Biomelioration Program: 2010 For Coastal Development

Beach Morning Glory (Ipomoea pes-caprae)

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan

PARC
04/13/2010

Table of Contents Tables: Figures: Annexures: Executive Summary:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Name of the project:.................................................................................................Location:...................................................................................................................Authorities responsible for: Plan provision: Project objectives and its relationship with sector objectives: Description, Justification, Technical Parameter and Technology Transfer Aspects: ....................................................................................................................6.1 :………………………………………………………………6.2 …………………………………………………………...6.3 ………………………………………………………………………6.4 ……………………………………………………………...6.5 …………………………………………………………………..6.6 Description: …………………………………...6.7 Technical Aspects:……………………………………………………….6.8 Project Components:…………………………………………………….I. ……………………………………………… II. …………………………………………… III. ………………………………………………… Capital Cost Estimates.............................................................................................Annual Operating and Maintenance Cost after Completion of the Project.......Demand and Supply Analysis:………………………………………………….Financial Plan and Mode of Financing:………………………………………..Project Benefit and Analysis:…………………………………………………...Implementation Schedule:………………………………………………………Management Structure and Manpower Requirements Including Specialized Skills during Construction and Operational Phases:…………………………Additional Project/Decisions Required Maximizing Socio-Economic Benefits from the Proposed Project:……………………………………………………. Certified that the Project Proposal has been Prepared on the Basis of Instructions Provided by the Planning Commission for the Preparation of PC-1 for Production Sector Project…………………………………………………-

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

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Revised 2005 GOVERNMENT OF PAKISTAN PLANNING COMMISSION PC-1 FORM (SOCIAL SECTORS)
1. Name of the Project: Biomelioration Program for Coastal Development. 2. Location: Sindh/ Makran Coastal Area (10 km width)
The area will be divided into two zones: Zone 1: Sindh Coastal Belt. Approximately 109 miles. Zone 2: Baluchistan Coastal Belt. 413.85 miles.

The Zones will be administrated from the following locations: Zone 1: Sindh: a. East Limit: 230 55’ 22.73” N 680 18’ 54.38” E b. Keti Bundar: 240 08’ 41.11” N 670 27’ 10.55” E 0 c. West Limit: 24 47’ 32.97” N 670 08’ 41.20” E

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Zone 2: Baluchistan: Zone 2 Sub-Area 1: Approximately 127.98 miles a. East Limit: 240 50’ 42.46” N b. Winder: 250 23’ 12.15” N c. West Limit: 250 22’ 53.90” N

660 53’ 59.91” E 660 40’ 03.66” E 650 30’ 27.86” E

Zone 2 Sub-Area 2: Approximately 142.27 miles a. East Limit: 250 22’ 53.90” N b. Ormara.: 250 13’ 01.50” N c. West Limit: 250 16’ 04.87” N

650 30’ 27.86” E 640 37’ 58.82” E 630 27’ 58.00 E

Zone 2 Sub-Area 3: Approximately 143.61 miles a. East Limit: 250 16’ 04.87” N b. Gawadar: 250 07’ 38.07” N c. West Limit: 250 10’ 40.12” N

630 27’ 58.00 E 620 19’ 24.04” E 610 37’ 00.20” E

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Authority responsible for: i. Sponsoring: Go Pakistan ii. Execution: Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC). iii. Operation and Maintenance: Organized Village/ Mohallah Councils. iv. Concerned Federal Ministry: Federal Ministry Food & Agriculture. Plan Provision: It is proposed that a special budgetary allocation be made for the

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Project in view of the importance of Sustainable Development; Prevention of Environment Degradation; Aghaaz-e-Huqooq-e-Baluchistan and Food Security under the present financial circumstances.

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Project objectives and its relationship with Sectoral objectives
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Project objectives and its relationship with Sectoral objectives

Being an apex research organization at Federal level, responsible for coordination and promotion of agricultural research, Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC) has the mission “Poverty reduction through science-based improvements in agricultural productivity, profitability, and competitiveness to ensure “food and livelihood security for all in an environmentally sustainable manner”. This project is highly critical in nature especially in the light of the present socio-economic situation and is within the purview of the MDGs pertaining to the provision of food security and Vision 2030 in the following sectors: a. Poverty alleviation. b. Nutrition enhancement. c. Capacity building and human resource development of communities. d. Female capacity development and empowerment. e. Environment Protection. The proposed project is in line with the Pakistan Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper, Medium Term Development Framework (MTDF) 2005-10 of the Planning Commission of Pakistan. The proposed project will help in achieving the MTDF (2005-10) goals, targets and objectives besides supporting the implementation of its sectoral strategies. It will help Pakistan to fulfill international obligations of the Millennium Development Goal (MDGs) targets; Goal-1 (Halving extreme poverty and hunger; reduce by the proportion of people who live on less than one dollar a day. Reduce by half the proportion of people who suffer from hunger) and Goal-7; (Ensure Environmental Sustainability). In addition the proposed project supports the National Agricultural and Environment Policy, National Conservation Strategy (NCS) and National Environment Action Plan (NEAP). The proposed Project’s primary Objectives are to reduce poverty; promote sustainable livelihoods and protect the environment by adopting a four tiered approach: 1. 2. 3. 4. Detailed Survey. To define subsurface aquifers; geothermal resources; sulfide orebodies and geologic structures like faults and fractures. Equitable Social Organization; Poverty Mapping and Gender Development. Environment Protection. Promoting Livelihoods and Sustainable Medium; Small and Micro-Enterprise.

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Description, Justification and Technical Parameters:

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Description, Justification and Technical Parameters: 1 According to a report prepared for the Government of Sindh and Asian Development Bank, while addressing the fact that most interventions in the Coastal areas have either failed or simply languished. “One of the key finding in this report is that failing to deal with cause perpetuates the cycle of consequence. Until the fundamentals change, repeating the same process can only produce the same outcomes.” The report goes on to state: “It is not difficult to find glaring examples of serious environmental damage and extreme poverty in the Project area. Nor is it difficult to conclude that the situation is getting worse rather than better. What is more difficult to understand, given the obvious awareness that most people have of the situation, is why should the situation be so difficult to deal with? In the coastal areas the uncertainty of water and the mismanagement of water resources has caused enormous hardship and there is little prospect of change, at least in the short to medium term. It is not just the physical consequences of less water but the ensuing social, economic and environmental damage stemming from failure to adequately foresee or deal with the consequences. The conclusion reached was that the problems were structural; good people even with adequate resources were unable to produce favorable outcomes working within such an environment. The point that emerges is that technical solutions cannot, on their own, solve what are essentially failures in policy.” As such the present Program has been designed in such a manner that a new Management Mechanism is emplaced that is more responsive and accountable to the common citizens. At the same time it has been determined that existing Power structures are not disturbed. The Social Sciences Division of the PARC, after careful consideration is poised to introduce gradual Social Change without threat to existing power structures. Environmental degradation and extreme poverty is to be found in the target area. The affects of Salinity; water shortages; poor water management practices and saltwater intrusion, greatly hamper efforts to attain sustainable development. By taking the position of converting adversity to opportunity, an all out effort will be made to live in harmony with Nature by creating vibrant, dynamic and locally self-sufficient communities. The objectives of the Program will be achieved when the community’s skills and talents are tapped in such a manner that they declare “We Did It.”

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Sindh Coastal and Inland Community Development Project, Pakistan (ADB TA 4525-PAK) Final Report Volume 1 – Main Report. http://prr.hec.gov.pk/Chapters/930-1.pdf

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General: Zone 2 is classified as “Sub Tropical Coast Line” or “Arid Marine Region of Pakistan” (Ahmad 1964). Ahmad refers to this area’s climate as “Arid Marine Sub Tropical Coast Lands” sub divided as “Makran and Lasbella Coasts”. Koppen’s (1918, 1936) World Climate classification is BWhw or “Hot Desert Climate”. According to Holdridge (1947) it is “Tropical Desert Bush Formation”. According to Tasnif and Snead (1964), Snead (1966) and Snead and Tasnif (1966) the Coastal vegetation of Lasbella is divided into six major land-form types identifiable from plant indicators as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Low Dry Alluvial Plains: Riverine Tract: Rocky Upland Pleistocene Hills: Saline Coastal Flats: Sand Dunes: Mangroves and Tidal lagoon:

The world’s land-surface has 8% absolute desert and about 40% is covered or threatened by semi-deserts. The instance of increasing desertification is a future threat that has to be dealt with, especially in the light of Global Warming and increased aridity. Every year 5 to 7 million hectares succumb to desertification. Aridization and more advanced desertification of land result from the combined action of natural tendencies and ecological mistakes made by Man in the course of his manifold activities. Most alarmingly, the velocity of what is mainly anthropogenic aridization is commonly measured in terms of a few years or at most a single human generation. But help should come from the maintenance of rain-fed farming in less arid areas, and especially from the widespread establishment of irrigation systems. There are, however, very serious problems engendered by continuing irrigation, which is apt to be wasteful of fresh water. To begin with, river-water resources are becoming increasingly limited and artesian waters are too-easily depleted or become brackish. Worse still, with the high rate of evaporation in arid regions, salinization of the surface and the uppermost soil horizon commonly ensues, and gradually penetrates to lower strata in which plants mainly root. Most existing irrigation systems lack the piping or consistent lining of water-bringing canals and the deep (2.5–3 m) horizontal drainage-ducts that are needed to evacuate excessive soluble salts. The ultimate disposal of the salt, moreover, still causes problems when the sea cannot be used or salt-lakes be created for fish and waterfowl. Meanwhile, revegetation is becoming more and more widely practised and some success is attending efforts to develop salt-resistant crops in USA, India, and USSR.3 China has made considerable progress in this regard. General Vegetation: Capparis aphylla, Periploca aphylla, Boucerosia, Tecoma undulata, Acan-thodium spicatum, Prosopis spicigera, Withania coagulans, Zizyphus Jujuba, Salvadora oleoides, Calotropis procera, Caragona polyacantha, three kinds of Acacia, Leptadenia Spartium, Taverniera
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Victor A. Kovda Professor, Subfaculty of Pedology, Moscow State University, Moscow 177234, USSR; formerly Director, Institute of Agrochemistry and Soil Science of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR; sometime President of the International Society of Soil Science and President of SCOPE.

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Nummularia, Physorhynchus brahuicus, and Alhagi camelorum. In low-lying parts where water is available Tamarix articulata and T. gallica are found. Here and there Euphorbia neritfolia and the dwarf-palm (Nannorhops Ritchieana) occur, the latter often in great quantities. The herbaceous vegetation is very scanty, consisting of such plants as Aerua javanica, Pluchea lanceolata, Fagonia arabica, Mimulus alatus, and Cassia obovata; near water, Eclipta erecta; and as weeds of cultivation, Solanum dulcamara and Spergularia. Two species akin to Haloxylon, Suaeda verminculata and Salsola foetida, abound on saline soil. Panicum anlidotale is the most important grass. Throughout Makran the staple food is dates. Great attention is paid to the cultivation and care of the date-tree, and the dates of Panjgur are declared by Arabs to excel those of Basra. Though all the trees belong to the species Phoenix doctylifera, they are distinguished locally into more than a hundred kinds, according to the weight, size, and quality of the fruit. All trees are known either as pedigree trees (nasabi) or non-pedigree trees (kuroch). Among the former, the best varieties are mozdati, d-e-dandan, haleni, begam jangi, and sabso. Fresh trees are raised from offsets; they produce fruit after three to eight years, and continue to do so for three generations. The young offsets must be carefully watered for the first year, and afterwards at intervals until their roots strike the moisture of the subsoil. The date season is divided into three principal periods: machosp, rang or kulont, and naen. In machosp (March) the artificial impregnation of the female date-spathes by the insertion of pollen-bearing twigs from the spathe of the male tree is effected. In the season of rang or kulont (June) the colour first appears on the fruit, and there is general rejoicing. The harvest (amen) lasts from July to September, when men and cattle live on little else but dates. The fruit is preserved in various ways, the most common being by pressing and packing in palm-leaf baskets (laghati). Better kinds are mixed with expressed date-juice and preserved in earthen jars known as humb. Owing to the excessive quantity of dates in the diet of the people of Makran, night-blindness is common. Most of the year the vegetation of scattered xerophytic shrubs and trees is sparse. During monsoons thick grasses are reported in abundance. The Lasbela valley is a vast alluvial plain approximately 50 miles wide at the coast and extends 80 miles inland. The height above sea level is generally 50 feet with two Mounatin Ranges, Mor and Hala rise to 1,000 to 3,000 feet on the Eastern and Western sides of the valley. The mountain bases form a large alluvial plain covered with a thin gravel layer with Pleistocene sand deposits. The Porali, Khantra and Windar Rivers and their tributaries are adding sediment. Bela, Uthal and Somiani are the major settlements while the desert parts of the plain have sparse population. Much fodder, cereal and vegetable crops can be grown but this varies with degree of flooding and amount of rainfall. Major crops are Jowar (Sorghum vulgare), ‘Mung’ Bean (Phaseolus aureus), ‘Patsan’ a fiber plant (Hibiscus cannabinus), Castor Oil ‘Arind’ (Ricinus communis), Urad (Vigna mungo), Guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) and Millet (Bajra Pennisetum glaucum). Fruit trees such as the Date Palm ‘Khajoor’ (Phoenix doctylifera), Mangoes (Mangifera indica) Black Plum, used for tannin (Syzgium cumini) and Guavas (Psidium guajava) are grown on a small scale, in folk medicine, extracts of roots, bark, and leaves are used to treat gastroenteritis, vomiting, diarrhoea, dysentery, wounds, ulcers, toothache, coughs, sore throat, inflamed gums, and a number of other conditions (Morton 1987). The inhabitants of non-agricultural areas are nomadic and pastoral with herds of camels, sheep and goats. Due to this most of the low scrub vegetation has been completely destroyed. Average rainfall is 5-9 inches (166-300 mm)with most during monsoons (June, July and August). During winters the extreme Western side of the valley gets one or two Cyclonic storms.

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Ecology: The area ranges from Sea level to 100 – 120 feet above Sea level along the Coastal road. There are some bare hills further back forming natural barriers in some places. There is evidence of Wind and Water erosion as the landscape is desiccated. As such Biomelioration is required and methods of water harvesting must be introduced for plantation and creation of a wetter micro environment. There is evidence of much drainage of rain water and this can be tapped. The sub soil water is saline due to proximity to the sea. The soil is mostly sandy along the coast and clay-loam close by. This factor along with Saline Sodicity is forming an impervious layer and there is hardly any penetration as evidenced by standing water in natural and man made declivities and depressions along the roads even after one month of occurrence of rains. There is evidence of Gullying and rill erosion. Due to complete absence of proper zoning, excellent potential agricultural land around Gawadar has been converted to Housing Colonies (yet to be built). Hardly any organic matter is observed and nutrient enriched surface run off is providing nutrition to the soils. Due to excessive cutting of trees there is restricted nutrient recycling from deep sub soil. The geologic analysis of rocks on the nearby hills and their nutrient content needs investigation. It is reported that Sardasht Forest is completely exhausted while Kolanch Forest near Kalmat is nearing
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http://www.parc.gov.pk/Maps/AgroEcoBaloch.html http://www.parc.gov.pk/Maps/AgroEcoPakistan.html http://www.parc.gov.pk/Maps/AgroEcoSindh.html

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exhaustion. The principal trees in these forests are Prosopis spicigera, Capparis aphylla, Tamarix indica, Tamarix arlicilata, Dalbergia Sissoo, Olea cuspidata, Pistadia khatnjak, and Acacia modesta. Soils are sandy; rocky; clay loam. There are some large mud flats and vestiges of Mangroves. Coral Reefs (Phylum anidoria) off the coast from Jivni are important and should exist in other locations as well. There are reports of damage due to pollution. Deep Sea Port at Gawadar has adversely affected the Corral Reef and Fossils as well as local Pearl Industry (needs confirmation). The presence of Crystals needs confirmation by analysis whether it is Silica or Salt. Threats: Arabian Sea: The Arabian Sea is a center for oil shipping. As a result oil spills, anchor damage, sedimentation, and other pollution effects are a real threat. Mining operations, fishing pressures, destructive fish collecting practices (e.g., dynamiting), residential and commercial development, and effluent discharge have resulted in altered species composition in many areas. Irresponsible recreation and tourism also contribute to eutrophication and reef degradation. War-related activities provide another source of environmental damage. Threats: Indus Delta: Zone 1: Dams on the river reduce flows in lower portions of the system and limit the transport of fertile sediments downstream into the delta. They also pose a serious threat to the survival of the Indus River dolphin as the remaining dolphins become isolated into smaller groups. Water extraction for irrigation, runoff of chemicals into the rivers, and introduced species also threaten the freshwater species of the delta.

Coast along Keti Bunder Sindh

Mud Flat Keti Bunder Sindh

Indus Delta experiences warm monsoon climatic regime. Mild winters extend from November to February while summer season extends from March to October. Most of the annual precipitation falls during monsoon, which is erratic in distribution. Mean annual rainfall is 220 mm. January is the coolest month with minimum temperature of 9.5o C while in June – July minimum and maximum temperatures range from 23o C – 26o C and from 30oC - 36oC, respectively. Humidity is generally higher in the morning than in the afternoon. It also varies from place to place depending upon the proximity to the sea. Wind is another important feature of coastal zone. It is variable and is faster during summer (7.4 to 20.5 km/h) than winter (Qureshi 1985). The area consists of mud flats and is crisscrossed with water channels, giving the place an appearance of a marsh. Towards the west coast of Keti Bunder on the opposite bank of Ochto River, there is vegetation of Mangrove plants Avicennis marina, wild rice Oryza grass and shrub Salsola. Towards the land sand dunes are visible for miles. Most of the

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mangroves plantations are lost. Dense mangroves cover about 2631 hectares; medium mangrove cover 1996 hectares and the sparse mangrove cover 3588 hectares. The Indus Delta is a landmark of outstanding ecological and cultural importance occupying an area of 600,000 hectares along the coast of Pakistan. The Delta comprises of seventeen major and numerous minor creeks, extensive mud flats and encompasses ninetyseven percent of the mangrove forests in Pakistan. The Indus Delta is listed under the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, 1971, and is classified as the fifth largest delta in the world. The Indus Delta and surrounding habitats constitute diverse ecosystems including; riverine forests, irrigated plains, fresh water lakes and brackish wetlands. The land along the main course of River Indus is very fertile and supports a diversity of agricultural crops such as wheat, maize, cotton, sugarcane, rice and a variety of fruit orchards such as bananas, mangos, date palm, Indian jujube and coconut palm. Significant fisheries resources include Indus Baril, Indus Garua, Golden Mahasheer and the famous Palla fish. Riverine forests along the banks of River Indus comprise species like Tamarix (Lai), Prosopis cineraria (Kandi), Acacia nilotica (Babur) and Saccharum sp. These forests provide sanctuary to a variety of birds (black and grey partridge, Eurasian collared dove, and crow-pheasant), mammals (hog deer, smooth-coated otter, fishing cat and wild boar), reptiles and amphibians (fresh-water turtles, marsh crocodile, saw-scaled viper and monitor lizard). Keenjhar, Haleji and Hadero are three important fresh water lakes lying at the apex of the coastal region. The Delta is also home to a significant number of brackish lagoons such as Jhubo and Nurri. The ecology of the Indus Delta is threatened by both natural and anthropogenic pressures. Upstream diversions of the Indus River by water infrastructure development throughout the 20th century have altered the natural river flows endangering this globally important and economically valuable wetland system. Threats: Makran Coast: Zone 2 The study area is classified as “Sub Tropical Coast Line” or “Arid Marine Region of Pakistan” (Ahmad 1964). Ahmad refers to this area’s climate as “Arid Marine Sub Tropical Coast Lands” sub divided as “Makran and Lasbella Coasts”. Koppen’s (1918, 1936) World Climate classification is BWhw or “Hot Desert Climate”. According to Holdridge (1947) it is “Tropical Desert Bush Formation”. The Makran Coastal area is at 0-300 meters above sea level, and is dry arid hot. The oceanic influence keeps the temperature lower than that in the interior in summer and higher in winter. The mean temperature in the hottest month (June) remains between 31°C and 32°C. The mean temperature in the coolest month (January) varies from 18°C to 19°C. The uniformity of temperature is a unique characteristic of the coastal region in Balochistan. Occasionally, winds moving down the Balochistan plateau bring brief cold spells, otherwise the winter is pleasant. In Gwadar, winter is shorter than summer. Although Gwadar is not a monsoon region it still receives light monsoon showers coming from Karachi. But in winter, Western Disturbance can cause heavy Showers. Annual rainfall is only 100mm (3 inches). Climate: Solar Insolation: During summers, particularly April to June, solar insulation is intense at 180 – 200 Kcal.cm-1. Evapotranspiration: Annual evapotranspiration is 1750 mm (Zubenok, 1977).

