on the rim (Figure 48. H. W.052.19). red clay. channel on the neck. H. utiglazed. Soft. .058. L. red clay. L. 0. W. 0.085.093. H. Figure 157.058. 901 (631).085. H. The bottom and left side are broken away. 0. H. W.031. ca.062. long rounded nozzle. 0. stamped circles on the rim. W. small circles within a raised base-ring. 0.029. 0.902 (914) NN 899 Reverse. H. H. W. L. Double spirals on the rim made with single lines on the left side and double on 906 (918) (T350-L77).025.062.079. L. 900 (629). (T11-L5). 0.

Clay and glaze as above. The handle is broken away. Theatre Area. ig10 Figure i60. Red clay. several concentric raised circles on the reverse. purplish glaze. unglazed. Figurel61. nozzle as in Figure 49. Grayish brown clay. Top of a lamp like the last.09. Grayish brown clay. Greenish buff clay. brown glaze. H. W. 915 (1044). circular grooves and ridges on the discus. Like the preceding. unglazed. Double row of raised dots on the rim ending in a design toward the nozzle as in figure 48. Grayish brown clay. 0. 0. 29 . 225 Row of globules on the rim not interrupted by the handle and nozzle (Figure 48. 0. 909. 909 (1483) (T516-L138). 910 (1510)(T524-L1 45). unglazed. circular grooves and ridges on the discus. lower half of the sides decorated with globules (Figure 160). Top of a lamp like the preceding.071.067. Fragment of a lamp like the preceding but with a triple row of globules on the rim. H. 6.0. Pale red clay. H. grooved perforated handle. PLATE XIII. red clay. dark purplish glaze. 913 (1197).031. W. 0. Figure 161.09. Fragment of a lamp like No. 0. 914 (1237).086. 911 (985). L.20. no globules on the lower part of the body.031.0. L. PLATE XIII. purplish brown glaze.03. W. 912 (1043). 2X). L. 9t) 1 everse. Fragment of a similar lamp with the hole begun on each side of the handle but not pierced through. concentric the circles on Dark reverse. 0.LAMPS 908 (370).07.0.

0. Elongated dots at the outer edge of the rim. 0.084.226 CORINTH 916 (1168). 20. unglazed. 0. W. 922 (904) (T25-L12). Soft. H. L. unglazed.061. H. 920 (905) (T10-L4). circular reverse with a stamped circle in the centre. 16. 0.028. Ovules on the rim as in figure 48. stamped circles on each side of the handle.03. otherwise like the preceding. is broken away. Rounded straight-sided nozzle. W. H. 0. Brick red clay. Similar clay. L.078. 0.064.067.071. W. W. Same kind of clay. ca. solid grooved handle with three small circles at the lower end. H. L.085. 0.078.09. 0. 921 (749). 918 (490).YS ONATHE DISCUS. rounded straight-sided nozzle. Grayish brown clay.026.064. 0. Hard. H. Similar clay. 0. Row of globules at the outer edge of the rim (Figure 48. H. 0. 0. 17). L. Plain rim with a design toward the nozzle as in figure 48. L.075. Pale yellow clay. within a double circular 919 (373). grooves on the handle. unglazed. two concentric circles on the reverse. W.072. L. 0. . W. RAYS ON THE DISCUS 917 (420). 0. nozzle as in figure 49.06. 0.074. pale red clay. L. W.098. 0. Like the preceding. 0. purplish glaze. L. 0. Same kind of clay.031.031. 0. within a base-ring is the signature OE (PLATE XXXII).03. 0. 0.027. W. Plain rim. 0. unglazed. PA VIANE TTERN ON THE RIM (Figure 48. solid grooved handle with a heart-shaped design at the lower end. 0. Like the preceding. dark red clay.03. PLATE XIII. 2. 923 (1477) (T457-L107). RA. body divided by groove and the nozzle set off by a similar groove.076. brown glaze. 0. Signature M (PLATE XXXII) groove. H. W. nozzle and panels.032. double circular groove on the reverse.058. darkened in fire. 0. H. The end of the nozzle Like the preceding. 12-15) 924 (368). panels indicated by herring-bone pattern. 0. H. otherwise like the last.

design below the handle. L. Figure 162. 929 (1186). 0. 927 (1162). 926 (1506) (T517-L139). H. L. The handle and part of the discus are broken away. Shell-like design at the lower end of the handle. 0. H.0. 927. 0. W.037. red clay. Hard. 0.035. Hard. W. unglazed. 34 Reverse. 0. W.075. 0. 928 (1037). Grayish brown clay. letter E from handle to nozzle within a base-ring.028. 931 (457). H. 0. W. Grayish brown clay. otherwise like the last. H. H. unglazed. Dark brown clay.034.059. 933 (1163). Figu934 Figure i63. Dark brown clay and glaze. L. W. 0.067. 0.078.09. Like No.0. L.034. 0. red clay. Like the last. Pale yellow clay.073.031. W.075. 0. unglazed. 934 (651). 935 (644). 0. Red clay.H.LAMPS 925 (369). unglazed.W.062. Similar. red clay.073. L. 0.091.031. Greenish buff clay. Similar. nozzle set off by incised lines below. . Almond-shaped reverse and within a cross (Figure 163). 0. ca. 0. 0.081.059. W. 0.028. 0. Signature KY on a circular reverse. Reverse. H. unglazed. 0.0. Heart-shaped design below the handle.094. 0. concentric grooves on the reverse. purplish glaze. 0. Right half of a lamp like the preceding. raised base-ring. purplish glaze.082. Hard. Figure 162. 0. Small lamp of the same shape as the preceding. 932 (1499) (T509-L133).03. unglazed. unglazed. Brick red clay. H. unglazed. Like the preceding but without the signature.068.075. 0. W.031. W. L. Heart-shaped design below the handle. H. Heart-shaped 227 L. 0. PLATE XIV.085. 930 (1063). H.

L. L. W. 939 (473). 0. Clay and glaze as above.06. H. brown clay. Identical with Nos.033. 0. unglazed. W. 0. 2. Grayish brown clay. 0. 0. hooked rays on the discus. CORINTH HERRING-BONE PATTERN OAN I7E RIM 936 (1102). signature K within double circular groove. solid grooved handle. Four holes on the discus. 0. H.035. H. W. Soft.087. heart-shaped design below the handle. Reddish brown clay. H. L. RAYS ON THE D)ISCUS. 940 (1497) (T494-L128). W.033.07. same signature. Hard. 0.061. Like the preceding but with a rudimentary heart design below the handle. 0. 0. 0. Plain outer band on the rim. almond-shaped reverse with the signature CL with stamped circles below. 0. Nozzle as in figure 49. thin. L. 941 and 942. VTARIOUS' RIM PA T7ER. Like the preceding. within a base- ring is the signature K. 946 (1489) (T537-L155).035. L. brown glaze. red glaze. red clay.093. letter K on the reverse. L.03. W.072. 0.095.089.07. 0. 938 (432). 0. i. 0. 0. H.085. 0. 0. 0. W. same signature (PLATE XXXII).228 RA YS OA THE DISCUS. 0. 0. heart- . Grayish buff clay. Part of the nozzle is broken away. Plain rim with panels indicated by lines. L. H. panels indicated by parallel lines..073. purplish glaze.084. 942 (572). on the reverse the signature KY (PLATE XXXII) upside down within a double circular groove. straight rays on the discus.035.077.077.088.063.S 944 (376). 0. Indistinct letter on the reverse within three circular grooves. 945 (439). 0. Only the handle and the top are preserved. brown glaze. herring-bone pattern on the handle. W. Clay and glaze as above. 0.089. H. W. H.07.035.037. L. herring-bone pattern on the inner band. Identical with the last. 0. H. red clay. Wavy lines on the rim.033. Soft. unglazed. Broad channel on the neck.035. W. Nozzle as in figure 49. H. 0. 937 (482). L. 941 (573).089. W. 943 (574). 0. 0. 0.

0. H. H. 0. H. H. red glaze. twisted rays on the discus and four small holes round the central filling-hole. Red clay. PLATE XIV. 0. no glaze. 0.Grayish buff clay.063. reddish brown glaze. Channel on the neck. 0. L. L. stamped circles on the reverse within a double circular groove. 94(9 (1155).06. 7. perforated handle.033. signature brown glaze. L. 0.072.09. 0.037.093.08. L. 0.068. 0. W.07. signature ETP within a double circular groove. Plain rim. W. unglazed. 0.10. W. L.08. 952 (474).033. H. 951 (465). panel on the right side indicated by a triple groove. OEOhOY within double circular groove. The nozzle is missing.08. on the reverse a palm branch within a double circular groove. herring-bone pattern on the rim. 0.077. H. . W. letter K upside down within a double circular groove. H. 947 (745). Rim and discus as above.035. 0. Like the preceding. twisted rays on the discus. 0. 950 (427). 0. with spots of red. 0. 0. W. 0.076. Grayish buff clay. 0. rudimentary heart-shaped design below the handle.03. W.039. twisted rays on the discus. Plain rim. Reddish brown clay and glaze. almond-shaped reverse and the signature XIONHE. Part of the nozzle and left side are broken away. 0. Signature Cw THP (PLATE XXXII) within a double circular groove. L. brown glaze. Red clay. heart-shaped design below the handle.026. Vine pattern on the rim. unglazed. Dark gray clay. H. 0. almond-shaped reverse with the signature XI[O]NH[C] from handle to nozzle. 953 (475). unglazed. W. 954 (1427).LAMPS 229 shaped design below the handle. Pale red clay. panels indicated by single circles. Part of the discus is missing. nozzle as in figure 49. Red clay. herring-bone pattern on the rim.033. twisted rays on the discus. Soft. 0. 948 (1353). Like the preceding.095. W. Nozzle as in figure 49. twisted rays on the discus. Letter A on the reverse within a double circular groove. 0. 2. red clay.

032.085.073. rim and discus as above.. twisted rays on the discus. hole through the handle begun on each side. pierced handle with cross-hatchings between grooves. Soft.035. Grayish brown clay. L. Like the preceding. vine pattern on the rim.03. 0. Grayish brown clay. W. 0. unglazed. Red clay. 959 (1 039). Letter E within a heart-shaped reverse.075. Dark brown clay and glaze. Only the handle and top are preserved. 956 (1505) (T472-L113). W. 0. 0. 0. 0. Twisted rays on the discus with the outer ends parted. 0. handle. PLATE XIV. pale red clay. signature XIONHC within a single circular groove. 0. 961 (1438). H. unglazed. outer band of the rim plain with panels indicated by a double line. 0. solid handle with cross-hatchings between grooves. 0. solid PLATE XIV. and panels.087. L.062. H. Grayish buff clay. band of wavy lines round the discus. dark brown glaze.OK (?). Grayish brown clay. heart- shaped design below the handle.069. three small holes round a central filling-hole. Wavy lines on the rim. ca. H. The front of the lamp is missing. Perforated handle.032. H. 0. grooved handle.093. W. 960 (1526) (T523-L144). a stamped circle on each side of the nozzle. 0. Brick red clay. 962 (627). brown glaze. almond-shaped reverse with the signature KYfrom handle to nozzle.230 955 (1369). CORINTH Fragment. 0. four small holes round the central filling-hole. H. on the reverse . unglazed. 0.072. . 958 (438). vine pattern on the rim. Part of the discus is broken away. 0. blackened in fire. wavy lines on the rim and twisted rays on the discus. L. W. W. Nozzle as in figure 49. pierced grooved handle. rays on the discus with the outer ends parted. 8. 7.084. traces of brown glaze. H. Wavy lines on the rim as in figure 48.033. twisted rays on the discus. 4. 0. Rays on the discus with outer ends parted.068. signature KY within a double circular groove.035. Parts of the nozzle and reverse are broken away. L. Nozzle as in figure 49. almond-shaped reverse with a palm branch in the middle and the signature nX. 957 (1070). unglazed. W.

2. 0. L. Nozzle as in figure 49. 0.098. 0. 1.081 . double circular groove on the reverse. Nozzle as in figure 49. brown glaze.034. H. The end of the nozzle is broken away. Only the top and left side are preserved. 2.08.035. dark brown glaze. 0.074. The end of the nozzle is broken away. Red clay. H. a double circular groove on the reverse. hole through handle begun on each side. 965 (371). L. W. heart-shaped design below the handle. Nozzle as in figure 49. Rim as above. signature CT within a double circular groove. 0. 968 (1520) (T492-L126). rim as in figure 48. double circular groove on the reverse. Soft. triple circular groove on the reverse.082. 0. L. brown glaze.033. Nozzle as in figure 49. 0. Rim and nozzle as above. red glaze. 1. palm branch on the reverse within a double circular groove. hooked rays on the discus. 967 (809). heart-shapeddesign below the handle. H. rim as above. Grayish brown clay.08. Plain rim. 0. rim as above. 0. H. purplish brown glaze.10. 0. Grayish brown clay. Grayish brown clay.028. Nozzle as in figure 49. i. Reddish brown clay. Figure 164. W. ROSETTE ON THE DISCUS. purplish brown glaze. Grayish brown clay. stamped circles on the reverse within a double circular groove. 1. nozzle as above. PLATE XIV.094.027. W. 0. 0.LAMPS 231 963 (1181). purplish glaze. solid. Fragment. 0. H. Rim as above. 966 (1209). W. 967 Figure I64. 0. Red clay and glaze. W. ca.094. grooved handle.081. PLAIN RIM 964 (372). H. 0. The handle is restored. red clay. 969 (1153). double circular groove on .029. Only the top is preserved. W. 0. four small holes on the discus round the filling-hole. rim and handle as above. L. 971 (1 196). rim and handle as above. double rosette on the discus. 970 (916) (T319-L66).

032. 3. Part of the discus is missing.06. small stamped circles on the discus. 974 (1513) (T531-L149). Grayish brown clay. rim and handle as above. spiral groove on the reverse. H.036. H. 4. Rim as above.035. W. signature OEOAOY (PLATE XXXII) within a double circular groove. 3. W. H. 973 (1073).03. brown glaze.035.077. unglazed. 972 (1282). H. 0. six small indentations and circles to indicate panels on the rim.075. 0.03. Nozzle as in figure 49. 3. Grayish brown clay.072. dark brown glaze. 976 (464). illegible letter on the reverse within a single circular groove.03. 0. grooved perforated handle.09. nozzle. The handle. H. 0. 0. unglazed. light brown glaze. brown glaze. 2.07.1. 0. The end of the nozzle is missing. Fragment. Nozzle as in figure 49. W. 2. Nozzle as in figure 49. L. 0. Nozzle as in figure 49. 0. 978 (811). Red clay and glaze. H.232 CORINTH the reverse. 0. 0.094. chocolate brown glaze. rim and handle as above. Red clay.075. rim as in figure 48. Parts of the discus and right side are broken away. triple groove to indicate panels on the rim. Rim as in figure 48. 975 (810). L. Red clay. W. nozzle as in figure 49.089. Part of the discus is missing. 4. L. 0. 0. L. 0. H. W. 0.069. rim and handle as above. rim as above. palm branch on the reverse . 0. Reddish buff clay. L. 0. Red clay. circular reverse with small stamped circles within a double groove. H. purplish brown glaze.094. signature CT within a double circular groove. 0. letter T on the reverse within a double circular groove. 0. heart-shaped reverse with a palm branch in the middle.034. L. 4. Nozzle as in figure 49. 0. 0. Nozzle as in figure 49. H. Grayish brown clay.029.094. 0. Grayish brown clay. signature EYKAPnOY (PLATEXXXII) within a double circular groove.075. 0. W. L.09'5. W. Nozzle as in figure 49. 980 (766). W. 977 (1158). 979 (456). and left side are broken away.065. 0. 3. 0.

067. 0. 0. 3. reddish brown glaze. Nozzle as in figure 49. 0. rim as above. unglazed. L. W.033. red clay. 985 (477).037. 3. 0. 983 (414). 0. 982 (444). solid.LAMPS 233 within a double circular groove.083. reddish brown glaze. 0. H.028. 0. The nozzle is partly broken away. Soft.092.065.09. H.071. 989 (1152). purplish brown glaze. Part of the discus is missing. W. H. rim as in figure 48. 988 (460). L. Nozzle and rim as above. 0. handle. 30 . 0.089. W. heart-shaped reverse with the letter A. W. L. L. grooved handle.098.078. 0. Dark red clay. H. 2. red clay. rim as above. signature A (PLATE XXXII) within a double circular groove. Nozzle as in figure 49. brown glaze. palm branch 6n the reverse. W. i. L. signature M within a double circular groove. 0. W. H. rim as in figure 48. 0. 0. Nozzle as in figure 49. double circle on the reverse. W.088. 4. L.075.085.092. three concentric circles on the reverse. 0. signature KY upside down within a double circular groove. 0. H. nozzle as in figure 49. 981 (1364).032. Nozzle as in figure 49.036. herringbone pattern on the handle and a heart-shaped design below. chocolate brown glaze. H. H. 0.097. Clay and glaze as above. Brick red clay. Rim as above. 986 (462). 0.035. 0. 0. 0. Similar clay and glaze. W. Nozzle as in figure 49. 2. dark brown glaze. 2. Nozzle as in figure 49. L. 987 (431).07.096. 4. Part of the discus is missing.071. rim as in figure 48. 984 (468).032. Dark brown clay and glaze. perforated grooved (PLATE XXXII) on an almond-shaped reverse. 3. 0. signature ?2 (?) Grayish brown clay. triple groove to indicate panels on the rim. Soft. 0. 2. Grayish brown clay. Grayish brown clay. otherwise like the last. signature E on almond-shaped reverse. 0. W. L. Nozzle as in figure 49. 3. 0. H.035. 0. 0.034.

061. 998 (461). rim as above. L.W. double circular groove on the reverse and the signature H (PLATE XXXIII).077. 991 (1415). Brick red clay. brown glaze.086.033.085. H.086. Nozzle as in figure 49. L. W. 0. Grayish brown clay. 0. 0. heart-shaped reverse with the signature T. reverse with the 995 (478). W. . 993 (469). H. 996 (452). unglazed. Nozzle as in figure 49. 2. unglazed.034. 0. almond-shaped signature KY. H. L.089. on the reverse is a palm branch within a square circumscribed by a circle. red clay. W. 0. 4.087. Nozzle as in figure 49. Soft. H. rim as in figure 48. 0. reddish brown glaze. 48. 0. letter. W. red clay. Reddish brown clay. l.037. 999 (1436). 0. hatchings on the handle. Rim L. rim as above. Soft. brown glaze. H. W. W. W. Nozzle as in figure 49. signature CT within a double circular groove. Nozzle as in figure 49. Soft. 0.035.067. K on the reverse within a circular groove. 3. 2. 4. H. unglazed. Grayish brown clay and glaze. 0. The front is missing.096. Rim as above. palm branch on the reverse as in figure within a double circular groove. illegible letter on the reverse. L. 997 (416). L.072. L.034. Soft. 0. 0. 0. 0. Part of the left side is broken away. H. 994 (448). 4. brown glaze. 0. 0. 3. W. 992 (1481) (T532-L150). 0.035.234 CORINTH 990 (492). signature KY within a double circular groove. reddish brown glaze.032. letter 1 on the reverse within a circular groove. Nozzle as in figure 49. H. 1. 1. rim as above. 0.072. 0. 0. 0.07.077. 0. Part of the nozzle and right side are missing. 0. Nozzle as in figure 49. 0. H.088'. 0.071.069.032.094. rim as above. W.082. 0.11 . H.039. Parts of the discus are missing. cross-hatchings on the handle.032. rim as above. unglazed. L. ca. rim as above. Grayish brown clay. Rim and nozzle as above. nozzle as in figure 49. 0. Reddish brown clay. red clay. 0. 0. red clay. L.

Like the preceding. Fragment. Hard. unglazed. W.035. 0. 4. Nozzle as in figure 49.037. 1002 (798). L. signature CT on the reverse within a double circular groove. 1007 (1156). 0.076. Brick red clay. W. L.104. 0.091. ca. Dark red clay. L. 0. 3. 1006 (1478) (T510-L134). Nozzle L.038. Grayish brown clay. 0. H. W. 4. Hard.098.094. 0.075. Nozzle as in figure 49. The left side is broken away. W. The front is broken away. W. Nozzle as in figure 49. ca. unglazed. dark brown glaze.082. Parallel grooves on the rim. 0. rim as above. 1009 (415). 0.075. 1001 (1366). 0.10. 0. reddish brown glaze. HERRING-BONE PATTERN ON THE RIM 1003 (377). 0. signature KY within a circular groove. H. Grayish brown clay. Nozzle as in figure 49.08.076. W.092. 2. 0. . heart-shaped design below the handle. 0.077. red clay.033. dark brown glaze. as in figure 49. 0. Nozzle as in figure 49. L.06.03. W. 0. 3. H.082. The nozzle and part of the right side are missing. 0.LAMPS 235 1000 (1389). L.096. L. 0. H. signature KY (PLATE XXXIII) within a double circular groove. 0. 0. 0. 0.033. signature M within a circular groove. ROSETTE ON THE DISCUS. H. ca. Blackened by fire. Grayish brown clay. red clay. H. H. chocolate brown glaze. circle of pricked dots on the reverse.. Part of the nozzle is missing. W.071. 0. 1008 (1468). purplish brown glaze.035.033. i. 1004 (1352).039. signature KY within a double circular groove. H. 0. three small holes on the discus round the filling-hole. hole through the handle begun on each side.P (?). L. Half of the rim is decorated with cross-hatchings. 0. Grayish brown clay. 1005 (417). 0. heart-shaped design on the reverse. W. 2. H. unglazed. double circular groove on the reverse and the signature . Hard. red clay. unglazed. 0. Nozzle as in figure 49.

L. 1018 (1098). Signature broken away. L. as in figure 49. L. <E. 0.036. unglazed. H.034. Only the front half is preserved.033. W. Red clay.036.102.033. Nozzle W. 1020 (467). 0. Nozzle W. 1015 (429). Grayish brown clay.236 CORINTH 1010 (1154). Nozzle as in figure 49. 0. signature A within double circular groove. L. reddish brown glaze. 0. 2. Red clay. Nozzle as in figure 49. Like the preceding. dark brown glaze.08. 0. W.082.035. H. 0. dark brown glaze. Grayish brown clay. Right half of a lamp like the preceding. L.08.069. Soft.076. 3. W. Nozzle as in figure 49. as in figure 49. signature K within a double circular groove. 0. 0. small circles round the discus. heart-shaped design on the reverse with a palm branch in the middle. letter A on the reverse within a double circular groove. 0. 1019 (1079).031. Red clay and glaze. 0. Nozzle as in figure 49. 1016 (1201).075.079. W. H. Red clay and glaze. 0. H. Nozzle as in figure 49. 0.093.096. 0. almond-shaped reverse and the signature KY from handle to nozzle. Signature E within a double circular groove. The front is 1012 (428). H. 0. 1011 (774). signature CT within a double circular groove. Red clay and glaze. 1014 (1072). red clay. on the reverse is the signature EYAW (PLATEXXXIII) within a double circular groove. Part of the discus is missing. Nozzle as in figure 49.088. Grayish brown clay. W. 0.068.033. 1013 (433). . red glaze. 4. The left half is missing.067. 0. 4. 7.13. 4.068. H. 0. H. 0. Part of the nozzle and side are missing. 1017 (756). signature K within a double circular groove. dark brown glaze. 0. L. unglazed.034. 0. Grayish brown clay. Like the preceding. 0. 0. 0. 4. H. W. 4. red clay. W. H. 0. dark brown glaze. Soft.

unglazed. 1022 (471). 1029 (536).086. W. 0.09. 1025 (458). Part of the right side is broken away. 0. diamond-Shapedreverse with a cross in the middle. 0. L. red clay. grooved. reddish brown glaze. W. 0. red clay. Soft.035. 4. 237 Similar. red clay. same signature. 0. four small holes on the discus round the central filling-hole.085. Soft.033. . unglazed. almond-shaped reverse with the signature KY. Soft. L. L.061. L. 0.LAMPS 1021 (459). 0. W. 0. 0. 1024 (453). W.082. H. 0. red clay. L.033.signature KYon an almond-shapedreverse. 0. almond-shaped reverse with the signature XIONH[C]. H. Soft. 0. red clay. 0. unglazed. On the reverse are three concentric grooves.068. unglazed.068. 0.10. On the reverse is the letter K within a double circular groove.061. W. red glaze. 0. 1026 (575). red clay. otherwise like the preceding.084. herring-bone pattern on the rim 1029 Reverse. Three small holes on the discus besides the central filling-hole. 0. almond-shaped reverse with stamped circles and radiating lines (Fig.068.027.086. H. Figure 165. 0. L. 5. L. Soft. Similar. unglazed.033. 0.031. L. solid grooved handle. 1030 (532). W. H. 0. Nozzle as in figure 49. Fragment. H. Soft. 1023 (454).064. Reddish brown clay. 0. Soft. 0. unglazed. perforated handle. L.068. 1027 (656).06. H. 1()28 (657).088. On the reverse within a double circular groove is the letter E (PLATE XXXIII). 0. 0. H. Nozzle as in figure 49. Similar.Soft.unglazed. 4. dark brown glaze.038. Soft. Nozzle as in figure 49. red clay. 0.034. red clay. 165).07. W. 0. H. H. red clay. 0. otherwise like the preceding. Four small holes on the discus round the central filling-hole. 0. and circles to indicate panels. Almond-shaped reverse with the signature KY from handle to nozzle.032. W.091 . W. Nozzle as above.

031. L. Almond-shaped reverse with a palm branch pattern. Nozzle as in figure 49. below the nozzle on the left side is an incised line and hatchings.~. 1036 (1476) (T530-L148). H.062. W. . solid grooved handle. On the discus are four small holes round the central filling-hole. H.051. almond-shaped reverse with irregular lines. L. 0. Similar.074. H.087. 0.073. 0. 0. 0. 10:34 10:6f Figure I67. Soft. Figure 167.076. on the reverse within a double circular groove is the signature O3 (?) (PLATE XXXIII) in raised letters. 1032 (537).. red clay.. .... Figure 168. 0. 1035 (1243). Nozzle and handle as above. 0. 0. W. Red clay. H. red clay. I66. 1033 Reverse. 0. 1034 (13.029. unglazed. Hard.. red clay.068. On the reverse within a double groove is an indefinite design probably meant for a human figure (Figure 166). 0. unglazed. W. H. Figure i68.036. unglazed.. Figure 1033 (539).. Broad channel on the neck...096.57).026. brown glaze. Soft. 0. .. 0. W. L.05.. 0.029. air-hole in .031. The handle is missing. W.. L. W. unglazed.084. on the reverse within a double circular groove is the signature En. Similar. .074. 0.. red clay. 0. 0. H. L. 4. 0..23'8 CORINTH 1031 (538). L. Soft.051. 0.

1045 (1466). solid handle with a double groove and a herring-bone pattern. H. Part of the nozzle and reverse is missing.08. Similar. . 0.036. Dark red clay. W. Part of the nozzle is missing. red clay. 1038 (434). 0. 0. 0. Nozzle as in figure 49. solid grooved handle. W. L. Grayish brown clay.036.10. unglazed. W.08.034. Figure I69. solid grooved handle. W. XION[HE]. 7. 0. signature T within a double circular groove. 1. Fragment.075. 1039 (435). purplish brown glaze. Front of lamp. Broad channel on the neck. solid. Small and glaze. H.-THE DISCUS. Red clay and glaze. Figure 169.LAMPS 239 the channel on the neck. Nozzle as in figure 49. 0. H. VINE PATTERN ON THE RIM 1043 (1038). H. unglazed. unglazed. 0. 1040 (801). signature KY within a double circular groove. solid grooved handle. holes round the central filling-hole. Only the top is preserved. five stamped circles. almond-shaped reverse and. L. 0. ROSETTE ON. The nozzle is broken away. 4. Below the handle is a rudimentary heartdesign.098.031. dark brown glaze. dark brown glaze.092. within. Red clay.4. H. W. almond-shaped reverse with the signature CITOKAACIOY (?) (PLATE XXXIII). H. Figure 170. Red clay. L. Pale red clay. 0. 0. 0. 1039. grooved handle. 1044 Figure I70.094. WAVY LIANES ON THE RIM 1037 (1074). Signature 1041 (1487) (T497-L131).033. 0. 1044 (763). W. ca.07. L. Brown clay 1042 (1075). 0. Hard. ROSETTE ON THE DISCUS. 0. Nozzle as in figure 49. Grayish brown clay.074. PLATE XIV.075. purplish brown glaze. 0. brown glaze. signature CT within a double circular groove. Brown clay. pierced grooved handle.038. 0. Similar but without the signature. Nozzle as in figure 49.