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Rainfall: Rainfall is erratic and unpredictable since it arises from Eastern depressions originating from the Bay of Bengal, the Arabian Sea or occasionally from Central India (Snead, 1966). Drought increases towards the West, resulting in more hot and dry conditions in Pasni and Gawadar. Mean annual rainfall is 148.30 mm in Ormara, 131.60 mm in Pasni and 148.90 in Jivni, mostly during winters.

Humidity: Relative humidity along the coast is high throughout the year though it is higher in summer than winter. Lowest relative humidity occurs (49%) in December and January and the highest is during monsoons (88 – 90%). It is highest during mornings (5 am) and declines during the day till evening.

Temperature: Diurnal and Annual temperature ranges are considerable and extreme. Winters are mild while summers are very hot.

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Wind: South-West or Westwardly winds predominate for most of the year resulting in salt and sand particles being carried from the beaches to the interior. This results in barchan type of Sand dunes (A barchan dune is an arc-shaped sand ridge, comprising wellsorted sand. This type of dune possesses two "horns" that face downwind, with the slip face (the downwind slope) at the angle of repose of sand, or approximately 32 degrees. The upwind side is packed by the wind, and stands at about 15 degrees. Simple barchan dunes may stretch from meters to a hundred meters or so between the tips of the horns from SouthWest to North-West direction.) During winters the wind reverses and the process of dune development consequently is also reversed resulting in deformation of shape.

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Apart from South-East winds, other directions bring gales and dust storms, locally termed as ‘Shumal’. North-West winds of winters, locally termed as ‘Uttar’ often result in pneumonia being associated with low temperatures.

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barchan

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Aridity: Detailed analysis of climate charts (outdated) show that the precipitation curve underlies the temperature curve throughout the year except for winters in Ormara, Pasni and Jivni. This results in a short humid period which is compounded by high velocity winds and high temperatures in summers, resulting in increased evaporation. Less and irregular rainfall, intense insolation and heat and Global warming which leads to high evaporation, all yield high aridity. The upper layer of soil remains dry except for a few days after rainfall. Winter rains were observed to form ponds in declivities and depressions and are reported to stand for over one month. High evaporation leads to drying out. Soils: Jivni Formation: Shelly and reefoid limestone, sandstone and conglomerate. Gawadar Formation: Soft and poorly consolidated mudstone with minor sandstone. FAO Soil Characterization: Lithosols-Regosols. In Baluchistan/ Makran (arid zone) the coastal soil is saline, in general, and unproductive. The decay of coastal halophytic flora forms the nutrients and organic matter; however, the saline soils have very little organic carbon that can serve as an energy source for soil mycoflora (Malik et al., 1980). The Makran Coast falls within Zone IX Dry Western Plateau - mountainous areas. Most soil found in humid climates in which soluble salts and minerals are leached out of the upper layers and are cemented or compacted at a lower level). Makran’s soil is of two types: alluvial soil and litho sols and rig sols. The valley of Dasht river in the western part of the district and the Kulanch valley in the north consist of alluvial soil. The mountainous area of the district is covered with litho sols and rig sols. Limestone, shale and sandstone are the main rocks involved in the formation of this area. The area is described as BWh under Arid or Desert with hot summers and mild winters. As such it can be suitable for growing Out of Season Vegetables like Southern Sindh. These vegetables will find a lucrative market up-country. Owing to small rainfall, the salt nature of the soil, and the physical conformation of the country, the shore is almost entirely desert, presenting a succession of arid clay plains impregnated with saline matter and intersected by watercourses. From these plains rise precipitous table hills of White Clay (Kaolin). The coast-line is deeply indented, but its most characteristic feature is the repeated occurrence of promontories and peninsulas of white clay cliffs, table-topped in form. 19

Makran Coastal Range The Makran Coastal Range (MCR) is a narrow belt of highly folded and densely faulted mountain ridges which parallel the present shoreline and extend for about 75 percent of the total coast length for about 800 km (500 mi) in both the Balochistan and Sindh Provinces. The steep mountains rise to an elevation of up to 1,500 m (5,000 ft). The coast is rugged with uplifted terraces, cliffs and headlands.

NASA Satellite photo of a section of the Makran rugged and tectonic coastline showing uplifted terraces, headlands, sandy beaches, mud flats, rocky cliffs, bays and deltas. Numerous mud volcanoes are present along the shores. Soil Analysis from Social Sciences Division (PARC) Survey Team: • The soil analysis results show that the soil pH was around 9.2 and EC 0.90 in orchards. The TSS of water samples was around 645 to 1510 ppm. Various grades of brackish water are used for the production of range of fruit and seasonal crops (wheat, cotton, alfalfa) including vegetables. Based on the existing use of saline underground water sources, alternative crop combinations could be identified and recommended for the specific sub-zones of the coastal line. Soil types would be quite important factors in determining suitable crop combinations. Soil Analysis Results • Analysis of soil sample collected from the salicornia field shows 8.4 pH (strongly saline) and 8.42 EC (dS/m). These results further confirm the views of the proponents for rapid promotion of salicornia types of high value halophytes on highly salinized coastal lands. Similar soil situations were found in abundance on lands located up to 10 km distance from the sea.

The analysis of water collected from a well shows high TSS of 4711 ppm. This water is used for supplementing tomato crop grown under rainfed conditions which shows higher salinity tolerance of this crop.

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The saline water use interventions may be expanded with the inclusion of plants like Chico, Zyzyphus, Datepalm and crops like cotton, sorghum and millet The salicornia plantation discovered at Gaddani coast could be used for getting seed, plants and suckers for re-plantation in the same as well as at other potential sites.

Major rivers in Southern Pakistan contribute enormous amounts of sediments and turbidite deposits.

Tidal currents are a highly dynamic phenomenon that vary not only with the seasons of the year but also change throughout the years resulting in an ever changing geography of the beaches. This beach transformation is known as beach erosion or beach evolution. Furthermore, as the global warming problem starts to show its effects it is now known that within the next thirty years many near-to-shore populations will have severe problems due to the rise of the sea level, and there is a need for the development of land reclamation and beach erosion control methods in addition to the existing ones. The currently in use methods for the control of beach erosion and land reclamation vary in price, complexity, size and impact on the shore. The can be broadly classified according to their stiffness as rigid and flexible or according to their capacity to absorb energy as energy absorbing and non-energy absorbing. Among the most common methods to control beach erosion are: Vertical walls (rigid, non energy absorbing). Rubble mounds and sloping walls (rigid, energy absorbing). Grass rows (flexible, energy absorbing). Fences for sand trapping (flexible, energy absorbing). Powerful waves and currents, infrequent but intense flash floods, erodible young sedimentary rocks, and strong tectonic uplift combine to make this one of the most active and dramatic coastal regions of the Earth.
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The conditions for food security are not sustainable. Environment and Predator Protection for self-reliant local food security is very much needed as nutrient mining/ leaching and absence of organic material/ biota as well as soil erosion are severely restricting yields and aggravating pest and disease susceptibility. Climate change is bringing greater stress upon production due to increased heat in summers and increased cold in winters. Domestic animals/ poultry and rodents are also detrimental to food production without physical protection. In order to ensure Kitchen Garden Food Self-Sufficiency at the very minimum and provide a basis for safe, more quantity and quality produce the problem needs to be addressed immediately. Plant protection through complete plant nutrition is very much achievable and desirable as introduction of toxic materials in the name of plant protection is extremely detrimental to the food chain. Sustainable development is not possible without sustainable agriculture/ food production. Environmental pollution of soil, water and air; resource depletion and nature degradation as well as socio-economic problems, are seriously impacting the carrying capacity of the land. As such there is an urgent requirement for farming systems to be redesigned and transformed into more sustainable ones. Agriculture is a multifunctional and multiple objective activity which has to supply food in sufficient quantity and quality and the supply itself must be stable, sustainable and accessible. Agriculture must provide employment and generate basic income and profit at farm, regional and national levels; strictly avoid and minimize land degradation and destabilization; eschew pollution of natural resources, protect the great cycles of nature; as well as ensure the overall health and wellbeing of humans, animals, birds, insects and microbes. Rural Women do not have enough opportunities for services and other income generating activities. Public sector services like teaching, health etc. are not available. A vast majority of women are in need of income generating activities. The scope and potential for such activities lies in food security enhancing measures. Women participation in the villages, is the need of the hour, and would greatly help in supporting and be highly beneficial for the uplift of rural economy in the future. Justification The Coastal area mostly comprises of rural areas and possesses peculiar bio-physical conditions suited to pastoral and poultry husbandry. The communities are mostly poor and they meet their ends from a variety of subsistence activities. Poverty is wide spread throughout the area. Living in the extremely hostile weather conditions especially in summer coupled with highly barren terrain, income generation sources of communities living in remote parts of the Coastal areas are very limited. Consequently, the local communities mostly exploit the trees and shrubs and rangeland resources of the arid semi-desert to earn their livelihoods. Thus the fragile ecosystem is exposed to erosion and the landscape is being degraded at a very fast rate. In view thereof, it is therefore assumed that the project is highly justifiable in terms of its social acceptability, economic viability, environmental safety and technical excellence. The positive value of benefit cost analysis of the project is an indicator that the proposed project is justified provided all necessary financial, technical and administrative inputs are provided in time as per the provision of the PC-1.

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As regards the governance aspects of the project, PARC has got the required expertise in community mobilization, livelihoods, finance, HID, M&E and marketing units assisted by sectoral specialists for implementation of the project and is therefore well equipped to successfully implement the proposed project and achieve all its objectives as per schedule. The proposed project is justified by the dire and pressing need to emplace a Support Web for a disillusioned and bewildered populace. Social harmony and positive growth can only be ensured with sustainability if the parameters of a just and egalitarian society ensure that the minimum in requirements of every citizen are ensured in a participatory manner. This will discourage extremism and foster stability. The principles of Bioenvironmental Management and transparent records that are easily accessible and verifiable will be adhered to. A careful phasing with concurrent activities to cut down upon lead times will ensure sustainability and success of the interventions. GIS will provide a powerful tool for management and ensure effective monitoring and evaluation. Sustainable Development Action Plans will ensure harmony, while Social Mobilization and development of Village Councils along with Village Development Plans will ensure participation and ownership. All activities will be carried out, after capacity building of the beneficiaries through local communities who will themselves be encouraged to become service providers. Viable Alternative!  Introduce Alternate Management Systems in Horticulture, including the following:  Complete Plant Nutrition.  Correct & Innovative Cultural Practices.  Conservation Irrigation.  Collective Micro Enterprise. Vital Issues:  Poverty Mitigation/ Prosperity;  Ecologically Safe/ Sustainable Food Production & Afforestation;  Micro Enterprise. Poverty Eradication: In order to fight hunger and combat poverty and deprivation we must release and tap the enormous potential of the people who can develop their own skills and local resources. Adopt Intermediate and/or Transitional Technologies Contributing to:         Generating Economy. Creating Basic Production. Improving Employment Opportunities. Ensuring Adequate Living Standards. Bringing about gradual changes from extensive systems with low productivity to intensive ones with higher productivity. Reducing pressure from Natural Resources. Producing an adequate Benefit/Cost Ratio. Ushering in Prosperity.

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Interventions:
1. Preparatory: 2. Environment/ Water: Energy/

3. Agri/ Horti/ Aqua Culture Livestock & Range Management: 4. Enterprise: 5. Research & Development:

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Preparatory:
a) GIS for Project Management/ M&E. b) Aquifer Mapping and Improvement: c) Aquifer recharging: d) Resistivity Mono-pole Profiling and Sounding: e) Sustainable Development Action Plan:
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2. Preparatory: a) GIS for Project Management/ M&E. b) Aquifer Mapping and Improvement: Through Electrical Conductivity. A strong case exists for underground aquifer mapping using electric conductivity. This will provide a view of possible aquifer improvement through construction of underground weirs. Aquifer mapping works by:
• • •

Energizing a water-bearing zone with an AC current. As the AC current flows through the water a magnetic field is generated. Measuring the magnetic field at multiple points on the surface. Employing mathematical algorithms to reduce field data and prepare contour maps of subsurface water footprint. The groundwater is a conductor, which means the electrical current follows the groundwater between the electrodes, creating a magnetic field that can be detected on the ground's surface using a sensitive magnetic receiver. Once the electricity is switched on, the device creates one large circuit. The circuit emits a magnetic field below the ground at 380 Hz that follows any ground water it finds. Once the magnetic field is created, scientists walk the ground between the probes in a grid-like pattern with an instrument that collects data about the frequencies it detects underground (the researchers are most interested specifically in the 380 Hz signals that the electrodes emit). The instrument is contained in a box that is three feet (one meter) tall and six inches (15 centimeters) square and held upright by a tripod and can collect thousands of readings in just five minutes. Low voltage, low amperage, audio frequency electrical current is used to energize the groundwater. Electrodes are placed strategically in wells, springs or surface water to inject electricity into the groundwater of interest. Because the groundwater is a conductor, the electrical current follows the groundwater between the electrodes. As the electrical current flows through the groundwater, the current creates a magnetic field characteristic of the injected electrical current. This unique magnetic field can be identified and surveyed from the ground surface using a tuned, sensitive magnetic receiver. The magnetic receiver measures the specific magnetic field, filters out interference, and amplifies the signal. Repeated measurements are recorded over time to ensure consistent results. The recorded data are corrected to remove fluctuations in the data due to natural phenomena and man-made interference. The horizontal and vertical magnetic field magnitudes and directions can be measured to further define the groundwater. Survey data is normalized to show relative highs and lows in the field data. These are referred to as anomalies that represent areas of different physical conditions. A high magnetic reading represents higher induced conductivity; a low magnetic reading represents low induced conductivity. The changes in conductivity represent an increase or decrease in the presence of groundwater. In the simplest terms, the technology identifies where groundwater is most present in the area of investigation.

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THE FINISHED PRODUCT c) Aquifer Recharging: Dry bores for aquifer recharging to form fresh water plumes over saline groundwater is very much possible. Impervious surface calls for such an intervention. There are reports of fresh water in the deep aquifers where available, this needs to be confirmed.

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d) Resistivity Mono-pole Profiling and Sounding: This is a highly accurate and cost effective resistivity geophysical survey and exploratory methodology used to: • Locate, Map and Model geologic structure more accurately than traditional dipoledipole and Wenner surveys. • Defines subsurface geothermal resources, sulfide ore-bodies, and geologic structures like faults and fractures. • Measure Resistivity, Self Potential and Induced Polarization all with the same instrument and electrode array.

Survey Layout e) Sustainable Development Action Plan: Preparation for Coastal Areas including Poverty mapping.

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Sociological:
a) Assets-based Community Development: b) Social Network Analysis: c) Economic Gardening:

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2. Sociological: The current situation in the Country and especially in Baluchistan needs to be tackled on the front foot but with care and understanding. The PARC is confident that it can prove to be of immense benefit to Baluchistan and indeed the entire Country provided that the PC-1 is implemented in letter and spirit. The local populace including the entire spectrum of society has to be brought on board through a series of dialogs and demonstrated excellence. It is proposed to introduce an Appropriate, Integrated and Sustainable Approach to Rural Development, keeping in view latest trends that are producing “Results”. This is due to the fact that present mechanisms and Approaches have failed to ‘Deliver’. A short analysis is given below: a) Assets-based Community Development: Needs-Based Community Development: Traditional Model: Based on Needs Goal Institutional Change Conversation Problems and Concerns Change Agent Power View of Individual Consumer/ Client Needs are based on Community Problems Assets-Based Community Development: Alternate Model: Based on Assets Goal Building Communities Conversation Gifts & Dreams Change Agent Relationship View of Individual Producer / Owner Assets are based on Community “Treasures”

    

    

“Asset-Based” Development:  Reorients development from a “needs-based” approach. Needs-based models seek to identify weaknesses in a local community and then implement strategies to overcome those weaknesses.  This method of mobilizing citizens focuses on negative characteristics of a community and demoralizes local residents, thus limiting proactive action at the local level. Focusing on local assets, instead of needs and deficits, allows residents to identify possibilities for change that they can control, and energizes residents to take action.

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Asset-Based Community Development:
Individual self-interest Relationships undeveloped Asset Mapping Catalyst which causes Relationships to Develop

Relationships form based on Networks, Trust and Norms

One Outcome is Community Action!

While the needs-based approach focuses on garnering external resources to solve problems, the alternative asset based approach looks for residents’ personal skills and dreams and links them to action through a public articulation of these local assets. b) Social Network Analysis: The mechanism for Community Interface based upon direct elected office bearers is not efficient for service delivery or Appropriate Technology Transfer. Elite capture and restricted participation defeats the intention to improve local conditions. Alternate, Page Rank Algorithm for Ranking and Social Network analysis to pinpoint Centrality/ Nexus of Trust by uncovering Flow Betweeness to select Village Executive Committees in place of directly elected office bearers, is bound to overcome this first stumbling block on the Path of Sustainable Development. Structural Deep Democracy is Social Network Optimization approach to sustainable development. SD2 uses PageRank as a centrality algorithm to analyze votes to determine the center of TRUST and CONSENT in a human trust network. The top three or five lead such

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an organization with one of them as the executive. This creates a small and efficient locus of trust and accountability. PageRank allows the best leaders to determine who the best leaders are, eliminating the popularity game of conventional populistic-democracy. SD2 can be used by nonprofits, businesses, government entities, but it is intended to be best for grass-roots activism for groups thirty or more, and is scalable to a global level. SD2's assumptions are: 1. Solving Community problems requires collective action 2. Collective action is best organized democratically 3. Democracy is based on voting. 4. Votes are processed with *centrality algorithms* 5. Representative democracy is based on the idea that, if given the opportunity, people generally vote for those more qualified than themselves 6. The *centrality algorithm* that takes step #5 as many steps as mathematically possible is PageRank. 7. SD2 uses PageRank to select three or five leaders of the group, then keeps those leaders accountable with frequent rank recalculations PageRank: rank = (# of in-votes) X (avg. strength of in-vote), AND strength of out-vote = rank / (# of out-votes).

c)

Economic Gardening: Using local resources to grow their own jobs through entrepreneurial activity— Economic gardening—instead of recruiting them from outside the community, or Economic Hunting. The idea evolved from work by Dr. David Birch at MIT who argued that a majority of all new jobs in any local economy were produced by small local businesses. However, as local communities are unaware of potential soft technologies for increasing livelihoods and improving standards of living, it is essential that innovative technology packages be tried on ground and presented to them for capacity building. This will enable them to make informed choices and ‘Own’ the interventions. To date there are many instances of ‘Band-Aid’ Development as standalone interventions which fail to take root as firstly, enabling atmosphere is absent and secondly, Integrated and cross supporting interventions have not been emplaced.