0. The end of the nozzle is missing. unglazed. H. 0. L.071.240 CORINTH 1046 (442). 0. 1054 (654). red clay. Nozzle as in figure 49. brown glaze. 3. 1056 (484).03. The front half is missing. Similar. unglazed.071. 0. reddish brown glaze.091. Very indistinct designs on the discus and rim. Fragment. 0. Similar. H. L. red clay. W. 1050 (441). Signature XIONHC within a single circular groove. L. H.029. Nozzle as in figure 49. Signature M within a double circular groove. 0. 3. Soft. 0. Almond-shaped reverse with the signature XIONHC.088. 0.073. 0. 0.088. W. On the reverse is the signature CT. signature KY reversed within a double circular groove. W. double groove with hatchings on the handle. L. Dark red clay. 0. almond-shaped reverse with the letter A (PLATE XXXIII) above a palm branch and two stamped circles. 0. 1055 (1187).031. Like the preceding. H.065. Pale red clay. 1057 (533). unglazed.068.072. 0. H. 0. red glaze.033. Similar. red clay. L. L. 0. 1052 (576). L. Soft. unglazed. 0.035. Reddish brown clay. 0. 1048 (799). red clay.033. L. micaceous clay. 3. 0.07.06.088.07. Nozzle as in figure 49. 0.097. 0. unglazed. W. 0. Figure Figure I7I.09. 17I. Letter A on the reverse within a double circular groove. W. purplish glaze. W. W.07. Red clay. 0.034. Illegible signature within a double circular groove. 0.7. signature KY within a double circular groove.092. Nozzle as in figure 49. 0. unglazed. 0. H. H. 0. L. W.095. 1049 (1182). Soft. Grayish brown clay. W. Similar.08. Part of the top is missing. Red. dark brown glaze. 1047 (443). H. Red clay. 0. 1053 (440). H. circular reverse with a number of small stamped circles. W.034. Red clay. 0. .033. almond-shaped reverse with a design as in figure 171.032. 0. H. unglazed. Soft. 1051 (577).

Soft. On the rim is a row of globules. 0. 0. ROSETTE ON THE DISCUS. On the rim is a row of small depressions at the outer edge and an inner band of wavy lines. leaf-shaped reverse with a palm branch pattern. 1062 (378). single circular groove on the reverse. ca.06. Red clay. 0. row of similar dots round the rosette on the discus. The nozzle is broken away. 1064 (1161).029. 0. 3. H. below the nozzle raised lines extend from the reverse to the top. 0. signature ArAniO (PLATE XXXIII) within a single circular groove. solid knob- like handle. W. 5. 0. 1061 (1028).081. Row of raised dots on the rim and round the rosette on the discus. 0. 0. H. on the reverse is a stamp in the shape of a human foot within a raised base-ring. Rim as in figure 48. 0.09..061.092. red clay. panels with raised dots. W. H.03. unglazed. Buff clay. dark brown glaze. L. 0.06. H: 0. 0. and panels indicated by a herring-bone pattern. Rim and handle as above. red clay.027.082. L. L. W. 0.09. concave reverse. 1065 (755). Brick red clay. 0.077. 0. H. H. nozzle as in figure 49. indistinct design on 31 .LAMPS 1058 (1537) (T396-L82).037. nozzle as in figure 49.027. unglazed. 0. PLATE XIV.07. 0. Similar.025. unglazed.07 1. VARIOUS RIM PA T7ER. 25. H. 241 Similar.087. 0. solid grooved handle terminating in a degenerate heart-design below. unglazed. L. Part of the discus is broken away. H.NS 1059 (1172).064. 1063 (747).062. 0.086. L. L. Red clay and glaze. 11. W. On the reverse is a palm branch within a double circular groove. 0. 1066 (1402).035. 0.072. small knob-like handle. W. W. Part of the nozzle is missing. H. Part of the discus is missing. Row of globules on the rim. 0. L. Nozzle as in figure 49. W. solid grooved handle.031. 106(0 (636). on the reverse are two raised circular lines and within a human foot (?) in raised lines. W. unglazed. L.025. Red clay. Hard. 0. W. below the handle is a double pendant and below the nozzle a double line on each side. 0. Grayish brown clay.057. blackened in fire. The nozzle is missing. no glaze. large stamped circles on the rim. 0. 0.

H. unglazed. W. 0.075. The bottom and right side are broken away. 0. 0.071. small circles on each side of the handle and a herring-bone pattern between grooves on the handle.036. 1069 (768). 0. Hard.089. . 8. H.03. palm branch pattern on the reverse. Two rows of small depressions on the rim. L. almond-shaped reverse with the letter A.. H. Nozzle resembling that in figure 49. almond-shaped reverse with a stamped human foot (Figure 172). almond-shaped reverse with the letter A.108. 0. dark red clay containing numerous white particles. Hard.082. nozzle as in figure 49.08.064. Indistinct rim pattern.063. reddish brown clay. panels indicated by parallel lines and hatchings. 0. 3. H. 0. 9. Channel on the neck. Bisected concentric circles on the rim and panels indicated by a herring-bone pattern. 1072 (653). W.033.024. red clay. 1068 (1207). 1071 (1178). H. narrow channel on the neck. 0. unglazed. Hard. micaceous. lo. 1074 (489). 0. no glaze. 0. Pale red clay. unglazed. 0.242 CORINTH the reverse within a double circular groove. The end of the nozzle is missing. red clay. 0. Figure 172. unglazed. 1067 (662). 0. red clay. small almondshaped reverse. The left side is broken away.098. grooved handle with the hole begun on each side. micaceous. SQ UARE DISCUS ON THE RIM WITH A DEGEN\ERA4TE ROSETTE PATTER. Nozzle resembling that in figure 49. L. 1073 (1210). three small holes on the discus. H. Soft. W. L. Soft. H.032. 0. 1067 Reverse. brown glaze. 0. red clay. L. L. L.028. stamped circles on each side of the handle and nozzle. 0.093.028. Part of the top and nozzle is missing. W. W. Red clay. signature XIONH[c] on an almondshaped reverse.097. stamped circles on each side of the handle and nozzle. L. Part of the left side is missing. 0. HIERRI/G-ROA\E PA T'ERN 1070 (466). 0. 0. PLATE XV.033. 0. no glaze. H. unglazed. Nozzle resembling that in figure 49. Part of the nozzle is missing.052. Hard.

058. 0.086. 1076 (666).029. 0. H.Soft. red clay.028. same signature as that of No. 0.034.031. Soft. Nozzle resembling that in figure 49. Soft. Soft. panels on the rim indicated by a herring-bone pattern. panels on the rim indicated by triple grooves. L. 0. The end of the nozzle is missing. Soft. half circles on each side of the handle. almond-shaped reverse with the signature OEO (PLATE XXXIII) from handle to nozzle. 0. 0. . Soft.5 (669).087. 0. H. 0.068. five impressed circles on the reverse within a double circular groove. Hard. raised dotted circles on each side of the handle and nozzle. same signature.031. Hard. H.almond-shaped reversewith the letter K reversed. unglazed. same signature. 0. Pale red clay. 0. on the reverse is a palm branch within a double almond-shaped groove. unglazed. 1079) (1556) (T442-L101). unglazed. 1081 (640). unglazed. Like the preceding. H. Square discus with a herring-bone pattern at the outer edge. 1077 (667). 0. wavy lines on the rim and small stamped circles on each side of the handle and nozzle. Square discus with herring-bone pattern at the outer edge.059. red clay. Square discus with a rosette. 0. unglazed. H. reddish brown glaze. H. 9. indistinct pattern on pattern on the handle. W. 1076. Like the preceding. channel on the neck. W. 0.029. VARIOUS KIVDS OF RIMl AND DISCUS 1082 (1166). H.058. L. L. 0.LAMPS 243 Channel on the neck.081. W. 1078 (668). 0. herring-bone pattern between grooves on the handle. 107.081. 1084 (1346) (T7-L1). PLATE XV. Red clay. almond-shaped reverse with the letter M. W.06. 0. red clay. five stamped circles on the reverse the rim. 0. 0. L. 0. The front half is broken away. Nozzle as in figure 49. W.064. 1080 (488). W. unglazed. 1083 (1080). The end of the nozzle is broken away. 0. H. unglazed.088. Channel on the neck. H. same signature.029. W. Brick red clay. L. 0. L.031. 9. 0.051. red clay.092. channel on the neck. red clay.031.06. 0. unglazed. Like the preceding. unglazed. W. red clay. red clay. unglazed. red clay. Like the preceding. W. herring-bone within a double circular groove. 0.06.

Reddish brown clay. Top of a lamp with a row of raised dots and two raised lines on the rim. double circular groove on the reverse.067. 0.244 CORINTH 1085 (746). red clay. The handle and part of the bottom are broken away. L. indistinct. 1091 (449). reddish brown glaze.063. HERRING-BON-E PATTERAN ON THE RIM 1089 (470). unglazed. on the discus is a ring of raised leaves with the veins indicated.036. Grayish brown clay. W. H. 1086 (1046).07. triple row of small indicated by herring-bone pattern. 0. 4. 7. signature KAP[nOY]. 0. L. 0. 0.033. Soft. 1092 (491). unglazed.036. 0. almond-shaped reverse with a palm branch pattern. 4. 0. ca.075. rim as in figure 48.075. 0. 1087 (1235). 0. 0. Nozzle as in figure 49. Reddish brown clay. 0. Nozzle as in figure 49. H. 0. H. H. Soft. signature XIONHC within a circular groove. on the discus raised leaves as above. Nozzle PLATE XIV. 1.071. unglazed. Nozzle resembling that in figure 49. 0. hatchings between grooves on the handle. W. three small and one larger hole on the discus.085. signature A (PLATE XXXIII) within a base-ring.09. 109(0 (483). W. SHELL PATTERN OX\ THE DISCUS. H. 1094 (1365). 1088 (1149). within a double circular groove. Nozzle as in figure 49. 0. unglazed. red clay. L.092. L. grooved perforated handle with hatchings on the lower part and a degenerate heart-design below. 0. 2. Fragment of a top like that of the preceding.071 . as in figure W. W.072. Grayish brown clay. L. red clay. PLATE XV. Red clay. Nozzle as in figure 49. W. Nozzle as above. H. 1093 (582). 0.033. H. The handle is broken away. PLATE XV. W. W. 0. solid grooved handle. mottled light and dark brown glaze.087. 0. 9 but without the channel. 0. 1. Pale red clay. 0. dark brown glaze. letter K reversed within a circular groove on the reverse. depressions on the rim. Nozzle as in figure 49. panels 49.037.082. . unglazed.029. signature KY within a double circular groove. Part of the nozzle is missing. H. unglazed.026. 0. PLATE XIV.10.094. Soft. 0. L. 0. degenerate heart-design below the handle.037. L. 4.

Nozzle as in figure 49. H. 0. H. red clay. but on the right side is a row of raised dots instead of depressions on the middle of the rim. red clay. Soft. solid grooved handle.07. 0.091. red clay containing numerous white particles. Like tht preceding. The end of the left nozzle is broken away.042. 0.088. 1097 (670). 0. L. H. 0. unglazed. 0.03. The end of the nozzle is broken away. 0. 0. 1101 (1496) (T496-L130). H. L. 0.073. Red clay. unglazed. L. Red clay. 2. Stamped circles to indicate panels on the rim. 1095 (660). 1098 (671). H. Hard.029. H. unglazed. PLATE XV. on the reverse within a double base-ring is a raised human foot. W. herring-bone pattern on the handle. PLAIN RIM 1099 (463).09. (PLATE 1100 (1225). 0. stamped circles to indicate panels on the rim. . almond-shaped reverse with the signature KYfrom handle to nozzle. W. L. Figure L.LAMPS 245 almond-shaped reverse with a palm branch pattern. Part of the discus is broken away.073. no glaze. 173. Soft. 0.031. 11(1 Figure 173. Broad channel on the neck. 1096 (659). 0. W. 0.086. signature OE (?) XXXIII) within a double circular groove. 0. W.034. 0. buff clay. W. W. red clay.03. on each side of the handle is a design like an Amazon's shield. elongated reyerse with a stamped human foot surrounded by a circular groove. W. square reverse. unglazed. Two nozzles as in figure 49. 0.069.087. Nozzle as in figure 49. Herring-bone pattern on the rim near the nozzle and the handle and a row of small depressions between. 0. 2.034. unglazed. SHELL PA 'TERN OA THE DISCUS. 1. elliptical reverse with cross lines and stamped circles. 0.069.114. unglazed. 0.059. L. Coarse. dark brown glaze. 0. Soft. double pendant below the handle and raised lines on each side of the nozzle on the under side. H.052. Parts of the nozzle and sides are broken away. 0. Grayish brown clay. L.052.

Figure 174. micaceous clay. only the helmet is preserved. 1104 (382). Fragment of a discus with the bust of Athena like the preceding.067. unglazed. Red clay. Fragment of discus with the bust of Athena 1103 Figure I75. W. unglazed.. Grayish brown clay. p. 1106 (1047). nozzle as in figure 49. 'AQy. Fragment of discus with the bust of Athena as above. dark brown glaze. L. Rhomaios. ' 1103 (1400). . Waldhauer. Red clay. like the preceding. 6.246 DEITIES AND MYTHOLOGICAL CORINTH FIGURES ON THE DISCUS. . micaceous clay. plate XLV. on the discus is a crude figure of Athena of the Promachos type. shallow channel on the neck. 0. PLATE XV. 0. 342. 583. brown glaze. Red. Figure Fragment of a discus with the bust of Athena like the preceding. Walters. No. 582. to left.06. Red. 1105 (383).J. pl. 1207. VII. PLATE XXIX. flat knob-like handle. solid grooved handle. Cf. 1107 (933). Bassett. Type XXVII). H. Figure 175. on the discus bust of Athena. Fragment of a discus with the bust of Athena as above. Two rows of raised dots and plain panels on the rim.1906. wearing a crested helmet and stippled aegis and holding a spear on the right shoulder (cf. Fragment of a discus with a bust of Athena like the preceding. 0. 1903. Fiure II74 174. Red clay. brown glaze.A. to left. only part of the helmet is preserved. Red clay.038. A. Part of the nozzle and reverse is missing.09. Nos. brown glaze. 1.'Ecp. 1109 (525). Stamped circles on the rim. 3. purplish brown glaze. Theatre Area. 0.. W. 1108 (294). 476. VARIOUS RIM DESIGNS 1102 (1469). 6. fig.

on the reverse within a double circular groove is a herring-bone 1115 pattern. pl. 0. W. Stamped circles and wavy lines on the rim. on the discus is the figure of Athena as above. in front is an altar. red clay.LAMPS 247 holding a circular shield in the left hand and a spear in the right. 0.028. 0. on the discus is the figure of Athena as above. 478. L. almondshaped reverse with a palm branch pattern. nozzle as in figure 49. Red clay. Dark brown clay and glaze. 0. unglazed.086. 0. unglazed. behind is her dog. Stamped circles on the rim. 1110 (523). VII. unglazed. 4. 0. W. Red clay.033.086. Bassett. l. Part of the discus is broken away. on the discus is the figure of Artemis advancing to right. plain panels.4l. VII. unglazed. Bassett. 0.06. mark on the reverse. dark brown glaze. 0. 1116 (1176). L.038. on the discus the indistinct figure of Eros advancing to right holding a torch (?) on his left shoulder. 1114 (804). may be a letter W (PLATE XXXIII).. plate XLV.09. on the discus is the figure of Eros as above but less well executed. Cf. almond-shaped reverse with a palm branch pattern. Row of circular depressions on the rim and at the outer edge of the discus plain rounded nozzle./. pl. (. XIII. raised. solid grooved handle. H. (742). 4/. The left half is broken away. Left half of a lamp with plain rim and solid grooved handle. 4.10. XIII. Red clay. . grooved handle on each side.06. 1111 (1260). 1903. L.037. 4. on the reverse is a palm branch pattern within a double circular groove. 1. reddish brown glaze. Waldhauer.061. on the discus is the figure of winged Eros advancing to right but looking back at a torch with flame down.082. Herring-bone pattern on the rim. holding the bow in the left hand and with the right taking an arrow from the quiver. H. Grayish brown clay. . Cf. Soft. unglazed. Left half of top with herring-bone pattern on the rim and panels indicated by a triple groove. Red clay. 1903. W. Soft. 1112 (524). 0. which he carries in his right hand. Cf. 0. H. red clay. 1113 (381).. 0. L. almond-shaped reverse with palm branch patterns and stamped circles. H. on the discus is the figure of Athena as above. Plain rim with panels indicated by herring-bone with the hole begun pattern. PLATE XV. W.

Plain rim with panels indicated by herring-bone pattern. unglazed. unglazed. purplish glaze. Grayish brown clay. Red clay and glaze. Red clay and glaze. 0. l. nozzle as in figure 49. panels indicated by a triple groove. Grayish brown clay. 0. H. in his left hand is a lyre. red clay. Fragment. Fragment of a lamp with plain rim. . in front is an altar with a flaming fire and below is a goat reclining. Plain rim with panels. W. Red clay and glaze.083. reddish brown glaze. H. 0. The nozzle and right side are broken away. on the discus a very indistinct figure of Eros as above. 1119 (1372). Fragment of top with a plain rim and the figure of Eros as above. only the upper part preserved.029. L. PLATE XV. 1122 (785). 1121 (795). Indistinct pattern on the rim.062.248 1117 (1363). The end of the nozzle is broken away. 1124 (399). on the discus is the figure of Eros. 1125 (1159). Hard.03. PLATE XV. dark brown glaze. with an altar in front.075. to left. signature M on the reverse within a double circular groove. 1123 (530). The handle is missing. 1118 (1414). indistinct. Soft. on the discus an indistinct figure of Eros as above. on the discus the figure of Eros advancing to right but looking back at an object held in the right hand. dark red clay. 0. CORINTH Fragment of discus with the figure of Eros as above. Red clay. PLATE XV. on the discus the figure of Eros as above.W. 1120 (400). behind is an altar. 0. on the discus the figure of Eros resembling the above. Plain rim. but he seems to be carrying a torch on his left shoulder. Top of a lamp with plain rim and the figure of Eros on the discus as above. Fragment of top with plain rim and panels indicated by herring-bone pattern. light brown glaze. blowing the double flute. Red clay.

XLV. grooved perforated handle. A lamp in the Louvre. Fragment of discus with the figure of Eros. on the discus is the figure of Eros. 1132 (1194). 1903. Red clay.. A. plain rim with panels and stamped circles on each side of nozzle. in his left hand is a torch with flame down and in front is some object. VII. he is walking to right and looking back. only part of the drapery and left leg preserved. no glaze. 477. Cf. pl. Only the left side is preserved. a lamp from Vari. on the discus is a crude figure of Eros like the preceding. W. H. Thera.08. unglazed. Plain rim with panels. he advances up to an altar with flaming fire. 479. Red clay. Bassett. of type XXVII. 640. Grayish brown clay. unglazed. Herring-bone pattern on the rim.J. 1133 (390). has the same figure of Eros and the signature CAnlAH(OPOY. dark brown glaze. L. III. 32 . Grayish brown clay. Reddish clay. Cf. Signature CTP within a double circular groove.LAMPS 1126 (793/'1184). on the reverse is the signature XIO[N C]. Fragment. E. 1739. 0. to right. 0. mottled red and brown glaze. On the latter is a figure of Eros like the preceding but crudely modelled. on the discus is the figure of Eros like the preceding but more distinct. 1130 (796). Fragment of discus with the same figure as the preceding. Small fragment of a discus with a figure of Eros as above. Nozzle as in figure 49.A. 249 Two fragments. Reddish clay.. Fragment.031. 4. vol. handle. Nozzle as in figure 49. herring-bone pattern on the rim and stamped circles round the discus. blowing the double flute. 1128 (1087). grooved handle with the hole begun on each side. Fragment. Baur. D. 187. 180. PLATE XXIX. pl. reddish brown glaze. XIII. p. 1. from Thera. Stoddard Coll. perhaps an altar. 1129 (1122). 1127 (1092). Plain rim with panels. and panels. fig. only the upper part H preserved. Waldhauer. PLATE XXIX. No. The end of the nozzle is missing. dark brown glaze. blackened in fire. Red clay. No. 7. 1131 (1106).093. PLATE XXIX. Figure 50. 0. On the discus is the figure of Eros with outstretched wings playing Pan's pipes. Red clay and glaze.

solid. H. Plain rim with panels indicated by herring-bone pattern. Pale red clay. palm branch pattern within a double circular groove on the reverse. Plain rim with panels. Red clay and glaze. 1144 (513). buff clay. Grayish brown clay. 2. PLATE XV. Only the top is preserved. 1141 (984). 0. Soft. 4. 1142 (1150).032. 0. Fragment. Top of a lamp with plain rim and panels. 1136 (1367). W. Herring-bone pattern on the rim. grooved handle with the hole begun on each side. 1139 (1200).095. on the discus a crude . Grayish brown clay. Dark brown clay and glaze. 0.072. 1135 (391). Nozzle as in figure 49. Plain rim with panels indicated by herring-bone pattern. 1137 (392). CORINTH Two fragments. indistinct. nozzle as in figure 49. unglazed. on the discus the figure of Eros as above. Fragment of top with plain rim and panels indicated by triple lines. 4. 1138 (1065). 4.067. Discus with the figure of Eros as above.09. nozzle as in figure 49. dark brown glaze. 0. grooved handle. dark brown glaze. brown glaze. on the discus is the figure of Eros as above but less distinct. on the discus is the figure of Eros as above. L. dark brown glaze. Grayish brown clay. on the discus an indistinct figure of Eros as above. W. nozzle as in figure 49. Figure 50. dark brown glaze. unglazed. on the discus an indistinct figure of Eros as above. 1. The right side is broken away. Dark brown clay and glaze. 0. 1140 (393). Fragment of discus with the figure of Eros as above. Plain rim. Fragment of discus with an indistinct figure of Eros as above.250 1134 (1101/1103). Grayish brown clay. L. on the discus is the figure of Eros as above. on the discus the figure of Eros as above. very indistinct. Grayish brown clay. 1143 (512). H. Theatre Area. 0. rim as in figure 48. signature KY on the reverse within a double circular groove.033.

0. The nozzle is broken away. W. nozzle as in figure 49. Soft. PLATE XVI. 0. unglazed. 0. on the discus is the bust of Helios.077. H.067. L. 0. unglazed. flat knob-like handle. 0. H. red clay. on the reverse is a series of circles and half circles.028. Figure 50. red clay. L. Oblique elongated dots on the rim. unglazed.10. on the reverse is a low circular base-ring and over it an almond-shaped base-ring. 1146 (529). red clay. 0. V. unglazed. red clay.063. 0. L. W.LAMPS 251 figure of Eros like that above. H. the discus is broken away. H. Similar. the letter K reversed within a double circular groove on the reverse. Soft. Part of .03. Soft. Similar but the figure less distinct. red clay.10. 0. Figure of Helios crudely retouched. 12 with degenerate volutes like those of Type XXIV. L. fig. Soft. unglazed. 0. 0. 0. 0.111. W. W.'W. 0. 0.057. H. W. Soft. 1153 (540).099. unglazed. Cf. 1152 (543). 0. 0.112. red clay.031. 1151 (544). 0. 0. red clay. Soft. Soft. red clay. 0. 0. Similar. Plain concave reverse. unglazed. otherwise as above. Ovules on the rim.069. 0. W. Fouill/es IdeDelphes. Soft. L. unglazed. H. 0. red clay. L.077. H. H. p. unglazed.084. Part of the right side is broken away. 1154 (546). red clay.03. otherwise as above. 0. 0.102.033.079. 0. 828.096. low base-ring on the reverse. 0. W. Same signature.03.065. L. Large double ovules on the rim. Same signature (PLATE XXXIII). same signature. L.032. 0. Like the preceding but with the face of Eros retouched so as to face the front. unglazed. Soft.062.065.038. PLATEXVI. H. 0. unglazed. 1150 (547).087. H. W. 0. L. 0. Similar but the figure of Helios is less distinct. W. 1147 (514). 190. Similar. 1148 (545). Indistinct rim pattern. two base-rings as above. H. W. L.033.088. 1149 (541). red clay. 0. basering indicated on the reverse.034. Soft. bust of Helios on the discus. 1145 (528).029. Soft.066. 1155 (548). 0.

0. H. unglazed. nozzle and discus as above. 0. unglazed. H. Similar but without the circles on the reverse. 1157 (557). Indistinct rim design. red clay. 16. Stamped circles on the rim. on the discus a shell-like figure of Helios. L. red clay. Soft. L.103. very indistinct.095. broad elongated reverse with a palm branch . indistinct figure of Helios on the discus. unglazed. red clay. 0. 1163 (549). 0. 'Ep. red clay.10. Skias. very crude bust of Helios on the discus. 0.065.058. 0. 0. on the reverse is a ring of stamped circles. W. 0. red clay. Soft.033.252 CORINTH Herring-bone pattern on the rim. 0. On the rim is a herring-bone pattern on each side of the handle and a row of circular depressions on the rest. p. W.062. unglazed. W. Soft.03.077.038. 0. H. W. L.034. W. 0. Soft. H. Soft. 1162 (550).116. unglazed. herring-bone pattern on the handle. W. H. W. Soft.101.081. 1161 (554).058. H.089. red clay. L. Soft.034. L. nozzle as in figure 49. 0. 1164 (553). channel on the neck. buff clay. Soft. Impressed circles on the rim. unglazed. Soft. 0.034.068. unglazed. 0. 0. 'AQZ.107.033. H. indistinct depression on the reverse. 9. 0. The handle is broken away.. PLATE Globules on the rim. 0. small base-ring on the reverse and a ridge extending to the handle as on the Christian lamps. Nozzle as in figure 49. on the discus is the figure of Helios which seems to have been converted into the head of Christ with a nimbus (cf. unglazed. fig. on the discus a very crude figure of Helios with rays extending all around.108. 0. red clay. 0. 9. Circular depressions on the rim. 2). degenerate volutes on the nozzle. figure of Helios on the discus. H. herring-bone pattern on the rim with circles in the middle. 0. Like the preceding. 1158 (551). H. 0. hatchings on the handle. 0. XVI. 1165 (556). 0. W. 0. 0. 5. crude figure of Helios on the discus.069. 0.09.059.054.029. unglazed. L. red clay. unglazed.036. Soft. L.034. 0. 0. W. L. channel on the neck. 1918. micaceous. W. L.068. red clay. 1160 (552). H. on the reverse a heart-shaped design and a cross. 1159 (560). 0. L. 0. Similar but with an elongated reverse. 1156 (542).

0. 1174 (385). 0. Soft. 4.49. W.11. L.Grayish brown clay. Red clay.033. 1172 (1104). L. rim as in figure 48. * l Part. Fragment. broad. red clay. of top with wavy -Figure 176.on the handle. L. PLATE XVI. wrestling with the Nemean Lion. 0. Like the preceding. 0. Part of the left side is broken away. unglazed. 1169 (805). . A. L. reddish brown glaze. Soft. 0. on the discus is the figure of Heracles.Soft. herring-bone pattern. on the discus a crude figure of Heracles with the Lion as above. 1173 (384). 0.069. H. unglazed. 0. red clay. dark brown glaze. Dark gray clay and glaze. PLATE XXIX. Figure 176. 1903. Grayish brown clay. pl. elongated reverse with a double row of oblique grooves.035.034. H.10. lines on the rim. solid grooved handle.07. Cf. only the head of' Heracles preserved. shelllike figure of Helios on the discus. 1167 (559).11. Dark brown clay and glaze. H. XIV. to right. W. W.084. Plain rim with panels indicated by herring-bone pattern and circles. on the discus is the figure of Actaeon attacked by his dog. The nozzle and left side are broken away. unglazed. unglazed.. 1. Fragment of top like the preceding.11. Nozzle as in figure . dark brown glaze. 2. 0. Part of the handle is missing. unglazed. 1168 (558). red clay. Soft. he is holding a whip(?) in his right hand and the drapery in his left.A.LAMPS 253 pattern. 1171 (380).J. 0. red clay. Small fragment with the figure of Heracles and the Lion as above.068. Red clay.031. Herring-bone pattern and panels on the rim. Bassett. 1170 (379). Figure 176. on the discus is the figure of Actaeon and the dog as above. Part of the bottom and left side is broken away. H. Similar. 0. 0. VII. 0. W. Stamped circles on the left rim and a herring-bone pattern on the right. 1166 (555).

plain rounded nozzle. 1180 (1371). (T122-L32). blowing a conch-shell. unglazed. 0. Waldstein (Argive Heraezum. 1176 (241). 0. to right. Small fragment of discus with the figure of Actaeon and dog as above. purplish brown glaze. No. row of small globules Figure 177round the discus. He is holding a spear in his left hand and the bridle in the right. Only the top is preserved. on the discus is the figure of Pan. H. unglazed. PLATE XVI. Rim as in figure 48. pl. 0. PLATE XVI. Walters. 1181 (1062). discovered at the I.knob-like handle. low base-ring on the reverse. 3. PLATE XXIX. W. Plain rim.09. 1178 (986). Fragment Plain rim with panels indicated by grooves. Cf. 0. Argive Heraeum. W. 390. raising his club over his head and holding an indistinct object in his left hand.027. Figure 177. dark brown glaze. with his horse. p. The front is broken away. 0. 184. II. p. to front. 1179 (1066). unglazed. H. on the discus is the figure of Triton as above. Hard. behind is a tree. . I On the rim is a double row of elongated dots and 1180 panels indicated by globules. Theatre Area. 1177 (1076). Grayish brown clay. Red clay and glaze. to left. L. to right. Herring-bone pattern on the rim. X. Fragment. Below the handle is a heart-shaped design. red clay. 75.073. The same figure on a lamp. Red clay. pl.where numerous similar specimens have been found. Reddish brown clay. Grayish brown clay. No. blowing his pipes. On the discus is the figure of a Centaur. Grayish brown clay. Fragment of discus with the figure of Actaeon and the dog as above. 1182 (917).061. 38. LXII) supposed He was apparently unaware of the fact that the lamp was made in the Athenian Ceramicus.025. on the discus is the figure of one of the Dioscuri.flat. brown glaze. on the discus is the figure of Triton. and to be a late reproduction of the Doryphorus of Polyclitus.254 CORINTH 1175 (386).

0. red clay. W.LAMPS 255 Ovules on the rim. nozzle as in figure 49. on the discus the same figure as above. 0. 'AQy.. W. p. Like the preceding. 0. Red clay. on the discus the figure of Pan with his pipes (?). PLATE XVI. Grayish brown clay. Fragment of a lamp like the preceding. Rhomaios.036. unglazed. & Sagl. on the discus is a bust in profile. III B. 0. 2709 and Darem. reddish brown glaze. to left. Rim as in figure 48.035. W. W. 18. Cf. Soft. Dark brown clay and glaze. plain rounded nozzle. Pale red clay. 1189 (1067). on the discus a crude figure l On some coins of Macedonia Kabeiros is represented with a hammer or axe similar to that on these lamps (see Roschei's Lexikon II2. L. 6. 0. on the discus the same figure as above but very crudely made.058. with the double axe' in front. fig. p. . pl. Part of the nozzle and discus is broken away.088. below the handle is a double pendant and on the reverse a base-ring. I395. below the nozzle is a double groove on each side.058. 0.to left.027. 1183 (591). 0.08.027. 9 and 12. H. 'Ecp. 1. red clay.XXXIII) within a circular groove. L. 1188 Figure 178. nozzle as in figure 49.. nozzle as in figure 49. L. H. unglazed.088.098. reddish brown glaze. 1906. 0. within an indistinct human foot. 2. H. grooved handle with the hole begun on each side. on the discus an indistinct figure of a Centaur. H. Red clay. PLATE XVI. 1186 (389). unglazed. 0. Indistinct design on the rim. 1187 (1392). 1185 (367). perhaps the figure of Men-Mithras. Wavy lines on the rim. Top of a lamp with herring-bone pattern on the rim and panels indicated by circles. Figure 178. Soft. on the reverse the signature EY (PLATF. blackened in fire. The nozzle is broken away.08. 1184 (592). Fragment with a row of globules on the rim. p. 0. and Men often carries a similar symbol (see Roscher's Lexikon II2. 2534). unglazed. 4670). 0. Dictionaire des Antiquites. 11. 1188 (1464).

071. On the discus are traces of a gladiatorial scene as above. Soft. 0. 3. plain. Figure i80. micaceous. red clay. on the discus the same figure as above but very indistinct. 0. H.075. Figure 180. W. red clay. 11 95 (1545) (T413-L90). W. Like the preceding. two filling-holes and four smaller holes. The handle is missing. ovules and raised panels on the rim. unglazed. letter M (PLATE XXXIII) on the reverse within a double circular groove. Hard. plain rounded nozzle. unglazed. Hard. Most of the discus is missing. 11 . H. Herring-bone pattern on the rim. W. red clay. on the reverse is.034.028.the letter T within a double circular groove.066.076. The nozzle is broken away. red clay. rounded nozzle.026. Part of the right side is broken away.089. nozzle as in figure 49. flat. 0. H. 0. knob-like handle. 0.. brown glaze. 1 Figure I79. Herring-bone pattern on the rim.029.094. on the discus a crude figure like that above. 11!93 (1403). perforated handle. 0. Hard.256 CORINTH like that above but with the coiffure retouched so as to produce long wavy lines. L. Like the preceding. 0. 5. W. 0. Figure 179. VARIOUS RIM PATTERNS 1192 (375). 0. H. red clay. Hard. PLATE XVI.084. 0. L.072. red clay. unglazed. HUMAN FIGURES AND MASKS ON THE DISCUS. L. 0. Soft.08. W. Red clay. H. 1194 (476).026. Small ovules and raised panels on the rim. Small L. nozzle as in figure 49. unglazed. H. 1196 (1563) (T544-L157). almond-shaped reverse with the letter A. good modelling but the figures are indistinct. 0. 0. grooved. 1191 (504). knob-like handle. 0. to the right a secutor with oblong shield and dagger in right hand. .032. 0. On the discus two gladiators facing each other. flat. 1190 (503). unglazed. to the left is a retiarius with his trident. W. unglazed. 0. The nozzle is broken away.075.

1200 (1370). micaceous clay. 0. same figure as No. on the discus is an erotic symplegma as above but crudely made. Pale red clay. Part of the bottomis broken away.086. Narrow band of wavy lines Figure I82. 0. unglazed. H. the one to right is fleeing.LAMPS 257 Fragment of discus with gladiatorial scene. PLATEXVII. Red clay. below was an erotic symplegma which is broken away. both gladiators in full armor. 5 but with herring-bone pattern to indicate panels. Half of a lamp with an indistinct representation as above. Fragment with gladiatorial scene on the discus as above.unglazed. Figure 181. unglazed. signature C m and palm branch on an almond-shaped reverse. Reddish brown clay and glaze. unglazed. rim as in figure 48.065. i. 5.035.037. Top of a lamp with an indistinct pattern on the rim. 1203 (1088). on a couch. Pale red. unglazed. grooved handle with the hole indicated on each side. on the discus an erotic symplegma. 0. Red clay. Theatre Area.086. below the handle is a degenerate heart design. 33 . 1202 (405). 0.106. Grayish buff clay. on the discus is preserved part of a figure from an erotic symplegma. on the rim. PLATE 1201 Fragment. 0. XXIX. 1199 (515). 646. L. 1197 (990). on the discus obscene figure of a woman and beast. 8. unglazed. on the reverse is the signature AE (PLATE XXXIII) within a base-ring. 1198 (803). blackened in fire. PLATE XVII. 0. 1201 (1467).Dark gray clay. Nozzle as in figure 49. nozzle as in figure 49. Figure 182. Red clay. raising his right hand and looking back at his adversary who follows with dagger in right hand and shield in left. L. Fragment with the figure of an old man reclining 1200 Figure i8i. W. unglazed. W. Rim resembling figure 48. H.

PLATE XXIX. 1205 (1125). 1207 (1216). 5. VII. W.'Jui^^ - ^ *?^ g :: l :. unglazed. on the reverse an impressed human foot. on the discus an indistinct human figure holding uncertain objects in the hands. very indistinct. Vari. Brick red clay. . Bassett. 3. brown glaze. below the handle is a double pendant. Fragment. 18. . Seems to have been damaged in fire. H.081. on the discus is a head in profile. 1210 (1053). 0. 1208 (645). Herring-bone pattern the rim. 6. 0. to left.A.. micaceous.. probably a portrait. traces of pale red glaze.061. signature KY on the a double reverse within circular groove. PLATE XXIX. 0. Red purplish brown glaze. pl. . L. to right. 0. 12(09! (387). On the discus are two upright figures facing each other. H. Grayish brown clay. clay. Fragment. Deep red clay. ?-- ^L . Rim as in figure 48.032.. Rim as in figure 48. I83.028. left. PLATE XXIX. Bassett. figure to Figure Figure I83. A.. Soft. 1206 (1100). XIV.258 CORINTH 1204 (406). Fragment. Small fragment of discus with the upper part of a human figure holding the hands over the head. A. L. unglazed..087. A/. unglazed.J. 0. Dark gray clay and glaze. Indistinct design on the rim. pl. Grayish brown clay. holding a palm branch in the right hand. on the discus is preserved the upper part of a human figure. Rim as in figure 48. . Figure 183.. but the top is so worn that the designs cannot be identified. 1903.098. on the discus indistinct human on an ::: . grayish red clay. on the discus is a human figure with a spear-like object in the left hand. VII. Cf. .2. XIII. 1903. 0. 1211 (388). Cf. W.

to left. grooved solid handle. 1215 Figure I84. 12 1 (1059). Grayish brown clay. Red clay.075. dark brown glaze. Grayish brown clay. 0. i. 494. Fragment. Rows of raised dots and panels on the rim. PLATE XVIII. . on the discus is the figure of a lion as above. brown glaze. 1. 3. Red clay. Figure 183.032. Fragment of discus with the figure of a lion as above. H. Fragment. 1220 (403). by herring-bone pattern and circles. PLATE XVIII. reddish brown glaze. micaceous clay. 0. Fon0l/es de Delfphes. L. Red clay. on the discus figure of a mask. 192. on the discus is the figure of a lion as above. VARIOUS RIM IPAT7'7ERAS 1215 (1090). C F/IGUES OF OF THE DISCUXS. to front. 81 5.V.LAMPS 259 Fragment of discus with the head of a negro. 121' (762). Fragment of the discus of a large lamp with the figure of a lion. Rim as in figure 48. Waldhauer. W. to right. Deep red clay. Cf. 1214 (1048). 1. red glaze. i.096. 1219' (401). nozzle as Plain rim with panels indicated in figure 49. Red clay. XLVII. purplish brown glaze. W. PLATE XVIII. 1218 (1147). p. Rim as in figure 48. 1212 (1085). Figure 183. Only the top is preserved. 1217 (806). The bottom is broken away. dark brown glaze. Red clay. micaceous. Red. Small fragment with mask as above. 0. on the discus is the figure of a lion as above but less distinct. on the discus figure of a mask with oyxoc. 0. on the discus is the figure of a seated lion. reddish brown glaze. Top of a lamp with panels as in figure 48. Reddish brown clay. reddish brown glaze. red glaze. pl. grooved handle with the hole begun on each side. nozzle as in figure 49. brown glaze. Plain rim.079. only the head preserved. Figure 184. fig.

Grayish brown clay. unglazed. 1228 (1555) L. on the discus is the crude figure of a seated lion. nozzle as in figure 49. W. Like the preceding but with the figure of the lion very small and crudely made. red glaze. Reddish brown clay. 1225 (1 548) (T417-L93).068. Vine pattern on the rim. almond-shaped reverse with a palm branch and stamped circles. unglazed.260 1221 (402). red clay. L. L. unglazed. L. Hard. 0. 0.066.063. a. Red clay.09. 0. almond-shaped reverse with a palm branch pattern.07. 0. indistinct figure of .067.086. red clay. on the discus figure of a seated lion. unglazed. 1226 (1 534) (T393-L79). W. 0. to right. 0. L.032. almond-shaped reverse with the signature XIONHC.032. (T441-L100). H. Brick red clay. 0.074. Herring-bone L. handle as above. 0. 0. Soft. 4. 0. W. 0.028. 0.09. to right. and two filling-holes. nozzle as in figure 49. Vine pattern on the rim. 0. W. H. red clay. PLATE XVIII. PLATE XVIII. W. red clay. PLATE XVIII. H.09. H. 0. 0. 0. H.028. 1223 (509). 0. W. on the reverse is a palm branch pattern within a double almond-shaped groove.087. on the discus is the crude figure of a lion as above. 0. Herring-bone pattern on the rim. 0. on the discus figure of a lion as above. L.028. Pale red clay. solid handle with two grooves and hatchings between. unglazed. 0. H. on the discus is the figure of a lion as above. H.035. Like the preceding but less distinct. nozzle as in figure 49.029. unglazed.089. 0. 4. W. L. 0. 0. H. 0.069. on the discus an indistinct figure of a lion. Vine pattern on the rim. 4. 1222 (507). pattern on the rim. Herring-bone pattern on the rim. Wavy lines on the rim. palm branch on an almond-shaped reverse. L.092. W.07.098. Soft. 0.033. CORINTH Fragment of a lamp with the indistinct figure of a lion as above. 0. nozzle as in figure 49. 1230 (508). unglazed. H. Part of the right side is missing. 1224 (906) (T12-L6). W. 0. almond-shaped.065.09.032. 1227 (1461). Hard. unglazed.reverse with the letter M. 4. 1229 (506). nozzle as in figure 49.

092.027.056. 0.027. 0. Soft. W. 0. L. 0. 0. on the discus the figure of a bull. The handle is broken away. Red clay and glaze. L. H. 0.028. H.077. 1238 (521). H. 1239 (1416). 0. 1235 (646). L. 0. 0.026.055. unglazed.027. indistinct.063. solid grooved handle. 1231 (517).077. W. W. red clay. concentric circles on the reverse. Rim as in figure 48. 18. 1236 (522). 0. Soft. L.034. but below the handle is a double pendant and below the nozzle a double groove on each side and a base-ring on the reverse. Soft.077.08. W. almond-shaped reverse with a palm branch pattern. W. 0. 0. H. 0.10. Grayish brown . Similar. red clay. Red clay. 0. nozzle as in figure 49. 0.077. 0. red clay. 0. . unglazed. 0. Similar.077.056. 0. . 1233 (519). micaceous.056. Herring-bone pattern on the rim. figure of a lion on the discus as above. 0. Soft. red clay. 1. W. Small lamp with a herring-bone pattern on the rim. 0. signature EY within a circular groove. red clay. H. Soft. W. H. Soft. unglazed. plain reverse. W. 1237 (520). red clay. PLATE XVIII. 1240 (404). unglazed. Rim as in figure . pale red clay. Soft. L. H. 0.036. to left. 0. unglazed. 1232 (516). L. H. palm branch on the reverse within a circular groove. Similar. Similar. unglazed. The nozzle is broken away. 0. 0. W. H. H.056. W. 0. PLATE XVIII. Similar. L.082. L. Soft. Like the preceding.08. nozzle as in figure 49. On the reverse is an illegible signature.027. unglazed.056.062. 0. very indistinct figure of a lion on the discus. unglazed. 1234 (518).027. The discus is broken away. L.077. 0. red clay.032. 2.083. 0. L. but the designs on the rim and discus are very indistinct. unglazed. nozzle as in figure 49. Similar.LAMPS 261 a lion on the discus. 0.

Cf.078. -Plain rim with panels indicated by a triple groove. Red clay. 1248 (1025). solid handle with hatchings between grooves. XIV. . PLATE XXIX. PLATE XXIX. fig. Figure I85. Mitt. nozzle as in figure 49. The whole lamp is discolored from fire. on the discus is the figure of a bear. but the figure is more distinct Red clay. 1. to left. 6. The nozzle and part of the discus are missing. 1242 (1124). but only the head is preserved. Front half of a lamp like the preceding. Herring-bone pattern on the rim and panels indicated by a double groove and circles. unglazed. micaceous. 51.A. 1241 (395).032.XXVII. Fragment of discus with the figure of a bear as above. light brown glaze. traces of glaze. Fragment of discus with the figure of a bear. PLATE XXIX. PLATE XXIX. 260. 2. grooved handle with the hole begun on each side. Bassett. Fouilles de Dellphes. Small fragment of discus with the figure of a bull as above. See p. 1903. Red clay and glaze. Ath. Red clay. 0. H. and cf. on the discus is the figure of a bear. 1247 (1'093). Deep red clay. an uncertain object in the field above. p. 1246 (1089). micaceous clay. Only the left half is preserved. nozzle as in figure 49. to left. 1243 (1495) (T521-L143). pl. The handle is broken away. W. Grayish brown clay. and above a man turning a somersault. 0. to left. 1245 (1123).. Top of a lamp with herring-bone pattern and panels on the rim. Brick red clay. 1244 (761). on the discus is the figure of a bear. to left.. 1902. dark brown glaze.J. i8. p. unglazed. A.262 CORINTH clay. on the discus the figure of a bear. carrying a gourd (?) in its mouth. 124:. PLATE XVII. unglazed. unglazed. Figure 185. VII. Fragment Rim as in figure 48. and some object in the field above. 190. light brown glaze. 108. below the handle is a degenerate heart design and on the reverse the signature CT within a double circular groove. 824. Red. Fig. V. to left.

Only the handle and top are preserved. deep red glaze.0.071. PLATE XVII. 1 Figure 187. ca. Fragment of top with plain rim. 2. H. pl. L. Reddish brown clay. 3. on the discus the figure of a dog.077. unglazed. A. 0. brown glaze. to left. 0. Figurel87. unglazed. XXVII. 1256 (596). 1251 (1494) (T520-L142). on the discus is the crude figure of an animal with long ears. 1. above.ca. nozzle as in figure 49. 4. Cf. XIV.067. ~~3. 258. (. Mi//f. 0. 1255 (1502) (T525-L146). to left.A. on the discus figure of a bear. above is the legend 4OBOC. Brick red clay. on the discus is the figure of a bear. Rim as in figure 48. stamped circles on the reverse. not on the cross axis of the lamp. i'~ Double spirals on the rim and panels indicated by parallel lines.J. Herring-bone pattern on the rim. 1903. nozzle as in figure 49.. . Red clay.091. chocolate brown glaze. 1250 (394).H. 1254 (1504) (T458-L108). W. The bear is turned to the left.034. 1F 51 Figure I86. H. 1253 (760).LAMPS 263 1249 (1143). to right. Red clay. Deubner. Soft. Plain rim with triple groove to indicate panels. figs. Pale red clay.032. 1252 (743). -Like the preceding. on the discus is the figure of a bear like the preceding. an illegible legend.071. 1. PLATE XVII. Figure 186. Rim as in figure 48. H. Brick red clay and glaze. W.033. p. Fragment. Fragment of discus with the figure of a stag. red clay. W. 0. The nozzle is broken away. 1 and 2. pinkish brown glaze. A4h. 0. W. on the discus the figure of a seated dog.028. almond-shaped reverse with a palm branch pattern. Circular groove on the reverse. 0. PLATE XXIX. 1902.. to right. Red clay and glaze. 0. as above and the word >OB[OC]incised. Bassett. The front of the lamp is broken away. The nozzle is partly broken away. to right.

unglazed. PLATEXXIX. micaceous. Herring-bone pattern on the rim. Red clay. Fragment. only the tail is preserved. small stamped circles on the reverse. on the discus is the figure of a ram. 1266 (794). Fragment. micaceous clay. Rim as in figure 48. 1263 (1233). Buff clay. unglazed. Herring-bone pattern on the rim. PLATE XVII. Reddish buff clay.082. unglazed. on the discus the figure of a fish. Red. to left. PLATE XVII. on the discus is the figure of a dolphin.027. unglazed.0. Reddish buff clay. Red. micaceous. concave discus with the figure of a dog. The front part is broken away. micaceous clay. . double circular groove on the reverse. W. Hard. micaceous clay. Plain rim and panels indicated by herring-bone pattern. fig. 0. Small fragment with the figure of a fish. Plain rim with panels. 1261 (1144). Fragment. 1264 (1218). red clay. L. 189. red glaze. 1262 (1507) W. V.07. grooved perforated handle. to right. on the discus the figure of a fish with the head toward the handle. unglazed. unglazed. 819. 1259 (1245). to left. Fragment. Cf. grooved handle with the hole begun on each side. one large filling-hole and three smaller holes. on the discus the figure of a dolphin. unglazed. unglazed. 1260 (1482) (T536-L154). pattern. figure of a fish on the -discus. Red. on the discus Top with plain rim and panels indicated by herring-bone the figure of a fish. on the discus the figure of a dolphin. pierced grooved handle. Fragment of top with herring-bone pattern on the rim. (T495-L129). Herring-bone pattern on the rim. 1265 (1248). Wavy lines on the rim. H. to left.264 CORINTH 1257 (396). 0. 18.072. to left. Fragment. Grayish buff clay. 0. to left. p. Deep red clay. to left. 1258 (1105). to right. unglazed. Fouilles de Delphes. PLATE XVII.

H. Figure188. on the discus is the figure of a dolphin.035. to right. 1271 (1146). Herring-bone L. 0. 0. Red clay. almond-shaped reverse. 0. to right. nozzle as in figure 49. grooved perforated handle.025. Top with herring-bone pattern on the rim.032. unglazed. unglazed. micaceous. W. on the discus figure of a dolphin. micaceous.06. pattern on the rim. red clay. almond-shaped reverse with a palm branch pattern. red clay. W. to right. Solid handle. 1274 (1434). on the discus.028. 0. on the discus the figure of a dolphin. Rim as in figure 48. Part of the discus is broken away. (T8-L2).084. 1. Part of the nozzle is broken away. 1272 (770). of dolphin. 1268 (1527) (T535-L153).062. 0. 0.075.078. figure Figure 188. Hard. 34 . Red clay. Soft. W. to right. L. 0.07. on the discus is the figure of a dolphin. 4. W. 0. 4. L. 0.058. 1270 (1145). unglazed. nozzle as in figure 49. Same signature. L. Red clay. 0. unglazed. 0. Herring-bone pattern on the rim. H. on the discus figure of a dolphin. unglazed. H. Fragment Herring-bone pattern on the rim. panels with a circle. nozzle as in figure 49. Brick red clay. 0. Mottled gray and red clay. W. unglazed. H.09. PLATE XVII. red glaze. 1269 (411). nozzle as in figure 49. to right. to right. 4. W. on the discus figure of a dolphin. Fragment of top with herring-bone pattern on the rim. to right. 1275 (908). almond-shaped reverse with the signature KYand stamped circles. 2.031. 0. 0. on the discus is the figure of a dolphin. PLATE XVII.075. Herring-bone pattern on the rim.096. indistinct. reddish brown glaze. 0. otherwise like the preceding. Herring-bone pattern on the rim. H. to right. 1273 (511). red clay. 0. Hard. H.LAMPS 265 1267 (1219).033.

on the discus figure of a dolphin.029. 1903. 1282 (1226). reddish brown glaze. unglazed. to left. 18 but with herring-bone pattern on the panels. Hard. H. 0. indistinct.062.024. Pale red clay. 'AQX. Plain rim. Part of the nozzle is missing. L.063. Fragment of a lamp like the preceding. fig. on the discus the figure of two fishes as above. 1284 (587). 0. 0. W.032.09. Same signature. PLATE XVII. Reddish brown clay. L. unglazed. unglazed. 0.A. 0. Soft. 0. 17. H. unglazed. to right. 1918. H. H. Red clay. unlazed. PLATE XIX. 1285 (588). 1. H. buff clay.091. Cf. 1281 (1041). . Fragment of a lamp like the preceding. 0. Similar but with a base-ring and a double groove on each side of the nozzle below. red clay. p. W.083.266 CORINTH indistinct. 18.. Deep red clay. almond-shaped reverse. on the discus figure of a dolphin.029. Pale buff clay. on the discus figure of a dolphin. Design indistinct. nozzle as in figure 49. 0. 1277 (510). 0. with a trident above. Rim as in figure 48. 1278 (527).035. W. Cf. 0. 0. 1276 (1078). Very indistinct design. 0. p. unglazed. 0. 1280 (397). signature EY on the reverse within a circulargroove. 341. red clay. 1279 (1148). micaceous. Skias. 3.059.A.083.053.unglazed. . unglazed. Similar. Rim as in figure 48. 1283 (586).032. Hard. Soft. red clay.. to right. L. Vine pattern on the rim. red clay.J. L. VII. on the discus two fishes. double circular groove on the reverse. to right. brown glaze. Fragment of a lamp like the preceding. PLATE XIX. 'Ep. Fragment. W. PLATE XIX. 0. l. 0.061. Red clay. degenerate heart-shaped design below the handle. H. almond-shaped reverse with a palm branch pattern and an eye-shaped design on each side of the handle below. W. 0. unglazed.07. plain rounded nozzle. almond-shaped reverse with a palm branch pattern. Rim as in figure 48. The nozzle is broken away. L. Bassett. Soft. nozzle as in figure 49. 15. W..087. 10. 0.

06. 0. unglazed. almond-shaped reverse with palm branch pattern and circles.027. Indistinct design of leaves and circles on the rim. Herring-bone pattern and circles on the rim. red clay. 1291 (594).066. Similar. W. unglazed. H. on the discus figure of a dove. on the discus 267 figure of two fishes. 1288 (589). Figure I89. 0. on the discus figure of a bird.. 0. W. 1293 (772).. 0. 0.. L. below the handle is a double pendant. red clay. L. Bassett. 0. Greenish buff clay. unglazed.058.086. 0. channel on the neck. 0. 1295 (600). A. Cf. unglazed. L. 0. 1290 (593). XIV. Hard. to left. L. H. on the discus figure of a dove perched on a basket or chalice.089. Similar.033. H. W.06. Herring-bone pattern on the rim. low basering on the reverse and a double groove on each side of the nozzle below. low base-ring on the reverse and a double groove on each side of the nozzle below.029.053. W. Soft. The handle is broken away.H. red clay.059. VII. red clay. on the discus figure of a cock. . pl. L. 1294 (598). Soft. perched on a chalice. unglazed. raised base-ring.082. Within a base-ring is an indistinct signature.031.082. H.057. 0. to left. W.JA. Soft. H. 0. 1287 (1543) (T409-L88). Reddish brown clay. 0. broad channel on the neck. Red clay. Herring-bone pattern on the rim and handle. Fragment. 1292 (771). 0. 4. Impressed circles on the rim. unglazed. 0. L. 1903. 0. H. L. 0. 0. 0. W.LAMPS 1286 (1042). indistinct figure of a bird on the discus. 0. red clay. Soft. PLATE XIX.085. unglazed.026.031. pendants and stamped circle below the handle and an incised cross below the nozzle. L. 0.087. 0. 0.027.052. L. 1289 (590). red clay. unglazed. PLATE XIX.025.029. 0. 0. 0. W. on the discus indistinct figure of a bird. H. Figure 189.09. broad channel on the neck. 0. Grayish brown clay'. W. to right. unglazed. Similar. unglazed. W. Raised dots in triplets and panels on the rim. to left.085. 0.089. almond-shaped reverse with a palm branch pattern. H. Wavy lines on the rim.063. Soft.

. W.089. Stamped circles on the rim.054. 0. to right. W.. . on the discus figure of bucranium. 1294. otherwise as above.058..029. t:.084... L.... Waldhauer. L. 0. Pressed out of shape in the baking. within. 0. 0.. Red clay. 0. H. micaceous. 1302 (409). red clay. unglazed.. unglazed. Row of globules on the rim. unglazed.075. crude figure of a dove perched on a chalice. L.093. Figure 192.071. L.?. Grayish brown clay. 0. Soft. . . 0. 1297 (599).03. 1299 (602). Soft. unglazed. H. W. Soft. 0. .268 CORINTH 1296 (601). Figure 190. concentric circles. H. L... Identical with No..032. H.. Raised circles on the rim.:. almondshaped reverse with palm branch pattern. Red clay..08. 1300 (597).... VARIOUS RIM DESIGNS 1301 (408). W. on the discus figure of a bird... 469. iYO2 130. red clay. L.085.055... W. VARIOUS FIGURES ON THE DISCUS. red clay. 0.. blackened by fire.059. on the reverse a ring of raised dots and. Cf.... concentric circles on the reverse.. 0.. Figure 191.027. nozzle as in figure 49.03. 0. 1298 (595).) 1305 Figure 190. Similar. 0. W. 0.. 0. . Part of the nozzle is broken away. on the discus figure of a tall bird upright and facing a dog standing on his hind legs. 6. L. 0. H.031. XLIV..086. almond-shaped reverse with palm branch pattern and stamped circles. unglazed.027.. Indistinct design on the rim.. 0. 0...09. 0. unglazed. . 0.. 0. H. W. Grayish brown clay.. H. pl. Indistinct pattern on the rim. dark brown glaze.06. 0.

0. Red clay and glaze. crescent on the discus. dark brown glaze. p. red clay. on the reverse concentric circular grooves.075. 0. 0.'Eqp. 1918. Rim as in figure 48. 30 rim. unglazed. 17. 0. H.075.095.0.074. Plain rim.1.LAMPS 1303 (1492) 269 (T533-L151). bucranium on the discus.051. Figure193. Soft. Cf. 1309 (1533) (T392-L78). 1304 (1217). 0. H. Fragment. 0. Fragment of a discus with bucranium. Brown clay. W.027. Herring-bone pattern on the 1306 : Figure I93. . fig. L. Pale red clay. 1305 (1413). nozzle as in figure 49. nozzle as in figure 49. H.056. Stamped circles on the rim and handle. 1309 W. pl. 1308 (1185). W. 21. PLATE XIX.035. Figure 193. onithe discus the figure of a bucranium so crude as to be almost unrecognizable. Grayish brown clay. concentric grooves on the reverse. solid grooved handle. 'AQx. Figure 191. nozzle as in figure 49 1. Fragment of top. L. 0. XLIV. 0. L. almond-shaped reverse with oblique grooves. unglazed. 1306 (526). Figure 192. Deep red clay. Figure 194. 466. figure of bucranium on the discus. W.032. 1307 (647). Red clay. 0. H. dark brown glaze. Skias. Figure 194 on the discus is a crescent. Figure 194. 468. 7.6. Waldhauer. almondshaped reverse with an impressed human foot. crude figure of bucranium on the discus. 10. The end of the nozzle is broken away. 1. Panels indicated on the rim by herring-bone pattern and circles. 0. unglazed. Rim as in figure 48. nozzle as in figure 49.069.026.2.. Cf. slightly darker red glaze.

032. 0. 0. crescent on the discus. 826. ca. 1315 (1220). 1. Ash gray clay. Herring-bone pattern on the rim.06. Row of raised dots on the rim. W. broad channel on the neck. 0. fig. p. 0. 0. Wavy lines on the rim. unglazed. Wavy lines on the rim.088. crescent on the discus. Figure H. 195. Fouilles de Delpes. L. concentric grooves on the reverse. H.065. nozzle as in figure 49. Fragment. 1.091. dark brown glaze. 4. 0. 1311 (1071). CHRISTIAN CROSS ON THE DLSCUS. Red clay. 1314 (1238). Grayish brown clay. 2.036.029. Herring-bone pattern on the rim and a small leaf on each side of the handle. Fragment of a similar lamp. stamped circles at the ends of the cross. 1312 (1049). nozzle as in figure 49. H. of the handle is a palm branch pattern. unglazed. L. concentric grooves and palm branch on the reverse. Grayish brown clay. 0.094. brown glaze. 0. . 0. W. Pale red clay. on the discus is the figure of a basket filled with fruit. 4. ca. crescent on the discus. L. 0. H. low base-ring. 0. on the discus an uncertain object. dark brown glaze. crescent on the discus. brown glaze. unglazed. Cf. brown glaze. Reddish brown clay.031. 7. W. Parts of the handle and nozzle are broken away. nozzle as in figure 49. 0. V. fig. PLATE XIX. Fouilles de Delphes. 1316 (412). L. unglazed. micaceous clay. Fragments.075. 823. 0. 1317 (769). 190. nozzle as in figure 49. Cf. broad almondshaped reverse with a palm branch pattern. H. Fragment of a similar lamp. letter K (PLATE XXXIII) within a double circular groove on the reverse.270 CORINTH 1310 (410).077. Grayish brown clay.085. 1313 (808). W.06. VARIOUS RII PATTERNS 1318 (754). 0.096. W. 0. V. p. 190. on the reverse and lower part Figure9 Figure I95. Rim as in figure 48. Rim as in figure 48. L. Red. Reddish brown clay. 18.033. 131. nozzle as in figure 49. PLATE XIX.