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Core Elements of Economic Gardening:

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Environment/ Energy/ Water:
a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) Surface & Rooftop Water Harvesting: Polyacralamide (PAM), Water Gel Crystals & Hydro Seed Mulching Windbreaks Dune Stabilization: Afforestation: Municipal Solid & Liquid Waste Management/ Waste Water Gardens: Water: Wetlands: Pollution Control: Wildlife EcoTourism: Alternate Energy: i) Salt-Gradient, Solar Ponds: ii) Solar: • Active: Photovoltaics: • Passive: iii) Small Wind Mills: iv) Small Bio-Gas Plants for Poultry Droppings: Earth Sheltered, Earthquake/ Tsunami Proof, Super Insulation Construction: Desalinization Plants: Ozone Generator:
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m) n) o)

3. Environment/ Energy/ Water: The Natural World is subject to certain Laws and patterns that serve to maintain a balance. This balance has led to evolutionary adaptation and development of life forms that are at the same time dependent upon Nature or the Eco System that they inhabit in the overall Environment as well as interdependent upon each other for survival. However, there exist numerous and often deleterious affect causing human and pest interventions that must be rationally and sustainably managed on a sustained or self sustaining basis in order to perpetuate the Bioenvironment and avoid breakdown. Homo Technicalis has the ability to either nurture or destroy this delicate balance. Only complete understanding and careful monitoring can ensure correct and proper Bioenvironmental Management. a) Surface & Rooftop Water Harvesting: As underlying water is saline and surface is impervious and extremely hard (Clay content) there will be a requirement of small ponds with reed mat (Mazri) covering to prevent evaporation and plastic lining wherever required as mostly the surface is impervious. The British WWII Rainwater Harvesting site on Jivni Airport is presently now disused and in a state of disrepair. The Rainwater Harvesting facility is extensive and was highly successful. The plant can be made operational at very little cost to provide water to Jivni City. Small Dams need to be introduced as there is great potential from seasonal and some flowing water Bodies such as Dasht River near the Iranian Border. Intervention of Surface Water Harvesting can be made effective by the following lowcost structure:

Elaborate Surface Rainwater Harvesting Structures: Jivni Airport: WWII Surface & Rooftop Water Harvesting: Surface Water Harvesting:

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Roof-Top Water Harvesting

b) Polyacralamide (PAM), Water Gel Crystals & Hydro Seed Mulching: Restriction of soil erosion and run off by vegetation cover and other interventions is sadly lacking and will be addressed by this Project. The use of PAM along with Hydro Seed Mulching should prove to be a valuable intervention, especially during Wet Cycle to establish plantation. Water Gel Crystals is a water-absorbing polymer that expands over 400%. Reduces irrigation requirement and costs, cuts plant watering in half and reduces plant stress. When the three are combined and used during Wet Cycles there is every possibility of successful plantation on wide scale with minimum cost and labor.

Hydro Mulch Seeding: There are reasons hydro seeding works so well. The seed is suspended in a nutrient rich slurry. The contact of the seed with the water in the machine triggers the germination cycle. The mulch layer seals in the moisture, and holds the soil in place. The seed is at an ideal depth for good results. The conditions are right to produce luxuriant vegetation in a very short time. c) Windbreaks: Suited trees and bushes will be identified to create windbreaks along the coast. d) Dune Stabilization: There is a pressing need to undertake this exercise as dunes are spreading and have done so for many years. e) Afforestation: Where ever possible attempts for reforestation must be undertaken. Aerial seeding needs to be given another chance with addition of pre-germination; hormone and nutrient doping of seed including polymer coating is advised for trials. It 39

is possible to increase survival rates if Hydro seed mulching and aerial foliar nutrient support is provided during establishment phase. The wet cycles need to be used as aerial seeding was carried out previously in Baluchistan during dry cycle. There exists strong possibility of planting trees along roads and water courses. Rainwater harvesting ponds and pitcher burying can contribute to this. The following will be adopted: • Establishment of forest nurseries. • Regeneration of endangered species. • Restricted use of endangered forest species. • Selection of appropriate plant species for cultivation along roadsides. • Propagation of Accacia sp for firewood and fodder. • Aerial seeding including Natural Hormone (Rooting & Fruiting) Seed Treatment. f) Municipal Solid & Liquid Waste Management/ Waste Water Gardens: There is tremendous scope for this intervention in all minor towns of the Makran Coast (Ormara, Pasni, Gawadar and Jivni). Water can be recycled and Composting can be practiced on relatively large scale. Polluted water resources of the Hub river at downstream side at coastal line could be used to promote agriculture activities through using bio-remediation techniques. It is estimated that a community of 10,000 people can generate 40-acre inches of sewage effluent per day or an equivalent of 1 million gallons of wastewater. g) Water: Construction of mini dams on rivers would prove to the single most effective intervention. The Dasht River near the Iran border is one such example. Introduction of Rodkhoi system in small hills, gullies and depressions will be of immense value. h) Wetlands: Large scale plantation of Mangroves for Coast and Sand Dune stabilization will be established and existing efforts will be supplemented, target minimum 200,000 hectares. “Mangrove habitat and environmental functions are critically important to the delta/coastal ecosystem. They offer: • A nursery habitat for fish, shrimp, crabs, and mollusks, which is very important to coastal and marine fisheries. • Higher biodiversity, compared to un-vegetated coastal areas, including indigenous animal populations, as well as migratory birds. • Sustainable source of fuel wood, construction wood, and fodder for livestock. • Food source for goats and sheep. • Absorption of excessive amounts of nutrients and contaminants. • Protection against erosion (reduction of wave energy). • Opportunities for other economic activities, such as honey production, ecotourism, etc.”8 The following procedure will be adopted. Collections of propagules from existing stands and transfer to Nurseries. Tissue Culture of Appropriate varieties of Mangroves. Planting along tidal creeks and Inland sea fringe. Management for a minimum period of 5 years to ensure survival.
8

• • • •

Sindh Coastal and Inland Community Development Project, Pakistan ANZDEC 2006

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Destroyed Mangrove:

New Plantation at Keti Bunder: i) Pollution Control: All out efforts will be made to establish strict pollution control. This will hold for Beaches as well as roads and parks. j) Wildlife • • • Develop drinking water ponds. Planting of browsing shrubs. Implement of protection measures.

k) EcoTourism: Hingol National Park is the estuary of Hingol River. Plantations on large scale will support biodiversity. The park can be developed for Eco-Tourism. Some other tourist’s sites are: Nani Mandir Shrine of Devi Hinglaj (holiest among the 51 Shakti Peeths of Hinduism) and Kund Malir Beach. Small Islands and Marine Biology is also a potential source of Ecotourism and resultant increase of income to the locals of the area. Microbiological and Biodiversity Study tours for School, College and University students is also called for. l) Alternate Energy: • Salt-Gradient, Solar Ponds: This intervention can be used on Saline water for harvesting fresh water and harnessing energy through the use of Rankine Engines.One Kg of salt can supply as much electricity and three times as much heat as a Kg of coal burned in a combustor. This results from varying salinity gradient given to a pond providing a vertical density difference which allows heat to be trapped and store solar energy. Artificial Salt-Gradient, Solar Ponds provide thermal energy to:

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• • • •

• Heat Buildings. • Drive Industrial Processes. • Generate Electricity. • Desalt Water. • Power Cooling Systems. A 7,000 sq. m. Pond provides 35 KW in Summers and 15 KW in Winter, with a peak of 150 KW. Factors to Determine Effectiveness: Availability of Low-Cost land, salt and water or saline water. Favorable climate conditions: Sunny days and high temperatures. Favorable ground conditions, soil impervious to heat and water and lack of moving groundwater with no nearby drinking water source. Low price compared to other energy sources. Saline Water:

Evaporation Pond

Solar Gradient Pond

Solar: i) Active: Photovoltaics: Local roadside hotels are consuming Rs. 600.00 per day for generators to power 6-10 bulbs (600Watts/ 1 KW). This totals Rs. 219,000.00 per annum excluding cost of generator and repairs. Solar panels will prove to be economically feasible. At a guaranteed life of 20 years cost against minimum Rs.4.4 million (Diesel at current rates plus Genset cost, excluding repairs) the intervention appears to be very feasible. This is all the more true for Hybrid Active/ Passive Solar combined with Wind Systems. i) Passive: Presently the fish industry is using salt from sea water by filling in surface tanks and allowing evaporation. The process can be speeded up with 4 mm Plastic sheets (double) to increase heat. Secondly drinking water can be collected from the plastic as it can be designed to act as collectors.

ii) Solar Still:

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Small Wind Mills: Small Wind Generators (500 W to 1 KW) can be easily introduced and will prove to be very successful as evidenced by a few such installations. Wind Pumps are also of great potential.

Wind Pump:

Wind Generator:

Small Bio-Gas Plants for Poultry Droppings: There is ample scope for increasing the intervention of Poultry Farms and hatcheries as well as provision of small Alternate Energy Incubators to indigent families. A useful intervention is provision of small Bio-Gas plants to existing and all future Poultry farms. This would not only provide energy to the Operators but would also curtail environmental pollution from Poultry manure and allied spread of disease vectors. A valuable Bio-Fertilizer would be produced for Horticulture and Mushroom production.

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m. Earth Sheltered, Earthquake/ Tsunami Proof, Super Insulation Construction: This intervention is essential for the poor people living in reed mat huts and at the mercy of the elements. In the light of Global Warming it is all the more critical.

n.

Desalinization Plants:

This particular system produces, 350 M3 (92,470 US Gallons) of high quality potable water from seawater containing up to 40,000 PPM TDS in 24 hours. Other specifications are readily available. o. Ozone Generator: This system of water purification for drinking purposes is superior to other systems as “Living Water” is maintained according to time of exposure. Reverse Osmosis tends to eliminate everything from water leaving it devoid of nutrition.

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Agri/ Horti/ Aqua Culture Livestock & Range Management:
a) • • • • • • • • • • • b) Biosaline Agriculture Technology Establishment of Nurseries/ Tissue Culture Laboratories: Support and Training for Livestock Cultivation of Salt Tolerant Economic Crop Varieties on Marginally Saline Areas Other Technical Inputs to be Made Available under the Project for Farmers Supply of Farm Inputs at Farmer’s Fields Rights on the Produce Program Setup Technical parameters and technology transfer aspects: Extension: Farmers: Crops: Compost & Environment/ Predator Protected Kitchen Gardens: c) Aquaponics/ Barrelponics: d) Poultry: e) Mushroom Kulla: Fish: • Setting up of Aquaculture Farms • Inland Mariculture: • Agri Overview Fisheries Sector in Pakistan
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f)

4. Agri/ Horti/ Aqua Culture Livestock & Range Management: The existing Food Chains and Webs need to be reinforced and replenished in order to ensure health and continued functioning. The vital human requirements for food, water, and air cannot be left to the mercy of ruthless, short sighted and short-term exploitation that leaves death, destruction, and permanent loss in its wake! The existing agriculture in the area can be described as “low input – low output”, of the Khushk Aaba and Sailaba variety. This is due to minimization of risks for the poor farmers in case of erratic rainfall. Marketing system is dominated by the ‘middlemen’ leading to poor quality inputs at exorbitant prices. Coupled with inequitable sharecropping arrangements, this system cannot be classified even as subsistence agriculture. Over 5.7 million hectares of Pakistan’s lands are salt affected and 2.4 million hectares are highly saline according to the Soil Survey of Pakistan. In over 25% of the Indus basin the water table has risen to 2 metres below the soil surface, resulting in 40,000 hectares of land being lost annually to both these problems. In some areas it has gone up to 1 metre. Badin District in Sindh Province has a concentration of large lakes locally known as Dhands. These interconnected shallow lakes used to provide livelihood to a large community of fishermen known as Mallahs. The Left bank Outfall Drain (LBOD) is presently passing through two of these lakes and adding large quantities of Saline water. This has resulted in the near destruction of the livelihood of these fisher folk. As the project is concentrating upon Salinity affected areas and is introducing saline resistant varities of crops, it has been determined to present new sources of livelihood in accordance with changed physical conditions of the area. In all the intervention areas focus will be upon poor and vulnerable households with emphasis upon provision of livelihood opportunities. Livestock is a major livelihood source for many of the poor with 70% HHs having possession of some kind of livestock. As such the intervention of growing saline resistant fodder crops will definitely serve to ameliorate the poverty of the most vulnerable HHs. Similarly, composting will also provide a source of livelihood and also serve as valuable input to the soil. Low cost; low energy Cold Stores will be emplaced to preserve the produce of the locals whether they are fish or vegetables. Modern research has identified more than 1500 plant species that have high levels of tolerance to salinity. Some of these are able to withstand salt concentrations in excess of those- found in seawater. These plants (trees, shrubs, grasses and herbs) are major resources that can be used in the development of agricultural systems for salt affected soils. These plants can act as a form of biological drainage. In addition, there are opportunities to increase the salt tolerance of existing crops using conventional plant breeding and molecular biological approaches. Biosaline Agriculture Technology Various establishments of PARC possess sufficient expertise and infrastructure in the form of scientific & technical trained manpower for undertaking interventions for economically utilizing salt affected wastelands. The main objective of this project is to introduce Biosaline Agriculture Technology, which has been developed over the last two decades, to the farming community and also help in its implementation. For this purpose some of the interventions are listed below: • Establishment of Nurseries/ Tissue Culture Laboratories: In order to provide salt tolerant plant species, establishment of nurseries is absolutely essential. The plant species will include different grasses, which may be used as forage. Salt tolerant fast growing trees having some economic value and shrubs, which can also be used as animal feed and fuel. The choice of different plant species will depend on the ecology and 46

• • • • •

soil characteristics of that particular site. These nurseries will be established in participation with the community so that the sustainability and ownership of the activities are ensured. Regular training courses will be held for the farmers to enable them to grow such plant species and also become aware of different agronomic practices required for this purpose. Technical people either recruited specifically for this purpose or already available with the collaborating institutions will carry out monitoring of this activity. Micro Propagation of the following can prove to be extremely beneficial for Coastal Area development: Salicornia (Salicornia europaea). Jathropha curicas. Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis). Castor Oil (Ricinus communis). Support and Training for Livestock Introduction of livestock will be major activity and a comprehensive support in regard to animal husbandry, disease vaccination and animal nutrition will be provided to the community so that all the salt tolerant varieties and other feeds produced on their saline land would be effectively utilized. Cultivation of Salt Tolerant Economic Crop Varieties on Marginally Saline Areas A large number and variety of salt tolerant varieties of fodder vegetables and trees have been identified to be planted in these areas. Some of the species are mentioned as below: # Name # Name 1 Saline Ginger 43 Coriander Victory 2 Saline Rice 44 Chinese Coriander Yizhihua Seed 3 Maize White F1 45 yellow Carrot S.H Seeds 4 Maize Mixed color 46 Red carrot S. H seeds 5 Green Bean 47 Red Radish 6 Long Red Beans 48 Green Radish 7 Long green Beans 49 Green and Red Turnip 8 Long Big Beans 50 Green Egg Plant 9 Long Red Beans 70-80 51 Green Egg Plant 10 Onion 52 Black Egg Plant 11 Cabbage 53 Big Cabbage 12 Chinese Garlic Chives 54 Vegetable Melon 13 Noodles Melon 55 oil vegetable 14 Cucumber 56 Hybrid sun flower seed 15 Red Chillies 8819 57 Big Sweet Melon 16 Red Chilies 58 Small Sweet Melon 17 Shimla Chillies Medium 59 San Melon 18 Shimla ChilliesSmall 60 White Turnip 19 Shimla Chillies Long 61 White Turnip H.S Seeds 20 Green and Red Chillies Long 62 white Melon 21 Red and Green Shimla Chillies 63 Qin Ju jisi tang Chinese Vegetable 309 22 Beans 64 Tomato Seed 918 23 Pumpkin Yellow and Radish Hybrid F1 65 Tomato Seed 500 24 Long Sized pumpkin yellow 66 Tomato Kang Bing

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25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42

King Pumpkin Brown Small pumpkin Black pumpkin Small Black pumpkin Big White Dong Melon Pumpkin Black Dong Melon Pumpkin Sesame Seed Salad202 Salad H.C seeds Salad Qingxian Green salad H,C Seeds Salad Salad Tianjiao White greem Salad( Celery) H.C seed Green Salad Shangaikang F1 hybrid fengang Chinese Cabbage 70 Hybrid Chinese Cabbage F1 first Wind Hybrid Chinese Cabbage of Zhenhaochi

67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84

Gan Lan Cucumber Long Riddle Guord (tori) Riddle Guord Mint Hybrid Rice 125 Hybrid Rice 110 Hybrid Rice 120 Hybrid Rice 938 Hybrid Canola Hybrid Cotton Seed 5 F1 Water Melon Salicornia Asah Guord Soya Bean Saline Fodder Coriander Hybrid Chinese Cabbage Lettuce seed

• o o o

Other Technical Inputs to be Made Available under the Project for Farmers Provision of resources for land development. Provision of implements/ equipment Large scale plantation of promising salt tolerant plant species and/ or trees.

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o o o o o o o o o o •

Preparation of technical bulletins in local languages and their wide spread distribution in the project area. Evaluation of improvement in soil resource base and crop plant productivity in different ecological situations in the project areas Assessment of the sustainability of the soil improvement and crop yield enhancement. Performance evaluation of salt tolerant crop/ plant species introduced in different ecological situations in project areas Holding of field days and demonstrations. Appraisal of the degree of technology package adoption by the entire farming community in the project areas Economic analysis of different interventions tried in different ecological regions of the project areas Study the impact and sustainability of soil improvement and brackish water management technologies at the study sites Holding of National workshop highlighting Project performance Compilation of technical and production of popular bulletins Supply of Farm Inputs at Farmer’s Fields The inputs to the farmers will be supplied free of cost for planting materials. The fertilizer/chemicals/Compost/FYM will be applied at farmer’s fields on 50% basis by the project and 50% by the farmers. Other farm inputs will be provided by the farmers to ensure his ownership. Rights on the Produce As this is a promotional program and most of the production factors/ inputs as lands, water, labor and others belong to the farmers, the produce will be ultimately the property of the participating farmers. Program Setup The project envisages a participatory approach, which caters for the needs of community especially small farmers who are most vulnerable and have lost considerable income due to salinity. The design of the program requires very frequent interaction with the target group according to their own convenience and therefore will not be bound by constraints of office timings. Salinity not only affects agriculture production but also leads to environmental degradation and deterioration in the natural resource base. At present, around 6.5 million hectares of land is salt affected and more than 70% of the tube wells in the country are pumping brackish water. The most vulnerable of course are the poor, as they own only 0.27 acres per capita compared to 0.84 acres for the non-poor. Any deterioration in their natural resource base like increasing salinity directly affects their productivity leaving them progressively poorer. One reason for increasing secondary salinity remains lack of adequate drainage systems in the country Repeated applications of irrigation water in haphazard way over time have led to water logging and salinity. This "twin menace" in Irrigated Agriculture is term that is now accepted as "divine will" for which there were traditional solutions only. In the past, the Government of Pakistan tried to solve this menace by introducing large scale

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engineering solutions under the umbrella of SCARP (Salinity Control and Reclamation Project) at a staggering cost throughout the irrigated areas. However, the SCARP project was unable to achieve its objectives primarily because of want of recurrent maintenance and huge O&M costs. Historically, soil salinity contributed to the decline of several ancient civilizations. Despite advanced technologies available today, every passing second an estimated 2000 square meters of arable land becomes wasteland due to salinization. Millions of hectares of land are lost every year, reducing crop productivity severely worldwide. With changing times, there is now ample scientific evidence available which show alternate solutions to the problems of salinity. For example, new salt tolerant varieties of plants, fodders etc. have been developed internationally and are available for replication. One approach that is now internationally recognized is to grow salt tolerant plants rather than reclaim the soil to grow conventional crops. This biological approach involves screening and selection of highly salt tolerant plant species/varieties from the naturally existing germplasm or from these developed through breeding, wide hybridization and other biotechnological techniques and then introducing the selected plants for increased plant establishment and productivity in salt affected areas. The PARC, Islamabad and other agricultural Institute like the PAEC, in collaboration with various research institutions of Pakistan and international donor agencies are actively involved in research programs that aim to develop and introduce salt tolerant species of crops/trees and halophytic forage shrubs. These projects are therefore actively engaged in research to reclaim salt affected lands by using bio-drainage technique and planting salt tolerant plants. Pakistani scientists are therefore doing pioneering research to develop innovative and alternative approaches to Biosaline Agriculture. Their research aims at better use of salt affected lands and brackish irrigation water on a sustained basis through integrated use of genetic resources (plants, animals, fish and insects) and improved agricultural practices. However, successful research is only a part of the solution. There is a need for its adoption on a National scale. Adaptive research has never gained legitimacy because of a top down approach. Its affects on ground in terms of adoption have always been marginal except for big farmers while others have always remained outside its purview. This requires investments in adaptive research, extension, social mobilization and capacity building and to tackle the problem in a holistic manner in which poverty reduction becomes the center piece. The emphasis therefore in the present proposal is to move away from large scale engineering solutions to participatory community based solutions in areas that are affected by salinity. The linchpin of this approach is to organize the communities and address the problem of poverty in a holistic manner through an Asset based mechanism. The aim is to introduce technology at the farm level that enables the farmers to economically utilize the salt effected wastelands and brackish groundwater. • Technical parameters and technology transfer aspects: Biosaline agriculture can be defined as the use of genetic resources (plant, animal fish, insects and micro-organisms) and improved agricultural practices to obtain profits from salt affected land and irrigation water on a sustainable basis. It is a rich collection of possible 50

systems for the use of Biosaline resources. The components of these systems will vary according to the needs of the farmers and the capabilities of the land and water. Although Agriculture is a provincial subject, research, especially in Biosaline agriculture technology is being done by National level institutes and Agriculture Universities which are autonomous but have Provincial Governors as their Chancellors. Some of the institutions include Pakistan Agriculture Research Council; Institutes working under the auspices of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission namely Nuclear Institute of Agriculture Tandojam, Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology Faisalabad and Nuclear Institute of Food and Agriculture, Peshawar. In this project the research institutes mentioned will also be accessed to generate research base knowledge and intervene where ever needed during the life of the project. For this purpose financial and physical support may be provided to the institutes where deemed necessary. • Extension: Extension work is the responsibility of the Provincial Agriculture Departments. The work is done by extension workers who help the farmers by providing technical assistance, inputs such as certified seeds, fertilizers, plant protection materials and knowledge about timely irrigation. The capacity of the extension department is limited and consequently the large farmers and the influentials are the main clients. Farmers at large are generally ignored. Moreover, there continues to be a disconnect between research and its dissemination by extension workers. The situation is even worse in the case of Biosaline Agriculture as this is a new technology and most extension workers are unaware of it. In addition, since research is being done at the National level, the extension workers are unwilling to take it to the farmers. Farmers: Although the pace of salinization is increasing day by day the farmers, being the end users, have no knowledge about available technologies that can mitigate the looming crises of secondary salinization. This phenomenon affects small farmers with limited land holdings more acutely, leading to low yields and thereby increasing poverty. Crops: Scientists have been working on the basis that soil is not just a mass of dead chemicals but is a living system harboring numerous chemical and biological processes and is in constant interaction with multiple environmental factors. The Biosaline-sodic soils have an excess of sodium, are impermeable to water, have little or no organic matter and are biologically almost dead. Based on these assumptions, Sandhu and Malik (1975) proposed planting starting from highly salt tolerant plants followed by lesser salt tolerant plants. This strategy has been termed as Biological Approach for utilization of salt affected soils (Malik 1978). In this scheme, leptochloa fusca (Kallar grass), being highly salt tolerant to salinity (Sandhu et. al. 1981) and sodicity (Ahmad et. al. 1979) is used as primary colonizer for plant establishment and biomass production on saline lands. Soil conditions also improve in the process and less salt tolerant plants can be introduced. Introduction of a large variety of Salinity Tolerant Crops by the PARC through the auspicious of various MOUs signed between the Government of China and PARC through the personal interest of the Honorable President of Pakistan have added tremendous capacity and scope of intervention to previously limited crop alternates.