031. 0.078. Hard. Soft. 0. red clay. 0. 0. 1327 (910) (T9-L3).025. 0. W.091.033. 0. nozzle as in figure 49. 271 Herring-bone pattern on the rim.075.091. circles on the cross. 0. 9. Herring-bone pattern on the rim.088. Similar. 1325.028. 1326 (1165). L. red clay. 1323 (922) (T267-L48). 0. W. nozzle as in figure 49. unglazed. stamped circles on the cross. L. unglazed. H. red clay. red clay. channel on the neck. 0. unglazed.065. unglazed. 0. unglazed. Row of raised dots at the outer edge of the rim. 0. 1322 (622). L. L. Soft. W.027.068. 0. Vine pattern on the rim. 0.033. L. H. circles at the ends and in the centre of the cross.055. H. red clay. plain rounded nozzle. Grayish brown clay. unglazed.057. 0. almond-shaped reverse with a palm branch pattern. L.08. W. Herring-bone pattern on the rim. W. elongated reverse with a palm branch pattern. L.10. L. Hard. red clay. almond-shaped reverse. 0. 1325 (781). 0. almond- shaped reverse with a palm branch pattern in the middle. unglazed. unglazed.057. 0. 0. Soft.029. H. 1328 (780). Soft. H. almond-shaped reverse. square discus with a small cross in the centre. stamped circles at the ends and in the centre of the cross. 1324 (623). 0. 3. otherwise like the preceding.07.056.03. 0. almond-shaped reverse with a palm branch pattern.059. Soft.'W. Herring-bone pattern on the rim. 0. H. H.LAMPS 1319 (621). raised decorations on the cross. buff clay. The nozzle is broken away. H. PLATE XIX. 0. 0.083. L. The nozzle is broken away. . Part of the bottom is broken away.03. 0. unglazed.065. almondshaped reverse with herring-bone pattern and circles. nozzle as in figure 49. W. Row of oblong depressions on the rim.054. 0. unglazed.08. 0. 5. H. 1320 (625). Herring-bone pattern on the rim. 0. Red clay. Like No. W. 0. W. 1321 (620). red clay. H. Hard. 0. Part of the bottom is broken away.029. W.

H. Herring-bone pattern on the rim. 0. red clay. 1331 (1536) (T398-L81). 0.081. nozzle as in figure 49. Herring-bone patternon the rim. W. 0. 1332 (624). Red clay. 4. Stamped circles on the rim. 0. Similar on top.027.096. 0. 0.026. H. 1330 (921) (T347-L76).unglazed.095.026. channel on the neck. elongated reverse with a net pattern and circles at the edge. 0.058.272 CORINTH 1329' (606). Pale yellow clay. Fragment. The nozzle and part of the right side are broken away. L. 0. 0.Part of the nozzleis brokenaway. 1336 (626). Globules on the rim. H. yellow clay. Circular depressions on the rim. 0.A THE DISCUS.027. L. Soft. red clay.03. Red clay.063. red clay. W. Similar. unglazed.068. W. 0. W. H. 0. signature OCO on the reverse within a double circular groove.085. red clay. VARIOUS RIM PATTERNS 1337 (609). square discus with an indistinct figure of a cross. cross with flaring bars. monogram as in figure 52. 0. unglazed. Deep red clay.032. 0. four filling-holes.057. .03. Soft. 0. L. crude figure of a cross on the discus.033. 1333 (1429). W. 1335 (1559) (T445-L104). W. Soft.07.055. 0. H. 0. almond-shaped groove on the reverse with a palm branch and two stamped circles. unglazed: The nozzle is broken away. 5. H. red clay. 0. W. H. unglazed. Hard. JiNOGRAM OF CHRIST O. unglazed. L. W. unglazed. 1338 (610).092. 0.078. Hard. L. unglazed. unglazed. almond-shaped reverse. micaceous. Hierring-bone pattern on the rim. PLATEXIX. reddish brown glaze. Similar. 0. W. elongated reverse with net pattern and circles. 0. Soft. stamped circles toward the handle and nozzle. L.028. 0.089.. H. Signature Cw and a palm branch on the reverse.06. channel on the neck. 0.062. L. 0. Stamped circles on the rim and a small leaf on each side of the handle. almond-shaped reverse with stamped circles. cross formed by raised lines and circles. 0. H.061. 1334 (619). almond-shaped reverse with herring-bone pattern.

Similar. reddish brown glaze. Soft. unglazed. 8. L. H. The handle is broken away.082. W. L. otherwise like the preceding. Almond-shaped reverse with a palm branch pattern. on Similar on top. 1345 (611).079. 0.03. Black from burning at the broken part. monogram. signature XIONHC (PLATE XXXIII) on the reverse within a double circular groove. 0. Grayish brown clay. 0.028.079. Hard. unglazed.09. 0. monogram as in figure 52. 0. L. red clay.037. 0. Signature OEOAOYAOY the reverse. Similar. 0. 0.059. W.089. Plain rounded nozzle. H. red clay. 1341 (614).078. Soft. unglazed. 0. W. L.071.059. Red clay. clay. W. 4. but the patterns are less distinct. W. unglazed. unglazed. 1344 (1360). 0. 0. H. 0. 0.065.026. unglazed. 6. 0. 0. 273 Wavy lines on the rim.075. 0. almond-shaped reversewith the signature XIONHC. blackened by fire. 3. W. Same signature. Herring-bone pattern on the rim. Soft. 1348 (615). 1349 (1356).028. Hard.029. 0. 0. H. Herring-bone pattern on the rim. 0. L. Almond-shaped reverse with the letter A. Reddish brown clay. 0. H. Similar. 0. red clay. red clay. 1346 (1393).079. W. L.085. nozzle as in figure 49. Pale red clay. L. W. 0. W. Similar on top. H. nozzle as in figure 49. Same signature. H. H. Part of the nozzle is broken away. nozzle as in figure 49. 4. H. red clay. 0. Fragment of a similar lamp. 35 . 0. unglazed. L. 0.065. cruciform monogram Red as in figure 52. H.028. 0. as in figure 52.029.029. 1340 (613). showing that the lamp was used after the nozzle was broken away.059.LAMPS 1339 (612). almond-shaped reverse with the signature KY. 1342 (608). 0. 1343 (920) (T254-L44). Pale red clay.066. Part of the nozzle is missing. 1347 (1188). 0. unglazed. W.095. 7.032. Part of the nozzle is broken away. unglazed.07. Part of the left rim is broken away. unglazed. Similar.

L.069. L. H.088. 1356 (1169). palm branch pattern on the reverse within a double circular groove. Red clay. Red. L. almond-shaped reverse with a palm branch. cruciform monogram of Christ (Figure 52. 1358 (618). 0. L. monogram as in figure 52 8. Herring-bone pattern on the rim and circles to indicate panels. L. H. unglazed. hole indicated on each side of the handle. 0.035. Red clay. monogram as in figure 52. Soft. 0. Herring-bone pattern on the rim. Brick red clay. W.03. Herring-bone pattern on the rim. W. unglazed. H. Indistinct rim pattern. 1357 (753).033. Part of the discus is broken away.093. 0. oval reverse with palm branch pattern. H. almond-shaped reverse with a palm branch in the middle. 8. monogram as in figure 52. unglazed. PLATE XIX. signature XIO[NH]rCon the reverse. almond-shaped reverse with the signature XIONHE (PLATE XXXIII). 0.037. 8. monogram as in figure 52. unglazed. 9. 8. Pinkish buff clay. 1353 (1 522) (T552-L159). unglazed. W.087.024. almond-shaped pattern.056. W. 8 but with raised dots. reverse with a palm branch . The right half is missing. W. 0. red clay. 0. W. Rim as in figure 48. 8. cruciform monogram of Christ (Figure 52. 1355 (583). 0. nozzle as in figure 49. 0. 9.03. 0. micaceous clay. 2. pattern on the rim. 0. L. 0.03. 1351 (1517) L. 0. H.058. 0.063. channel on the neck. 0. channel on the neck.064. 8) on the discus.068. channel on the neck. 0. 0. W. the lower bar extending through the channel on the neck.031.09. H. 0. Grayish brown clay. 0.274 CORINTH 1350 (617). monogram as in figure 52. unglazed.089. almond-shaped reverse with a net pattern. unglazed. Herring-bone pattern on the rim.06. (T478-L115).034. 0. Red clay. Herring-bone pattern on the rim. 8s) on the discus.09. H. 0. unglazed. Small lamp with herring-bone signature Cw on the reverse.062. 0. L. 1354 (1247). 1352 (616). Soft. monogram as in figure 52. 0. W. 0.094. red clay. H. monogram as in figure 52. Herring-bone pattern on the rim. unglazed.

illegible signature on the reverse within a double circular groove. cruciform monogram with the rho turned toward the left.09. channel on the neck. H. red clay.055. Reddish brown clay.028. 0. VITRIOUS DESIGVS ON DISCUS AND RI[! 1365 (630).LAMPS 275 1359 (603). channel on the neck. 0. four filling-holes. 0. 9. 1363 (1557) (T443-L102). 0. 1361 (605). dots. W. H. 0. W. H. 0. 0. channel on the neck. 0. almondshaped reverse. W. almond-shaped reverse with a palm branch pattern. Wavy lines on the rim. unglazed.033. 0. The handle and part of the discus are broken away. Herring-bone pattern on the rim. etc.085. The end of the nozzle is broken away. 0. monogram as in figure 52.09. Herring-bone pattern on the rim. ca. L. H. unglazed. W. unglazed. W. Part of the nozzle is broken away. 0. brown clay. 0. Wavy lines on the rim and a pattern of oblique exclamation points at the outer edge.065. 1366 (672). Hard.028. 0. L.025.084. 0. L. 0. cruciform monogram as in figure 52. 0. 0. 1362 (1244). 0. L. 1364 (1283). Figure 197.032. 0. 0. Pattern of triangles. 0. unglazed. 10. L. almond-shaped reverse with a palm branch pattern and the signature C w.064. Herring-bone pattern on the rim.033. on the rim. cruciform monograi as in figure 52. W. W. Hard. H. H.092: W.069.031. 0. brown clay. Like the preceding but without the pattern of exclamation points on the rim. unglazed.064. nozzle as in figure 49. L. raised dots . row of loops at the nozzle.057. Light brown clay. monogram as in figure 52.062. Stamped circles on the rim and panels indicated by grooves.052. almond-shaped reverse with a palm branch pattern. 1360 (604). 0. H. H. 9. 4.09. Red clay. Hard. almond-shaped reverse. Figure 196. 0.076. L. 9. Figure Fi1ure . unglazed. Red clay. i96.08. irregular criss-cross lines on the discus. shallow channel on the neck. L.03. unglazed.

on the discus. . thin. 0. H. H. unglazed. L. Red clay.077. 1370 (637). micaceous clay. 0. Soft.076. 1375 (t1151).051. 1373 (1202). Pale red clay. H. micaceous clay. H. double pendant below the handle.028. channel on the neck. FRAGAMENTS OF THE REVERSE WITH INArSCRIP7IONS 1371 (1099). 1374 (800). W. 0. cross formed of small raised circles on the reverse within a low base-ring.029. W. Herring-bone pattern and raised circles on the rim. 0. Red. unglazed.023. W. 0. Letter A within a triple circular groove. Stamped circles on the rim. Soft. 0. 0. 0. etc. Part of the right side is broken away. red clay. unglazed. Similar. same signature (PLATE XXXIII). low base-ring. 0.053. Raised dots on the rim. indistinct pendants below the handle. cross formed by raised circles on the reverse within a raised circular line. 1369 (635). 0. reddish brown glaze. 1372 (413). 1368 (639). Letter A within a double circular groove. L. 0. unglazed. almond-shaped reverse with a palm branch pattern. Soft.025. Reddish brown clay. 1367 (638). circles and radiating raised lines on the discus. Similar.06. raised circles on the discus and on the reverse.035. L. W. red glaze. 0. unglazed. 0.083. H. Red clay. red clay. unglazed. double raised line on each side of the nozzle below.085. L. triple lines on each side of the nozzle below. Figure 197. red clay.12. Soft. 0. unglazed. brown glaze. Red. irregular rays on the discus. L. radiating pattern of raised circles. broken bars.059. signature ArA[[OOY] within a circular groove.276 CORINTH on the discus. W. Perforated handle with herring-bone pattern. red clay. same signature.08. Herring-bone pattern on the rim. 0.

Signature EY within a circular groove. dark brown glaze.LAMPS 277 1376 (1190). Red. within a double circular groove. 1381 (1050). purplish brown glaze. Letter E (probably EY) within a base-ring. unglazed.(1068). within a double circular groove. within a heart-shaped reverse. Grayish brown clay. red clay. Signature OEOhOYAOY 1383 (1179). 1380 (1246). there may have been one letter in front of the E. Grayish brownclay. Signature KYwithin a double circular groove. Signature En (PLATE XXXIII) within a triple groove. 1377 (1183). darkbrownglaze. 1386 (1027). Signature EY at the upper edge of the reverse. Reddish brown clay. Grayish brown clay. brown glaze. red glaze. . unglazed. (PLATE XXXIII). micaceous clay. Grayish brown clay. 1387 (1157). unglazed. Signature K[AP]no [Y](PLATEXXXIII) within a double circulargroove. 1379 (776). Pale red clay. micaceous. unglazed. Red clay. Pale red clay. 1382 (1084). 1384 . Red clay and glaze. Signature OEO2OYAO[Y] dark brown glaze. Signature O[EO]AOYAOY dark brown glaze. unglazed. Signature KYwithin a double circular groove. Soft. 1385 (407). Signature EYKA[EI?HE] Grayish brown clay. 1388 (1204). Reddish brown Signature [G]EO[A]OY[A]OY clay. 1378 (1094). Signature AE (PLATE XXXIII) with a palm branch between the two letters within a circular groove. (?).

1394 (775). Reddish brown clay.. dark brown glaze. Almond-shaped reverse with the signature Cw and a palm branch between. Red. dark brown glaze. 1396 (398). Grayish brown clay. brown glaze. unglazed. Figure 198. dark brown glaze. Large letter N within a double circular groove. gray clay. 3 I9 9Figure Figure i98. dark brown glaze. . Hard. red glaze. 1398 (1236). micaceous clay. Letter T (PLATE XXXIII) within a double circular groove. unglazed. Signature KY from handle to nozzle on an almond-shaped reverse. red clay. Grayish brown clay. unglazed. Reddish brown clay. Almond-shaped reverse with a palm branch pattern and the signature C Ash w. Red. micaceous clay. Signature CT (PLATE XXXIII) within a double circulargroove. 1391 (1239). 1397 (1228). Hard. unglazed.278 CORINTH 1389 (1203). Signature nE (PLATE XXXIII) on the discus close to the handle. Signature 41 (PLATE XXXIII) from handle to nozzle within a triple circular groove. Signature CTP (PLATE XXXIII) within a double circular groove. 1399 (505). Grayish brown clay. 1392 (1361). 1395 (1240). 1393 (797). Reddish brown clay and glaze. 1390 (1180) Signature KY on a heart-shaped reverse. Signature KY within a double circular groove. red clay.

1404 (1479) (T473-L114). Fragment of a similar lamp with the signature EY in small letters near the lower end of the handle. . Grayish brown clay.LAMPS 1400 (777). 1408 (1045). buff slip. Red clay. Fragment of a similar lamp with concentric grooves on the reverse. within a circular groove. Red clay and glaze. Red clay. traces of brown glaze. 1401 (1230). Grayish brown clay. palm branch pattern on the reversewithin a circulargroove. light brown glaze. Red clay and glaze. Grayish brown clay. Fragment of a similar lamp. is the design as shown in PLATE 1406 (421).solid grooved handle. 279 Almond-shaped reverse with the signature XION[HC]. Plain rim with herring-bone pattern. micaceous. on the reverse XIII. Fragment of an early lamp of Type XXVIII with the hole through the handle begun on each side. light brownglaze. Lower half of a lamp with a triple row of globules on the sides. Signature XION[HC] within a circular groove.Red clay. 1'ARIOUS SMALL FRAGMENTS 1405 (1170). triple groove on the reverse. Signature XI[ONHC]within a circular groove. PLATE XIII. 1410 (1177). unglazed. brown glaze. Signature XIO[NHC] 1402 (1206). unglazed. 1407 (1234). Pale red clay. 1403 (779). Red clay. unglazed. Grayish brown clay. Signature XIO[NHCIfrom handle to nozzle on an almond-shaped reverse. 1409 (1097). unglazed.

L. See p.. a double circular groove with small circles between on the reverse.brown clay. Small concave top. 0. Like the preceding. 1416 (700).09. Hard. Plain rim with panels indicated by herring-bone pattern. micaceous clay. wide rim with a pattern of tongues and raised dots. circular base-ring from extends to the handle and on each side of the nozzle. H.row of globules outside of the base-ring. on the discus are traces of a relief. W. L. 1413. knob-like handle. Part of the reverse is broken away. No. micaceous clay. PLATE XX. TYPE XXIX GROUP I 1413 (698). base-ring: GAYMACIC Red. H. W. unglazed. 0.053.055.032.-unglazed.058. solid grooved handle with stamped circles at the lower end. GROUP 2 1418 (1173). 1491. flat. PLATE Like the preceding but without the dots on the rim. 114 and cf Walters.036. 0.096. rounded rwhich a double ridge nozzle. Grayish. W. same signature as that of No. Like the preceding. 0. 0. XX. 0. . broad rim with a number of small circles and one heart-shaped design and a circular shield on each side.033. red clay. L. H. Narrow discus. W.04. Top of a lamp like the preceding. solid grooved handle. 1412 (1189). red clay. 0. 1414 (. 0. 0. 1415 (699). 0. Red. PLATE XX.1546) (T415-L91). inscription in raised letters arranged in a circle within the (?). micaceous clay.10. unglazed. Fragment of an early lamp of the type with herring-bone pattern on the rim. 1417 (1541) (T407-L86).059. micaceous. unglazed. H. on the reverse a palm branch pattern within a double circular groove. red glaze. perhaps of a bucranium. unglazed.Reddish brown clay. dark brown glaze. The nozzle is partly broken away. having a pattern of rays with parted ends. Hard.280 CORINTH 1411 (1192). triangularnozzle with grooves at the base. Red. micaceous. 0.

LAMPS 281 Greenish buff clay. small knob-like handle. resembling the preceding. L.no glaze. row of globules on the rim. broad rim with a vine pattern. PLATE XX. W. Porous. Front part of a lamp. GROUP 4 1423 (1285). 1421 (1035). Theatre Area. CXL. pierced handle. Small plain discus.. Cf. Reddish buff clay. highly micaceous. PLATE XX.069. with globules and curving lines on the rim as well as in the channel on the neck and round the fillinghole. 0. flat knob-like handle. buff clay. On the rim are four rows of globules. Theatre Area. buff clay. no glaze. On the rim is a pattern of leaves and on the 1424 Figure 200. 2. 1419 (1518) (T489-L123). below the 1419 handle are pendants and on the base-ring is a row Figure I99. CesnolaColl. The right side and the reverse are missing. Pale yellow clay. PLATE XX. Fragment. reddish brown glaze. pi. The nozzle is broken away. of globules and a similar row on each side of the nozzle and on each side of the ridge to the handle. unglazed. slightly micaceous. Narrow top with a channel to the wick-hole. micaceous. Figure 199. unglazed. in other respects like the preceding. on the reverse within a double circulargroove is the letter A. dark brown glaze. Red clay. Reddish buff clay. Fragment.095. H. grooved knob-like handle. on the reverse is a base-ring. PLATE XX. Fragment. from which a double groove extends on each side of the nozzle and one to the handle.035. 0. 0. unglazed.027.08. Porous. Figure 200. 36 . 1424 (978). both the top and the channel are decorated with raised dots. 0. 0. 1422 (989). W. discus the figure of an Orans between two filling-holes.II. Concave top with a rosette of six petals. plain top. H. 1039. GROUP 3 1420 (1486) (T541-L156).

0. dark brown glaze. Figure 201. highly micaceous. TYPE XXX GROUP 1 1426 (968). flat bottom. Handle like the preceding. two small holes in the channel. W. 0. shoulder volutes. On the rim is an ovule pattern. H. PLATE XX. Part of the handle is missing. 1428 (358). . Theatre Area. 1429 (228). Pale yellow clay. 0. 1 1t2 Figure 201. Ash gray clay. 1433 (226). metallic glaze.073. Theatre Area. Pale red clay. Fragments of a suspension lamp with two nozzles. Handle of a suspension lamp. PLATE XX. double volutes. on the reverse is inscribed [OKT]ABIOY(PLATE XXXIII). 1432 (1484) (T529-L147). unglazed. unglazed. Grayish brown clay. micaceous. single nozzle. Pale yellow clay. 1430 (1278). PLATE XX. perforated handle. red glaze. Pale yellow clay.103. dark gray. Depressed top with a channel to the wick-hole. Soft. raised rays on the discus and rim.282 CORINTH 1425 (1417). unglazed. -Small fragment of a suspension lamp with ovules on the rimn. signature ZWCl[1uAC](PLATE XXXIII) on the reverse. The top and the front part are missing. 1431 (1128).043. rounded nozzle with large wick-hole. Pale yellow clay. 1428. shoulder volutes. L. consisting of a tall cylindrical stem surmounted by a small loop. no glaze. Part of top with a handle like the preceding. Handle like No. no glaze. Handle of a suspension lamp with a short stem and a loop grooved on the outside. red clay. unglazed. 1427 (1052). Ovules on the rim. Red clay.

LAMPS

283

1434 (901) (T116-L29). PLATE XXI. Handle like No. 1428; ovules on the rim; two rounded nozzles with a broad rim round the wick-holes and small air-holes on the neck. Pale yellow clay; unglazed. Only part of the top is preserved. 1435 (1127). Part of top like the preceding. Pale red clay; unglazed. The broken away.
GROUP 2

handle

is

143;

(967). Theatre Area.
.Moulded handle of a flat triangular shape, the outer edge with a double groove,

perforated at the top. Soft, yellow clay; unglazed.
1437 (1051). PLATE XXI.

Fragment. Handle like the preceding; at the base of the nozzle is a heartshaped leaf with a small air-hole. Grayish brown clay; dark brown glaze. 1438 (1199).
Fragment of a large suspension lamp with two rows of herring-bone pattern on

the rim. Red clay and glaze. 1439 (1056). PLATEXXI. L. 0.128; W. 0.10; H. 0.043. Plain rim; band of herring-bone pattern round the discus; handle like No. 1436;
three rounded nozzles, at the base of which are a raised leaf pattern and a small

air-hole; double circular groove on the reverse. Dark red clay; reddish brown glaze. One nozzle is broken away. 1440 (1223). Fragment. Handle like No. 1436; triple grooves round the top. Red clay and glaze. 1441 (1221).
Handle and top of a lamup like the preceding. Between the grooves on the

handle are cross hatchings. Dark brown clay; purplish brown glaze.
1442 (787).

Top of a lamp like the preceding but without the hatchings on the handle. Reddish brown clay; dark brown glaze. 1443 (1222). Bottom of a suspension lamp with two nozzles; on the reverse is a double

284

CORINTH circular groove and, within, five small stamped circles.'Red clay; brown glaze.

1444 (1198).
Fragment. Herring-bone pattern on the rim; high edge round the top; short

perforated handle. Red clay; purplish brown glaze. 1445 (1193). Top of a suspension lamp with a short moulded handle; plain rim with panels indicated by herring-bone pattern; band of herring-bone pattern round the top; two nozzles set off by' double grooves and air-holes at the neck. Dark gray clay; reddish brown glaze. 1446 (585). L. (from nozzle to nozzle) 0.107; W. (between nozzles) 0.076; H. 0.039. Plain rim; raised band with herring-bone pattern round the discus; four rounded
nozzles with air-holes at the base; signature XIONHC on the reverse. Red clay;

unglazed. The handle and part of one nozzle are missing. 1447 (902) (T307-L62).
Depressed

PLATE XXI.

W. 0.072; H. 0.031.

top with a low perforated handle; on the rim a double row of question

marks; two nozzles with broad channel and small air-hole; double base-ring; raised loops on each side of the nozzles below. Deep red clay; unglazed. One nozzle and part of the side are missing. UNCLASSIFIED
1448 (1174). PLATE XXI.

Fragment of a lamp shaped like a boat On the top is preserved'the head of a figure with long hair and polos, in the left hard she holds a palm branch. Reddish brown clay; darker brown glaze.
1449 ('1171) PLATE XXI.

Fragment of a lamp with two nozzles, one of which remains. On the discus was a rosette. Soft, grayish buff clay; brown glaze, largely peeled off.
1450 (1121). PLATE XXI.

Small fragment with a raised leaf pattern; the shape of the lamp is uncertain. Red clay and glaze. TYPE XXXI
GROUP 1

1451 (1057).

W. 0.085; H. 0.043. Fragment. Palm branch on the rim; raised rosette on the discus; grooved knoblike handle. Deep red clay; thin, red glaze.

PLATEXXI.

LAMPS 1452 (1208).

285

Fragment Herring-bone pattern on the rim; rosette on the discus. Deep red

clay; red glaze. 1453 (1058). Figure 202. W. 0.088; H. 0.046. Depressed rim with a pattern of alternating dotted triangles and rosettes; on the discus two dotted squares interlaced; broad channel on the neck and rudimentary volutes on the shoulders; raised base-ring. Deep red clay and glaze. The back is broken away. 1454 (789). PLATE XXII. L. 0.118; W. 0.073; H. 0.032. Pattern of alternating birds and palm trees on the rim; on the discus a large
figure of a peacock and a small bird above; pointed knob-handle; raised base;,

:??i
???1? 1

?
I.|;.L.~P:g*J;::
'"

202. Figure

14,rv,~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~'

ring with a ridge extending to the handle. Fine, red clay; unglazed.
1455 (677). PLATE XXII. L. 0.102; W. 0.063; H. 0.032. Concentric circles and tangents on the rim; deeply concave discus with the figure of a cross; very large wick-hole; concentric circles on the neck; on the reverse within a base-ring is a cross. Red clay; unglazed. The handle is broken away. 1456 (681). PLATE XXII. L. 0.122; W. 0.079; H. 0.035.

Stamped palm branch on the rim; on the -discus is a Christian cross; tall,
pointed handle; five globules on the reverse within a base-ring. Coarse, red

clay; unglazed. 1457 (676). L. 0.10; W. 0.057; H. 0.032. Hatchings on the rim; stamped Christian cross on the discus; palm branch on the reverse within a base-ring. Reddish brown clay; unglazed. The handle and part of the discus are missing. 1458 (1055).
Stamped palm branch on the rim; cross on the discus. Reddish brown clay,

286

CORINTH

shifting to dark gray in spots; unglazed. The handle and nozzle are broken away. 1459 (1083). Top of a lamp with stamped palm branches on the rim; jeweled cross on the discus. Dark brown clay; unglazed. 1460 (1558) (T444-L103). L. 0.108; W. 0.066; H. 0.027. Stamped palm branches on the rim; cross on the discus. Red, micaceous clay; unglazed. Part of the discus is missing. 1461 (680). W. 0.06; H. 0.029. Similar. Coarse, red clay; unglazed. The nozzle is missing. 1462 (1514) (T553.-L160). W. 0.069; H. 0.03. Circles and leaves on the rim; cross on the discus and a smaller cross in the channel on the neck. Dark brown clay; unglazed. The nozzle is broken away.
1463 (679). PLATE XXI. L. 0.114; W. 0.067; H. 0.032.

Double row of concentric circles on the rim; cruciform monogram on the discus. Red clay; unglazed. Part of the discus is missing. 1464 (678). L. 0.12; W. 0.067; H. 0.034. Similar. Red, micaceous clay; unglazed. Part of the discus is missing. 1465 (924) (T121-L31). PLATE XXI. L. 0.095; W. 0.06; H. 0.026. Rosettes and circles on the rim; on the discus is the monogram of Christ with
the rho turned left; below is a conventional design. Hard, red clay; unglazed.

1466 (1355). L. 0.103; W. 0.061; H. 0.03. Pattern of circles and palm trees on the rim; on the discus the monogram of Christ with the rho turned left. Hard, reddish brown clay, micaceous; no glaze.
1467 (790). PLATE XXII. L. 0.115; W. 0.067; H. 0.032.

Row of four-spoked wheels on the rim; on the discus is the figure of Christ
standing on a serpent, on each side an angel in the shape of a bird, very crude

design. Red clay, micaceous; unglazed. 1468 (925) (T253-L43). Figure 53. L. 0.098; W. 0.061; H. 0.026.
Row of wheels on the rimn;on the discus is the figure of Abraham offering up

Isaac. Abraham facing to right, holds a large knife in his right hand, and his

left hand rests on the head of. Isaac.Above is a palm branch to indicate the

LAMPS

287

wood. Behind Abraham is a ram to which the hand of God points from above. Hard, red clay; unglazed. See p. 11 8 and cf. Stuhlfauth, Rom. Mi'/., XIII, 1898, pl. X, 10; Taramelli, ANof.Srcav., 1903, p. 487. fig. 13; Le Blant, R. .lrc/h., XXIX, 1875, p. 3. For a discussion of the Sacrifice of Isaac in Early Christian Art, see article by A. M. Smith, A4/.]., XXVI, 1922, pp. 159ff. where an extensive list of monuments is given. 1469 (1231). Figure H. ().()31. 203. L. 0.11; W. 0.075;

Row of oblong leaves on the rim; on the discus the figure of a stag. Hard, dark red clay; unglazed. Part of the reverse is missing. Cf.
Miltner,a///res//ti /

des Os/ler Arch. /,is/., XXIV,

'1929. Ikir/alf, p. 1 51, fig. 63, 14. 1470 (1362). Fragment On the rim alternating trees and
I fi!6

Figure

203.

triangles; on the discus the figure of a lion (?). Dark brown clay. micaceous; unglazed. 1471 (783). Figure 204. Alternating half circles and trees on the rim; on the discus the figure of a messenger, to right, with a cluster of grapes. Red clay; unglazed. The front half is missing. 1472 (782). A row of heart-shaped designs on the rim; conventional designs on the discus. Reddish brown clay; unglazed. The front half is missing. 1473 (1488) L. 0.094; W. 0.06; H. 0.025. (T453-L()06). Alternating trees and triangles on the rim; uncertain
Grayish brown clay, micaceous;
1471

Figure

204.

design on the discus. discus is missing.

unglazed.

Part of the

1474 (913)

. 0. ).062; H. ).()27. (T 17-L10). Alternating hearts and squares on the rim; conentional
Hard, red clay; unglazed. The nozzle is broken away.

design on the discs.

288 1475 (1232).
Triangles

CORINTH L. 0.089; W. 0.054; H. 0.026.
and circles on the rim. Hard, brown clay; unglazed. The discus and

the lower part of the nozzle are missing. 1476 (1547) L. 0.087; W. 0.056; H. 0.026. (T416-L92). Squares and circles on the rim; indistinct design on the discus. Brick red clay; unglazed. L. 0.082; W. 0.051; H. 0.026. 1477 (923) (T334-L74). Triangles on the rim; indistinct rosette on the discus. Hard, red clay; unglazed. 1478 (1082). W. 0.065; H. 0.028. Leaf pattern on the rim; an uncertain design on the discus. Reddish brown clay; unglazed. The nozzle and part of the discus are missing. 1479 (673). Figure205. L. 0.106; W.0.066; H. 0.028. Row of concentric circles on the rim; an indistinct design on the discus; in the channel on the neck are two small human figures facing each other. Hard, reddish brown clay; unglazed. 1480 (915) (T24-L11). L.0.104; W.0.062; H.0.028. Stamped palm branches on the rim; cross on the discus. Reddish brown clay; unglazed. Parts of the handle and discus are missing. 1481 (912) (T13-L7). L. 0.096; W. 0.062; H. 0.023.

1479

Figure

205.

Squares and circles on the rim; an indistinct design on the discus. Grayish brown clay; unglazed. Damaged in fire.
1482 (674). PLATEXXII. W. 0.07; H. 0.028.

Row of concentric circles on the rim; on the discus the figure of a dove and *awheel; in the channel on the neck is a cross within a circle. Red clay; thin, red glaze. The nozzle and part of the right side are missing. 1483 (675). PLATE XXII. L. 0.102; W. 0.057; H. 0.027. Circles, triangles, and rosettes on the rim; same discus design as that of the preceding. Red, micaceous clay; unglazed. 1484 (788). Bottom of a Christian lamp with the letter B (PLATEXXXIII) on the reverse. Coarse, brown clay, micaceous; unglazed.

LAMPS
GROUP 2

289

1485 (684). L. 0.095; W. 0.053; H. 0.025.
Raised circles on the rim; on the discus the figure of a dove. Soft, red clay;

unglazed. 1486 (682). PLATE XXII. L. 0.093; W. 0.053; H. 0.026.

Similar. Soft, red clay; unglazed.
1487 (683). L. 0.09; W. 0.052; H. 0.028.

Similar. Soft, red clay; unglazed.
1488 (685). L. 0.083; W. 0.048; H. 0.025.

Similar. Soft, red clay; unglazed.
1489 (686). PLATE XXII. L. 0.093; W. 0.057; H. 0.03.

Raised palm branch pattern on the rim; figure of a bird on the discus. Soft, red clay; unglazed. The handle is broken away.
1490 (687). L. 0.089; W. 0.054; H. 0.029.

Circles and elongated dots on the rim; figure of a bird on the discus; palm
branch in the channel on the neck. Soft, red clay; unglazed. Part of the back

is broken away.
1491 (688). L. 0.089; W. 0.056; H. 0.027. Indistinct design on the rim; studded tree on the discus. Soft, red clay; unglazed. 1492 (695). L. 0.089; W. 0.051; H. 0.029. Rosettes and circles on the rim; studded tree on the discus. Soft, red clay;

unglazed.
L. 0.085; W. 0.049; H. 0.029. 14.93 (690). PLATE XXII. Raised dots on the rim and a studded tree on the discus. Soft, red clay; unglazed.

1494 (696). L. 0.091 ; W. 0.051; H. 0.024. Similar to No. 1492. Soft, red clay; unglazed. 1495 (697). L. 0.08; W. 0.045; H. 0.025.
Raised circles on the rim; studded tree on the discus. Soft, red clay; unglazed. 1496 (693). L. 0.079; W. 0.045; H. 0.029. Indistinct design on the rim; studded tree on the discus. Soft, red clay; unglazed. 1497 (689). L. 0.087; W. 0.056; H. 0.026. Raised dots on the rim; on the discus is a tree resembling a cross. Soft, red
37

Part of the discus is missing. 16.026. 0. Like the preceding with an indistinct design on the rim and discus. 1500 (691). 1503 (703). H. Small raised circles on the rim.057. L.084. PLATE XXIII. W. Fine. . red clay. 1499 (694). 18. on the discus are rays and rows of small circles. Fine. 1504 (1286). raised dots arranged in fours. L. W.086. Soft. The front part is missing.051. pp. red clay.022. on the discus the figure of a cross resembling the tree on the preceding. micaceous. and conventional designs.. pointed coneshaped handle.09. 0. Small fragment of a lamp with the same designs as on No.. crosses.290 CORINTH clay. Soft. 0. Fine. on the discus a studded tree resembling a cross. unglazed. 0. etc. Double row of raised leaf pattern on the rim. 0. dotted circles on the reverse within a base-ring. H. 0. 1498 (692).051. similar designs on the discus. 0. red clay. 0. Large circular lamp with a broad rim on which are patterns of circles. 1918. unglazed. unglazed. wick-hole on the rim.098. W. 1505 (1287). 9 and 10. Soft. and conventional designs on the rim. W. H. Parts of the bottom and discus are missing. unglazed. leaves. red clay.029. H. 0. base-ring on the reverse. Diam. within. H. Diam. Fine. rosettes. Fine. unglazed. PLATE XXIII. unglazed. 0.082. H. slightly micaceous. PLATE XXII. red clay. 0. red clay. 0. rays on the discus. 'AQX'Ecp. Fragment. red clay. circles. On the rim are dots. figs.026.024. 0. unglazed. 0. base-ring on the reverse and. L. 1502. 1502 (702). unglazed.023. base-ring on the reverse.086. red clay. Raised dots on the rim. For other Christian lamps with palm trees see Skias. 0. Front part of a lamp with dolphins. TYPE XXXII 1501 (701). unglazed.

07. unglazed. Large concentric circles on the rim and four smaller circles on tlhe discus.035. 206). Diam. 0. H. PLATE XXIII. Dolphins and conventional designs on the rim. H. TYPE XXXIII 1511 (786). unglazed. 1513 (648). Porous. micaceous. Diam. PLATE XXIII. Slanting rays on the rim. 0. Left half of a lamp with raised lines and circles on the rim. H. 0. Theatre Area. 0. unglazed.W. Red. 1509 (704).085. Grayish brown clay.LAMPS 291 1506 (705). Similar. raised base-ring. unglazed. plain discus. 0. micaceous. Fragment. 0. L. unglazed.019. H.026. L. Red clay. Figure 206. H.022. unglazed. row of dots round the discus on which is a crude figure of a bird. Red clay. 1507 Reverse.085. 1507 (706). 0.028. W.10. Similar. H. 1514 (649). flat knob-like handle. 1510 (1288). unglazed. unglazed. Fragment. PLATE XXIII. row of dots round the discus on which is a conventionalized figure of the Mosaic candlestick (?) (see p. buff clay.026.057. highly micaceous. unglazed. L. Brick red clay.085. H. 121). buff clay. 0.057. Slanting rays on the rim. micaceous clay. 0.07. 0. . slightly micaceous. unglazed.082. flat bottom. 1512 (1213).026. Grayish brown clay. PLATE XXIII. Diam.081 . Red clay. 0. Red clay. H. 0. 0. Like the preceding. 0. 0. on the discus are four leaves and a guilloche pattern in the form of a cross. 0.057. L. W. / \ Small circular lamp with indistinct patterns on the rim and discus. 1515 (650). PLATE XXIII. 0.019. PLATE XXIII. Broken guilloche pattern on the rim. low base-ring. low base-ring. plain discus surrounded by a channel. 1508 (707). 0. Diam. 0. Porous. on the reverse is the crude figure of a bird (Fig.

098. 0.292 CORINTH TYPE XXXIV 1516 (791). L. The handle is missing and the outer edge is chipped away. Figure 207. concave top with a raised edge round the central opening. no glaze. perhaps a conventionalized Mosaic Candlestick. Almost straight sides converging toward the bottom. drab-colored clay. dark brown glaze. W. For the shape cf. flat bottom. from the edge round the top to the central opening a handle was attached. Diam. Diam. Diam. vertical loop handle made by hand. Brick red clay. narrow depression round the edge. unglazed. 37. 1520 (1290). PLATE XXIV.044. flat vertical handle. 0. 27. red clay. 0. 1521 (1292). 0. greenish brown glaze. turned gray on the surface. 1519 (1289). Coarse.025. 1522 (1297). H. covering the top only. PLATE XXIII. Red clay. Walters. unglazed. Part of the handle and outer edge are broken away. fig. Same shape as that of the preceding but without the stand. 0.029.081. 0. unglazed.04.019. handle at the back. Red clay. H. No. Diam. no handle. PLATE XXIV. wick-hole at the edge of the top. The nozzle is broken away. BYZANTINE LAMPS TYPE XXXV 1517 (1503) (T534-L152).072. . Coarse. Coarse. Figure 207. 0. brown glaze. Part of the top is restored. Pale red clay. Figure 54. H. Like the preceding. H.088. 156. 0. 0. 1518 (1175).079. which is bent down to form the nozzle in front of the wick-hole. on the bottom is a break showing that the lamp was attached to a stand. H. p. red clay. 0.072.022. hard. Raised edge round the top on which is a raised design like a palm branch. W. small wick-hole at the edge of the top. 0. Convex top surrounded by a raised edge. Convex top surrounded by a raised edge. 0. Bowl-shaped wheel-made lamp with a raised edge round the central opening.

red clay. Red clay. Similar. Round the central opening is a narrow groove.094. Similar. but with two wick-holes opposite each other. Similar. The handle and outer edge are broken away.023. 1530 (1299). 1532 (1304). 1527 (1295). red clay. brown glaze. PLATE XXIV.Red clay. 0. Coarse. Red. and part of the outer edge are broken away. greenish brown glaze. greenish brown glaze. The handle and part of the outer edge are broken away. The handle and part of the outer edge are broken away. Similar. greenish brownglaze. micaceous clay. micaceous clay. micaceous clay. The handle and front are broken away. Red clay. 0. Red. The handle and part of the outer edge are broken away. Red. Similar. greenish brown glaze. The handle and the front are broken away. brown glaze. dark brown glaze. The handle. Part of the outer edge is broken away. H. micaceous. Similar with a single wick-hole. Coarse. light brown glaze. . dark brown glaze. dark brown glaze. Red clay. Partof the outeredge is brokenaway.LAMPS 1523 (1293). Similar. 1534 (1397). 1525 (1300). Red clay. 293 Similar. 1528 (1298). Red. 1533 (1301). 1529 (1303). Red clay. The front half is broken away. Diam. The handle and part of the outer edge are broken away. Similar. Similar. The handle and part of the outer edge are broken away. brown glaze. micaceous clay. 1526 (1294). Similar. dark brown glaze. Similar. ca. 1531 (1302). 1524 (1296).

Similar. fine. covering the whole lamp. 1541 (1307). The handle and part of the outer edge are broken away.023. Coarse. 1539 (1551) (T427-L96). Similar. dark brown glaze. 0. Like the preceding. are Buff clay. Similar but with a small. greenish brown glaze. H. H. red clay. unglazed. 1540( (1540) Similar. green glaze. No handle. Below is a break showing that the lamp was attached to a stand. green glaze. Red clay.097. Similar in shape. green glaze covering the whole lamp. The handle and front part are missing. The handle and part of the outer edge are broken away. Part of the outer edge and the stand are missing. green glaze covering the entire lamp. H. The handle and the front are missing. red clay. Similar.294 1535 (1396). Coarse. Similar in shape. red clay. 1542 (1305). Red clay. CORINTH Diam. seems to have been injured in fire. 154'2 Figure 208. 1538 (1308). green glaze covering the whole lamp. Pale yellow clay. 154') (1309). (T406-L85). Coarse. Part of the outer edge and the stand broken away. Red clay. . partly turned white. The outer edge is partly broken away. 0. 0. Light red clay. H. The handle and the outer edge are broken away.027. semi-globular top. PLATE XXIV. The outer edge is pinched down in front of the wick-hole to form the nozzle. The handle and the outer edge are broken away. Figure 208. 1544 (1549) (T421-L94).031. 1537 (1291). 0.028. Similar but without the stand. brown glaze. green glaze. Similar. The handle and part of the outer edge are broken away. 1536 (1306). 0. Coarse. reddish clay.

buff clay. TYPE 1547 (1316). Red clay. and below a similar but smaller lamp attached to the stand. 1546 (1311). Fragment of a lamp like the preceding. covering the upper lamp. green glaze over a coat of white. Red clay. 295 Similar. green and blue glaze. Small. 155(0 (1323). pale green glaze. Buff clay. Coarse. The outer edge is pinched down to form the nozzle. and a conical projection in the centre. Coarse. PLATE XXIV. Only part of the upper lamp is preserved.23. Total H. semi-globular top with a wick-hole merely indicated on the outside. but drops of green Fragment XXXVII glaze show that the upper part was glazed. The handle and part of the right side are broken away. The greater part of the lamps themselves is missing. of a double suspension lamp. Small fragment of a lamp like the preceding. Red clay. 0.LAMPS 1545 (1310). The stem is broken off below the lower lamp. . Only part of the lower lamp and the cylindrical stem are preserved. PLATE XXIV. green glaze. Pale red clay. XXXVI Lower part of a stand with hollow stem. On the top is a lamp with the edge bent down to form the nozzle. unglazed. Upper part of a stand with two lamps. The handle and outer edge are broken away. buff clay. green glaze. Buff clay. greenish brown glaze. and the wick-hole too small for a wick. A handle extended from one lamp to the other. with a very small top. dark green glaze. 1552 (1312). but the handle and stand remain. Double lamp on a stand like the preceding. 1549 (1319). Red clay. Fragment of a lamp like the preceding. TYPE 1551 (1315). dark brown glaze. 1548 (1317). 155 8 (1313). the lower lamp and the upper part of the stand are covered with a dull brown slip.

yellow glaze over a coat of white. no handle. green glaze over a coat of white. L. small nozzle. H. W. 1557 (1471). flat bottom. 0. W. PLATE XXIV. through which a cord for suspension was passed. with a cylindrical .067.084. green glaze. with a hollow stem projecting above the upper lamp. buff clay.296 CORINTH 1554 (1314). Part of the top and handle are broken away. Part of a double suspension lamp like the preceding.4 Figure 209.083. . 1556 (1320). 0. Buff clay.064. light green glaze. Concave top with a tall neck round the wickhole. Part of the lower lamp is broken away. green glaze covering the top only. Resembling the preceding but with a low edge round the wick-hole and a small vertical loop handle. PLATE XXIV. H. The upper part is mostly missing. Fragment of a double lamp like the preceding. flat bottom. Pale red clay. unglazed. Buff clay. long. PLATE XXIV. UNCLASSIFIED 1558 (158).08. Figure 209. 1555 (1318). 1559 (1321). Double suspension lamp. Like the preceding. Fige 21 1560 (1322).07. 0. 0. On the lower lamp the edge is bent down in three places to form nozzles. Total H. 0. Buff clay. 0. with three nozzles on the upper lamp. 0. Conical top with a high edge round the filling-hole.10. Red clay. The lower lamp and the upper part of the stem are broken away. pointed nozzle with a large wick-hole. W. Figure 210. green and white glaze. Figure 210. vertical handle. stem flattened and perforated for the attachment of the suspension cord. The nozzle is broken away. Coarse. Red clay. the handle is attached to the top of the neck and the body of the lamp. Part of the lower lamp is broken away. ca.

BIBLIOGRAPHY .

et Gauckler.. 'De quelques sujets represents sur des lampes en terre cuite de l'epoque chrtienne'. Arch. pp. Bull. Gio. Pietro (drawings). Pietro (text).. 251 ff. Besnier. pp. VI. XXXIV-XXXVI. pp. 1912.. Terracotta Lamps'. Edmund le. 1922. Dalm. Melanges d'Archeologie et d'Histoire publics par l'Ecolefranfcaise de Rome. de Blanchere. 187 5. CollectionFarges... 'D'une lampe paienne portant la marque ANNISER'. 1 ff. 1907. 'The Cave at Vari. VII. Le antiche lucerne sepolcrali figurate. pp. The most recent and complete bibliography is found in Hug's article on Lucerna. A. nebsteintien andern Grabdenkmalern. XXV. Rev. Colonies Marchicae. and continued in the same journal until 1906.BIBLIOGRAPHY The books and articles listed below are works which I have found useful in my study of ancient lamps but do not constitute an exhaustive bibliography on the subject. 46 ff. Greifswald. Paris. RomischeGrablampen Leipzig. . in Pauly-Wissowa. Bauer. raccoltedalle cave sotterranee e grotte di Roma. 1691.J. Begerus. 264 ff..J. Samuel E. Paul. pp. Catalogue of the Rebecca Darlington Stoddard Collection of Greek and Italian Vases in Yale University. Maurice. 229 ff. Laurentius.. also 19 1 5. pls. MIuseeAlaoui. pl. 18 ff. New Haven. Giuseppe de. Paris. Rome.. C. VII. 148 ff. VII. La. 1902. 1886. Arch. pp. and Blanchet.. and Bellori. pp. pp. pp. Bersa. Bassett. Max. XXIX. Paul V. 'Le Lucerne fittili romane di Nona'. 435 ff. Baur. Catalogue des MIuseeset CollectionsA4rcheologiques l'Algerie et de la Tunisie. 1 887. J. 'De quelques objets antiques representant des squelettes'.. 338 ff. Der Bilderschmzckfjrhchristlicher Tonlampen. Bartoli. 1903. Real-Encyclopddzie der Classischen A Itertumswzissenschaft. pp. 1900.. A. Thesaurus electoralis Brandenburgiczi III. 146 ff. 1 18 ff. 1696. 1897. Blant. Ibid. Bachofen.

A. 1904. CXXXVIII- CXL. Bulletiin de la Soci'te de Geode grap/hle ef d'Archzeologie la provinzced' Oran. 1922. 32. 46. 57. 165. I. pp. XXXII. 166. pp. 63 ff. XXXIX. Broneer. 12. di. 1911. 118. M. 1720. 1 56. Recueil d 'Archeolog. 73. p. Fouilles operees en 1889'. 328 ff. Articles in Bull. XXXIII. pp. Louis P. XLVII-XLVIII.. 1903. 1825. 1927. 1 885. 141. 'Die Neujahrslampe'. New York. 1906. 1898. Courby. 46 ff. 173. 148. 1915. 1916. XXXVII. 139. Oran. p. XVI. 109. Paris. . 39. 1903-1904. 76. C. p. 211 . 1894. p. 1910. Dresden und Leipzig. p. pp. 132. XLII. 2. p. Fernand de. 1 78. VIII. XVII. 'L'Art indigene sur les Lampes de la "Colonia Thuburnica"'. 1916.. XVIII. 203. pp. XXVII. 19. 'La Necropole de Bulla Regia. 21.Memoires de la Societ/ Nalionale des Antiquaires de France. ff. 'Die Silenus-Lampen. 1887. pp. pp. Recueildes Notices et Mdelmoires la Socir't archJeologique Constantine. p. pp. Bulletin de la Socitr archeologique ef dela Charezte. 72. XLIV. 68. pp. Bottiger. 1902. 1924-1925. Oscar. 1922. XXXI. 1916.. F. 41.p. 56. Gustave. XX. IX. pp. 1895. Paris. A. XXXVIII.. 11. de de Cesnola.. 1886. Cagnat. Archl. 9. 1894. 682. 1908. V. XXI. XV. 19171918-1919. 1893. 166..i his/oriq. 524 ff. 127. IV. 204. Septieme Serie. zwei antike Bronzen'. 31. XXII. 38. pp. p. 241. 1891. 1889. historique Clermont-Ganneau. Paris. 1914. pp. 'Vieilles Lampes Charentaises'. 111. R. 1896. p. 'Chasse a Courre representee sur une lampe paienne de Bulla-Regia'.e Orientale. 9. 4es Vases Grecs a Relief. p.. 20. XXV. p. XII. Bulic. 190. 21. 1907. pp. und anfiquarischen Inthalls. 53. 44. 154. 1921. p. Ch. XLV. II. B]ulletin Archeologiqpue du Comife des travaux. 'Les fabriques de lampes dans l'ancienne Afrique'. 64. 1892. 216. p. LXXIII.. 1923. XXX. XXVIII. 307 ff. X. 1890. 123. 196.300 CORINTH Boldetti. 220. 169. pp. Carton. XXIX... pp. 151... 34. XXXVI. 'A Late Type of Wheel-made Lamps from Corinth'. Manuel d'arch/uoligieRomaine. 1890. 182. XLVI. 168 ff. Louis.. M.. 1913. pp. pp. XL-XLI-XLII. 1914. XXXIV. Rome. II. 1899. III. 1905. 187. Fr. XIII. pls. Amalfhea. Osservazioni sofra i cdmi/euyde' Santi Malri-i ed aznticzi cristiani di Roma. pp. Chauvet. Hisfoire de la Lamnp Antique en Afrique.ues et scientifiques.. lxviii-lxxx. 496 ff. 1909. 62. A. and Chapot. Cardaillac. 1838. p. Daln. Kleine Sczhriftenarc/daologisc/zen pp. XXVI. 141. pp. 97 ff. pp. Cesnola Collection of Cypriole Antiquities. 51. 67. 1897. pp. A.

pp. pp. (4meserie IV). and Gauckler. XXXIII. Georges.1892. Muses cetCollections archJeologiques i'Alg6rie et de la Tunisie. 1889. pp. pp. 1880. pl. 297 ff. XXXVIII. pls. Besclhrzivitngvan de /erzameling van het Ause2um G. and pl. 'Note sur une lampe antique'. 133 ff. Teraraoteen Odessa. M.. pp. 224-229.. 253 ff. pp.. XVII. 0. 'Fouilles de Notion (1921)'. 1925. Frankfurt am Main. Rev. pp. p. Les Lampes'. XL (4me XLI.. Doublet. 133-141. 1892.H. 'Phobos'. and Laumonier. 1928. 'Les Cimetieres romains superposes de Carthage. Waldemar. ais Derewitzky. II. Rev. I. pp. XXVII. XXII. Arch. Delorme. 1927. l 'Lampes Chretiennes de Carthage'. 'La suppellettile dell' antichissima Necropoli Esquilina'. 1897.Rez.. XLII. (1894-7)'. . 1 and XVIII. 1890.H. XXVI. Catalogue of Early Christian Antiquiti es and Ob1Secs from the Christian East in the Depar/ment of British and Mediaeval Antiquities and Ethnography of the British Museum. 343. 229 ff. J. XLIX. A. II). Evelein. 1902. 39-51. pls. 55 ff. 24 ff.LII. 330-346. XXXIX (3me serie VII). Mitt. pp.. 1898. 'Les Lampes chretiennes de Carthage'. Kam te Ni2j- Lampen. R. megen. 1925. A. Lyon. srie I)... 100 ff. Tzu. pp. 147-1 61. 'L'Ornamentationdes lampes romaines'... Classe der Akadenzie der Wisvsenschrafen Muinchzen. XI. Deubner. L.zu Philol. 1898.BIBLIOGRAPHY 301 Dalton. B.. pp. 265 ff. Ibid. De Romiensche der Fink. Museede Constantine. 'pp..XXVII. 425-441. 12. Revue des Etudes Anciennes. 1908. pp. L. X.Emmanuel. 2 (4meserie. 'Zoologie antique et lampes romaines'. vol.vol.Paul. 1915. Sitzuyngsbewierice Philos. 'Un fragment de lampe chretienne et une lampe entiree. 296-308. 'Les Lampes Antiques trouvees a Delos'. III). 233 ff. XVII. 134-139.A-rch. 'Formen und Stempel r6mischer Tonlampen'. 34-40. 5 and XVII.. 1900. pp. 'Les Lampes du Musee de Saint Louis de Carthage'. 1893. Dressel. XXXII. 685 ff. pp. Ath. 1. Paris. Revue de I'Art C/'hrtien. Rev. pp. Arch.. M. IV. 1901. de Delattre. C. Paris. 1 (4ne serie.Nijmegen.. Bibliothque Jlust'ee des Missions Catholiques. XLI. Deonna. Pavlowsky and Stern. . Annali d. 'Marques Ceramiques Grecques et Romaines recueillies a Carthage. Demangel. 1891. pp...Ibid. Ibid. A. C.. 1880. 'Lampes et Plats chretiens de Carthage'. London. 1900. 139 ff.. M. 300-332. Heinrich. Inst. 1901.

Loeschcke. Marucchi. in e Fremersdorf. Stuttgart. 'Les ruines de Henchir-es-Srira'. 4 l' Catalogue des Jrzsees et Collections Archeologiques de Algerie et de la Tunisie. Massigli. Romische Bildlam/nen. 1889. pp. Salinas. 'Lucerna'. 221 ff. Rudolf. Keil. Die altchrst'lichen GrabstidtenSiziziens. 295.. R.Not. 'OQ(ac'ix'.. pp. Leipzig. Catalogue of the Greek and Etruscan Vases and of the Greek and Roman Lamps znthe Nicholson Yluseum. 1906. Fritz. 'Eine Medaille und eine Lampe aus der Sammlung Zuila'. Vienna. G. und Schultze. Strassburg. Kultuigeschichfichl Weg7weiser durch das Romisch. 383 ff. pp.. I. L'Abbe. I.pp.lterthizzmeraus derii Grdberfelde von Achmim-Panapolzis. 1905.. pp. Macdonald. XUZVOLEX eaaatLCaCSjl'kLVOOl'. H. Prato. pp. 1915.. 1886. L G. JahresArchdologischenInstZituts.. Raffaele. Paris. Kaufmann. Hiller von.. figs. 76 ff.. Berlin. 1927. Musee de Sfax. Aklelangesd'archeologie et d'histoire. 103 ff. Adolf. III. 47 ff. P. XIII.. 176 ff. pp.'AgX. XIV. L. 288 ff.Aet. 191 7. 29 ff. Joseph. pp. R. 642 ff.Berlin. Musee Alaouiz Supplement. 100 ff. 1926.. pl. 1922. Mainz. Nikolaos.. Louisa. 1907. Giannopoulos. hefte des Osterreichlischen Keramopoullos. Rom. Das Beleuchtungs-Geardit romischer Zeit.. pp. Die SammnlungSabouroff. pp. pls. II. 1885. Forschunegen Ephesus. 'AU0o Hautcceur. Lampenaus Vindonaisa.23. 1924. O. and Dragendorf. Garrucci. Forrer. Handbuch derchristlAchen Archdologie. Das Privatlebender Romer. H. Thera. Scav. 1893. Fiihrer. Victor. Berlin. Die fruhchristlichen A.Antonios D. LXXV. Carl Maria. 1I0 ff. Paderborn. 21. Storia della Arte cristiana nei primniotto secoli della Chiesa. iz Heberdey. Sidney. 1898. Leclercq. ilanuel d'archeologiechretienne. Gaertringen. 1907. Quart. I. 1912. 1566 ff. 1919. Dom.. 509 ff. Furtwangler. Giuseppe. Paris. 'XII Vorlaufiger Bericht iiber die Ausgrabungen in Ephesos'.302 CORINTH Fiorelli. pp. pp. Hug. Joseph. III.Siegfried. 600 ff. 1907. Pauly-Wissowa. Kaibel. sugli acquidotti di Selinunte e sulle lucerne trovate nella vasca di Bigini presso Castelvetrano'. pp. Martigny. 72 ff.II. 1909. pp. 'AeX. 1883-1887. A.Germanische Central-Museum.Joachim.troisieme edition. 468 ff.. 1904. Real-Encyclopddie der classischen Altertumswivssenschaff. cav.. Paris.Bonn und Leipzig. Paris. 1887. 69 ff. XXIII. Marquardt. pp. 'E. Dictionnaire des Antiquites Chrdtiennes. 1880.. pp. 316ff. 'Relazione del prof. Zurich. p. . 568 ff. University of Sidney.