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Introduction of salt tolerant crops will provide a green cover and will improve the environment for biological activity, increase organic matter and will help fertility. The penetrating roots will provide crevices for downward movement of water and thus help leaching of salts from the surface. The plant growth will also result in higher carbon dioxide levels and would thus create acidic conditions in the soil that would dissolve the insoluble calcium carbonate and will help exchange of sodium with calcium ions on the soil complex. Further, the biomass produced could also be used as green manure, which will quicken the lowering of pH and result in further release of ionic calcium. The soil structure, its permeability, its biological activity and fertility could thus be restored and with extra irrigation the surface salts could be leached down (Malik et. al. 1986) A complete Biomelioration of the saline soil can be achieved if good irrigation water for leaching the salts is available. However, irrigation water is already in a short supply for existing arable lands in Pakistan and therefore its use for reclaiming the salt affected wastelands is not feasible. In order to overcome this problem, brackish underground water has been used for leaching the salts in the above described biological approach. The permanent solution to the problem of soil salinity requires a comprehensive drainage system to control the rising water table and leaching of salts with good quality water. This drainage- leaching combination, being energy intensive and expensive, cannot be applied on larger areas. The vast areas of saline land can not be reclaimed for growing conventional crops due to several problems such as shortage of fresh water, lack of natural gradient to sea, other climatic and environmental constraints and high capital costs. Therefore, other alternate options to deal with the salinity problem are to be explored and applied. One such alternate option — the Biological Approach aims at selection of salt tolerant plants and growing selected plant species/varieties for increased plant establishment and productivity in Biosaline areas using Saline ground water for irrigation. Pakistan would thus have no option except to introduce Biosaline agriculture technologies. In order to use this resource of water, it is imperative to develop crop varieties having salt tolerance. In addition, the gravity of the problem and the decreasing availability of fresh water warrants that instead of solving the problem through a project, a well concerted holistic National program is started quickly. However, it remains clear that despite these impressive achievements, there has been farmer’s field adoption at a small scale. During implementation, it is also felt that the scale of the problem is too large and multifaceted and that a project based approach would not be able to address the issue on National scale. • Compost & Environment/ Predator Protected Kitchen Gardens:

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Aquaponics/ Barrelponics: 9“This is the symbiotic cultivation of plants and aquatic animals in a recirculating environment. Aquatic animal effluent (for example fish waste) accumulates in water as a by-product of keeping them in a closed system or tank (for example a recirculating aquaculture system). The effluent-rich water becomes high in plant nutrients but this is correspondingly toxic to the aquatic animal. Plants are grown in a way (for example a hydroponic system) that enables them to utilize the nutrient-rich water. The plants take up the nutrients, reducing or eliminating the water's toxicity for the aquatic animal. The water, now clean, is returned to the aquatic animal environment and the cycle continues. Aquaponic systems do not discharge or exchange water. The systems rely on the relationship between the aquatic animals and the plants to maintain the environment. Water is only added to replace water loss from absorption by the plants, evaporation into the air, or the removal of biomass from the system. Aquaponic systems vary in size from small indoor units to large commercial units. They can use fresh or salt water depending on the type of aquatic animal and vegetation. For a low-cost Starting/ Training System, Barrelponics can be used instead. Here lowcost Plastic barrels are recycled to create the same environment as used for Commercial or medium Scale Aquaponics. This is the ideal remedy for areas with scarce water, as water is recycled time and again, both saline as well as fresh water can be used. When coupled with a Rooftop Rainwater Harvesting System, the need to use scarce water resources is further reduced.” 10 “Aquaponics is the integration of aquaculture (fish keeping) and hydroponic (soil less) plant growth techniques. It requires no soil and no chemicals to produce a vast and large amount of fish, fruits and vegetables in a very small space. Fish produce ammonia as waste. Bacteria convert that waste to nitrates used by the plants as the nutrient source. The water is recirculated to the fish clean and aerated. Water consumption is lower and plant density is usually at least twice that of soil based methods. No pesticides can be used as they would kill bacteria and fish in the system. Food produced is thereby pesticide free. More than 50% of the waste produced by fish is in the form of ammonia, secreted through the gills and in the urine. The remainder of the waste is excreted as fecal matter, undergoes a process called mineralization which occurs when Heterotrophic bacteria consumes fish waste, decaying plant matter and uneaten food, converting all three to ammonia and other compounds. In sufficient quantities ammonia is toxic to plant and fish. Nitrifying bacteria, which naturally live in the soil, water and air, convert ammonia first to nitrite (Nitrosomonas bacteria) and then to nitrate (Nitrobacter) which the plants consume. Nitrifying bacteria will thrive in the gravel beds and in the water in the system. The plants readily take up the nitrites and nitrates in the water and, in consuming it, help to keep the water clean and safe for the fish.” The following crops have been successfully grown in Barrelponics by the developer of this method: Tomatoes, onions, peppers (sweet and hot from bell to habanera), beans, beets, broccoli, basil, cilantro, papaya, collards, cucumbers, carrots, lettuce, stevia, moringa, dill, chard, okra, peas and parsley. All of the above had live Tilapia as a nutrient source, other varieties of fish can be used.

9 10

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aquaponics Travis W. Hughey

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Poultry: There are many Poultry farms consisting of low Mat Roofed Sheds with open sides in the proximity of Karachi. This is probably due to availability of Market. There are no hatcheries and day old chicks come from Karachi. Feed is provided by reject fish and is available in plenty. There is a strong case for establishing Hatcheries and providing Alternate Energy Incubators for small Poultry farming as a micro enterprise as well as nutrition enhancement. This intervention is required all along the coast. There is a great need of improving the Poultry Sheds to create better insulation for summers. Small Bio Gas Plants; alternate energy incubators and Insulated Sheds have been designed for this purpose. Poultry feed industry can be greatly enhanced due to ample availability of fish. Mushroom Kulla: Nutritional Food Security is of serious concern. With curtailed fish catches even the fisher folk are facing problems.

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• Fish: Coastal Statistics, 2000 Pakistan Length of coastline (km) 2,599 Percent of population within 100 km of the coast 9% Area of continental shelf (km2) 43,701 Territorial sea (up to 12 nautical miles) (km2) 31,388 Claimed Exclusive Economic Zone (km2) 201,520 Coastal Biodiversity and Protected Areas Data, 1990s Area of Mangrove Forests (km2) 728 Percent of Mangrove forests protected 40% Number of Mangrove Species 4 Number of Seagrass Species X Number of Scleractinia Coral Genera X International Legal Net Trade in Live Coral, X 1997 (number of pieces) Number of Marine or Littoral Protected 3 Areas, 1999 Wetlands of International Importance, Extent 617 (km2), 2000 Fisheries Production Average Annual Capture (excludes aquaculture) in metric tons: Marine Fish, 2000 438,171 Mollusks and Crustaceans, 1997 43,316 Aquaculture Production (in metric tons): Total 12,485 (includes freshwater), 2000 Marine and Diadromous Fish, 1997 X Mollusks and Crustaceans, 1997 X Aquatic Plants, 1997 X Fish Consumption and Trade, 2000 Per Capita Food Supply from Fish and Fishery 3 Products (kg/person)

Asia 11 288,459 X 5,514,288 5,730,868 11,844,193 40,330 27% 51 27 79 -773,430 831 31,212

World 1,634,701 39% 24,285,959 18,816,919 102,108,403 169,452 13% 70 58 X X 3,636 730,116

36,516,371 7,959,125 41,305,773 1,325,644 8,677,590 7,123,694 18

84,411,066 12,055,801 45,715,559 2,623,888 9,889,688 7,241,754 1612

Pakistan has a total coastline of 1,090 km and a total fishing area of approximately 300,000 sq. kms. Pakistan’s fishing waters are termed as highly rich in marine life with a vast
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Excluding the Middle East. Coastal and Marine Ecosystems—Pakistan EarthTrends. © EarthTrends 2003. All rights reserved. Fair use is permitted on a limited scale and for educational purposes.

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variety of species having commercial value. However, this potential is not reflected in the export earning from fisheries sector. The exports of “Fish and Fish Preparation” were at $134.5 million (with a volume of 93,214 tons) in 2002-03. (Source: EPB) This situation was mainly attributed to unorganized nature of private sector, lack of focus in Government policies and little institutional investment (in public and private sector projects) in this sector. Pakistan’s exports of fishery products stand at about 0.25% of world exports. A rough estimate based on maximum sustainable yield figures, existing value addition, and foreign benchmarks, puts our total export potential from this sector at around US$ 1.0 billion from existing natural resources. If we include the high potential area of aquaculture, our fisheries sector can yield even higher export earnings. Pakistan’s domestic consumption is termed as one of the lowest in the world, at 1.6 kg per person per year (compared to world average of 16.2 kg per person per year). Hence, most of the produce is exported. There is a great dependence on a few species for exports, with very little value addition. Most of the fish catch is from marine sources, which comprises about 70% of total fish exports. Pakistan exports fish mainly to Europe, US, Japan and Middle-Eastern countries. On the coast of Pakistan, there are more than 30 species of shrimps, 10 species of crabs, 5 species of lobster and about 70 commercial species of fish including sardine, Hilsa, shark, Mackerel, Butterfish, Pomfret, Sole, Tuna, sea bream, Jew fish and Cat Fish, Shark, and Eel. Marine fishing is undertaken from right beyond the coast to 200 nautical miles into the sea. The distance has been divided into two broad categories for fishing known as: (1) Coastal water fishing, and (2) Deep-sea fishing. Deep Sea is further divided in two zones. The distances specified are: up to 12 nautical miles termed as coastal water fishing, 12 to 35 nautical miles is Zone I and 35 to 200 nautical miles is Zone II. Coastal water fishing is done in the villages along the coast that are predominately inhabited by fisherman whose main livelihood is fishing. Major share of marine catch is within 12 nautical miles from the coast, as most of the boats are small with little catching and preserving equipment on board. This reduces the catch per boat and therefore increases the cost of fish per kg. Zone I (12 to 35 nautical miles) although reserved for local fisherman remains under-utilized for paucity of modern boats equipped with necessary gadgets for catch and preservation. The area between 35 to 200 nautical miles declared as Zone II is reserved for foreign as well as Pakistani vessels, which operate under license from the Government of Pakistan. The catch in zone II is very nominal and therefore it remains to be exploited. Foreign vessels have been found to operate in Zone II without license from the Government and even enter into Zone I in with collaboration with local firms. 2) Setting up of Aquaculture Farms Model Aquaculture farms, using saline water, will be setup at the project sites. This activity is based on the experience and knowledge accumulated at different demonstration sites where different fish species have been screened which are most suitable for such farms and can be fed on salt tolerant grass. The trainings and economic feasibility for such interventions will be carried out for the benefit of interested farmers.

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Fishing is the major occupation of the population of the coastal belt. Some people has started to develop micro enterprises related to fishing, such as boat making, net making, converting sea water into salt as preservative and fish processing for export. Boat making industry has been established in Pasni and Gwadar area to meet the local need. Interviews of two groups of boat makers in Pasni found more than 100 workers deployed in this particular enterprise. The Fisheries Department is demanding evacuation of workshop sites. The matter is subjudice in the High Court of Balochistan. • Inland Mariculture: Secondary salinization has rendered over 100 million hectares of land throughout the world unsuitable for conventional agriculture. The utilization of salinized land and its associated water resources for mariculture is an adaptive approach to this environmental problem with many potential economic, social and environmental benefits. Despite this, inland mariculture is yet to develop into an industrial-scale, rural enterprise. The following terms are used for varying salinity levels: Hyperosmotic (45 ppt), nearisosmotic (15 ppt) and hyposmotic (5 ppt) salinities. Static ponds largely overcome the issues associated with the disposal of salt-laden and eutrophied waste water; however yields from static ponds are typically low and limited by the nutrient input into the pond. new culture technology known as the Semi-Intensive Floating Tank System (SIFTS) has been developed. This technology was designed to reduce nutrient input into ponds by the collection of settleable wastes and to provide large volumes of welloxygenated water to the target species, to ameliorate the loss of fish from low dissolved oxygen during strong micro-algal blooms. It is well documented that saline groundwater is deficient in potassium which, depending on the extent of the deficiency, can negatively impact on the performance of marine species, including fish. In addition to on-growing fish, saline groundwater has potential for hatchery production. Specific advantages include the vertical integration of inland saline farms and the production of disease-free certified stock through isolation from the pathogens and parasites found naturally in coastal water. Agri Overview Fisheries Sector in Pakistan13 • Population along the coastal line is overwhelmingly dependant on fish catching and mainly work as labor. The earnings are already meager and are reducing drastically because of the use of modern nets by well equipped deep sea trawlers. Improving sources of livelihoods will be emphasized through the following interventions. • Installation of pre-fabricated Jetties (Aluminum). • Training and Provision of facilities for Fiberglass Boat Building. • Local production of Fishing Nets. • Establishment of EC Standards Fish Processing & Export Units. • Prawn and Fish culture of high priced species promoted through involving fishermen of the coastal area. Development of quality standards to exploit European markets. Legislation for use of recommended nets. Restrict over exploitation of endangered fish species. Banning fishing in hatching periods.
Courtesy: The Nation

• • • •
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Plantation of Mangroves for promotion of shrimp population along sea shore. Prevention of Pollution as Mercury concentrations in ten fish species harvested from twenty sites in the South West Coast of Pakistan, are reported. The following fish, within a limited weight range, were included in this study: Picnic seabream, Indian scad, Indian ariomma, Bigeye scad, Threadfins, Cornet fish, Lefteye flounder, Gold band goatfish, Smooth dwarf monocle bream and Half-mourning coraker. Comparative estimations were also made of mercury content in marine water from various sites. Statistical correlations based on the metal distribution were evolved on the basis of fish-to-site and fish-to-fish to provide evidence for the observed mercury concentrations in relation to sites and species. The minimum mercury concentration was encountered in Picnic seabream (X = 0.046 μg/g, wet weight) and the maximum concentration (X = 0.269 μg/g, wet weight) in Cornet fish. The present data were compared with the corresponding data on the concentrations of mercury in some common fish species in addition to prawn, crab and squid from the polluted area along the coastal line of the Arabian Sea, India. The study reflected mercury pollution of the local marine environment. Mercury concentrations in ten fish species from the Arabian Sea, Pakistan.14

Enterprise:
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Jaleel Tariq;M. Jaffar Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan

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a)
b)

Micro Investment Plans: Micro Credit: c) Local Industry:

d)

Maritime Industry: • Ship Building: Establishment of EC Standards Fish Processing & Export Units: f) White Clay:
5. Enterprise: Environmentally sound Micro, Small and Medium Enterprise is the only way forward for progress. As Female populations cross the 50% mark and projected populations for 2015 show that local populations will consist of 50% under the age of 15, it is very important that uplift programs be designed that are Gender Sensitive and ensure a growing economy to meet the needs of underage population groups. The 21st

e)

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Century has brought along many challenges and also opportunities. It is imperative that 21st Century Approaches, Mechanisms and Inputs be used in order to support a burgeoning population and replenish badly degraded Natural Resources. c) Micro Investment Plans: Preparation of Micro Investment plan to devise the future plan / strategy for individual households will be carried out. These MIPS will provide information on the resources of the CO member; gap in optimum utilization of available resources; his/ her capacity to generate resources; aspiration of the members and the type of support she/he will require to increase their resource base. On the basis of that information, by assessing the potential capacity, innate capabilities and tendencies and inherent preferences of an individual, an income generation micro plan would be evolved. Special programs to train landowners and tenants to enable them to undertake the role of technology transfer agents and linking them with the formal agricultural extension system are also planned. These will be carried out by identifying progressive farmers and/ or activists from within the communities who will then be trained in technical skills especially regarding Biosaline agriculture technology and other natural resource management activities like agriculture, livestock, forestry, bee keeping, aquaculture etc. All these technical training would be conducted with support from the R&D institutions under all technical organizations. Some literate village youths will be identified, trained and placed as animators in the fields of enterprise development and vocational trades, especially in the field of value addition of the local production and provision of services at local level. Micro Credit There are a number of activities that directly involves financial capacities of the rural communities. One major constraint in adoption of Biosaline agriculture technology is communities’ lack of financial resources. As part of the planning exercise, the CO members will identify various income generating activities including the activities suggested/ proposed by the scientists/ professionals regarding Biosaline agriculture technology for which community members will need financial assistance. For micro level activities including agriculture inputs, livestock, fisheries, bee keeping, aquaculture or small enterprise, the credit facility will be extended to the CO members. Containerized Factory & Hand Line Canning: Configured & Pre-Installed: • Marmalade; Tomato Paste; Ketchup; Fruit Pulp; Pure Juices; Nectars; Concentrates & Baby Food. • Edible Oil Processing Plants. • Milling Plants. • Milk Products. • Fodder Pellets. • Slaughtering/ Rendering Plants. • Vegetables Processing/ Freezing/ Packing. • Ice Blocks/ Flakes Plant. • Mineral Water & Honey Plants.

d)

e)

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f)

Pilot Community Based Production Project: Projects for Spinning, Mat and Carpet Weaving, Bed Linen Production, Bridal Dresses, etc. through Provision of Training/ Equipment/ Raw material and Collective Marketing.

g) Local Industry: This consists mainly of near coast fishing, as such Boat making and Net finishing is practiced. Fish exported consists of Sole and Mackerel. There is a need to transfer Fiber Glass Boat making expertise for which Turkey can be approached as it is pre eminent in this regard. Fish processing is present on small scale and this can be enlarged. Deep Sea Fishing Trawlers can be introduced successfully. Net Making should be introduced locally as there is very little evidence as such. Half finished nets are brought from Karachi. Eco Tourism has been introduced by the Pakistan Wetlands in Gawadar area and this can be extended. Vehicle repair is also a small industry of some significance. Fish drying is carried out and Brine/ Salt are extracted from Sea Water. The local practice can be improved by use of Passive Solar practices. Passive Solar Stills can be introduced for drinking water or even at large scale. h) Maritime Industry: The bifurcation of sea boats in local term is as follows: • Kuti, a small boat with no engine used for fish transportation from large ship to harbour. The large ships stay a certain distance from the shore. • Tarsht, a small speed boat used for fishing for small time period. The same boat can be used for bring goods and passengers from deep sea to shore. • Yakdar, A small engine operated boat used for fishing, having capacity to carry goods and fish storage capacity for a week or so. Most of them are used for fishing, goods

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• • •

and passenger transportation. The estimated cost as reported by the local fishermen is around 3.5 to 5 lacs. Galate, a medium ship having 30 to 35HP motor used for fishing in the deep sea. The ship has carrying capacity of ten fishermen’s food cold storage fish for 2 to 3 months. The cost varies from 10 to 15 lacs. Launch comes under locally made, large ships used for fishing in the deep sea and goods transportation. The cost reported goes up to 100 lacs. The life reported around 25 years depending upon proper maintenance. Cargo is the largest ship used for a large quantity of goods transportation all over the world.