89. LIII-LXXIV. 'Die antiken Lampen in Eisenstadt'. IX. I. pp. 'Della singolare lucerna della quale e effigiato il Pastore con i busti del Sole della Luna e sette Stelle sul capo'. VII.. pp. Miinchen.. Fouilles de Delphes. Ohnefalsch-Richter. P. Flinders.. Ibid.. V.Roim. 1929. Archdologie der altchristlichen Ktnst. G. 'Eq. Miltner. J6. M. 1912. Pfuhl. Quart. R. Henri. Ernst.. lbid.. pp. 270 ff... 1897. 64. 184 ff. 1906. pp. 1881. and Hadley. Perdrizet. 4 ff. Bulletino di Archeologia crisilana. XVIII.. Ibd. 'Ausgrabungen in Cypern'. pp. pp. ''IlQHp . and Lyon. Schultze. 1867... Paris..15 ff.. XIV. 1895. 23 ff. London. pp. XXVII.. 'Zur Geschichte der griechischen Lampen und Lanternen'. A. 146 ff. 1913. 1867. London. HdQvr0o. Nagra Studier i ronerska Lerlampor. Alexandria. pp. Cambridge. 'AQ. 66. 66 ff. jahreshefte des Osterrezichschen Archdologisch/n Instiuts.BIBLIOGRAPHY 303 Millingen. C. Rev. Grace T. pls.'Eq. Reisner. 1912. 'Une Collection de Lampes Antiques'. V. Roux. pp. . Henri. A. Ancient SUneditedMonuments.. 77 ff. QEoQ[caTUadvaoxacqfgs TOV TqS. 191 Skias. Lychnoset Lucerna. pls. 'La Catacombadi Fiihrer'. 444-461. Mass. 1908. Osborne. pp. Mill. Ath.gMowVsEov'. C. Persson. II. 9 ff. larvzard Excavations at Samaria. 81. Iferculaneum et Pompei. Tun. 'Dei primi monumenti cristiani di Gineva. VI.. Plimpton. 1922. 52 ff. 85 ff. 1822. AZvYot'. I.. 'EQp. 110 ff. 23 ff. 1870. pp. Rossi. pp. 1917. pp. Petrie. W. Philadelpheus.. G6teborg. 1924. 'Lucerne cristiane trovate fra molti e preziosi arnesi d'arte profana in una casa antica di Ostia'. Axel W. Alfred.. 475-495. I-III. pp. 'Lights of Yesterday and Today'. 317 ff. 'T6o jtaQ.'AQX. 'AX. Andreas N. Rhomaios.. e specialmente d'una lucerna di terra cotta colle immagini dei dodici apostoli'. Paris.. XXIV. pp. Victor.XI. E. 83 ff. 'Le lucerne cristiane rinvenute nel palazzo dei Cesari. 1905. Max.IleaXZTLa. iJi K. pls. Nicolas. Fisher. 1895. 206 ff. TIV IvdYVavTrovToV Hav6o'. Orsi. pp. 1840. Roman Ehznasya. 8. 1870. Giovanni Battista de. D. S.. pp. ed altri monumenti della storia cristiana del Palatino'.. Art and Arch. 1907. aVTQov. Paolo.. pl. James. pp. 1924. Ibid. 'Di alcuni ipogei cristiani a Siracusa'... 463 ff. Arch. Franz. 321 332. "AvaoxacpaiEv N xoC6XEe'.

1896. p. pp. pp. B. Berlin. 163 ff. p. 'Ax.. 'Sardinia'.. Gottingen. Priene. 10. itt. H. 387 ff..Not. Waal. G. Waldhauer.. A. "Ex KQiTtg. pp. pp.. Toutain.. II. Taramelli. pp.. Guy. IX. A. XXXIV. Saglio. A..AlyXvoL'. London. Paris. Xanthoudides. pp.. 1914.. J. 1904. Wiegand. Scav. XXXII. and Dickens. Walters. 'Eq.. Vienna. 'Bemerkungen von einer christlich-archaologischenStudienreise' Rom. Roiiz. Josef. 1924. 'AeX. 1320 ff. Herbert. 1907'. Quart. 1922. 1929. de. Kunst. X. 1895. 300 ff. 1870. IIIB. J.. 'Eq. XIII. 1903. Annual of the British Schoolin Athens. Ibid. Aer. St. Mitt. l 'IlaXala XQuotlavlxz BaolLxLi 'IaLoooo'. "AvaoxaTa 'Aex. pls. Daremberg. Ant. 'Retiarier-Darstellungen auf r6mischen Tonlampen'.. Wace. 95 ff. Stephanos A. 1913. VII. 'Uber die Kestnersche Sammlung von antiken Lampen'. pp. Rom. 1917. 87 ff. 'Antike rdmische "Taschenspielerlampen"'. X. Koptische Stuhlfauth. No. 87 ff. p.vtoU ?o6yoi v 'Eq?opa'. Wieseler.. 'Lampe Romaine avec legende explicative'. Oskar. pp. 1898. Kaiserliche Ermiztage. 10. Petersburg. and Schrader.. Soteriou. et Pottier. 147 ff. 449 ff. 'Darstellung eines Martyrersauf einer altchristlichen Lampe'. Die antikein Tonlampen. 487. 'Lucerna'in Dictionnaire des Antiquites Grecqueset Roma)ines. 1904. 'Romische Tonlampen'. B. Heron de. G. 1914. Plot. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften und der G. Strzygowski. Universitdt zu Gottin- gen. pp. 1906. 13. Theodore. 1904. Roma Aeterna. Wollmann. A.. p. pi.. 149. Mon. 155 ff.. pp. Fr. 189. Villefosse. XIII. . Nachrichten von der konigl.304 CORINTH Itoi BvuavtLvoi NaoO 'IoAvvo. Hans. 'Excavations at Sparta. Catalogueof the Greek and Roman Lamps in the British Museum.

INDICES 39 .

A 799. VII.. 113. examples Ceramicus in Athens. Walters. 840. ArAOOY 1374. 381. p. AE BAAEPIOY 716. p. 3307. . 1419.d.J. 187. Museum. IlQaXtXa6. 810. A. No. V. 435.. B. 9. 3269. 981. 100.. National Museum. 316. Walters. Cf. XXXII. 1049. Ath. 1372. 950. Cf. lamp from the Cave on Mt. 110. 3153. Athens. 835. 208. Cf. National 800. 'AQZ. 174. 717. 545. 1922. 191 3. 1191. Cf. BE 524. 1105. Fouilles de DLelphes. B 1484. 1903. 303. Nos. No. C. 805. National Museum. 3341. 1371. ArAnIO 1063.'Ep.'Ep. No. 1015. 349. No. 1375. 823. VI. 71 8. VII. FAAY 511. 376.. Athens. Milt. ArHMONOZ 561.A. several from the 1373. 986. p. 373. AHOA APH -714. For inscriptions mentioned in the Introduction and the Classification see General Index. 803. Cf. No. 378. A. FAAHNOY 71 8. signature on Hellenistic lamp. ANTQNIOY 713. 808. 'AQX. 1903. 374. p. rAIOY 706. Parnes. 1349. 811. A 372.H. 1012. 1 58.. 3170. p.C. Cf. etc.H. several examples from the Ceramicus in Athens. Nos. 379.. 377. 349. 509. APIETONEIKOY702. p.INDEX OF INSCRIPTIONS The numbers refer to the Catalogue. p. 1072. p. 1908. 1088... 1070.. 1906.1056. Cf. 375. B. 1908.J. XXXII. p. 1881. Athens.

XV. National Museum. Probably for EAHIAOX through a confusion with the Latin. p. 1380. 383. 346. EnIrAOOY 557. National Museum.. 1274. several examples from the Ceramicus in Athens. 1415. some examples from the Ceramicus in Athens. ZQ1IMAEor ZQ2IMOY 577. EAAIIIAI 598. 3177. EYKAPIOY979. 723. National Museum. 721. 1429. a.A. . p. VII. 1922. 3148. note 2. EIIEITYNXANOY691. p. 726.308 INDICES 719. Cf. . V. 3220. 3364. EAPINOE715 (?). Cf... EnIKTHTOY 730. 1378.. used as a feminine name in A G. 114.. 3160. EY 1185. 1099.EIOY 735. Athens. p. 1903. Athens. 1903. Athens. 724.J. Nos.. EJOoEl. 1016. 72. 694. 734. 733. National Museum. 3.A.J. 720. 725. 1607. No. 1903. E 931. p. See references on p. OAYMA2I: (?) 1413. 727. 1284.'Ecp. 191. VII. EYKAEIAHE (?) 1379. EYAQ 1020. EYIIAOYA556. 346. 3336. 3324. Athens. EAPINOY 722.. A. AJ. Perhaps for Evilrola.L. 559. No. 987. 1011. 732. OEO 1075. p... numerous examples from the Ceramicus in Athens. Cf. 729.A. 'AQX. AOMEITIXOY Cf. 114. 1240. . 3257. 1417. No. 3175. Cf. National Museum. A. Cf. 1903.J. Insc/ri/fcnt No. Nos. Walters. No. En 1034. OE 801. C. 349. XIV. 181. 1376. 558. vonJ Pri/ene. and some examples from the Ceramicus in Athens. 1406. 543. von Gaertringen. VII. Az 806. EYIIOPOY 731. 958. 1377. 6874. VII. EIK --387.. 1025. p. No. EO 789. 'AQX. Athens. 1416. A. Fouilles de Delphes. 728. Cf. Nos. 346. 1906. H 990. 917. 'Ep. 1275.A. 19. 359. some examples from the Ceramicus in Athens. Cf. 1283. p.

70. 97. Bul. p.J. 1023. 1144. Annuario dedlaReg.. 113. Cf. p. Z G. KAPnOY553. p. 1906.VII. AOYKIOY 582. 1391. 1044. p. Arch. A. 1271.961. 826. Nos. 1895. No. 174 (5). 1387. 748. p. 951. No. KA (?) 821. 1002. 1919. AE . 745. 1146. p. No. p. 1390. 637. C. 1385. 740. 255. 3178. 749. 'AQy. 38. 746. p. 1153. p.INDEX OF INSCRIPTIONS 309 OEOAOY 976. 7. 558 (incorrectly given in his text. 1224. 1028. See p. Athens. 'AQX. 834. Cf.1046. 349. Kunsthistorisches Museum.. 1017. 1903. some examples from the Ceramicus in Athens... 1912. Cf. 6883. 1076. Walters.A. IIQaxTLxa. 818. 184-1 85 . 1913. I. IV. 1922. IzIr 302. Paris. 1092. 1389. p. 826(?). 739.1050. C. 854. This occurs among the lamps from the Ceramicus in Athens. 827. L. 817. D6rpfeld. AE 1198. 741. 804. 8486b. Athens. 'AQX. 1893. National Museum. 600. 1147. 1906. 938. 1009. 1381. p. KAAAI:TOY 570.'Ecp. Waldhauer.J. 3169 and 3346. 743. p. 97. 1089. No. 1383. 1022. National Museum. 'AQX. 2054.. 1007.. 1903. VII. IQaxTLXd. 1027. 857. pp. 827(?). Vienna. Cf. 996. 571.. some examples from the Ceramicus in Athens. 'Ecp. 1388. No.. 347. p. 939. 'AQZ. 993. 18. Walters. No.'Ecp. p. p. and cf. 'E(p. 113. pl. 114. pl. 'AQX. 855. 'AQo. Arc/z. No. I. XXXII. 8.. 132. 1081. Bibliotheque Nationale. KPH2KENTOZ 538. 'Ep.960. 187. 865. 1024. Scuola Arc/. K 125. 820. p. II. 952. 97. 1907. 1270. 1077. 1209. 75.. 'Ep.1047. 1386. 5. G. Athens. National Museum. 833. 747. Dalm. numerous examples from the Ceramicus in Athens. 1924-1925. 737. See p.1100. 1078. 1080. 679. KY 786. p. 48... Nos.A. 856. XV. Cf. See p. 3167 and 3099. 738. 1382. Bu/A. 819. 832. 1091. 1014. Dalnm. Reg. H. and II.945. Baur. 3299. 1342.1143. 6 and 7. 70. Athens.. 603. 1906. National Museum. 858. . C. p.. No. 982. 937.1913. d'Atene. 850. XIV. 2405. Al-Ilitaka. and cf. 9.. B.994. 1018. KPAYFATOY 700. B. 1215. A.-744. 191 6. 99. and cf. 1145. 821 (?).. 742.1906. 21. Stoddard Collection.930. National . 100. eOo 1337.OK 955. Nos. No. 1384. H. 69).Aeh. OEOAOYAOY1348. 1311. 1908.. 113.

. nAPAOY590. 6886a. Ins. Nos. Nos. IG. IPEIMOY 566. See references on p. 3123. IG. 555. XIV. Cf. Paris. 1000.L. . 54. 'AQZ. XV. MINIKIANOY560. No. C.. No. nOMnHIOY (?) 736. 757.. 190. 3358.310 INDICES Museum. 2405. R 3. 1213. 3111. 542. Cf. nOYBAIOY 552. Walters. Nos. 97. Athens. Cf. Bibliotheque Nationale. pl. Athens. M 812.'Ecp. 114. 1898. OAYMHIANOY753. 843..J. 61. p. Nos. Athens. 1222. Nos. p. 879. 1909. National Museum... 751. 918. National Museum. 97.I. 60. VII. one example. 851. Waldhauer. XIV. Cf.. and cf. 2405. MYRO 526.. 1053. note 4. 984. . C. 3200. 3127. Nos. ONHfIMOY 754. 1190. and cf. XIV. XXXIII. Athens. 'Ep.LG.LG. XLVIII. 3104. 3296. No.. 862. p. 349. 3120.R. 1903.758. 3101. 3103. Walters. . note 1. 1204. 903. 97. Cf. 26. 1123. National Museum. 97. I. National Museum. Annali d. LG. 114. 33. p. 1206 probably has the same signature. 5295. MIA 555. pl.VII. 3102.A. 347. 8490. See references on p.. 1217. 3207. C.. some examples from the Ceramicus in Athens. pl. 27. Nos. MAPKIANOY 583. 97. 238. Nos. N 1392. LVCI 453.IIAI . No. and cf. IV. OIKONOMOY OKTABIOY 752. from the Ceramicus in Athens. No. 2405. 527. and some examples from the Ceramicus in Athens. Sammlung Sabouroff. 'AQZ. 3205. nA 849. A. National Museum. p. Cf. VII. Cf. 3164. NH AM (?) 889. 1074. 1433. 1876. IV. V. 3165. Athens. 1393. one example from the Ceramicus in Athens. 1903. 3173. nE 822 (?).. p. Candia Museum. 918. See p. 3357. See p. Herculaneum et Ponmpei. 756. 1229. ML 454.J. Athens. 1906. 3106. LXXV. 3133. Cf. A. Arch. Fouilles de Delphes. See p. 8491. MAIKIOY 750. 755.

695. 777. 2EBHPOZ572. 616. 'AQe.348.997. _ PA 412. 693. and one lamp from Nicopolis in the Museum at Prevesa. 188. 2EKOYNAOY 537. 769. 118. 773. dard Collection. 783. 188. 760. 'AQX. A. 942. VII. B. from the Ceramicus Cf. 1913. 470. Stod. p. note 10. Waldhauer's No. Cf. p. 761. some examples sYNDOPOY 575. XIV. 770. 847. National Museum. 1396. 576. 759. 893... 'Ecp. 73. and in Athens. 3321. VII.question whether this is a lampmaker's signature or pertains to the use of the lamp. 311 nmIIQOPOY 573. and numerous ETEDANOY 780. 1329..G. No. p.1006. A. No. No. and two examples from the Ceramicusin Athens. 876. 2405. 775. 778. . Walters. 1223. 782. pp. No. p. 776. Cf.. See p.. p. 774. 100.963. No. No. 1220. 1903. 3229. Nos. 3105. 766. XII. 859. Cf. V. 870. 3195./A. LXXV. 765. Waldhauer.. 2QTHP 953. SABINUS POPILLIUS 461.A. p. SITOKAA2IOY 1039./.. Nos. 1906. See Xanthoudides. zT 792. See references on p. nx 962.aoia. 1133. No. Cf. 574. 846. 523.1922. 868. p. It is open to..1048. Athens.1244. p. 1903. 'E(p. 1219. 3174. 696. Fouilles de Delphes. pl. 1903. 'AQX. 114.J. A. p. examples from the Ceramicus in Athens. 490. 768. 1905-1906. 97. Cf. 515. National Museum. 1913. No. 3363. 1395.. 82. V. 1214. 1356. 941. 697.]S.1013. seems to have the same inscription. 4. 'Ecp. 784. HIQaxTTlx. 2QTHPIAA 781. 779. 763. 1906. XLIV. Walters. in the Museum at Prevesa. 869. 20 ff. A4. Sammning Sabouroff pi.1038. IQcaxTtxd. No. 2TP 946.. and cf. No.INDEX OF INSCRIPTIONS nPIMOY 692. 3095. 5020 and 5022. . 1394. examples from the Ceramicus in Athens. 771. 1903. 639. 98.A. VII. p. p. Walters. A. Nos. 943. 1199. 848. 19. 348. and some examples from the Ceramicus in Athens. Cf. 875. SIIQ2IANOY599. 348. Athens. Cf. 282.972. VII. Fouil/es de Delphes. 762. National Museum. 1361. Cf. 3139. 22. 40. 1397. and numerous 2Q 814. 841. p. Athens. 764.P 1004. at which lights play an important role. 772. It might have some connection with the Christian festival 'AQTox. 767. No. 348. and one lamp from Nicopolis.

344. 813. 995. National Museum. 836.'ETp. 1398. 1040. . and some examples from the Ceramicus in Athens. 1908. VII. 1052. 'AQX. 1051. 3226.. 1355. V. 1404. 1906. 948. Louvre. 114. Cf. 1354.YANOY 785. p.. 258. No. A. 1093. and numerous examples from the Ceramicus in Athens. C. 4H (?) 1032. 1345. VII. No. Athens. 1903. National Museum. 1227. 852. Ath. 556.H. 'AQX. 1071. p. p. 892. Nos. 1356. A. 1402. 6887.J. 1189. Q 877. C. 998. 113. p. 866. XIONHE 807. 3280. Athens. No. 175. Cf. 815.L. 1343. Fouilles de Delphes. A. fig. 1903. Walters. 809. Fouilles de Delphes.. 985. 4413. 1400. 1042. +OONrOY562.'Ep. p. 837. and some examples from the Ceramicus in Athens. 3279.A. p. B.. p. 954.. 839. TEPIOY (or KAPnOY) 743. Mitt. V. 845. 956. p. 3093. Cf.J. 1906. 1026. Nos. 838.I. XXVII. 1902. 1131.. 1903. 1110. 1346. VII. 349.JA. 1403. 191. p.A. 1401. 1446. . 194. 1344. 816. Cf.. XV.312 INDICES T 975. Cf. oOBO 1250. 4I 1399. 1251. 348.

432. 1120. 1140. 418. 588. 1109. with Christ and serpent. bust of. 1256. 1287. Apollo. 583. 1102. 1138. "Armed". 1515. 1248. 418. 584. 588. 1112. 1246. 1102. 1249. 583. with Orpheus. 1147. 582. 1489. 1468. 1128. 1467.1111. 1185. 1146. Aphrodite. 1186. 455. 1176. 1144. 1136. with dolphin. with a torch. 1189. 1104. 1139. with peacock. 1250. 1106.1513. Basket of fruit. 1454. 1107. 436. 1126. 1289. 1125. 1175. 1293. 1141. 581. 1127. 1105. 585. 1243. casting the ballot for Orestes. Aegis. 1137. 1251. 1133. surprised at the bath. 1174. Altar. with Eros. 1134. Angel. playing the harp. 1118. 1143. 1288. 1113. 1490. 1135. 1142. 1103. 588. with man turning somersault. 440. 1245. 1124. 591. 1244. with a dog. with woman. 1145. 1190. 40 . 1113. 586. 496. 1201. 497. Athena. double. 1119. 1300. 1110. 1105. with Orpheus. Amazon raising a fallen comrade. Bird. 1104. 703. with Erotes. 703. Artemis. 1103.1298. 1191. 589. 1292. 590. 1108. 1130. Abraham sacrificing Isaac. Ape. with her dog. 1291. 582. with her bow. 1514. 1188. 1247. 1114. 1173.INDEX OF SUBJECTS The references are to the numbers in the Catalogue. of the Promachos type. 1106. Actaeon. dove perched on. Animal. 1187. 1316. Arrows of Artemis. Ax. Bear. 587.

1318. 425. 1309. 1313. 626. 1240. Boxer. 1467.1480.600.481. 656. 1335. Chiton. with Orpheus. Bow.1456.1482. 674. 623. Charioteer.132-8. 1242. 597. Mosaic (?). 503.1462. 1305.1336. Crook. 151 6. 1200. 1334. 709. 1461. with a pygmy.1326. 672. carried by Centaur. 655. by Heracles. Candlestick. 1181. 1332. 1290. wornbyHephaestus. 1293.1329. 178. 1295. 1307. 1312. Chariot. . 1459. Couch.1322. 1302. worn by Hephaestus. 1308. Chlamys.314 INDICES Boar attacked by a dog. 1457. 621. 1181. 592. Bust. 585. Club. Bucranzillz. Conch-shell. 1314. 1506.1455. 1301. 593. with Orpheus. 1303. carried by Artemis. with serpent and angels. Cap.1325. 1511. head of (on the neck of the lamp). with Lapith.1 319. 486. 602. Cantharus. 1304. Boxing gloves. 1411. 601. Caduceus of Hermes. 584. 1182. 504.wornbyArtemis. Christian. 477. with leaves. Centaur. 1310. Crab. Cornucopia (on the side of the lamp). 657.1324. 423. Christ with a nimbus. 698. 707. 1460. 423.1321.1327.1323. 428. worn by Nike. 1294. 1330. 593. see also Portrait. 682. 622. 11 79. 424. 597. winged. 437. 703. Cock. 1315. Phrygian. 592. blown by Triton. dove perched on. 669. Comic figures. Chalice. 1311. 1333. Cross. 1177. 480. man reclining on. 1113. Boy struggling with a goose. Crescent. 1292. 148. held by one of the Dioscuri. 478. 654. 1331. Bull.1 320. 1163.586. 1306. shepherd's. worn by Perseus. (in the channel on the neck) 1462. Cable pattern. 1296. 620. held by Tyche.1458. 587. 1162. 708. worn by gladiator. 1241. 302. of Hermes. 1297. 703. worn by Hermes. Bridle. Crane. 479. 388.1499. (on handle attachment) 383. 1299.

1175. with trident. 1141. 703. 1143. on a dolphin. 703.607. 1137. 685. Erotic symplegma. with Aphrodite. 614. (on shoulder of lamp) 410. 502. 1126. 315 Dagger. of Perseus. of gladiator. 705.1275. 606.1270. 1114.1272. 611. 1282. with Artemis. 1139. 705. 1133. with a torch. . 1260. 452. 1176. 704. 1134. (Galerus. 1292. 1140. (on handle attachment) 399. 706. 1132. 1283. 630. 1173. 1135. 1195. 613. 683. 487. 616. 1252. 1196. head of. 1488. 429. Flute player. riding a panther. 1142. 1263. see also Obscene representations. 1128. with Serapis. Draped figure. 1297. 1267. 1299.1266. 1278. 1258. Elephant carrying Pygmy. with Orpheus. 1280. with Pan's pipes.1277.1268. 394. 590. 1'131. 1124. basket of. 1138. 1118. Dioscuri. 1276. 1284. bust of. 605. 617. 648. Dolphin. 450. perched on basket or chalice. 1120. 1129. 1296. 1203. 603. 615. 1125. 1487. 645. 618. Actaeon. two fishes. Fish. 486. resting on a pedestal. 1126. 1128. 1485. 1194. 1316. 616. 635. 1295. 1125. 668. 1147. 1198. 612.1273. 1130. 1130. 1254. Dionysus.606. 599. 608. 1115.1269. Cymbals. 494. 1123. Deer. 1177. 1116. played by Eros. 1136. 431. with Leda and the Swan. 1174. 1130. 625. 1265. 584. 634. 1128. 619. Fire flaming on altar. with a bird. 1126. 646. 609. 1127. seated. with Aphrodite. 425. one of the. 1127. 1486. 638. 1129. playing the double flute. 1113. 1281. 1261. 1125. 1286. 1279. 759.1271. 488. playing a pipe. 1483. 1293. 1262. 443. 1259. 598. 607. bust of. Duck. 639. 623. 1146. 1119.INDEX OF SUBJECTS Crown. 1264. 411 . 610. Dog. attacking a boar. 1144. 684. 1145. 667. 1294. with wheel. Fruit. Flute. 1121. 703. 541. carrying Eros. 1122. 630. Eros. 591 . 1255. 1482. Floral relief. 605. Dove. 1285.1274. 1199. 1197. with Orpheus. double. 1193. worn by Tyche. with a Maenad. 1192. 492. 1127. with Psyche. 1200. with Orpheus. 427. 1117. 1300.

629. female with polos and palm branch. seated. 537. 1192. 1448. 634.316 INDICES Geometric. 664. 1154. 425. 1163. 1208. 654. 676. 1108. 1150. 1102. 667. 582. 1107. 642. 644. 703. 1197. 460. single. beardless. 1157. as Christ with nimbus. 1210. in group. 674. 637. worn by gladiator. 451. 1207. 1479. 535. 633. with Orpheus. 666. 441. 1149. 1169. 427. Greaves. 636. 677. 1194. 1168. 651. 620.nude male. 1148. 672. with tree. 493. kissing. 1153. 498. 424. 1162. 461. 1196. 1156. 594. 597. 459. 643. Harp. 1171. 644. carried by a Messenger. 1160. 1453. 650. nude female. 630.655. 1164. 1103. Gladiatorial scene. Griffon. 1172. 662. 424. 1126. 712. Gladiator. 632. 653. 485. grotesque. 491. 1151. Goose. 1159. with cymbals. 648. 621. 639. 409. 1471. Globe. Helios. 1152. 631. 641. headof. 1167. 671. 1206. head of (on shoulder of lamp). 1105. 1158. 593. Human figure. 649. Human head. with Eros. 496. 669. 446. . 663. 1209. 652. Hephaestus. 645. 668. 583. lamp in the shape of. draped. seated female. 536. 676. 630. lamp in the shape of. in channel on the neck. worn by Athena. 1155. 447. 1166. 492. 1161. Hand of God. 460. 425. 706. 491. bearded. 1195. 645. 1106. 442. 597. of one of Dioscuri. Horseman. 483. 669. male. Hammer carried by Hephaestus. 1204. played by Apollo. 592. worn by Pygmy. 670. 460. Gourd (?). 671 . wearing Phrygian cap. Goat. Hoplomnachos. Helmet. 1125. Heracles. 635. 1165. 1205. Nike standing on a. 1170. 638. 644. 490. helmeted head. 1468.worn by gladiator. seated male. 503. 1104. 450. 640. boy struggling with a. single. Hermes with the ram. 489. Grapes. with the Nemean Lion. 691. female. Horse. 646. 427. helmeted. 647. 660. 1193. 622. 630. 1244. 11 77. 675.

1354. 433. 1211. with palm branch. 1352. 1214. 621. 1191. 1363. 1468. 1218. 1470. (in channel on the neck) 335. 1466. 439. with cross. 1224. 1340. 1187. 1344. Nike. 499. winged. 1359. Leaves. 1221. 1343. 1471. as Nemesis. 1230. 679. 1227. cruciform. 500. Nimbus. 1220. 1215. 1342. Nemesis. 1189. 426. Lyre. Lapith and Centaur. 1506. Mask. 423. 1362. standing on a globe. Leaf (on handle attachment). head of. 1234. 1169. Monogram of Christ. 1229. turning somersault. 1233. 435. 678. 1360. 1087. 1348. with oyxos. Men-Mithras. attacking stag. 1225. 1364. on the back of a Triton. 460. 542. 1231.INDEX OF SUBJECTS Isaac. 317 Ladder(?). 620. 703. 1361. 592. dancing. 1171. 630. 1337. oblique. 1468. 1237. 1217. 1464. 1339. 626. skin of. 1338. Messenger with grapes. with Dionysus on panther. Medusa. 1085. 484. 625. 1086. 1212. Money-bag of Hermes. with Heracles. 627. 634. Lioness. with veins indicated. 429. Man. 1356. 1222. 710. 1349. . 598. as winged lion. 623. 1345. 424. sacrificed by Abraham. of Abraham. 437. old. 600. Leda and the Swan. 1228. 1463. 1355. 1465. 445. Lion. 1353. 1341. 1188. 1170. seated. Leopard's skin. 1190. 1357. 438. circles of. 690. 1347. 1200. held by Eros. Maenad. Negro. Loin cloth. 1351. 1162. 401. 1232. 425. 1238. 1124. 680. of Heracles. 693. Loops. 1213. carried by Perseus. reclining on couch. played by Orpheus. 1346. Helios as Christ with a. 1185. worn by Dionysus. 1223. 1350. 624. 1216. 702. 1226. 495. 1236. 1243. 459. 1235. Nereid. Knife. 1186. 1219. 495. 1358. 436. 1163.