Ship Building: Medium, modern plant facilities and metal working machinery will enable us to build both medium and small vessels. Vessels up to 50 m. in length should be built completely inside under heated/ cooled, environmentally controlled conditions, while larger vessels can be built in sub-sections and assembled on building berths outside. These facilities should be strategically laid out to afford smooth through-put flow of materials and components from delivery to inspection and stocking to preparation and incorporation into the vessels allocated. Systems and installations are pre-engineered before work is put in hand. This alleviates discretionary work habits during construction and provides the customer with an

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efficient and professional "purpose" built vessel, ensuring layouts are functional and appearance is eye appealing. Close communication kept between estimating, design, administration and production staff will ensure timely and effective problem solving without interrupted production. What this means to the customer is a quality product built and delivered on time; at the best, most competitive price possible. i) Establishment of EC Standards Fish Processing & Export Units. The proper design and arrangement of the processing plant greatly influence food production hygiene. Council Directive 89/392/EEC of 14 June 1989 (EEC 1989) on regulations concerning machinery safety and hygiene contains the following most important requirements: • Machinery containing materials intended to come in contact with food must be designed and constructed so that these materials can be cleaned each time they are used • All surfaces and joints must be smooth, with no ridges or crevices that could harbor organic materials • Assembly must be designed so as to minimize projections, edges and recesses; they should be constructed by welding or continuous bonding, with screws, screw heads and rivets used only where technically unavoidable • Contact surfaces must be easy to clean and disinfect, and be built with easily dismantled parts; inside surfaces must be curved so as to allow thorough cleaning • Liquid derived from foods, and cleaning, disinfecting and rinsing fluids should be easy to discharge from machinery • Machinery must be designed and constructed to prevent liquids or living creatures - primarily insects - from entering and accumulating in areas that cannot be cleaned • Machinery must be designed and constructed to avoid ancillary substances, such as lubricants, coming into contact with food Proper layout and designs should ensure an uninterrupted and "straight line" process flow, and should meet other requirements listed below (Shapton and Shapton, 1991): • All functions should avoid zigzagging and backtracking • Visitors should move from unclean to clean areas • Conditioned (chilled) air and drainage should flow from clean to unclean areas • The flow of discarded outer packing material should not cross the flow of either unwrapped ingredients or finished product • There should be sufficient space for plant operations including processing, cleaning and maintenance; space is also required for movement of materials and pedestrians • Operations are separated as necessary. There are clear advantages in minimizing the number of interior walls since this simplifies the movement of materials and employees, simplifies supervision, and reduces the area of walls that needs cleaning and maintenance.
15

15

Fisheries and Aquaculture Department: FAO

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Personal hygiene is a most important element of health quality assurance in a fish processing plant. According to Thorpe (1992) the essential requirements for personnel working in production area and stores are those mentioned below: 1. Protective clothing, footwear and headgear issued by the company must be worn and must be changed regularly. When considered appropriate by management, a fine hairnet must be worn in addition to the protective headgear provided. Hair clips and grips should not be worn. Visitors and contractors must comply with this regulation. 2. Protective clothing must not be worn off the site and must be kept in good condition. If it is in poor condition the supervisor should be informed immediately. 3. Beards must be kept short and trimmed, and a protective cover worn when considered appropriate by management. 4. Nail varnish, false nails and make up must not be worn in production areas. 5. False eyelashes, wrist watches and jewellery (except wedding rings or the national equivalent, and sleeper earrings) must not be worn. 6. Hands must be washed regularly and kept clean at all times. 7. Personal items must not be taken into production areas unless carried in inside overall pockets (handbags, shopping bags must be left in the locker provided). 8. Food and drink must not be taken into, or consumed in areas other than the tea bars and the staff restaurant. 9. Sweets and chewing gum must not be consumed in production areas. 10. Smoking or taking snuff is forbidden in food production, warehouse and distribution areas where 'No Smoking' notices are displayed. 11. Spitting is forbidden in all areas of the site. 12. Superficial injuries (cuts, grazes, boils, sores and skin infections) must be reported to the medical unit or nurse via the supervisor and clearance obtained before entering production areas. 13. Dressings must be waterproof and contain a metal strip as approved by the medical unit. 14. Infectious diseases (including stomach disorders, diarrhea, skin conditions and discharge from eyes, nose or ears) must be reported to the medical unit or nurse via the supervisor. This also applies to staff returning from travel abroad where there could be a risk of infection. 15. All staff must report to medical unit on return from both certified and uncertified sickness.

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j) White Clay: There are many uses for this natural product. Kaolin (white dirt) is used medically to treat diarrhea, dysentary, cholera, and is also used in paper making, paint, fiberglass, porcelains and ceramics, china, and toothpaste. Some of the most popular products made with kaolin (white dirt) are Kaopectate, Rolaids, Di-gel, Mylanta, and Maalox. White Dirt (kaolin) has also been used as a natural, chemical free shampoo. Kaolin is used in ceramics, medicine, coated paper, as a food additive, in toothpaste, as a light diffusing material in white incandescent light bulbs, and in cosmetics. It is generally the main component in porcelain. Kaolinite has also seen some use in organic farming, as a spray applied to crops to deter insect damage, and in the case of apples, to prevent sun scald. Composition (Source of Nutrients): SiO2% Al2O3% Fe2O3% TiO2% CaO% MgO% K2O% NaO% MnO% 52±2 45±2 ≤0.5 ≤0.8 0.5 0.3 0.1 0.2 0.004 Porcelain is a ceramic material made by heating raw materials, generally including clay in the form of kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between 1,200 °C (2,192 °F) and 1,400 °C (2,552 °F). The toughness, strength, and translucence of porcelain arise mainly from

65

the formation of glass and the mineral mullite within the fired body at these high temperatures. Porcelain is used to make table, kitchen, sanitary, and decorative wares; objects of fine art; and tiles. Its high resistance to the passage of electricity makes porcelain an excellent insulator. Dental porcelain is used to make false teeth, caps, crowns and veneers. Glazing: Unlike their lower-fired counterparts, porcelain wares do not need glazing to render them impermeable to liquids and for the most part are glazed for decorative purposes and to make them resistant to dirt and staining. k) Sea Salt: Simple Salt production for fish preservation is carried out by using solar evaporation method to get salt. More than twenty sites near the sea are running this business. The project will facilitate local production through scientific interventions. l) Marketing Cooperatives: Formation of marketing cooperatives and installation of small processing units would further link the coastal areas communities to National and International markets for promoting new avenues of income and employment. Thus the Project will serve as an introduction to On-Farm and Off-Farm Development and is not restricted to Agriculture/ Horticulture alone. This is important as increased agricultural produce will provide many sources for value addition and serve as a means of livelihood to the landless and dispossessed.

66

Research & Development:
67

6.

Research & Development: • Development of detailed baseline information for development of multipronged working strategy. • Hand line canning for low-cost canning to preserve food stuffs and export local produce. • Promotion of Indigenous vegetations. • Conservation of endangered species. • Exploration of local vegetations for their medicinal value. • Scientific Soil and Water sampling and analysis. • Identification of indigenous plant species capable of bioremediation. • Site specific plantations. • Exploring native shrubs useful for Bio-fuel. • Food security. • Employment generation. • Development of a network of stakeholders for coordinated work with shared objectives. Tissue Culture Laboratory: In the highly competitive Global market, developing Countries cannot maintain sustained economic growth due to poor technology, infrastructure and manufacturing based economy. Future economic uplift and development has to be technology oriented and all possible avenues have to be explored for gaining immediate and long-term benefits in order to ameliorate the dismal condition of the populace as well as the environment. One such method is tissue culture or ‘in-vitrio manipulation’. This method exploits the genetic potential of a single living cell and reproduces the entire organism. The only way to swiftly populate barren areas with desirable species is to opt for this method in conjunction with nurseries. A typical Tissue Culture Laboratory will consist of the following in aseptic conditions:  Washing & Autoclave Room.  Media Preparation Room.  Plant Dissection Room.  Growth/ Incubator Room.  Office/ Store/ Utilities. A protected Green house is then used for growing plantlets to transplantable size. Rhizobium & Allied Bacteria Culture Laboratory: Microbiology Laboratory-equipped with modern microscopes and equipment designed to grow, identify and enumerate microbes. Microbial Genetics and Physiology for Microbial Genetics, Bacterial Physiology, Bacterial Diversity, and Aquatic Microbial Ecology. This lab should be equipped with equipment to conduct state-of-the-art genetic, molecular, and biochemical techniques with microbes. It should also contain advanced microscopes capable of phase-contrast, darkfield, and fluorescence microscopy and a Genome Sequencer in order to provide comprehensive services for both contract and collaborative sequencing efforts. It is required to sequence bacterial genomes, mammal and insect EST libraries, metagenome samples, cDNA libraries from bacteria, amplicon libraries, and viral genomes.

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Water/ Soil Analysis on the Move: The project justifies the import of Mobile Water & Soil Testing Laboratories either as independent vehicles of as Trailers.

Workshop: The establishment of an integrated, up to date workshop will greatly facilitate the Project’s implementation. For this the following basic facilities will be required:

69

     

Light Engineering. Steel Fabrication. Vehicle Maintenance. Electrical/ Electronics Wood Working. Ceramics.

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1.

Scope: Justification: Overall Objectives/ Goals 8. Capital cost estimates: 9. Annual operating and maintenance cost after completion of the Project: 10. Demand and supply analysis Financial Plan and mode of Financing: 12. Project benefits and analysis : 13. Implementation schedule: 14. Management structure and manpower requirements including: Specialized skills during execution and operational phases: 15. Additional projects/decisions required to maximize socio-economic Benefits from the proposed project: RESULT/PERFORMANCE BASED MONITORING INDICATORS 16. Certified that the project proposal has been prepared on the basis of

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instructions provided by the Planning Commission for the preparation of PC-I for Social Sector projects.

Scope: The scope of the proposed project is to formally and scientifically deploy various interventions that have been researched and tried out in various sites in rural locations of Pakistan and Azad Kashmir. Since these interventions have been tried and tested in various combinations and some on standalone basis there is a need to integrate them and prove effectiveness in order to establish best practices for replication. The project will employ various technologies for optimum returns keeping in mind financial constraints and ease of replicability. A complete and integrated food security support base will emerge based on agro ecological conditions and skills of local producers. The entire proposed project is aimed at poor rural females and marginalized farmers. Due attention will be paid to the landless and ways and means are included to build up food security for them as well. Justification: Field trials have proved the efficacy of the various interventions that are proposed for applied research. There is a great need to study them scientifically and for consensus to be developed amongst the agricultural institutions and scientists based on onground results. Rapid population increase and concomitant increased pressure upon already depleted natural resources demands that new and innovative steps be deployed in order to ensure food security for those living below the poverty line. Nutritional enhancement is crucial amongst females and young children. This project is primarily aimed at solving the issue of food security amongst poor, vulnerable and marginalized sections of the populace. Secondly, fields of intervention wherein these population groups can themselves provide input and effort will be identified. Overall Objectives/ Goals: • • • • • • Broad Goals Food Security. Nutrition enhancement. Female Empowerment. Local Self-Reliance. Environment Protection. Improved Community Structure for Service Delivery and Appropriate Technology Transfer. Specific Project Objectives: Water Security. Food security in the face of spiraling prices, climate change and uncertain socioeconomic status as a high priority objective. Community mobilization and food production/ processing training for local selfreliance. Female Empowerment through participation in economic activities.

• • • •

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• • • • • • •

Increasing Horticultural Production. Increasing self-employment. Developing Institutions in Rural Areas. Raising income of Rural Poor. Enhancing Health and Nutrition standards. Ensuring self-sustained Rural Development. Environment Protection. These objectives will be achieved through the following interventions. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) Aquifer Mapping & Charging. Geological Mapping. Biosaline Agri/ Horticulture. Complete Plant Nutrition through Organic Soil Management and improving/ rebuilding Soil Fertility through Nutrient Cycling and Introduction of Salinity resistant field and horticultural crop varieties. Improving Rangelands, livestock breeding and herd management. Introducing Earthquake/ Tsunami Proof, Super Insulated Construction Technology to meet the challenges of the 21st Century including Unstable Climate; Aridization and Global warming. Ensuring Household Food Security through suitable interventions. Encouraging/ Training and Supporting Medium/ Small and Micro Enterprises. Water harvesting/ Conservation Irrigation. Alternate Energy production.

8.

Capital cost estimates: Prepared in January, 2009 (Rupees in millions).
Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 TOTAL

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GRAND TOTAL

1 2 3 4 5

9. 10.

Annual operating and maintenance cost after completion of the Project: To be borne by Communities through individual beneficiaries. Demand and supply analysis

Local self-reliance for food security in the face of spiraling prices, increasing populations and destabilized socio-economic situations call for activating emergency and medium/ long-term measures. Supply of goods is mostly from outside the area, which is not sustainable in the light of strong possibilities of natural and man-made disasters. A strong local production base needs to be rebuilt by replacing under producing food production infrastructure.

11.

Financial Plan and mode of Financing: Year-wise/component-wise financial phasing

#
A. B. C. D. E. F.

Item

Year-I

YearII

YearIII

YearIV

Year-V

Total

74

G . H . I. J. K .

12.

Project benefits and analysis : i. Financial: Attached as Annex. ii. Social Benefits with Indicators :
1. 2. 3. 4. Self Employment (Employment Statistics). Individuals able to positively contribute to society (Market Analysis). Food Security (Nutrition Standards). Individuals able to meet needs and desires of self and family (Market Analysis). 5. Promotion of social harmony (Crime Record). 6. Avoidance of extremism (Crime Record). 7. Growing Economy (GDP Analysis). 8. Local self-reliance (GDP Analysis). 9. Formation of Village Committees in all villages. 10. Involvement of --------- members (mostly women) in useful activities 11. Increased supply of proteins. 12. Improvement of health of the citizens. 13. Production of organic and hygienic products.

iii.

Employment generation (direct and indirect):
------- Households self employed. Direct ---------- individuals (2 per household), average 1 per household daily wager. Indirect ---------- (5.2 per household) plus minimum average 4 downstream and upstream linkages, say ------------- individuals. Total of -----------Indirect.

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Expected Employment – Indicators Category Numbers Direct Employment Self-employed Service Providers Other - daily wages Total direct employment Dependents Indirect Employment Wholesale & Retail Commission Agents, Brokers & Transporters Total indirect employment Grand Total Employment

Table: Expected Employment – Indicators.

iv.

Environmental Impact:
All efforts will be made to firstly avoid damage to the environment and secondly and more importantly positively contribute to environmental stability by deploying sound bioenvironmental practices. Bioaugmented anaerobic decomposition of biodegradable solid waste will ensure that disease vectors are not allowed to flourish and pollution of the environment will be avoided. Use of ecologically safe inputs will be ensured and capacities will be developed to understand the cycles and interdependence of Nature.

v.

Impact of delays on project cost and viability:
The poverty stricken are already in the midst of a survival crisis due to spiraling prices. This is leading to social discontent. Rising prices due to lack of local production will impact the economic viability of the project on a daily basis.

13. 14.

Implementation schedule: Attached as Annex. Management structure and manpower requirements including:
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Specialized skills during execution and operational phases:
PARC will maintain a Program Management Unit at its headquarters which will comprise of highly qualified and skilled professionals in Livelihoods and Environment, Social Mobilization, Gender Development, Human and Institutional Development, Marketing and Enterprise Development and Finance besides having Regional Offices spread throughout the Country. The proposed project will be implemented in coordination with the concerned Government and Non-Government Departments, Organizations and Institutions. 14.1 Implementing & Execution Responsibility

The PARC shall be responsible for the following pertaining to the execution and implementation of the project: • Developing and updating guidelines to ensure cost-effective and ethical practices in execution. • Providing advice and information on technical cooperation, equipment, subcontracting matters and related policy questions • Issuing of Purchase Order or Contracts above Rs300,000 on behalf of Project authorities. • Conducting Market Research and identifying New Technologies, Products and Services. • Endeavoring to obtain equitable geographical distribution of resources • Liaising with Government Departments for approvals if required for ordering, installation, commissioning and operation of equipment, vaccinations, quarantine and other material. • Assisting and advising on special terms and conditions, if any, to be included in Contracts e.g. staggered payments, special penalty provisions, liquidated damages, time schedule for contract performance and follow-up action where necessary. • The PARC supervises the work of the Project Manager. 14.2 Financial Management Financial Management in respect to Budgetary Controls, Accounting Procedures, Financial Reporting and Audit Requirements for all projects executed by the PARC, the established financial guidelines of the PARC are conceived with reasonable assurance that adequate controls are in place for: a) Budget Revisions b) Banking c) Disbursement of Funds d) Financial Reporting e) Statutory Audit 14.3 Monitoring and Evaluation To monitor the Project, PARC has established a separate section for Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E). The basic function of this section is to keep track of the progress of program activities and carry out backstopping for conformity with the standards set by PARC. M&E section would continuously monitor all project activities and would provide technical advice to the staff in tasks related to mobilization and execution of project interventions under the project. In executing its interventions the M&E section follows the under mentioned guiding principles.

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Conducting visits in the field to monitor project activities based upon actual findings to gauge the progress of various components. • Determine what the beneficiaries themselves feel about the activities of the project. • Verify both technical and physical indicators of progress and relate them to the components of the approved project PC-1 for implementation. • Preparation of regular project monitoring reports with the cooperation of the Project Manager by the monitoring team. As a routine activity, the Monitoring Section carries out participatory evaluations of project activities along with community groups. The Project itself is subject to evaluation according to policies and procedures established by the PARC. The Project timing and Terms of Reference of the evaluation will be decided by PARC after receipts of Project Funds. 14.4 Project Steering Committees A Steering Committee would be set up to provide advice and decide strategic aspects of the Project. The chair of the Project Steering Committee (PSC) will be decided by the Board of Directors of the PARC. The PSC will meet on quarterly or on need basis. The PSC meeting would be arranged by the CEO of PARC. The other participants of the meeting are Officials from the Concerned Line Ministries, P&D Department, Representatives from the Provincial Governments, Contributing Donors, Project Manager, all Sector Heads of the PARC and Beneficiaries, where appropriate and feasible. The typical agenda for a PSC meeting would deal with the following items: a) Project concept and design. b) Follow-up to any previous PSC or evaluation of the Project. c) Assessment of the relevance, performance and potential success of the Project; issues and problems in design and implementation; conclusions; and recommendations. d) Management actions required the parties responsible and the time frame for implementing the action. e) Progress expected before the next PSC, proposed follow-up to the Project, if any.

15.

Additional projects/decisions required to maximize socio-economic Benefits from the proposed project:

More importance and a sense of urgency have to be focused upon provision of food security through local self-reliance. Projects for rehabilitation of irrigation water, rehabilitation of farm-lands, planting of orchards, honey bee farming, intensive horticulture in all its forms, livestock and rangeland rehabilitation, check upon soil erosion and slope destabilization, solid and liquid waste management, fisheries, poultry and protection of natural resources need to be conceptualized and launched with priority. A number of crucial factors are required to be managed for the successful implementation of the project. The steering committee of the project would be taking these critical decisions at different stages of project implementation. i. The Executing Agency will have to identify local institutions and citizen’s organizations that take full responsibility to execute project activities ii. Implementing agency has to appoint some core staff for smooth functioning of the project and successful marketing of products

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The growers must be supported for the supply of critical inputs for production and linkages for marketing of outputs and products development iv. The community will provide land for the production of and space for establishing field units and storage building spaces v. The respective Local Governments will help in the identification of suitable sites for and provide land. vi. The use and maintenance of equipment and buildings would be the responsibility of the communities and reviewed by a committee constituted by the Steering Committee of the project. vii. Use and maintenance of machinery and equipment after the completion of the project life would be responsibility of the local communities viii. Linkages will be developed with the private sector for product development and marketing Other additional project decision will be suggested based on achievements to be made on implementation of the project.

iii.

79

80

RESULT/PERFORMANCE BASED MONITORING INDICATORS The Project is expected to give the outcomes for environment protection through science based improvements in waste management, to ensure “stable eco-systems in an environmentally sustainable manner”. The performance/outcome indicators given below will be measured during and after the successful implementation of the project: i. Adoption of an integrated approach, rational resource use, and the introduction of water efficient techniques. ii. Institutional strengthening, capacity building & human resource development. iii. Improving quality of and easy access to water supply, especially for women. PERFORMANCE INDICATORS : Table 35
S# 1 Component/Objective Activities Expected Output Expected Impact

2

3 4 5.

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16.

Certified that the project proposal has been prepared on the basis of instructions provided by the Planning Commission for the preparation of PC-I for Social Sector projects.

Prepared by
Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan 0301 5456088

Checked by

Approved by

82

Prefabricated Office Structures:

Prefabricated Sheds

83

MDGs
16

Target 10: halve by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation: Indicators Definitions 1990-91 2001- 2004PRSP MTDF MDG 02 05 Target Target Target 2005-06 2009-10 2015 Proportion of Percentage of 53 69 66 70 760 93 population (urban population with and rural) with access to sustainable access Improved water to safe source (Improved) water source Proportion of population (urban and rural) with access to sanitation Percentage population access sanitation of with to 30 45 54 55 70 90

Achieving MDG target of 90 percent of sanitation coverage is important in meeting the desired quality of life and health. The population coverage increased by only 24 percent in the last 15 years; an additional 36 percent population has to be covered to achieve the target by 2015. Vision 2030 envisages, “developed industrialized, just and prosperous Pakistan through rapid and sustainable development in a resource constrained economy by deploying
16

Notes and Sources: A. Planning Commission B. Medium Term Development Framework, 2005-10 C. Pakistan Economic Survey 2004-05 D. PIHS 2000-01, (Coverage of Tap, Hand-pump water and Flush Toilets use) E. PSLM (CWIQ) 04-05 (Coverage of Tap, Hand-pump water and Flush Toilets use). F. Target of MTDF changed from 50 to 70 percent in view of higher coverage in the previous years G. All PRSP targets are taken from Accelerating Economic Growth and Reducing Poverty: The Road Ahead. Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper, Government of Pakistan, December 2003. H. Ministry of Environment, 2003 Pakistan Millennium Development Goals Report 2005

17

knowledge inputs”. This vision is being operationalized through series of MTDF. National Economic Council (NEC) approved on 27th May 2005 the MTDF 2005-2010, which is first of the series. “Water and Sanitation for All”: Provision of safe water supply and sanitation is necessary to ensure a healthy population. By 2015, the water supply and sanitation will stand extended to the entire population. The main elements of the strategy will include the following: • • • • • • • • Adoption of an integrated approach, rational resource use, and the introduction of water efficient techniques. Containment of environmental degradation. Institutional strengthening, capacity building & human resource development. Improving performance and utilization of local systems through better planning management and community participation. Improving quality of and easy access to water supply, especially for women. Improving sanitation through sewerage and drainage schemes. Promoting increased take up of household sanitation. Improving the understanding of linkages between hygiene and health through community education campaigns, especially among the women and children.

Table 14: Targets18
Category High HDI Pakistan Avg. (2004) Med. HDI Avg (2004) 2004 -05* 51 59 Pakistan MDG Target (2015) 90 Vision 2030 100

2 c

Health Population with 97 sustainable access to improved sanitation ( percent) Water use, share of total Agriculture 95% Industrial 1% Domestic/municipal 4%

Population access to: Safe water Rural 53% Urban 83%

Sanitation 27% 59%

Line Depiction Compost Windrow: 6 Ft.

18

HDI: Human Development Index; Sources: Human Development Report (2006); Pakistan. Millennium Development Goals Report 2005; PSLM Survey (2004-05); MTDF, 2005-10; World Fact Book 2006; Annual Report, Pakistan Telecomm. Authority, 2006; Pakistan Economic Survey, 2005-06.

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100(50) Ft.

Black Plastic Winter Cover Mound
5 Ft. Geo-Membrane 10 Ft.

IV.

Bioremediation of Municipal Liquid Waste through Waste Water Gardens. Population increase brings with it the problem of vast amounts of Liquid and Solid waste. Where adequate disposal/ treatment is not carried out, Nature is unable to absorb and filter toxic materials which eventually find their way into underground reservoirs of water and also into the food chain. A point is reached where there is a complete breakdown and environmental and health problems increase to such an extent that they cannot be treated. Nature uses microbes to breakdown; plants to uptake toxic minerals as well as the earth’s surface to filter the waste. However, nature is only capable of handling a limited amount of waste. In case of increased amounts artificial enhancements and interventions have to be resorted to. A very simple, close to nature, environment friendly solution is available that converts eyesores, displeasing smells and source of poison into a Garden that hosts Biodiversity and can be used for recreation as well as study of plants, birds and insects. Advanced Countries of the World are switching to the use of Bioaugmentation (Addition of Live Bacteria to the target Waste for treatment/ biodegradation) and Phytoremediation (Use of Plants to treat Waste) and planting Reed-Beds and other Plants to treat their Waste. This concept has been used effectively in advanced economies despite the fact that most of their sites are located in cold regions. In hot, temperate climates the process is greatly enhanced. However, extreme temperatures have to be controlled.

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1. Phytoremediation19 uses various plants to degrade, extract, contain, or immobilize contaminants from soil and water. This technology is an innovative, cost-effective alternative to previous treatment methods. A mechanism for contaminant degradation is metabolism within the plant. Some plants are able to uptake toxic compounds and in the process of metabolizing the available nutrients, detoxify them. Containment using plants either binds the contaminants to the soil, renders them non-bioavailable, or immobilizes them by removing the means of transport. Physical containment of contaminants by plants can take the form of binding the contaminants within a humus molecule (humification), physical sequestration of metals as occurs in some wetlands, or by root accumulation in non-harvestable plants. Certain trees sequester large concentrations of metals in their roots, and although harvesting and removal is difficult or impractical, the contaminants present a reduced human or environmental risk while they are bound in the roots. Risk reduction may also be achieved by transforming the contaminant into a form that is not hazardous, or by rendering the contaminant non-bioavailable. EPA and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) have ongoing research in this area. a. Root System Remediation with plants requires that the contaminants be in contact with the root zone of the plants. Either the plants must be able to extend roots to the contaminants, or the contaminated media must be moved to within range of the plants. This movement can be accomplished with standard agricultural equipment and practices, such as deep plowing to bring soil from 2 or 3 feet deep to within 8 to 10 inches of the surface for shallow-rooted crops and grasses, or by irrigating trees and grasses with contaminated groundwater or wastewater. Because these activities can generate fugitive dust and volatile organic compound emissions, potential risks may need to be evaluated. As shown in Table 5, the effective root depth of plants varies by species and depends on soil and climate condition. b. Growth Rate Phytoremediation is also limited by the growth rate of the plants. More time may be required to phytoremediate a site as compared with other more traditional cleanup technologies. Excavation and disposal or incineration takes weeks to months to accomplish, while phytoextraction or degradation may need several years. Therefore, for sites that pose acute risks for human and other ecological receptors, phytoremediation may not be the remediation technique of choice but is much better than no treatment at all. c. Contaminant Concentration
19

The contents of this portion are taken from the various publications of the National Science Foundation of the U.S.A.

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Sites with widespread, low to medium level contamination within the root zone are the best candidates for phytoremediative processes. d. Impacts of Contaminated Vegetation Some ecological exposure may occur whenever plants are used to interact with contaminants from the soil. The fate of the metals in the biomass is a concern. At one site, sunflower plants that extracted cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from surface water were disposed of as radioactive waste (Adler 1996). Although some forms of phytoremediation involve accumulation of metals and require handling of plant material embedded with metals, most plants do not accumulate significant levels of organic contaminants. While metal accumulating plants will need to be harvested and either recycled or disposed of in compliance with applicable regulations, most phytoremediative plants do not require further treatment or disposal. Often overlooked, however, is the possibility that natural vegetation on the site is already creating very similar (but often unrecognized) food chain exposures. In addition, even on currently un-vegetated sites, contaminants will be entering the food chain through soil organisms. The remediation plan should identify and, if possible, quantify potential avenues of ecological exposure, and determine if and where any accumulation of toxics in the selected plants will occur.

Root Depth for Selected Phytoremediation Plants: Table 18.
# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Plant Indian mustard Grasses Poplar trees Alfalfa Grasses Indian Mustard Poplar Trees Maximum Root Depth To 12 inches To 48 inches To 15 feet 4-6 ft. 2 ft 1 ft 15 ft. Target Contaminants Metals Organics Metals, organics, chlorinated solvents -do-do-do-do-

Most organic contaminants do not accumulate in significant amounts in plant tissue. Some plant-eating animals have been shown to avoid eating plants with elevated metal levels (Pollard 1996). In addition, the increased habitat provided by the plants may in some cases offset any potential localized impacts. If some organisms (e.g., caterpillars, rodents, deer, etc.) seem likely to ingest significant amounts of the vegetation, and if harmful bioconcentration up the food chain is a concern during the life of the remediation effort, appropriate exposure control measures should be implemented including perimeter fencing, overhead netting, and pre-flowering harvesting. Phytoextraction techniques aim to harvest metal-laden crops just as the plants translocate metals into shoots, thereby limiting availability of contaminants for consumption. Transfer of the contaminants or metabolites to the atmosphere might be the greatest regulatory concern. Transpiration of TCE into the atmosphere has been measured (Newman et al. 1997a), but little information is available that would indicate any release of vinyl chloride. Research being done on the bioavailability of contaminants and on human health and environmental risk assessment is directly related to phytoremediation. Studies are underway to determine if contaminants that are not available to plants for uptake or that are not vulnerable to plant remediation are less of a risk to human health and the environment. Page 88 of 116

Phytoremediation Overview: Table 19.
Mechanism Process Phytoextraction Goal Contaminant extraction and capture sludges Media Soil, Sediment Contaminants Metals: Ag, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Zn; Radionuclides, 90Sr, 137Cs, 239Pu, 238,234U Metals, radionuclides Plants Indian mustard, pennycress, alyssum, sunflowers, hybrid poplars Sunflowers, Indian mustard, water scale hyacinth Indian mustard hybrid poplars, grasses Red mulberry grasses, hybrid, poplar, cattail, rice Algae, stonewort hybrid poplar black willow, bald cypress Poplars, alfalfa black locust, Indian mustard Hybrid poplar, cottonwood, willow Poplars, grasses Status Laboratory, pilot and field applications Laboratory and pilot Field application Field application

Rhizofiltration

Contaminant extraction capture

and

Groundwater Surface water Sediment

Phytostabilization

Contaminant Soil containment sludges Contaminant Soil destruction

As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hs, Pb, Zn Organic compounds(TPH, PAHs, pesticides chlorinated solvents, PCBs) Organic compounds chlorinated solvents, phenols, herbicides munitions Chlorinated solvents some inorganics (Se, Hg, and As) Water-soluble organics inorganics and

Rhizodegradation

sediment sludges groundwater Soil, sediment sludges groundwater surface water Groundwater soil sediment sludges Groundwater surface water, Soil, sludge, sediments Surface water,

Phytodegradation

Contaminant destruction Contaminant extraction from media and release to air Contaminant degradation(plume control) or containment Contaminant containment, Contaminant destruction

Field demonstration Laboratory and field application Field demonstration Field application Field application

Phytovolatilization

Hydraulic control

Vegetative cover (evapotranspiration erosion control cover) Riparian corridors (non-point source groundwater and inorganics control)

Organic and inorganic compounds Water-soluble organics

Poplars

2. a.

Phytodegradation Definition/Mechanism Phytodegradation (also known as phytotransformation) is the breakdown of contaminants taken up by plants through metabolic processes within the plant, or the breakdown of contaminants external to the plant through the effect of compounds (such as enzymes) produced by the plants. The main mechanism is plant uptake and metabolism. Additionally, degradation may occur outside the plant, due to the release of compounds that cause transformation. Any degradation caused by microorganisms associated with or affected by the plant root is considered rhizodegradation. b. Uptake For phytodegradation to occur within the plant, the compounds must be taken up by the plant. One study identified more than 70 organic chemicals representing many classes of compounds that were taken up and accumulated by 88 species of plants and trees (Paterson et al. 1990). A database has been established to review the classes of chemicals and types of plants that have been investigated in regard to their uptake of organic compounds (Nellessen and Fletcher 1993b). Uptake is dependent on hydrophobicity, solubility, and polarity. Moderately hydrophobic organic compounds (with log kow between 0.5 and 3.0) are most Page 89 of 116

readily taken up by and translocated within plants. Very soluble compounds (with low sorption) will not be sorbed onto roots or translocated within the plant (Schnoor et al. 1995a). Hydrophobic (lipophilic) compounds can be bound to root surfaces or partitioned into roots, but cannot be further translocated within the plant (Schnoor et al. 1995a; Cunningham et al. 1997). Nonpolar molecules with molecular weights <500 will sorb to the root surfaces, whereas polar molecules will enter the root and be translocated (Bell 1992). Plant uptake of organic compounds can also depend on type of plant, age of contaminant, and many other physical and chemical characteristics of the soil. Definitive conclusions cannot always be made about a particular chemical. For example, when PCP was spiked into soil, 21% was found in roots and 15% in shoots after 155 days in the presence of grass (Qiu et al. 1994); in another study, several plants showed minimal uptake of PCP (Bellin and O’Connor 1990). c. Metabolism Metabolism within plants has been identified for a diverse group of organic compounds, including the herbicide atrazine (Burken and Schnoor 1997), the chlorinated solvent TCE (Newman et al. 1997a), and the munition TNT (Thompson et al. 1998). Other metabolized compounds include the insecticide DDT, the fungicide hexachlorobenzene (HCB), PCP, the plasticizer diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP), and PCBs in plant cell cultures (Komossa et al. 1995). d. Plant-Formed Enzymes Plant-formed enzymes have been identified for their potential use in degrading contaminants such as munitions, herbicides, and chlorinated solvents. Immunoassay tests have been used to identify plants that produce these enzymes (McCutcheon 1996). e. Media Phytodegradation is used in the treatment of soil, sediments, sludges, and groundwater. Surface water can also be remediated using phytodegradation. f. Advantages Contaminant degradation due to enzymes produced by a plant can occur in an environment free of microorganisms (for example, an environment in which the microorganisms have been killed by high contaminant levels). Plants are able to grow in sterile soil and also in soil that has concentration levels that are toxic to microorganisms. Thus, phytodegradation potentially could occur in soils where biodegradation cannot. g. Disadvantages Phytodegradation has the following disadvantages: • Toxic intermediates or degradation products may form. In a study unrelated to phytoremediation research, PCP was metabolized to the potential mutagen tetrachlorocatechol in wheat plants and cell cultures (Komossa et al. 1995). • The presence or identity of metabolites within a plant might be difficult to determine; thus contaminant destruction could be difficult to confirm. h. Applicable Contaminants/ Concentrations Organic compounds are the main category of contaminants subject to phytodegradation. In general, organic compounds with a log kow between 0.5 and 3.0 can be subject to phytodegradation within the plant. Inorganic nutrients are also remediated through plant uptake and metabolism. Phytodegradation outside the plant does not depend on log kow and plant uptake. i. Organics Chlorinated solvents The plant-formed enzyme dehalogenase, which can dechlorinate chlorinated compounds, has been discovered in sediments (McCutcheon 1996). Page 90 of 116

TCE was metabolized to trichloroethanol, trichloroacetic acid, and dichloroacetic acid within hybrid poplar trees (Newman et al. 1997a). In a similar study, hybrid poplar trees were exposed to water containing about 50 ppm TCE and metabolized the TCE within the tree (Newman et al. 1997a). Minced horseradish roots successfully treated wastewater containing up to 850 ppm of 2,4dichlorophenol (Dec and Bollag 1994). Herbicides Atrazine in soil was taken up by trees and then hydrolyzed and dealkylated within the roots, stems, and leaves. Metabolites were identified within the plant tissue, and a review of atrazine metabolite toxicity studies indicated that the metabolites were less toxic than atrazine (Burken and Schnoor 1997). The plant-formed enzyme nitrilase, which can degrade herbicides, has been discovered in sediments (Carreira 1996). A qualitative study indicated that the herbicide bentazon was degraded within black willow trees, as indicated by bentazon loss during a nursery study and by identification of metabolites within the tree. Bentazon was phytotoxic to six tree species at concentrations of 1000 and 2000 mg/L. At 150 mg/kg, bentazon metabolites were detected within tree trunk and canopy tissue samples (Conger and Portier 1997). Atrazine at 60.4 g/kg (equivalent to about 3 times field application rates) was used to study phytodegradation in hybrid poplars (Burken and Schnoor 1997). The herbicide bentazon was phytotoxic at concentrations of 1,000 to 2,000 mg/L, but allowed growth at 150 mg/L (Conger and Portier 1997). Insecticides The isolation from plants of the enzyme phosphatase, which can degrade organophosphate insecticides, may have phytodegradation applications (McCutcheon 1996). Munitions The plant-formed enzyme nitroreductase, which can degrade munitions, has been discovered in sediments; this enzyme, from parrot feather, degraded TNT (McCutcheon 1996). Hybrid poplar trees metabolized TNT to 4-amino- 2,6-dinitrotoluene (4-ADNT), 2-amino4,6- dinitrotoluene (2-ADNT), and other unidentified compounds (Thompson et al. 1998). TNT concentrations in flooded soil decreased from 128 to 10 ppm with parrot feather (Schnoor et al. 1995b). Phenols Chlorinated phenolic concentrations in wastewater decreased in the presence of oxidoreductase enzymes in minced horseradish roots (Dec and Bollag 1994). j. Inorganics Nutrients Nitrate will be taken up by plants and transformed to proteins and nitrogen gas (Licht and Schnoor 1993). k. Root Depth Phytodegradation is generally limited to the root zone, and possibly below the root zone if root exudates are soluble, nonsorbed, and transported below the root zone. The degree to which this occurs is uncertain. l. Plants The aquatic plant parrot feather (Myriophyllum aquaticum) and the algae stonewort (Nitella) have been used for the degradation of TNT. The nitroreductase enzyme has also been identified in other algae, ferns, monocots, dicots, and trees (McCutcheon 1996). Degradation of TCE has been detected in hybrid poplars and in poplar cell cultures, resulting in production of metabolites and in complete mineralization of a small portion of the applied TCE (Gordon et al. 1997; Newman et al. 1997a). Atrazine degradation has also been Page 91 of 116

confirmed in hybrid poplars (Populus oliform x nigra DN34, Imperial Carolina) (Burken and Schnoor 1997). Poplars have also been used to remove nutrients from groundwater (Licht and Schnoor 1993). Black willow (Salix nigra), yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera), bald cypress (Taxodium distichum), river birch (Betula nigra), cherry bark oak ( Quercus Colifor), and live oak ( Quercus viginiana) were able to support some degradation of the herbicide bentazon (Conger and Portier 1997). m. Site Considerations i. Soil Conditions Phytodegradation is most appropriate for large areas of soil having shallow contamination. ii. Ground and Surface Water Groundwater that can be extracted by tree roots or that is pumped to the surface may be treated by this system. Phytodegradation can also occur in surface water, if the water is able to support the growth of appropriate plants. iii. Climatic Conditions Phytoremediation studies involving phytodegradation have been conducted under a wide variety of climatic conditions. n. Current Status Research and pilot-scale studies have been conducted primarily at Army Ammunition Plants (AAPs). These demonstrations include field studies at the Iowa AAP, Volunteer AAP, and Milan AAP (McCutcheon 1996). The following plants are used in hydraulic control: Cottonwood and hybrid poplar trees were used at seven sites in the East and Midwest to contain and treat shallow groundwater contaminated with heavy metals, nutrients, or pesticides (Gatliff 1994). Poplars were used at a site in Utah to contain groundwater contaminated with gasoline and diesel (Nelson 1996). Passive gradient control was studied at the French Limited Superfund site using a variety of phreatophyte trees; native nondeciduous trees were found to perform the best (Sloan and Woodward 1996). o. i. Site Considerations: Riparian Corridors/Buffer Strips Definition/Mechanism Riparian corridors/buffer strips are generally applied along streams and riverbanks to control and remediate surface runoff and groundwater contamination moving into the river. These systems can also be installed to prevent down gradient migration of a contaminated groundwater plume and to degrade contaminants in the plume. Mechanisms for remediation include water uptake, contaminant uptake, and plant metabolism. Riparian corridors are similar in conception to physical and chemical permeable barriers such as trenches filled with iron filings, in that they treat groundwater without extraction containment. Riparian corridors and buffer strips may incorporate certain aspects of hydraulic control, phytodegradation, rhizodegradation, phytovolatilization, and perhaps phytoextraction. Media Riparian corridors/buffer strips are used in the treatment of surface water and groundwater. iii. Advantages Secondary advantages include the stabilization of stream banks and prevention of soil erosion. Aquatic and terrestrial habitats are greatly improved by riparian forest corridors. iii. Disadvantages

ii.