318 INDICES Oar. 619. 919. 939. 11 80. 655. 985. 1505. Panther carrying Dionysus and Maenad. twisted and with outer ends parted. 937. 923. 584. 391. 430. 601. hooked. 1193. Palmette. 968. 1424. 388. 980. 409. riding an elephant. 631. 502. 1418. 634. 700. 561. Palm branch. 928. 918. 576. 1213. 539. 978. 578. 1425. 962. Ram. Pan. 658. with Athena. 960. 938. 1468. held by Nike. 1454. 559. 970. 1192. 395. 639. with pipes. see also Bust. 1214. 383. 567. 659. 466. 420. 594. 976. 455. 921. 982. with Eros. companion of. 703. Polyphemus. 984. 572. 947. 706. 563. 954. with Eros. 635. Pipe. 1180. 707. see also Erotic symplegma. Polos. 557. 931. with a crane. 661. with Orpheus. 955. 428. 959. with Polyphemus. 952. 568. of Tyche. 934. 946. Psyche. 966. 1257. 971. 967. 956. 546. 570. 494. 665. 1183 (?). 11 83. 941. 555. 623. 566. Quiver of Artemis. Orpheus. 932. Perseus. (in channel on the neck) 1490. 930. with Hermes. 1194. 929. raised. 1448. Ox. 917. 396. Obscene representation. Reciarius. with head of Medusa. 943. 964. 392. 11 84. 973. 983. . of Pan. surrounded by animals. 579. 573. 1205. 924. 697. 972. 1201. 961. 556. 950. 592. 588. twisted. 703. Peacock. 1113. 551. 636. 393. 979. with Abraham. 386. 927. 974. of Eros. Portrait. 969. Odysseus. 977. 577. 422. 957. 1503. 437. 456. Rays. 922. 630. "Oyxog. 935. 606. 569. Pegasus. 575. 975. 1206. 681. Pygmy. Rosette. 548. Pedestal. 926. 600. 920. 616. 945. 940. 438. 944. 560. 571. 1502. 558. 949. 574. 1184. 925. (on handle attachment) 383. 562. 517.. 958. with outer ends parted. 981. 654. 564. 953. 633. 459. 942. 1202. 1468. 933. 692. 565. 429. 936. 1448. 430. 400. Orans. 421. 951. 637. 948. 963. 389. 602.

carried by Eros. 1058. 1109. 1057. 987.1020. 1062. 1192. 582. 1054.1004. Zeus with the. 1038. . 1027. seated with dog. 460. 1049. 1072. 1036. 1000. 1116. 1075. 996. 1109. 994. 1010. 1110. Thrax. 704. 468. 998. 1018. 609.INDEX OF SUBJECTS 319 986. 1082. 424. 585. 425. 1074. 1467. 11 77. carried by Eros. Sword. 1029. 703. 1046. 1095. 1016. 1091. 584. Slip-knot (on handle attachment). seated. 644. Somersault. 1034. 1045. 1111.1100. (on the side of the lamp) 303. 633. 654. 1071. 1073. 1008. Shell. 493. bust of. 1106. 1003. Sheep. 995. 1040. 1449. 1193. 1080. double. 1089. 471 . 1048. 654. Leda with the. 1093. 1056. 644. 965. 989. 991. Shield. 632. 590. of Hephaestus. 1077. 1041. 469. of Pygmy. 1031. 993. of gladiator. 608. Serpent. 997. 583. of Athena. 1194. 1112. 635. 624. 634. 608. 634. 428. 630. 642. 598. Tablet. 1033. 596. of Artemis. 1069. 1011. 1068. 1055. 650. 628.1022.1026. 429. carried by gladiator. 1423. 1090. 1469. 706. 1092. 1451. 1006. 383. 1053. 1193. 418. with Orpheus. 1098. 580. 1066. 759. man turning.1024. 1104. Snake. 499. 597. 1103. Staff. 491. 1064. 1047. 1070. 1079. 990. 1021. 696. Serapis. Tongs. 646. 1032. 1050. 1059. 1013. 694. Swan. of Ares. 999. 695.1063. 633. 1112. attacked by lion. 1452. 1067. 1005. by Maenad. 704. Spear. 1035. 1009. 1102. Torch. 648. 1051. 1197.1023. 1037. 1110. 1195. 1014.1019. 1043. 1253. 988. Sphinx. 1015. 1065. 630. 1061. 1060. 1078. 1052. of Artemis. 1044. 586. of Triton. 1194. Seculor. 1012. 655. 1101. 645. 1243. 1001. of one of the Dioscuri. 609. 1017. 584. 631. 1094. 1002. 1477. 1111. 1028. 1039. 1007. carried by Dionysus. 1081. 992. 491. 1076. with Christ and angels. Stag. 1099. carried by Pygmy. 470.. Thyrsus. 635. 1030.1096. 1192. 1105. 645. 1097. 625.655. 645. 1115. 1025. 604. Sceptre of Serapis. 1114. 448. 634. Thunderbolt. 1196. 426. 1042.

Whip of Actaeon. 459. 1146. 1192. 635. 1174. 602. 1119. 1193. with dolphin. leaves of. 1140. 1175. 1492. 476. 534. studded. Zeus Ammon. 643. Vine.1138. Wreath. 642. 698. 1118. 580. Uncertain representation. 601. Weapons of gladiator. 591. 1145. 660. 1120. 603. 1176. 1498. 1142. 1194. 1483. 1136. 486. 1494.673.1133. 699. Urn. pattern. 712. 711. 493. Zeus. 634. with the thunderbolt. 1144. growing from a cantharus. 627. 637. held by Nike. 1179. 689. Triton. Tree. 1173. 687. with human figure. 427. 667. 669. in background. 455. 1278. 1134. Trident. Tyche. carried by gladiator. 633. 1491. 1482. 1493. 1496. Wheel.1139. 1135. head of. 1123. 449. 1180.320 INDICES 1117. 1122.1137. blowing conch-shell. held by Erotes. . 698. 499. 434. 1141. 444. 1178. 600. 1195. 1143. 1497. 1495. with dove. 686. 428. 668. with Nereid.

50. shipwreck at. Amphoras. 21. Achaean League. North. Alaric. 5. heads of. lamps from. 56. Musee. 17. forms of. Africa. 26. Signatures and other inscriptions mentioned in the text are given in capitals. symbolic meaning of. 91. 11 3. 95. Antonine period. Abraham. 118. 89. 27. Animal figures. 11. 3. 102. Alaoui. 72. Air-hole.GENERAL INDEX This index covers only the Introduction and the Classification. Allt-/haka. 64. 92. 16. Amphitheatre. Altars. 96. Anticythera. Agrippina. 119. 109. 75. AESCINUS. 113. 53. 10. 70. 15. MARCUS IUNIUS. 82. 102. 108. 89. Alexander Severus. 11 3. 95. coins of. 126. 58. 56. 41 . 119. 78. the Younger. Agora. 76. For the Catalogue see Index of Inscriptions and Index of Subjects. the Elder. 83. 82. 79. pictured on lamps. Anchises. Aeneas. The numbers refer to pages. Acropolis. 96. 9. 97. 102. 75.pages I to 126. 118. 58. Aegean Islands. Amusements. 59.

50. Ares. 24. 59. time of. 61. raised. 116. see National Museum. 79. 98. 53. patrons of. 41. 47. 4. Augustus. 87. 65. 126. 28. 63. 42. 25. oval. Art. 41. Aphrodite. 27. 68. 34. 75. 22. 42. 77. 26. 101. the Huntress. 116. 34. Base. 44. 75. "Armed'. flat. Asia Minor. Attis. 45. 39. 33. Armguards. 91. Arab period. 47. 68. Athena Promachos. 3. 116. 78. 21. 89. 82. 92. 104. 59. 116. Hellenistic and Early Christian. 72. 44. 56. 48. 90. APIETQN. 24. 24. decline of. Bachofen. 24. 22. Appliuze process. "Athena Trench". on Hellenistic lamps. on Roman laiftps. high. 45. Ascanius. 33. lamps throw light on. Attic lamps. 70. round the discus. 70. 47. Barrel. 102. on rim. 27. 48. Peribolus of. 99. 73. shield of. 101. 38. 43. 98. 54. Ball-shaped lamps. 26. Baalbek. Arretine pottery. lamps from. 96. raised. sunken. . 64. 78. 48. Artemis. Bartoli-Bellori. 25. low. 100. 124. 4. Athena Chalinitis. 90. 65. heavy. 99. 45. 79. 78. 109. 95. 23. Band. 33. concave. 23. Apollo. 56. 46. 68. 20. 22. 71. 87. 70. Artistic quality of lamps. on Greek lamps. 76. 23. 98. 33. 69. 73. INDICES Armor. 78. Apices. 40. 44. 22. Athens. 58. 37. 54. 38. 70. 96.322 92. 24. 3. 7. coins of. APXIOT. ANTQNIOY.

6. 68. 40. nozzle on. 48. Cablepattern. small holes on.Ure and. 31. British Museum. of Artemis. 114. 68. hooks on. 50. Bowls.48. lamps shaped like. 74. almond-shaped. Bibliotheque Nationale. 121.GENERAL INDEX 323 Base-ring. 58. 126. Boat. Borely. Bow. 47. 50.94. 53. 45.120. 33. 44. handle on. 97. Bricks. 21. 122. Branch factories. 119. 73. 106. 83. with conical projection. oval. Brindisi. 62. flat. 79. Boat-shaped lamps. Bosanquet. 54. 119. 31. 104. 51. Max. 70.73. period. Bull. 100. Bulic. 56. trimmed. Musee. 106. 60. 119. 75.50. 87. 41. 44. 108. 83. 58. 118. 27. 106. 109. head of. 38. 11. 53. 97. 75. 47. 112. 52. Hellenistic. Bersa. Breakage. 99. 97. 108. 109. 42. prevention of. 79. 36. of Eros. 112. Bauer. Basket. Buds. 77. Baur. 68. 41. 65. 97. 45. 64. Bassett. thick. 126. 89. 120. raised in centre. 115. Bird. 8. 10. Brueckner. 56. 43. 22. 11. 87. 44. 69. 97. 74. 114. 73. Blanchere. 49. 109. Byzantine. imitation of. 82. 109. 117. 77. 118. glazed. crude figure of. Branchidae. 53. de. 55. 18. 123. 33. Blant. 122-126. 42. 93. 39. 56. Bonus pastor. 120. 120. Burrows. lamps. 109. 5. 5. 54. Bottom. Bronze lamps. 61. 73. 51. le. .

of Corinth. of Corinth. 86. Carton. 83. 122. 26. 124. 118. 31. 78. 119.of Corinth. 69. 112. 59. 106. stamped on reverse. 63. Change. of Patras. 116. 44. 27. 106. 55. . 120. 106. Catacombs. 98. 21. 56.324 Caduceus. 109. Cesnola Collection. 126. 78. 67. period of. 44. Ceramicus. Church. 100. 42. Colonists. quality of. 93. 114. 79. Cheap. Capital form of letters. 26. 45. 111. Cardaillac. 41. 120. 81. 36. 50 551. 23. Circles. for suspension. 118. 66. 118.at Corinth. 121. 20. 82. 41. Carpenter. Cnidus lamps. Lampes Chretiennes de. worn by Artemis. 115. 44. 20. from Vari. 38. 100. Caesar. 70. 85. in shape of lamps. INDICES Candle-stick. 37. 57. Musee de Saint Louis. on neck of lamps. 117. 119. 94. 14. Clay. 124. 102. coarse. Chain. 115. 104. 114. 107. of fourth century. Cleruchy. Coins. XIONHZ. Chronology. Attic. 113. 82. 54. 125. 115. 109. 42. 100. 10. 9. 108. 93. Carthage. lamps used in. Citadel of Corinth. Chlamys. 82. 117. lamps. 102. 106. 65. 71. 119. on rim. 58. ware. 56. 113. 70. 53. 28. 38. 50. 100. 95. 59. worn by Hermes. Chiton. 70. 98. 27. 119. Jewish. of Byzantine pottery. 73. 15.58. 70. Colony. 101. 59.9. 121. 47.121. lamps from. 104. 34. Candia Museum. 91. of John Zemisces. 36. 121. 9. Claudius. 48. 87. 59. 86. 24.69. 98. Christian lamps. Corinthian. in Delos. 17. Channel. 120. 54. 81. 42. 113. stamped on rim. 115. seven-branched. 104.24.

69. 108. Decline. between Corinth and Asia Minor 69. 109. Cups. 69. 78. 89. Dart. 93. 75. between Corinth and Italy. 95. CRESCENS. 54. 10. lamps of. Constantine the Great. 5. 95. 119. 56. 126. lamps from. time of. 56. Crete. 325 Comic figures. 110. Deonna. 82. 48. 65. 102. 93. of lamps. 39. of artistic reliefs. 27. 24. See also Decline. 34. 104. of Corinth. of reliefs. 66. Delattre. lamps throw light on. Cross. 22. 20. of rim patterns. 5. . 114. Cornucopia. 20. of type XXVIII. 97. 121. 26. in workmanship. 68.Museo dei. 45. Commerce. 64. Decrease in the size of lamps. 107. 112. of type XXVII. Dating by means of lamps. 4. 7. 5. 58. Demangel. 119. 57. 31. 61. 106. Destruction. 97. 87. 104. 116. 9. 91. Deterioration of lamps. 75. 50. 92. 41. Fouillesde De/phes. 110. Deposit. 101. Cyprus. 109. 84. 102. Cursive form of letters. Dagger. Delphi. Commercial relations between Rome and Greece. 107. 110. 65. 38. 102. votive. Derewitzky. Conservatori. Copying. Delos. of lamp industry. 23. 96. 28. Roman. 11 3. 26. 61. Crescent. 121 . Corfu. 6.GENERAL INDEX Colonies. 65. 116. 93. 54. 113. 3. 19. 93. Christian. Courby. 113. Cothon. 69.

Double convex shape. on Hellenistic lamps. 80. 66-70. Drain. 22. 15. 6. 26. 73. 120. 45. 22. raised. of Greek lamps. 14. 25. 84. 4. Dots. 86. 99. Dressel. on factory lamps. 15. 120. 59. 100. 98. Dio Chrysostom. 113. 7. 72. 57. 18. 17. coins of. 75. 66. 116. EAIIIAHDOPO. 116. EAPINOZ.116. 111. Distribution of labor. 93. 99. 59. 31. 82. 21. . 121. 14.70. importance of lamps to. playing Pan's pipes. 95. 80. of ancient lamps. 13. 21. 105. 69. 56. of Roman lamps. of Artemis. Earthquake. 10. Egg-and-dart pattern. 15. 67. 85. 19. 66. 118. 102. concave. 5. 106. 21. 22. on Roman relief lamps. 115. 56. 28. 47. 112. 125. Ephesus. Ephesus lamps. Domitian. square. EYNOMOY. 6. almond-shaped. Egyptian origin of lamps. lamps from. Empire. 16. 46. 106. Dolphin. 16. Dove. 120. small. 15. Edge. 27. 24. 84.lamps from.112. Discus. 106. the. Egypt. 52. fall of. 27. on Ephesus lamps. of nozzle on type XXV. 69. 116. 9. 73. reign of. 77. Eros. Dog. 24. 26. 88. 72. 124. Roman. 20.'6. 70. Excavator. 95. 107. 87. Ehnasya. 19. 84. plain. 95. 98. D6rpfeld. 28. EYTYXH2. 90. 51. 82. 80. East. Roman. of Byzantine pottery. 59. 108. 22. 110. 22. 109. 59. of Hellenistic lamps. 46. Discards. 96. of rim designs. 121. Esquiline Cemetery. 83. 6. 53. raised.326 INDICES Development.

Genitive case. 89. 122. 17. Figurines. 94. 93. 95. 109. Forum. Firm. Hiller von. 31. 87. 111. Factory lamps. 111. Gauckler. 62..GENERAL INDEX 327 Experimentation. 10.99. lamps attached to. 22. 47. 14. 97. Gaertringen. Imhoof-Blumer and. on rim. Flange. 62. 64. 11. 10. 10. 10. Furtwangler. 60. 98. 96. 38. 8. Fremersdorf. 44. 23. 55. Freedman. human. 99. 90. 99. Fink. 60. Flavian. 15. 26. 10. 73. period. (alerzus. Fish. Fabric of lamps. Ferguson. 98. 50. producing different colors of clay. . Museum at. 10. two. 106. 14. 93. 62. M. 36. lamps from. 24. A. emperors. 9. 11. names in. 22. Fischbach. 24. 94. 16. 64. 8. 79.113. from Athens. 109. Foot. 88. from Rome. on type XXVII. 85. 83. 11. see Moulds. 44. Frantz. 67. 101. 7. Filling-holes. Experiments with lamps. heavy. 58. 110. 98. Geneva. 9. 25. 89. Firing. 75. 11. 88. not often imported to Greece. Exportation. Gardner. 11. 55. 27. influence of. Floral design. 64. Factories. 108. near handle. 89. 117. FAIOY. thin. 95. Fiihrer and Schultze. 14. 17. 66. Forms. see Blanchere. 100. 87. 81. 5. of lamps. 9. 101. 97. 105.94. 65. 39. 25. from Corinth. impressed on the reverse.

Attic. 33. 66. applied in bands. 34. 118. 119. 82. added separately. 36. 35. Hellenistic lamps. nozzle. 73. 8. coins of. 24. artistic revival under. 81. 31.91. 26. 91. 70. Helmet. scene. FAAY. Gravestones. attachment above. Glaze. design. 37. of Greek lamps. 20. quality of. 55.95. 67. 79. Heberdey. 118. 38. 79. moulded. 71. 78. names of. Corinthian. 87. Grapes. 44. 105. 41. 48. absence of. Hatchings. deterioration of. Gum-water. of Roman lamps. 106. 87. 52. on neck of factory lamps. 47. 72. perforated.53. Attic. 21. 75. 121. Graves. 42. 54. patterns. 92. of lamps. 7. figurines. Gladiatorial performances. Halicarnassus. 61. Hellenized. 53. Guilloche pattern. 89. 120. 74. 95. 43. 40. 38. 92.famous in Corinth. survival of. 71. 39. Hadrian. 11 7. 7. of Hellenistic lamps. . 101. 41. 115. 101. partial. 109. Glazing. 95. 88. 43. 42. 106. 37. Heart-shaped. 21. 116. in centre of discus. 70. Gladiators. 101. 88. cone-shaped. Helios. 96. 82. 5. period. 59. 102. 106. Hautcoeur. 63. 121. Haltern. 68. 85. 116. Handle. 8. 91. 6. 87. 92.328 INDICES Geometric. Globules. development of. 7. Latin names. Greaves. 86. 73. 8. 97. 90. 51. Gortyna. 36. triangular. 81. 75. decoration on. handle of. pottery. Hebrew.68. methods of making. 102. 31. 25. 35. Hatsidakis. 113. 68. 56. 37. 90. Hand-made. 70. Groove. lamps unknown in. 45. 92. showing date. 8. lamps. 8. 54. Attic.

incised. 1 Ifoplomach/os. 44. 26. 37. Initials. 60. 25. Industry. 9. of lamp-makers. 72. 24. 1 18. 113. 93. 11. 73. lamp-. 52. 118. 69. 10 Jlfunidizbuluml. 76. 27. 96. 11. of Attic vases. 98. 90. of lamps. 100. 79. 77. 100. 62. 82. -point. 53. 25. pp. needles.01. 11 11115. 54. Inscriptions. 20. 13. 70. from Asia Minor. 5. 86. Hermes. 88. 77. 22. 7. 37. 75. 83. Invasions. 88. 23. 59. 24. Imhoof-Blumer and Gardner. Human. 94. of Arretine pottery. 101. lamp-. Herodes Atticus. 96. 89. 79. 23. local. History. Herring-bone pattern. lamps throw light on. 42 . 114. 97. 87. 109. 25. of metal lamps. Horace. for suspension. 96. 25. Isaac. 88. lamps from. 75. 86. 118. of lamps. 96. of barbarians. 119. 122. Italy. of lamps. 59. of Rome under Augustus. heads. from Sicily. 118. of lamps. 120. 68. 18. 111 . 73. 39. of lamps. 95. Homer. decentralization of. 53. Greek. 42. 23. Latin. to Italy. of lamps.86. HYHIEPBOAO. 27. 91. 22. lamp-. from the East. 73.GENERAL INDEX 329 Herculaneum. 110. 307 ff. 34. 31. of Athens. lamp mentioned by. 59. from Athens. beginning of. 77. from Italy. 23. 69. IQN (IQNOz). 82. 27. 40. 55. 35. 106. 86. 95. Hogarth. 26. 97. 48. 88. of lamps. 120. 97. 26. 45. 39. 81. 75. Importation. of the name of Christ. 27. Iron. Imbricated leaf pattern.local museums of. 104. Hug. 59. Italian products. of Corinthian lamps. 22. 22. Hook. 86. of lamps. 13. 106. 79. 76. 3. figures. importance of. 5. 53. Imitation. Abraham offering up. 112. of lamps. from Italy ceased. 24. 3. 21. 3. 27. of pottery. 11. of lamps. of Corinth. 101. 51. see Index of Inscriptions.

MARCUS. 81. Corinthian. 69. 48. Leclercq. 51. 120. 28. 21. 104. 94. 119. 47. 125. 119. 14. 75. 83. 18. 85. 75. 106. 121. 108. Justinian. Lampros. Justin II. worn by gladiator. 97. 11 3. Licetus. 97. 6. 84. Leaf-pattern. 74. oblique. 119. on left side of lamp. Lampmakers. 93. Lion. 76. 62. Knob. KAAAIZTOY. 95. 1 3. 97. 8. Kourouniotes.93. 87. 50. 86. two-lobed. 97. 19. KAPnOY. 56. 64. 65. on rim. 101. 75. 83. Kriopoloos. 18. 3. Lecythi. 82. 28. 87. Musee. 61. Loops.on rim of lamps. Jewish lamps. 10. Kiibler. 92. 60. 10. Lamp-filler.330 IUNIUS AESCINUS.84. Laumonier. 118. Leaf. Julian. 19. . 65. 91. 6. INDICES Jewels. 9. 13. handle a solid. KPAYFATOY. 88. 102. Lechaeum Road. 72. Lid. 102. quarter of. 79. 62.49. 121. 109. Keramopoulos. Loin cloth. 46. 88. Kenner. 39. Loeschcke. Lavigerie. 75. KPHEKENTOZ. 90. 9. Kertch. 78. 37. of Roman times. 109.

62. Moulded lamps. 107. 46. 15. disuse of. Mithras. MARCUSIUNIUS AESCINUS. 54. 95. touched up. 94. 17. 27iltlos. 58. 68. MAPKIANOY. MINOAQPOY. 38. OKTAYIOY. 87. 91. 13. 93. MIA. 47. 111. Man-hole. Modelled figure. 108. 99. 110. 62. Martinetti. 97. Metal lamps. 77. Masks. 48. 93. 82. 47. I111. . Messenger. 331 Louvre. MAXIMUS. 36. with a cluster of grapes. 7. 99.96. 13. 99. 86. 82. 113. Franz. 108. 10. 115. 45. 118. 71. 28. 108. Moulds. 73. 5. 59. lamps found in. 52. 67. 54. Money bag of Hermes.96. Mica. 100. 77. 97. see also Knob. 97. 48. Meritt. 11. Macdonald. 44.97. forms of. Miniature lamps. 122. 22. 36. 98. 102. Manumission. 25. Medallion. 20.Vaulted Tombs of. 34. 97. 88. Lug. 7. made from lamps. 114. 97. LucI. 113. Monasteraki Museum. 54. Moulded vases. cruciform. 53. for suspension. Mediterranean. introduction of. 49. 49. 48. Minium. Miltner. MINIKIANOY. 112. Matrix. IeJesard. 88. 53. 93. Monogram of Christ.GENERAL INDEX AOYKIOY. 99.

shapes of. 63. 87. 96. see Spilling. 92. of r-eilarits. Neolithic lamps. lamps in. on factory lamps. 60. 76. 50. Neck. NAYMAXIO:. 5. Nona. 101. 23. 20. . 123. 81. 68. 51. 55. 74. on top of lamps. 45. funnel-like. 85. 102. open. small holes on. 5. 83. pagan. 20. method of making. 93. 114. ex. Needle-hole. 75. 21. Nominative case. 19.87. 1 National Museum. area south of.. 11 3. on Roman lamps. 11. 43. 48. 91. 108. encroachment of. 59. 64. 45. 52. Oil-holes.332 INDICES Mummius. 16. development of. 85. 53. 109. 38. channel on. 122. 34. triangular. 102. 25. 121. 20. 91. 22. Nicopolis. 83. 75. 62. Net. 78. 95. 76. 73. 93. 114 115. 65. 37. 53. 124. 61. 56. 53. 5. 3. 109. 51. 68. on Hellenistic lamps. 55. 97.6. 68. Nicholson Museum. 47. Nicolas. Mythology. 62. 97. 33. 102. 55. Odeum. Nemea. 39. decoration on. Nozzle. 61. Minoan lamps. 41. 18. Nero. 52. 8. 115. 55. 88. 70. 4. 69. 72. MYRO. lamps throw light on. 126. Newton. 8. 71. 64. Nimbus. 79. 79. Obscene representations. 91. 63. Nimeguen. 106. 12 1. 96. 49. 14. 42. 65. 96. 60. Museum. 77. 9 ff. 39. 79. OffJcina. 124. names in. 123. 108. unbridged. 112. 108. 87. Mycenaean lamps. 66. Oil. 82. 70. 36. 62. 76. Notion. University of. on rim. on Greek lamps. 17. Athens. 63. 40.

90. 86. 91. plain. 99. 122. 58. development of. 84. ONHZIMOY. 93. 109. double. 102. Parnes. 85. 110. 115. Palmette. 95. 72. Palermo. Pan's pipes. Philadelpheus. 333 Olynthus. 105. 90. 119. 125. 80. disappearance of.97. 95. 73. 117. size of. 93. 105. Pan. see Derewitzky. Orsi. Patras. 56. 109. 117.. Ovule pattern. 9. 116. Palatine. Cave of. 106. 104. 46. 109. 119. Papyrus. Persson. 104. 100. 109. 88. 112. 37. 88. 46. 106. 92. lamps of. for fixing lamp. 122. 5. 96. 93. IIPEIeOO 112. 70. 79. Palm branch. . 98. Palm tree. 71. Pendant. Peg. 115. 90. OKTAYIOY MINOAQPOY. Pegasus. Peculiar shape. 117. 72. 33. 120. stamped separately. Numismatic Commentary on. Petrie. Perier. 5. Museum in. 114. 91. 112. Osborne. 122. 105. 70. Panels on the rim. 117. 119. 96. Cave on Mt. Paolo. . 97.97. 116. 93. absence of. Orans. 35. Pausanias. 89. 125. 94. Phlius. Pavlowski. Pfuhl. 50.GENERAL INDEX OKTABIOY. 100. 118. 108. Pear-shaped lamps. 34. lamps from. 118. 91. 10. Philip.

66.334 Plague. common household. Realism in art. 36. 97. 34. Revival of art. Greek. 22. 88. 24. HPEIMOY. 26. Byzantine. Reappearance of types. 25. 97. Production. 83. 8. 121. 43. 24. 4. 100. Priene. 125. 39. Powell. 109. 4. 37. 101.115. development of. 94. 65. Rays. of Corinth. 65. 1PEIMII. Relief on wheel-made lamp. 90. 109. 112. 99. 95. 73. reliefs on. . INDICES Population. 9. Potters. Religion. 115. 44. 58. Projections on sides of lamps. of wheel-made lamps. Ravenstein. ear-like. 50. HlozoPoz. Ram. 106. 23. on the head of Helios. 46. Poetovio. unskilled. 124. 44. conical. 95. . POPILLIUS. 113. on side. 108. Quiver. 93. 93. 109. 48. 75. of Hermes. 117. 3. Profiles. 100. 45. Hellenistic. 17. 28. of Corinth. Roman. lamps throw light on. 38. 74. 82. 52. 37. 28. 102. 94. 83. PRIMUS. 111. 77. Proto-Corinthian. 28. 18. 22. 21. 7. Pompeii. 96. 77. 122. 27. Restoration. 49. 27. Polus. coarse. Relief lamps. of Artemis. Poverty. 9. Hellenistic. 23. 35. 37. 90. Attic. Lamvzenaus. 35. Price of lamps. decoration on. dating of. 75. 70. Attic. method of. Reflector. 58. Procopius. 32. 91. Pottery. Corinthian. 45. Retiarius. 27.

81. Seven Hills of. 107. 98. 20. 89. 50. 84. 120. 22. EEKOYNAOY. sloping. 80. Shear. 82.. 25. 122. carried by gladiator. L. Sabouroff. 85. wide. 94. 75. 40. 41. 46. 34. Schultze. Rosette. 61. 70. 43. Sardis. Samaria. 65. 47. 90. 69. Salona. Alexander. set off from discus by groove. 98. 31. 64. bent up. 68. 90. 70. 65. 37. 48. 116. Shield. 40. 87. 35.101. Romanization of the Greek world. 45. Schrader. . Sand. 86. development of.3. 7. 36. 78. 113. 101. SABINUS. 31. 80. 36. 109. Ribbons. Sammliuntg'. 61. Shell. Rome. 102. Ribs. volutes on. plain. 90. 47. origin of. 62. 84. 39. Rosary chain. 123. 80. 78. on the rim of lamps. 25. 18. 42. Robinson. Secutor. 70. 20. 43. 109. 58. 64. 24. grooved. decorated. 115. with flange. slanting. 96. flaring. 42. flat. 42. 44. 31. Severus. 78. 75. of Ares. T. 72. 62. 45. 107. 93. 102. 112. 67. 36. overhanging. 63. 114. 48. 45. 12. depressed. projecting. 109. 97. 91. Rim. 64. set off from side by groove. forming complete circle. 24. Rhomaios. 123. 33. 47. IfarzvardExcavatlns at. 71. 46. 116. 34. 31. 70. 24. Sculpture. 45. 64. 76. 64. 91. 21. see Wiegand.GENERAL INDEX 335 Revolutions.70. 82. Fihrer and. 82. 47. horizontal. 72. 80. 72. 54. 23. Shoulder. Richter. 33. 73. 93. 124. on the handle of lamps. Sicily. 54. 121. Catacombsof. 69. Rostovtzeff.