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The use of buffer strips might be limited to easily assimilated and metabolized compounds. Land use constraints may restrict application. iv. Applicable Contaminants/ Concentrations Nutrient and pesticide contaminants are among the water- soluble organics and inorganics studied the most often using this technology. The nitrate concentration in groundwater was 150 mg/L at the edge of a field, 8 mg/L below a poplar buffer strip, and 3 mg/L downgradient at the edge of a stream (Licht and Schnoor 1993). v. Root Depth Uptake occurs within the root zone or the depth of influence of the roots. vi. Plants Poplars have been used in riparian corridors and buffer strips. vii. Site Considerations Sufficient land must be available for the establishment of vegetation. Typically a triple row of trees is installed, using 10 meters at minimum. Larger corridors increase capacity, and wider areas allow for more diverse ecosystem and habitat creation. Native Midwestern songbirds, for example, prefer corridors 70 meters and more. viii. Soil Conditions The primary considerations for this technology are the depth and concentration of contaminants that affect plant growth. Soil texture and degree of saturation are factors to be considered for use of this system. Planting technique can mitigate unfavorable soil conditions. ix. Ground and Surface Water Groundwater must be within the depth of influence of the roots. x. Climatic Conditions The amount of precipitation, temperature, and wind may affect the transpiration rate of the plants. xi. Current Status Buffer strips have been researched and installed commercially with success. p. Plants Used in Phytoremediation A compilation of plants used in phytoremediation research or application is given in Appendix D. This Appendix includes a table giving the common name followed by the scientific name, and a table with the scientific name followed by the common name. The following are examples of commonly-investigated or used plants: Plants Used in Phytoremediation: Table 20
Trees: Poplars (hybrids)/cottonwoods Willows Grasses: Prairie grasses Fescue Legumes: Alfalfa Metal-accumulators: Hyperaccumulators Thlaspi caerulescens Brassica juncea Accumulators: Sunflower Aquatic plants: Parrot feather Phragmites reeds

Cattails
Hyacinths Target Contaminants metals – Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn metals – As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Se, Zn hydrophobic organics – DDT, dieldrin, dioxins, furans, PAH, PCB, PCP

Summary of Bioremediation Technologies: Table 21
Technology Phytoextraction Phytostabilization Applicable Media Phytoremediation brownfields; sediments; soil; groundwater sediments; soil

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Phytostimulation Phyto-transformation

sediments; soil; waste water (land application) groundwater; landfill leachate; soil; wastewater (land application)

organics – aromatics, PAH, pesticides ammunition wastes – RDX, TNT, aromatics – BTEX, chlorinated aliphatics – TCE, herbicides – atrazine,alachlor, hydrocarbons – TPHnutrients – NO3 (-),, NH4 (+), PO4 (3-) hydrophobic organics, metals – Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, radionuclides – 137Cs, 90Sr, U BOD, TDS, TSS, NO2, NO3, NH3, NH4 Coliforms – fecal, total, metals – Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, nutrients – Al, Fe, K, Mn, P COD organics – BTEX, NAPL, pesticides, solvents non-chlorinatedhydrocarbons, pesticides, petroleum hydrocarbons, wood, preservatives inorganic contaminants hydrocarbons – BTEX, PAH, other phenols ethylene glycol, explosives, hydrocarbons – PAH, PCP, pesticides acetic acid, explosives – TNT, hydrocarbons – BTEX, PAH, pesticides, petrochemicals, wood preservatives

Rhizofiltration Constructed Wetlands

Biodegradation Bioventing Chemical Oxidation of Soils In situ Lagoon Compost-based reactor Slurry-based reactor

groundwater; water and wastewater in lagoons or constructed wetlands domestic wastewater; landfill leachate; livestock wastewater; pulp mill effluent; septage Bioaugmentation groundwater; sludge; soil Biostimulation soil soil; wastewater sludge; soil Bioreactors lagoon sediments; municipal and refinery sludge; soil groundwater; sludge; soil

Composting Land Farming White-rot Fungus

Land-based Treatments lagoon sediments; municipal sludge; soil ethylene glycol, explosives, hydrocarbons – PAH, PCP, pesticides sediment; sludge; soil hydrocarbons – TPH, PCP, pesticides Fungal Remediation soil CAH, PCB, polychlorinated dibenzo(p)dioxins, explosives – TNT, hydrocarbons – PAH, pesticides – DDT,

Abbreviations: Table 22
Abbreviation BOD: BTEX: CAH: COD: DDT: NAPL: PAH: PCB: Name biochemical oxygen demand benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons chemical oxygen demand 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(pchlorophenyl) ethylene non-aqueous phase liquid polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon polychlorinated biphenyl Abbreviation PCP: RDX: TCE: TDS: TNT: TPH: TSS: Name pentachlorophenol hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5triazine trichloroethylene total dissolved solids 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene total petroleum hydrocarbons total suspended solids

Raw sewage not mixed with detergents and Household/ Commercial chemicals are generated in large quantities. It is estimated that a community of 10,000 people can generate 40-acre inches of sewage effluent per day or an equivalent of 1 million gallons of wastewater. This waste is extremely rich in nutrients especially Nitrogen. Integrated Biosystem Highlights Most conventional wastewater treatment tries to clean water mechanically and chemically then releases it into waterways. Such systems are expensive, produce limited Page 94 of 116

economic benefits, and can themselves pollute. By contrast, integrated biosystems treat water by recycling it for agricultural use, producing numerous economic, health and environmental benefits. Nutrients in wastewater are recycled by algae, crops and livestock via processes such as photosynthesis, mineralization, and uptake. Water is treated by combined natural processes such as soil and root filtration, sedimentation and biochemical reactions including photosynthesis, anaerobic and aerobic digestion. In this system, clean water is a by-product along with organic crops, fertilized soil, and reclaimed wildlife habitat. Economic benefits come from soil restoration, fertilizer recovery, crops and livestock. Products can be produced safely and profitably with low input costs. Costs are minimized by using wastewater for fertilizer, integrating crops for pest protection, maintaining biodiversity, treating water via natural processes, and reducing environmental liability. The technology is especially suitable for poor soil and regions where flood control or water conservation are required. Locally available resources are used so costs for imported fertilizer and equipment are minimized. Components are scalable, ranging from single households to large farms and communities. Due to high levels of year-round ambient sunlight, more productive applications occur in a belt defined by 30 degrees latitude north and south of the equator. 3. Reed Beds: Two different basic types of reed-beds have been developed and used for the treatment of polluting waste water effluents over the last 20 years or so: • Horizontal flow reed-beds • Vertical flow reed-beds From these in more recent years a third type of reed bed system, that is highly efficient, has evolved: • Combination vertical and horizontal flow reed beds i. Horizontal Flow Reed-Bed Systems: Horizontal flow reed beds work particularly well for low strength effluents, or effluents that have undergone some form of pre-treatment. Whilst not effective in reducing ammonia they will almost always reduce BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) and SS (Suspended Solids) levels. These systems play an invaluable role in tertiary treatment and for the polishing of effluents. A typical application would be to treat the discharge from a package sewage treatment plant which is unable to meet the discharge consent standard required. ii. Vertical Flow Reed-Bed Systems: Vertical flow reed-bed systems are much more effective than horizontal flow reed-beds not only in reducing BOD and SS levels but also in reducing ammonia levels and eliminating smells. They can be considerably smaller and will also cope with much stronger effluents.

iii.

Combination Systems: Page 95 of 116

Multi-stage reed-bed systems, incorporating one or two stages of vertical flow followed by one or more stages of horizontal flow, and large single stage vertical flow reed-beds, when properly designed, are used for example, for the full treatment of domestic sewage - black and grey water - and, sludge, if required. Systems can be designed to accommodate virtually any situation from flat sites to steep rocky slopes. On sloping sites gravity can be used, whereas one or two pumping stages may be required on flat sites, to move the effluent through the reed-beds. Reed-bed systems do not require a lot of space. The most effective "combination reed-bed systems", usually sized at about 2 sq. m. per person equivalent for sewage treatment, have a remarkably small footprint. The use of wetlands to treat effluent is not a new idea. Thousands of years ago, natural wetlands were used by the Chinese and by the Egyptians to clarify liquid effluent. However, the first “constructed” wetland was not used until 1904 (in Australia). Even after that the use of such wetlands was slow to catch on. The first botanical treatment of waste was not reported in Europe until the 1950s; America’s research into the field did not begin until the 1970s. Nevertheless, it is now recognized that constructed wetlands are an economic way of treating liquid effluent and even raw. Constructed Wetlands reduce concentrations of suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), nitrogen, phosphorus, and coliform bacteria (often by up to 98%). Their simplicity and scalability make them effective for treatment of waste from small communities. If constructed on suitable topography, they require little energy input, which makes them suitable for both under-developed and rural sites. However despite the suitability of climate in developing countries, the spread of wetlands in such areas has been described as "depressingly slow".20 Number of Wetland Systems Currently in Use: It has been claimed that there are "thousands of wetland-based wastewater treatment systems around the world".21 However, although it is clear use of constructed wetlands is increasing, the precise number of such systems in operation is relatively difficult to obtain. Those figures which are available are summarized below: USA and Canada Constructed wetlands are still not in widespread use as treatment systems for wastewater. A 1996 survey of the USA and Canada showed 176 wetland treatment sites in use. A majority (116) of these were in sub-tropical or warm-temperate zones. However, the state with the greatest number of installations was the cold-temperate South Dakota (40 sites). The majority of wetlands in cold-temperate zones were of the FWF type Northern Europe In Northern Europe, Denmark is the leader in implementing constructed wetlands. A pioneer of SSF-type (Subsurface Flow) installations, the country has at least 130 wetlands, most of which treat municipal wastewater. By comparison, Sweden and Norway have shown much less interest in such systems and neither government has given final approval use of constructed wetlands for statutory water treatment. In 1996 Sweden had 6 FWF and 8 SSF wetlands for treatment of municipal or domestic wastewater. However, in most cases they were installed only to aid in removal of nitrogen, or to 'polish' water which had been treated by other means. Norway had almost twenty wetlands, the majority of them SSF-type installations Eastern Europe
20 21

P.Denny et al., 'Constructed wetlands in developing countries', Water Sci and Tech. 35 (5) pp167-174 1997

K.R.Eddy and E.M.Angelo 'Biogeochemical indicators to evaluate pollutant removal efficiency in constructed wetland'’ Water Sci and Tech. 35(5) pp 1-10, 1997

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The spread of constructed wetlands is greatest in the Czech Republic. Between 1989 and 1996, 26 systems were built. As a result of their success, 54 more such systems are currently being constructed. All systems are of the horizontal SSF-type and treat municipal waste (after initial mechanical pre-treatment). Hungary and Estonia are also known to be introducing constructed wetlands, but no numbers are currently available. How Constructed Wetlands treat Waste: The treatment of waste by constructed wetlands is achieved by a large number of chemical and biological processes, many of the latter microbially-mediated. Table 1 (below) shows the main processes (and the sites at which they occur) affecting Carbon (usually measured as BOD5), Nitrogen (as NH4+ or NO3-), and Phosphorus. Processes occurring in Treatment of Waste: Table 23 Contaminant Site Process BOD5 Stems and Leaves Microbial respiration Roots Microbial respiration Bed media Microbial respiration (gravel/sand) Settling Bed media (gravel/sand) Nitrogen Leaves Volatilization (as N2 and N2O) Algae in water NO3 and NH4+ -> Soluble Organic Nitrogen column Ammonium -> Nitrate Roots Nitrate -> N2, N20, or NH4+ Soil Settling Bed media(gravel/sand) Phosphorus Stems and Leaves Microbial Repiration Roots Microbial Repiration Roots Uptake Bed media Sedimentation/Burial (gravel/sand) Adsorption Bed media (gravel/sand) Biogeochemical Reactions and Nutrient Uptake As mentioned at the start of this section, temperature affects the rate at which biogeochemical processes occur. In cold climates the rate at which biomass takes up nutrients will be significantly lower than in warm, subtropical or tropical climates. Indeed, the treatment area required to transfer 90% of nutrients to biomass increases from around 7 ha at 20°C to 35 ha at 0°C. However, this is not particularly important if nutrient recycling is not required. Figure 2 shows uptake of nitrogen and phosphorus for wetlands in Florida (subtropical), New Zealand (warm temperate), Sweden (cold-temperate) and Canada (cold-temperate). Figure - Nutrient Uptake by Wetlands from different climatic regions

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Performance of New Generation Reed Bed Systems (conc. in mg/l): Table 24. Total COD d BOD TS T PTKN CO 5 S P PO D 4 Raw Sewage 495 190 215 225 8. 6.4 42.8 5 Filter A outflow 92 70 0 18 5. 5.3 19.6 8 Final Outflow 58 40 16 12 5. 5.1 10.1 6 Removal (%) 87.5 80 92.5 94. 40 28 76 5 Performance of Swiss System after 10 years use (Conc in mg/l): Table 25. Total COD BOD TP NO3NH4Min-N 5 N N Gray water 311 129.5 8.5 3 89.8 92.6 Sand filter out 31 0 3.1 50.7 1.9 62.2 Final Outfall 26.7 5.4 0.8 12.7 6.3 18.5 Removal (%) 91.4 95.8 90. -323.0 93.0 80.0 6 Conclusions: • Constructed wetlands are an effective, environmentally friendly means of treating waste (liquid and solid). • Wetlands are effective at reducing loads of BOD/COD, nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended solids. Reduction can be up by 98%. • In the last few years, there has been a tendency to construct SSF-type wetlands rather than FWF-type. Such systems are believed to be more effective at treating waste. • Despite current usage patterns, it is tropical and subtropical climates, which hold the greatest potential for the use of wetlands; cold climates do bring problems with both icing and thaw. • Constructed wetlands require little maintenance, and remain effective after more than 10 years of use. • Use of constructed wetlands in developing countries can provide real economic benefits by providing biomass and supporting aquaculture. • Wetlands can provide a habitat for wildlife and act as a tourist attraction for the community. Page 98 of 116

Performance Characteristics: The means for Total Nitrogen (TN), Total Phosphorus (TP), copper and zinc are: • Inflow TP: 1.018mg/L and TN: 1.92 mg/L. • Outflow TP: 1.013 mg/L and TN: 1.50mg/L. • Inflow for Cu:9.1788 µg/L and Outflow for Cu: 2.4081µg/L • Inflow for Zn: 9.02 µg/L and Outflow: for Zn: 3.7603 µg/L. • Improved species diversity and abundance Water Quality Improvement Surface water is monitored for copper, cadmium, zinc, conductivity, pH, turbidity, total phosphorus, total nitrogen and temperature. The results for total phosphorus, total nitrogen and heavy metals are presented in tables 11, 12 and 13 As shown in Table 11 the concentrations of total phosphorus entering the wetland are higher than the concentrations leaving the wetland. This indicates a reduction of total phosphorus due to uptake by flora and sediments within the wetland. Statistical Analysis Means for Total Phosphorus (TP) and Total Nitrogen (TN) for the four sites: Table 26. TP (mg/L) TN (mg/L) Inflow 1.018 1.92 Outflow 1.013 1.50 Upstream 1.005 1.26 Farmers Downstream 1.006 1.29 Farmers Because of heterogeneity of the data, it had to be transformed to undertake the statistical analysis. Transformed standard errors for TP and TN: Table 27. TP TN S.E 0.000556 0.007165

The means for Cu and Zn: Table 28. Cu (µg/L) Zn (µg/L) Inflow 9.2788 9.02 Outflow 2.4081 3.7603 Upstream 1.1761 5.8904 Farmers Downstream 1.0456 4.2496 Farmers

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Wildlife Pond at end of Reed-Bed System: Botanical/ Reed Beds: Artificial Wetlands; Constructed wetlands or Botanical/ Reed Beds are designed to mimic the sediment and nutrient removal processes occurring in natural wetlands. General design principles are based on holding or slowing the passage of water through the wetland where a range of physical, chemical and biological processes can operate to store, transform or remove various pollutants. These processes can be optimized through the control and manipulation of the hydraulic regime, including retention time. Constructed wetlands are configured into different zones, with each zone performing different functions. Technical Details The wetland is divided into three zones: sedimentation, wetlands (botanical bed) and open water zone. The Sedimentation Zone improves water quality by trapping sediments, litter and contaminants. As flow enters this zone it slows down resulting in sediment deposition. The sediments act as a sink for phosphorus and other pollutants like heavy metals and pesticides. Litter becomes tapped by vegetation located on the edges of this zone. The Wetland (Botanical Bed) Zone improves water quality by removing nutrients and other pollutants. This zone effectively: Slows the flow of water, thereby increasing sedimentation and contact time with the water (effluent); Filters pollutants and precipitates them from the water; Transfers oxygen to the root zones thereby preventing a build up of toxins under saturated conditions; Assimilates, processes and stores nutrients; Supports microbial growth to enhance nutrient transformations. The Deep Open Water Zone polishes water, allowing time for finer particles to settle and for sunlight to kill pathogens. The littoral vegetation surrounding the open water zone contributes to pollutant removal through the processes described above. Over the last hundreds of years there has been a general decline in the water quality of rivers and streams. Land clearance for agriculture, urban development and manufacturing have led to increasing levels of phosphorus, turbidity, heavy metals and pathogenic bacterial contamination of major water systems. Streams and rivers have been adversely affected by industrial and urban development. The water quality is poor, with high nutrient levels and heavy metal contamination problems. Performance Criteria Page 100 of 116

• • • • •

• • •

The performance characteristics by which Wetlands are assessed include: The improvement of surface water quality entering water systems from the Wetland (in particular the reduction of nutrients and heavy metals) The improvement of the site as habitat for native fauna; and Creation of a focal point for environmental education and passive recreation within the Islamabad area. Water Quality Improvement: Surface water is monitored for copper, cadmium, zinc, conductivity, pH, turbidity, total phosphorus, total nitrogen and temperature. In simple terms, a botanical bed can be seen as a low loaded fixed film filter with inbuilt sedimentation, a primary tank is required to retain the organic material, the effluent then gravitates or is pumped to the botanical bed, membrane lined and filled with appropriate gravel and stone and planted with appropriate plants. Dimensions, shape and number of beds vary with type of application, flow rate and organic loading, and quality of treated effluent required. Botanical bed schemes have proven themselves to be an effective, sustainable, reliable and economical method of treatment. Cost effective and aesthetically pleasing are two good reasons for choosing botanical beds, a third and more important reason is that they are the most environmental friendly form of sewage treatment available at this time. The use of botanical beds in environmentally sensitive areas is now widespread in the United Kingdom, over the last decade reed beds have been monitored by the Environment Agency and are now an established form of treatment. Agri/ Horticulture "Water in the environment is like blood in the body: and ours is sick. The arteries and veins of our countryside, its rivers and wetlands, are suffering from the equivalent of low blood pressure and blood poisoning. The condition has developed over many years and treatment is now urgent." Sir David Attenborough The use of wetlands to treat effluent is not a new idea. Thousands of years ago, natural wetlands were used by the Chinese and by the Egyptians to clarify liquid effluent. However, the first “constructed” wetland was not used until 1904 (in Australia). Even after that the use of such wetlands was slow to catch on. The first botanical treatment of waste was not reported in Europe until the 1950s; America’s research into the field did not begin until the 1970s. Nevertheless, it is now recognized that constructed wetlands are an economic way of treating liquid effluent (and even raw sewage Horizontal-flow wetlands may be of two types: free-water surface-flow (FWF) or subsurface water-flow (SSF). In the former the effluent flows freely above the sand/gravel bed in which the reeds etc. are planted, and there may be patches of open water; in the latter effluent passes through the sand/gravel bed. In FWF-type wetlands plant stems, leaves and rhizomes treat effluent. Such FWF wetlands are densely planted and typically have water-depths of less than 0.4m. However, dense planting can limit oxygen diffusion into the water, and FWF wetlands are typically less effective at reducing BOD5 and phosphorus than SSF wetlands (in which effluent is treated by the roots). Biogeochemical Reactions and Nutrient Uptake: As mentioned earlier, temperature affects the rate at which biogeochemical processes occur. In cold climates the rate at which biomass takes up nutrients will be significantly lower Page 101 of 116

than in warm, subtropical or tropical climates. Indeed, the treatment area required to transfer 90% of nutrients to biomass increases from around 7 ha at 20°C to 35 ha at 0°C. Constructed wetlands are not yet widely used in developing, tropical countries. However, this is the very environment in which such wetlands perform best. Indeed, constructed wetlands can form an integrated part of the food production system in such climates. The advantage of a hot climate is a continuous growing season, which means that the wetland biomass can also be harvested. For example, the annual production of papyrus in tropical conditions can be in excess of 100 tons/ ha/ year. The foliage can be sustainably cropped, while the papyrus stems can be used for matting and thatching roofs. Water that has passed through the wetland can be used to irrigate crops and/or introduced to a fishpond. In this final stage, remaining nitrates and phosphates stimulate the growth of phytoplankton - the favorite food of fish. Such systems may actually yield a profit for local communities, and would be a powerful tool in breaking the poverty cycle. All chemical reactions slow as temperature drops and this is true for the processes occurring in constructed wetlands Two innovative, low-cost and highly effective structures are being introduced. These are an Environment Protected Green/ Shade House Structure built as a Geodesic Dome and rectangular Green/ Shade covers for Botanical Beds.