71. bulging. Strategem of gladiators. 82. 117. high.336 INDICES Sicyon. Stand. 73. 119. 88. Soteriou. 98. Spear of Artemis. 98. 56. 123. 58. 64. 40. 73. Spiral marks. 42. 100. 13. Socket. of Eros. 45. EQIATPOY. 50. Slip-knot.75. 38. see Derewitzky. 94. 71. 53. 99. 55. Stratification. Skias. 77. 12. lamps with. 119. Museum at. 109. 31. dotted. 97. handle attachment in form of. 89. evidence from. coins of. 60. double. sloping. Sides. open. 43. Athenian. 15. . 60. 112. Stoa. 56. 65. Strap of quiver. Stag of Artemis. 52. Statuette. 88. 51. 100. 14. Strzygowski. Spalato. 106. abbreviated. 31. 40. 101. 42. 112. Signatures. vertical. figures borrowed from. 106. Spirals. 93.38. 105. 98. Stone lamps. 96. 20. 100. 56. 13. 31. Stern. 36. 116. 5. 56. curving. 6. 5. 49. 105. 90. Strabo.52. on bottoms of lamps. 33. 71. Sparta. 16. 94. Slip. StoddardCollection. 94. 50. Stamps. Smyrna. 60. 3. rounded. 33. 101. 31. Squares. 56. Soteriades. 36. 111. 79. Stuhlfauth. Spilling. 125. 93. 76. absence of. prevention of. Statues.124. 84. Situla. Northwest. 101. 100. 41.

Tarentum. 34. Svoronos. Trajan. Sword of gladiator. Tongue.108.11 8. 111. Tiles. decline of. Temple of Aphrodite. Thera. 123. 44. Eucharistic. 67. 11. 72. on rim of lamps. 78. Christian. Museo delle. 93. 64. 33. Theodosius I. 120. 56. 22. 74. 84. 122. lamps shaped like. 84. of Eros. Old. 47. 40.109. 12. 16. Tombs. semi-globular. 55. Theatre at Corinth. 55. 58. 116.11 4. 56. 66. city on the. of lamps. 119. 31. 65. 21. Symbol. on neck of lamps. Theodosius II. 37. Syria. 125.GENERAL INDEX 337 Suspension. 17. 87. 70. 101. convex. 122. 78. Trade. 109. Terra Sigillata. 117. lacking. 66. closed. 125. 21. 108. 99. Syracuse. 6. 85. Vaulted. 121. 102. 24. 35. with raised edge. 73. 17. 88. 70. OAYMAZIZ. 22. 76. Terme. 114. 90. 14. Synogogue at Corinth. Jewish. flat. 15. of Mesara. 62. 121. 98. 5. plain. 72. 43 . concave. Tendril pattern. 83. 101. 117. 70. 95. Technique. 113. pattern of. 100. 60. Tea-pot. 123. 26. 60. 12. Torch. 12. TANAIS. 35. 101. 37. Tertullian. 70. 22. 25. 70. 101. 118. closing of. open. Testament. 77. of Artemis. small. curved. 58. 121. 115. 6. depressed. 95. decorated. 121. Tongues. Top. 47. 44. New. 120. 72. 40. coins of. lamps for. 56. Tiber. 17. of Christ. Tiberius. 110. held in left hand. thrax. lamps from. reign of. on early Greek lamps. 52. 119. 104.

90. 122. 104. 97. 102. of Classical to Byzantine lamps. 97. see Loeschcke. Vases. 62. 74. of Hellenistic to Roman lamps. crude. 64. double. Walters. 54. 101. Well. 37. 22. Wall-lamp. Tunis. 79. 18. Volutes. 21. 8. 71. Villefosse. 81. studded. 99. 9. 25. 79. 9. 88. 96. 34. 105. 82. of wheel-made to moulded lamps. 118. Vienna. 117. 79. setting off rim from nozzle. Travel. 82. Triangle. 74. 54. 70. Waele. Vari. 81. 104. 82. 121. Watch-shaped body of lamps. 23. 106. Waldhauer. single. 19. coins of. 119. 6. 49. 47. 54. 34. Tree. 71. Ure and Burrows. Trunk. of retiarius 102. 93. 83. 26. 23. 109. 116. 58. 22. 75. 69. 112. 119. lamps from. 119. . de. reign of. 64. 86. 84. 101. of palm tree. 88. 21. 50. Museum in. 5. Vaulted Tombs of Mesard. 85. offerings. 113. 50. 5. 61 Wavy line pattern. Votive. 110. Trident. 92. 20. 77. 22. 73. Cave at. 8. 6. 88. 90. 71. 66. lamps found in. 123. 81. artistic device. 8. 76. of Greek to Hellenistic lamps. 49. 69. Vine pattern. terminating the rim. Tunic. Waste of oil. 126. see Pottery. 64. 109. 117. 53. 75. Valens. Vindonissa. 78. 52. 114. Turkish period. 75. Lampen aus. 51. 10. 78. 75.338 INDICES Transition. lamps. Vespasian. 67. 83. 34.

98. 36. 9. 81. 17. 43. 17. 33. Workmanship. 48. 11. 91. 21. 24. Wheel-made lamps. 47. INDEX 339 Wheels. 54. 82. 11. 101. 22.disappearance of. 55. Zemisces. outside the rim. ZQCIMAE. 50. 97. 123. 115. Wiegand. 82. 13. 123. 102. coins of. 37. 33. 54. 55. 124. Wick. 64. Wheel. 66. 22. Collection. potter's.GENERAL West.47. connected by channel with top. 67. disappeared. 23. 95. 48. 71. 14. good. 54. 31. 40. Wick-needle. 59. 5. 61. 122. 47. Wood. 109. 120. 93. 53. the. 6. 49.40. 72. 52. 113. encroaching on rim. signs of. Wick-hole.90. 56. 23. 38. large. 117. 6. 58. 62. 121. 43. 116. 22. 119. close to rim.small. 85. John. 124. 123. 70. 87. 78. . 68. Zodiac. careless. 9. 11. Byzantine. 118. surrounded by wide rim. Wreath. 23. 88. 15. 118. Wollman. 15. 15. Xanthoudides. 10.

read 'characteristics'. line 8 from the top: for 'This the kind'. Complete lamps with stand like our No. one of which is shown in IIQaxtxa I9I3.'read 'transfer'. second paragraph. Page 52.ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA Page 24. read 'of the Roman Empire'. Page 75. Io. one signed FORTIS. No. fig. have a well formed base. read 'Schlichtheit'. 857: 'for signature KY'. last line: for 'of Roman empire'. read 'signature K'. Page 40. Page 74. discovered since the printing of this part of the book. line io from the top: for 'Shichtheit'. which I did not visit until most of the book was in print. read 'This kind'. page Io2. Fig. line 6 from the top: for 'characteristies'. both of which were apparently discovered at Nicopolis. Page I07. are two factory lamps. 26. read 'the'. line 5 from the top: for 'he'. In the small museum at Prevesa. 288 have been discovered at Nicopolis. Page 88. Page 6o. Page 26. Some early Greek lamps. Page 219. line 4 from the bottom: for 'trsanfer. . last paragraph.

PLATES .

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? ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ _. ..?I_ 2'0.I XXV_ I 0 8 _ |~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Z04_2 0 9 _ . ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~. I..PLATE XIV ~~~~~92~~~~~~~~~ ~7~~.~ _05 _ T ... 957~' - 957 03000 ...~ 95~9~s? ~9 ! 65 zose 1s~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ .~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ... ~~.00::: f000._.. ~95 -952 .f05. | I _~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~..? ..

..... . .'.. 2'093 ....... . .......... . . ...... :. 'l I . . . . * ? -. ...... . ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~.... ........ .. ... ::.......... :.PLATE .. ...3 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~:: .. XV ......... .......... ~~~~~~~.... ~ ? . ....... .~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ _1|11 _ ... . . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~ .... ...~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ -F .. ....... ............... Ill• 09 _~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~' ... ... . .... _ .. .'.t -~~~~~~~~~~~~~113 -~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~' ZlI9 5 ...... ...... . TYP~ XXV:09I .1 9 . ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~....... ...... .. ..:::i :' .

.. .. ''S ' _ _ _' .. . O~~~~~~~~~i.... 1148 1156S * .':::.. _Z | ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~irg ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~'_ ... 1167 "'""-: 'W .>..: ~~~~~~~~~... ..::.. ..~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~.... r~~~~~ .... ?f .. ..... _ -.. ~ ..... '_ _.. ........ _? .IS _ .. . 1156' ^ ' ::: ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ :i::iiil( ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~.PLATE XVI _~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ .. . ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 1 ~~~~~~~~....>> ::~.~~~~~~~~~~~~~~:.. ~ ~ .. <"' .. ::... ... ... ~~~_...... ..<. ~ ~. ? . _'~~~~~~~~~~~~~.'.... .._ . :.. :........ SZ6? . _ .

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~:~ ~~~~~~?E I?_ | | I [ -~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ... Y P ]_ XXV_ D! I Y -.:... . ._ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ r ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~. * * E - ? 70 ! - - I. Y? -~~~~~~~~~~~~~... -~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~... . . i .. _ i n l = l ~~~~: .:....P L AT E XVII ..... .. .~~. ~~~~' . E i E .. ..... . . ..: | ..._ .. : .:: ~mm~mmmB. ........ r~~o ~~. _~~~~~~~ .. ....

? .. .. ?~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ '? .' '. ? s ? . ..1 ? ??. "~i'-~ P : .'~J.ftt ::. ?.: ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~.. :. ?~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~i ::.:.. ? f...11 : :::?: ? ?. . .:? _~~ ' .: . i '?.:.. . ~':-': .. ' ?' ' . ...i~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ::~'a _ . _? ... ~ . ?~~~~~~~~~~~ : ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~. ' "?"' ? ?.. . ~::'../::::: ? ... ... "~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ R..... reP~~~ .~:'l.C0."~i~:"'". ..~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 'i.i~ ' " ' ~i Z iii~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~?:?: ?i~:. ' j.ilIi....S' t .: _~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ : f t:: :X :.. _ f000 _ _ _ .::.Pi Y ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ r ..::': Ir? ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~:. 'f~~~~~~~~~~i X~~~~i.dL : A : .' ... ' :i ...::... ~ . f :::. . _ ' .:..~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ . _ ?~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ *1 0 ... t~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~t ~ : a ~ ^ : 000 00 < '.::''~ ~~~~~~~.".i?::' ?.i.... .0 . ? . .... . :: .: ?' .-:::: !?~~~(.? .. . ~ ?~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~::~ : ' i$. XVI ? ~C~P ...~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 8~~~~~~~~~~~~~~. ..'......~ .' |_E22||> ::?:'~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ '< .. ? ... . . ? '.. '~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ :':..:!~ DD00 ? ': :: .~Z ~~~ 'i. 0 f ?-.'~ :/'..: :??: .:: ? '?? ? ?~~~~~ ' .. ? ..": ~. ::? >..~~ ?. ~? ?r ? ~. :." . .

... ~~~~_. ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ _~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ I~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ .PLATE XlX . _ _ 6 ' _ '~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ . 5 .. ~'_ i~l . r ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ _.......11..~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~~~ ?D _ i' _ _ .... ..~~~~~~~~ '.~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ I | ? . __~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ _ _~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 1 ~~~~~~~?...... ii ! _ ~ ~ 1 _. .'...i.... _ . .. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~_. . _~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ . . ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~i~~1.. _ _ .. .. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ . l XVI _ _ ....~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~. / e i K ..... .. ?..... .. ?~~~i r a ..

. 1 4 2 3 .. . A .~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ?" ... . ....~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~ '... ... ..... ....... . . .. ..... .. . ... . .. . ... TYS 143 XXIX XXX 142 .......... . '. .. .. ..:~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~.. ... .. ....'.'........ . ...~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ .. .'. 1426~~~~~~~~~....... . .... : 1 ...'.... ~'. . .... ... ?~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ .... .. . ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~. .. :. "....~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~.. ...... ...... ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ . .. 14/3 :. ...... ? :'.. ... :::~--i!:. . . . . .... ....PLATE XX ~~~~~~~~. ' . .. . . '420 .. ........ . .... . ....... " ........ ....- . ... ... ..... .... .... . . ._...... .~~~~~.... . .. . ....

i 1^ - ... I ^~~~~~~~~~~. _~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ .. ~~i 1447 :. ..~. _~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ? _?~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~00s3 :....| . l_~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ . ... . .' _ _ . .. - XXI Z 4. ..... . _~~~~~~~~~~?-~~~~~L _ _~~ ~~~~~~~~~ 1449~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ... : ~ ~ .. . ..Q E . _ i ::.. _~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ .~~ _ .L_.-R _ ~ ~~ .. :.. .... . .~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ .1439.. .. :: ~ ... .4 _~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ....i __ _~ ...~~~~~~~ . : ~. .. .PLATE .~~~~~~~~~~~~~ TYPES XX-X' ." _ _ ' _ - _~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ :V _ S X_ ~ -/'-' YE ......" . ..... ?5 '1 _ ' _ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ..

:??:??:: :i:-...' ? ..~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 1 1 ..: i<. ~ jg . .' '"~~~~~~~~" ''':: ::::'~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ : '~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~:/ ::???~~~~~~~~~~~: }'.... .. "~I ?.? ?:' . ... ji:. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~. r r . :: z~~~.: .:: :::?? ::. .~?i ::: ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~.. i ?~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~i ?~~~: i? ::i' ::!: ':" ::i i:~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ '.i '"!~:: is . ? lLI . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~: : ' I raq? . . ?~"i .?i..~~~?: 1~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~Tie: '':' '::::: ?' ''':i: :': . .'. : i ??:: .. z~ 6 .:i i.. . '.. a .11:i !:iii:?:. :??i::: ? ? .. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~:. .' '. ...... :: ': :::~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~:? ::X}... ??i'~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~::i Ij:ii: ??iii: i??:: ?"~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~: .' .!:'.~iii ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~:~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ':~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~: . .:? j:::::: ?~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~? /:. . ..i??~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ...i ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ .PLA TE XXII i i? ~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ?~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~:i ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~.:::' I'1I ' .. ? . . ?: ? .. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~}: /::!::i...Z': i?? ? ~~~~~~~~~'' . .. T~~~~~~~~~~~~tPB XXXI~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~: .ii??~~~~~~~~~~~~ .

.... ? Z5Q6 1$0950 151150 TYPES xxx-xxxiv ~~~~~~~~~1 ~ ~ ~ ??'.... .. .. ......... ... .......... .. ............E XXI-XI fA .... .. t:?::? ? ":'.....PLATE --------- XXIII ...... ....... .... ..... ..... .. . . ...... ..' :. .......... ......... ..... y^^Y~1 2 jIr/ 155 s .....: .... ... .

'. .. w~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ..'.' .... ..'" _... _ .... .. __~~~~~~ PlilS XXVXXV ...PLATE XXIV _ r : ~~~~....:i | Z ' 1519_ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~i.. .:....| Z5n8 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ..__ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~..... _ _5 ~~~. f8S /_ _: _w_j g~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~'"''.. ~~~~~~~~..... ' ' ... .........?: . _ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~... ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~.....: . ..:E X ....: ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~'... ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~.. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~. .. '5o:::: .....' .... ? _~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ .....: . : ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~. . f ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~:. _~~~~~~~~~~~~~ .

.. i.X . ..?': : ? _ .. ...: .I ? ~~~~ .PLATE XXV I~~'_? 'PI ~ -L ~' . . -.. '':: ' ". .. . .'. ~':~~ ? ~ .. CV 445 ..i ' ~ '438 .. .. ... . - :. . . .. ..* ?? :i.qi 443i? 441 ~~~RA MT.. * " : ~ . . 0 OF ....:??. . 4 ' ...4... . ? ?._'..? ? ?: _i433 : WA..' .

.:: :FR A~ii:::jGMENTS::::: : :...':... %::i . ....":::::" ...~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~. .::. - . -i:......::.. .:. . .. .......: ....... . .: :: .... '..F ....: ::"I:fl::l::::::::::':::: : ...?.. .....:: ?:::::: .::::: :... '... I XV-XXV :::....... .. . ..% :::::: .~ "....:ii:.. . .:f:. . :: :: .:. ~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~::...~~~~~~~..... ..:::. . .i ::: : : .. ..:::: :. :i.:....: . i:!:i: :-.'. . .. : : :::::::::::::::::: :5 . ..: ~ ~~~~~~~ . .. . ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~.. . .. i::: ..::% . ..:: . ::. ...?. ~.... .:. . :'.:..:. ... .::...::~~~~~... ..... :.::. .... :.."..... :' P : . ::::: . ... .rl.: . === ====== . . ':::: :9 .'~~ .: . . ~~~~~~~~~~~~~...-:...:: ~~~~ ~~: .. .. . : : ': . . : :. .7 .:!!:: ~i i'iI : ::H. : :::. . . ..!!. .... .:....: ::: 11 : ::: ::::? :::: 5o :' .:.===========: -": :<:::.:. ...::i:. :::::::::: :.-: -: -.. ..:I!:.. :6. ....: ...:: ~ ~~~~~~ ~.. .:..: .: ... .. .:-::... .... : . . ' : :: .. . :. ... .== . :::.:!~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~:ii "!:.. .. ......~~ ~~~~. ::..:..:??:.. .~ . ':.X: :...... ~ ~ ~ ~ ... : ::..... .... ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~'...:":" .. :. .~:!....::: . '. ': 3:::::...... : :I ??.. . v..:. .. . . . ~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ??:.. ..: ::::::..:: ? ..~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ !'.. :. :.. . : .. .. : ::'.:........ . ::: ..: ..::. ~~.: :.. :!:. .. ..::... . ..:: .:.::: ... ...:::' ': -:: .: :.... .:...:~~~~~ ':..77:... .. . ..": . .. . ?:::... ?:. .::. ......ii:::~ll::i:i. ~~ .. .-: ::..:: :.: ~~ " ~ . . . ..:.:... :.. "!:.... : :... :: ????:? :.::.... = ... . . ?. :. :' H:.i :iill:~i ~~~~~!:::i. TYPE : . . . -._.11 ?::::: ..~~~~~~~~~~~. :::...": .... ~:': :: .....: ~~ ~ - . .. .I... . .... .I. :..:. ::.:: .~~~~~~! %~~!: %!. -: . .~~~~~~~~' : ::: : .. ..... .I: ::Il:i ~ :qi: x:. ..'.: :..... .. `i!ii.: :. .... : .:. 4 : :::???? : _....:". ..:.. .. . :.: . ......~~:. .:: ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~:...::::::::::::::::::::::::::~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~ : '::i'"...~~~ :? :: ?...: :. .:: : .. . . ...'. . .~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~'ii!ii11ii : .:....i . ...:. . .. 7.....:: . .: . :.. . " :: :<: :::' :. ..'..:..:.: -. :. :?.:...:: ..'...:: ::: :.~~~~~!~:i? .:.!i : . ~ . :F.~~"~~:f . ....:. N.:.. : : :::..::::'7. ' : . .. . .: . "'. . ...:.. .:: .:IM .:..:i::. I." . :..-::::-:: -.:5:. ..5 .:. ...... . ..:. . . .::l... .. ===== ==== .4:...:.: ~ .:::. .:::: : . .. S:::.. ~:. .... ...: . .m..... .. %...~ ?:.PLAT E XXVI - ::: ..: .... :. . :!% . ....: N. ~o8 ~.. . ::..::.. . . " . ?: ? ...: .. .:..... . :::...... . : .. :....... ....:.4 .: .. .:::. .. :. .. .: OF. .z ?!::::::::. ::... _.. .. ::::.::..:i:::6 :::: ' ::: . ....~~~~~::.:..:. ....: : .::~~~~ :. .."=.... ::::: .. : .: :::.:. . . ' ... ..:::. . .. .....ii::j. ... .. ... : ?..' :~~~~~~~~::~~~~~ ~ ~ .. ::: i . :: :. ..::...N... .....:~-:. . " : : ..... :' : ... .:i:!... . :: .~~~~!!:~~~~~~~~~l~~:!!!:!:..:.. ... . . .~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ :.' ..'':H::.::..:::.: .. . .:. ..... ..:::. .:. .....? .. ..

.' .::. ~~? .. .::?'!:: !.. : .: ' "'~ ' ' ? i. ' 'S : ':?' ? ".. .X. 6 8 i~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ '':~~~~~~~~~~~~~ .::... ....fU ..! _ ~ 60~6 ... 'I ': . ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~' '! : _ _ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~::: :??" : 6? .....~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~? '. _ _ .. ..? . 6 .:'~i . i? __ X ...'.?. i~~~~~~'....~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~? 6QO 628 K ? (i:ii~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~' i~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~i~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~:..?.. f626 _. .: :.' .. C:'. . 6ZZ ~ .6I : i.T ~~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~ _ _ ~~~~~~~ '? :0 ..' :. .... . ~ ~ ~ ..:':':?'':? : .....:. 1~i._ .:_?( ~~1 '...' :'<. . ': 'S?'..~ _ ...? "~ :? ..:: "...i': i:i ...... '":' ..i 61~ ' ... ."M ~ idi' .: ' '~ ?":itL:I . . .. ...i::-' ~' .i'.. . ... ._.'.?" : ii' ''":::. . .~i"'" .. 6 " .. .... _ k ..: :: ii ?:'ii: ?:: : ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ . .10 s~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~i ..~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ _.? ... -' ...L _~~~~ . ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ i.....? ::.. 63?L??-' :.'?i. .: :' ' :.... . ...:: _.. ~~ 61 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~iti ?ir? :? ~~~ f ~ ~ _:CeiS ~~~~~~~~~~~~ .6s.i i _ ~~ .? .. ' "'""' :'::' ..i ?~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~..... .. .. ... i ...... : __ ____ ??..i.."~i'. _ _ _ ........ . -...~ . 606 6II-'"'' ".. . .' !' 'i .: .i 63 3 .?.i . ~ ^ 6Z9~~~~~~~~~6Z ~..?'. .:?... : . ..... ..6. ???i?iiii ... .. ~baas616 ".. i~~iii'.P LATE XXVII . .: li'??~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ __.. ..'" ". ... ' i ?~ _ .. * _:'i? ...._ 00: _I.~r ~ ~~~~~~~~~~ . ' .._: . 'i. . ./':fi _ " dsB ? ` ' ~ ... ..75 .... ." _ _ ::~~~~~~~~~~_ __ ~ ~ _:::i...... .

...i:i:: ii... ........ . i :?t~iilj ii'?ie ..?. . ::i ' ?? :. . ....... .. ... r :~~~~~~~.. .. .: ~~~~~~~~~z.. . ..?:. . :: . I~ii~!~$'i ..:. . .:.... ....3'i :'.f .. i... ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~I..: .??. ?: :iiiiii::?. ~ ~ ~ :.". ....... ... . . ..?ii. . .::::::..:... :....'. . ..0! Li -:: 6?8 :. i:.. ......?~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~:~~ ~ ~~~~ ... *~~~~.'........ .:: .. j.:: lii': . ~'~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~i 65 _ r "' : ....... ?.i: * *.i~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~.. i:: ?iii.:i. < . . . .... ...." ... . .':. ?:...:' ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ . . .:.'..'i? ? ? ... . N ..y......_ .. .. .:::::~ .. '' ~ : :..'.::'. ... .^ .:....... ...~~~~~~~ i :?~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~:. ?I?: ? .iiii '.. ...?:....~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~? .::::. . i..?ilii.... ?::::i ... ..:.?.... .~?~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~.. ..:......:: .. ~~~~~~~~~~ :::. ...?:.: '. XXVIII . .. ...':j i:. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~.::i:0)::. .. ...:.:..j .._"' "" .. .i..:.. ... .~[jg ........: ?:ii...... .:'i::: ii?r:i:?: I. .. '''"'""":''. G . .ii~i i. ~~L. : ......:::~ili :.?!/ ?:::'~J?i:r .. ... ... ...:. ":' .:.. :... ~~ ~~:: ~ ~ ~ ~ X_ : ..' .?? .??"( :ii . .::. ... :.. .::ti :: ... .::: '..??... . ..... ." '"'. ..... _ :: : : p'~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~ ... ? 67iP~~~~ . :.. . .. .:. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ .... ~ ~ ': : :3: .......-: .' . .. :? ?? ? i~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~.:....?:. ... .":.i:.... FRAGMENTS .'.: ::i? '' ....': . . ?:?? . .' TYPE i: ' .. ?i~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~"' .~..? ...XVI ... . ~ ~ ~~:. .' .. . '~ : ': ~9 :''~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~i 'i i~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~:!. .:i ?.: . . '"06ET _.':". _ . ':. . ?..:... . .."':! '... .. ..~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~"" ' . ..:. ? *. . ..8 .: ..:?.......:?[::~~~~~~~~~~~~~"' ": .::....: " ..:. i :~:. . . : . .. '.'? ~ i:i ??'' :?. . "''":'64 -. i ? ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ * ?. .?" '. ..:::..':::::::. . . f . :: G6 4 ..i. _.... ':. ... i :'{. '. . ...:i? t::....:l:i ..'i .'. _ . .... . :::.:i:. . I.. ???? .. .... .. . ....? . . .... :'. .'.. :' .... ??ii?~ `. i . ?i ?: .:..:: . .. ....0..... .? _ i~~~~~~~~~~~:.. . i::..: :.... ...:. .... .: . :f::.:::?:::.".- ~~ '.... ..:: . : .....9~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ?i :i -:..:: ii . ..''i: .. . ' ~ . ' :::~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~?..: ..<j_ 0 6S~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 1-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~83-- : ?:i?:-:):?~ ~ ~ ~ '.. ...:' i: ..?~~~~~~~~~?::::.:i~i...... .." . . . .PLATE . ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~? ...i ?:~~~~~~ --... :> i:00:i:. . ..-----t:: --'63Jt' ir ~'... ...'....' : ........'.::...: .... }i} . _ . 6~ '"' .... q .".: ?? t::0 6.. . ':: ~ ~ "i::i???:?:'l? ?'"'' :'.. . ' ': : _. ..62. ...:.??? i~~~~~~~ .: ... '~ ' ~::: ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~:?: ~ ... ..:::::::::::::::::::::::::: - ?~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~? .:~.. ''. ?:..... .::~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ . . .':.:6. ..:"..::?i.. ?: 'i ?? . ..... :...::i '. ... .... ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~..0_ ........:. ?: ....... "' : mer ica65 6~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ . . .. . ? '. . ': 'i?: ? ''" ::... ... p ....-""'~~~! ' . 4???6y..: ......~~~~~~~~~?..j~iitiil~~~~Pi '?~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ i'i .. . .? 64?~~3ii ~~~L~C.. .

.... .... ......... . .... ?.... . . : 7fi Z ..... : ...'. '~ ? 04_~1 Z~~~~~~~~~ :??: ... . ...:...... :.. :.PLATE ....?. :... ... ... * ... : ! of .. .. .. .L..... XXIX ~ ~~ 7Z~2 706 "' _~~~~~~~~~~~ .. . ......: w'~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ .... ? ' ..it -j +'5 : ... . ~~ . .. .. . . . ....j ! .........' . ..:: :. ......:.............. ... ..'.... . ...: :. . ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ .~ ... ...'..... .!.~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~ .. . . .. ..~o~ .... .... . .... af.... XXVII-XXVIIIi~. ' ... : ..::: ^tECFRGMKT OFt0 TY^ XXVI XXVIII : .... c:~i 'i -:...... NT ...... ii~?~:i~! . .si .X . ? .. .. : : .......: -..... :.......:: .

AA TOYA I(KPHGI(M^N_ TTOC -/ 537 .PLATE XXX Icir 302J 37e3 73 38S I<& 387 r A 41945 A M BM rAAY szz 524 M rRo 526 597 .M(tN)0 oFKAN .YKI oyy y 1A/\/\AICTUY 598 NoYK 1y c NY 600oo V3 ANOy .ioNo^( 560 56 Qo 562 NroY yrE1J 566 ) C( o Ax\ ) 57o AHPoc. CTOY 0' 5w oC 573 C 574 cN(lNJ4) CopO 575 (.J38 54'5 555 eYrc SxOyL S56 c CnAr\o SJgZ7 oY /C\ enArT 558 c rAr\or .A 576 n.559 I }KINMOY ArH j.

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756 n:K 75 C 759 'o CEKO 0 760 \ > '4 CEKC 761 C(gO\'( 0 762 N0? 763 \0xo 76p 765 1zO NJ 766 CEK' 767 \<CKO 768 ~>OY cp CTE'Is !9 C>\] 7SO cEkQ . np..PLATE XXXII ox " 752 131( O/h6 ILL. ~y fl C-u . P IOy 7 70 ?oy 77/ 77S 773 769 KC \Slsk 7ay CEO 776' S i77 C& 776 I7f 7s A 87 3 776 806 82/ 834 879 9/7 9?/8 . p.0F [<GAWOf 0: [(' .CLY 75.

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