Starting Medium Tunnel for Iris/ Papyrus Reeds/ African Lettuce/ Bulrushes Botanical Bed Medium Tunnels

Bioaugmentation Pond Geodesic Dome

Line Depiction: Liquid Waste Remediation:
SEDIMENTATION POOL

GEODESIC DOMES (Bioaugmentation). Hyacinth Botanical Beds Type “B” Filters Pebbles/ Gravel/ Sand

Water

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Medium Tunnels

GEODESIC DOMES (Bioaugmentation).

Medium Tunnels Botanical Beds Type “B” Filters Pebbles/ Gravel/ Sand

POLISHING POOL

Lake/ Pond Treatment Systems:

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• • • • • • • •

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: A combination of various species of live Bacteria is used for the treatment of Industrial, Agricultural and Residential organically contaminated wastewater. The microorganisms are non-toxic and non-pathogenic live bacteria suspended in a liquid medium that is non-offensive to humans, animals, plants and all types of aqua-culture. The bacterium remains in an adult state after manufacture which gives it ability to quickly adapt to different environments. The combination of these diverse components provides the flexibility to treat highly complex organic components in different systems utilizing aerobic and anaerobic applications. The bacteria have been very successful in the treatment of phenolic waste with large concentrations of oils and fats and extremely offensive odors. MODE OF ACTION: When Bacteria is added to a contaminated area, they immediately revive themselves and begin to feed, reproduce and attack the organic waste in the water. The Bacteria were specifically developed to reduce Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) which causes the odors that emanate from water treatment systems, septic tanks, lagoons and pits. The Bacteria breaks down solids including fecal material, fats and proteins and treats phenolic waters, sewage, biodegradable Hydrogen sulfide and other contaminants. The operation efficiency of lagoons and other treatment facilities is greatly improved when the Bacteria is applied. Contamination is drastically reduced as is the need for expensive cleaning and pumping procedures. The Bacteria can help a treatment facility achieve total compliance with Government Pollution Regulations. LAGOON SYSTEMS: The Bacteria’s unique ecosystem naturally breaks down the odor causing compounds that contaminate surrounding communities and ground water supply. On the farm the Bacteria can keep manure in a uniform pumpable slurry form and enhances it fertilizer value making it more readily absorbable by plants while providing the following benefits. Reduction of Hydrogen Sulfide odors: Reduction of accumulated Gasses. Destruction of Fly and mosquito larvae. Reduction of BOD and COD. Breakdown of waste solids. Creation of healthier environment. Reduction in Livestock mortality. Increase in fertilizer value of recycled water. MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS:

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One of the most significant tasks faced by City officials is to provide safe, potable water to members of the community and subsequently to transport the used water or sewage away to be disposed off in an environmentally compatible manner. Some of the key areas where Bioaugmentation can be beneficial in Municipal Plants. • Start-up and recovery of Biological Wastewater treatment systems. • Improving organic removal efficiency. Improving performance of systems with inadequate aeration capacity. • Improving Plant Stability. • Establishing or increasing Nitrification. • Expanding Plant capacity without Capital Expenditure. • Improving oils and grease digestion. • Reducing sludge generation per Kg of BOD removed. • Improving cold weather operation. • Improving solids settling. • Improve breakdown of refractory organics. INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER PLANTS: Effluents Treated from Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plants: Table29. # ITEMS ITEMS 1 Chemicals Iron & Steel 2 Petrochemicals Food Processing 3 Refining Leather Tanning 4 Pulp & Paper Mining Typically these Plants represent the highest organic concentrations for which biological treatment is used. Aqua-Clean significantly reduces BOD levels and improves overall operating efficiency. COCA-COLA TRIALS: “We improved the efficiency of our activated sludge facility to over 90% with the use of Bioaugmentation,” says Mr. Juarez, Head of Maintenance, Coca-Cola Factory, Nixapa, El Salvador, Central America.

100 80 60 40 20 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun BOD

BOD

SEPTIC TANKS & GREASE TRAPS: Bioaugmentation degrades soluble organics in solution by a combination of aerobic microaerophilic, facultative, aerobic and anaerobic micro-organisms and primarily bacteria. Bioaugmentation provides a higher bacterial population and augments the natural degradation process of organic waste to assure efficient septic tank and grease trap operation. Bioaugmentation digests the waste: Page 106 of 116

• Prevents Overflow. • Eliminates Organic accumulation. • Reduces frequency of regular maintenance procedures. • Eliminates noxious odors and reduces insect larvae. GOLF COURSES - Ponds & Lakes: Bioaugmentation eliminates offensive odors and keeps ponds clear and algae free by two mechanisms: exclusion and the production of a natural inhibitor which is not harmful to other aquatic plants or animals. The photosynthetic bacteria, which are metabolically similar to algae, compete with algae for essential macro nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus. • Keeps Ponds clean and clear. • Reduces Filamentous and Planktonic Algae. • Eliminates noxious odors caused by Algae. • Reduces eggs and larvae of water-breeding insects. • Safe for all Wildlife. MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT: La Costa, Uruguay This Municipal Lagoon receives 2,40,000 liters of domestic sewage per day. A total of 322 Liters of Bacteria was applied over a period of six weeks. The water was purified by 95% and was certified for use in Agriculture, pH was improved to 7.2 and Biological Oxygen Demand was reduced from 40 initially to 13 after treatment. All noxious odors were eliminated as was the presence of insects including flies and mosquitoes.

Origin Chemical Dairy Confectionary Halogenated

SUCCESSFUL APPLICATIONS: Table 30. WASTE Phenols, alcohols, straight chain alkanes and aromatic compounds Fats and whey Sugar wastes and chemicals Chloro and di-chloro phenols Surfactants and other components of detergents Organic components of fish waste and unused fish food Reduction of BOD and odors Petroleum Hydrocarbons Reduction of BOD and odors Spent fermentation media, tabletising binders and extraction solvents Phenols, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, petroleum oils and greases Phenols, cyanide, thiocyanate, ammonia and rolling oils Vegetable tanning wastes Surfactants, starches and organic dyes Liquid sugars, high fructose corn syrups and flavorings Page 107 of 116

Aromatics Detergents Fish Farms Food Processing Petrochemicals Paper & Cellulose Pharmaceuticals Refinery Wastes Steel Manufacturing Tanneries Textiles Beverages

PLANT NUTRITION:
A factor common to all of the before mentioned agricultural developments and indeed part of them is Plant Nutrition. In fact, the basis of the controversy is the deleterious affects of Plant Nutrition as introduced by the Green Revolution. Rather than only highlight the positive results accrued by this revolution, it would serve humanity to take lessons from past mistakes or oversights and move to correct them. This does not take from venerable reputations but rather reinforces them by provision of continuity rather than termination. A greater and deeper understanding of organics and their inorganic building blocks is badly required. Organics are high-energy-level compounds that have arisen due to energy input (usually from the sun) to low-energy-level inorganic elements and or compounds. Thus, low-energy-level inorganic materials arise to constitute the parts of high-energy-level organic compounds and entities of progressively higher life forms that, in turn are subject to reversion to low-energy-level inorganic materials on decomposition and/ or death22. With this as a fact, there is absolutely no basis for an organic versus inorganic debate what so ever. The debate should revolve around the safety of the introduction by humans of fabricated materials into the environment. In case they are not safe then safer materials need to be developed and unsafe materials need to be banned, immediately or whenever such safe materials are available. It is an inescapable fact that all life forms require nutrition to maintain life. Modern research has shown that a life form must change its physical constituents quite rapidly in order to meet its growth and existence requirements. Indeed, we require a constant supply of all kinds of atoms, molecules, and compounds in order to replace what is being lost. The environment provides us with air and water to fulfill our need and indeed that of all life forms with Oxygen, Carbon and Hydrogen which make up over 90% of the life form’s body, be it human, animal or plants. Apart from this there are a number of essential raw materials required, this placed is between eighteen to forty for human beings. Of these eighteen are most commonly required, i.e. fifteen apart from the three already mentioned. These elements are the same for humans, animals, and plants. As yet however, only plants are able to synthesize these raw materials into assimilable forms and make
22

Environment Systems Engineering, Linvil G. Rich. Mcgraw-Hill, ISBN 0-07-052250-2

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them available to humans and animals on an economic scale. There are six classes of nutrients for humans; of these four supply indispensable building materials. These are water; protein; minerals and vitamins. The other two are classed as energy foods (carbohydrates and fats, oils) and are interchangeable whereas the previous four are not. Just as living organisms shed their components and replace them on a continuous basis thereby consuming energy so too does Nature constantly consume energy through breakdown of organic matter, weathering process in the soil, the hydrothermal cycle, and mobility of substances in soil, water, and air. Many dynamic and interdependent chains and cycles exist within the Biosphere as elements are cycled and recycled, are consumed and/ or replenished, subjected to output losses due to lack of input: output balance. Stable Eco Systems are those wherein minerals (essential elements) and particulate material are retained by recycling them within its constituent sub-systems. It is important to note that rebuilding of this dynamic recycling, in case of disruption, can take from 60 to 80 years and longer depending upon the severity of the disruption. Secondly, it has taken millions of years for these Eco Systems to evolve. For instance, soil that has been either deposited or built up in millions of years can be lost within a few years if mismanaged. Thus, large quantities of minerals are removed. If Compost or well-rotted Farm Yard Manure is inculcated in the soil, quantities of these minerals are returned to the soil and fertility is replenished to the extent of addition. Since Farm Yard Manure does not contain sufficient minerals to replace those removed, unless prohibitively large quantities of rarely available manure are added. Even when composted with biodegradable organic material, the output: input ratio is not balanced. Thus, agricultural soils face continuous depletion (Nutrient Mining). This is compounded by run off and leaching losses due to poor cultural practices. Thirdly, over use of deadly pesticides and herbicides tend to kill or eliminate useful biota in the form of microbes and fungi. These biota are of vital importance as they mineralize organic material and provide them to plants and other energy pathways within the Eco System. Therefore, if uptake is value 5, retention is one and return is two then Nutrient Mining output: input ratio will be 5:3 representing a net loss of two per crop leading to declining fertility. When organic material and biota are absent or deficient then the even two return is not, or partially mineralized and will not be available to the plants. Thus, our Nutrient Reserves are soon exhausted. If cultivated land is managed correctly, nutrient reserves can be replenished and fertility levels can be increased. For example, nutrient loss from the Eco System is minimized by presence of plants that hold soil through their roots and thus prevent erosion; convert water run-off to evapo-transpiration and restrict leaching losses; provide shade and reduce rates of decomposition of organic matter so that the supply of soluble ions available for loss via run-off is lessened. If sufficient nutrients and compounds are provided to the plant, uptake from the reserve is curtailed and soil fertility is maintained. These nutrients etc. must be in a form that makes it available to the plant and must be stable and safe for the environment. Thus, we see that provision of Plant Nutrition and Correct Cultural Practices are of prime importance. These are common to all seed; often critical for hybrid or Genetically Modified Organisms. If either of these two is not rational, the result is poor quality and quantity produce as well as more susceptibility of the plant to Negative Growth Factors and pest attacks. Thus, we see that humans require minerals either directly from plants or from animals dependent upon plants (meat, milk, eggs etc.). It is the human, animal or plant that makes organic compounds out of basic essential building materials. Some of these organic compounds are known Page 109 of 116

as hormones, which are described as chemical messengers that excite one response or the other in the body’s organs or tissues. Plants normally obtain their mineral requirements from the soil and the ability of a soil to provide the proper elements and compounds, in proper amounts and in proper balance for growth of specified plants when temperature and other factors are favorable is what determines soil fertility (proper means in the ionic forms commonly absorbed by the plant). It is highly recommended to use compost or manure for its primary beneficial roles such as:

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Either by seed coating (not sufficient due to limited amount of nutrients that can be coated) or foliar application, the target plant is the sole beneficiary and weeds or other undesirable plant species do not receive the nutrient. Secondly, loss by leaching or run-off is reduced to almost zero. This is more so if the nutrients are chelated {derived from the Greek ‘Chelae’ or Claw and used to denote covering an element with organic material to provide ionic bonding affect of cation: anion (positive & negative ion attraction)}. The chelated nutrient ions bond to the leaf and stem surface and resist being washed off till they have a reasonable chance of being absorbed by the plant’s tissue. Through pioneering work in this field PARC has introduced Humic Acid, which has the capacity to organically chelate already existing metal ions in the soil and facilitate uptake by the Plants. The single positively charged Sodium ion (Na+) is repelled by the double positive charged Calcium ion (Ca++), which, being a Secondary Nutrient and basic building block for Plant Tissue is taken up by the Plant along with other Nutrient elements in the Soil solution. Thus plants can thrive in saline environments provided sufficient quantities of soluble calcium are present. Weathering process of exoskeletons and other Marine Biota is providing this calcium and allowing plants to adapt to saline environment. If we ensure that the nutrient element that we are providing to our crops are not dangerous to the environment and other life forms. If we provide the crops with these safe nutrients in a responsible manner and if these nutrients are sufficiently stable and do not decompose to toxic material through either hydrolysis or volatilization. Then there is no point what so ever in deriding their use. Von Liebeg’s Law states that the yield of a crop is limited by the nutrient in least supply. This means that supply of whichever of the essential building materials is restricted in terms of quantities required by the plant, it will restrict the yield. This is compared to a bucket with holes for various nutrients placed in accordance to amounts required. As these amounts are met, the hole is plugged and nutrient intake increases to the next critical nutrient element required by the plant. Maximum genetic potential yields are achieved only when all holes are plugged. Of course soil, management systems; cultural practices; climate, environment, mutual antagonism, or stimulation between various minerals and Negative Growth Factors play their own critical role in determining yields. If there are enough nutrients available for the following yields, total yield will be determined by the least available nutrient in terms of the plant’s requirements, Page 111 of 116

Nutrient Nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium Sulfur Magnesium Calcium ------------------------Molybdenum

Yield (Kgs) 1000 800 600 1000 800 300 ------150

Yield will be restricted to 150 Kgs. It is important to note that this is true for crops of all kinds, under all management systems and independent of source or manner of derivation of the plant. In other words, this inescapable fact holds true for Organic; Super Organic; Smartly Bred or Genetically Modified Organisms. Therefore, our Management requirement is to provide enough environmentally safe and available forms of nutrients to fulfill the needs of the plant. This ensures achievement of genetic potential apart from other factors. These other factors such as water; climate; cultural practices and control of Negative Growth Factors (NGF), are also managed in order to achieve maximum genetic potential (MPG). The presence of nutrients in compost or manure is negligible as compared to an intensive crop’s requirements. Intensive cropping means intensive mining of finite supplies of nutrients available in any given soil. As we all know, soils vary greatly in nutrient availability, and inculcation of compost or manure is one way of replenishing these nutrient supplies. However, we have seen that there are inefficient and do not contain enough nutrients to fulfill the plant’s requirements. Added to this is the fact that particular nutrient deficient soils will not have sufficient amounts of that nutrient to cycle into the food chain and will eventually not only restrict the crop’s yield but will also not be available to the humans and animals that feed upon plants grown on such soils. If this element is lacking it will not find its way either into manure or compost and the cycle of deficiency will be reinforced. To overcome this, the element has to be obtained externally. Secondly, and more importantly, it is prohibitively expensive to analyze and update soil analysis for all elements required by a plant. On the other hand, how much of each nutrient is required by a particular species of plant for a given yield is known to science. There are some critical periods for plant development wherein growth and yield increase with increased availability of nutrients that can be used by the plant. Foliar feeding with correct combinations of nutrients as required by the plant in different growth periods will provide increased growth and vigor resulting in increased yields, weather proofing and disease resistance. Another factor that increases yields is the prolonging of root life after flowering in order to provide longer time for grain/ fruit to fill. In order to do this we need to keep the root growing vegetatively during the early period and after flowering, we need to elongate the period of root life. Plateau corresponds to flowering % Root Growth Page 112 of 116

Death Drought Days This is done by hormones. The hormone balance of a plant is responsible for dictating its response to environmental factors. Changes in climate affect hormone balance. This is more in some varieties and less in others. This is dictated by the genetics of a plant. Down through the centuries humans have domesticated and then bred plants for desirable genetic traits. These genetic traits need to be tapped by the plant and this is only possible through the support of complete plant nutrition. However, genetic expression of potential can be modified to weatherproof a plant and ensure that climate change has less impact upon yields. Good Weather

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The fisheries sector in Pakistan offers direct employment to over one million people, most of which work as fishermen. There are a large number of fishermen’s villages all along Pakistan’s coast line where fishing is primary source of earnings for centuries. The stagnant fisheries sector directly affects standards of living of this community. In addition, these large socioeconomic groups face economic survival problems due to marine resource mismanagement, decreased landing figures and problems faced by seafood processors (who buy their produce) in export marketing because of poor quality product. Given the changing eating habits and depleting natural resources, world seafood market is termed as mainly “sellers market”. The focus in fishing is shifting from already exploited regions to under-exploited areas because of conservation and environment pressures. Despite such favorable circumstances, Pakistan’s seafood exports have actually decreased during the past decade, with 1992 showing highest figures, i.e., US$ 181 million. The main problems faced by Pakistan’s fishing industry are technical, operational and regulatory in nature. During1999-2002, SMEDA worked for the uplift of the fishing industry through a number of measures. First it carried out a sector study identifying the key issues being faced by the industry. Then SMEDA worked closely with Karachi Fish Harbour Authority (KFHA) and Fishermen’s Cooperative Society (FCS) in the cleanup and improving hygienic conditions of the Fish Harbour, encouraging the fishermen to use modern on-boat storage and handling techniques, boat modification, training of fishermen, etc. By adopting modern techniques of fishing and fish processing, Pakistan can exploit the huge opportunity that exists in the fisheries sector.23 The fluid and dynamic nature of marine ecosystems, and the high diversity of habitats and species that may occur within an area, including migratory species, often requires multiple objectives and diverse management schemes. Multiple–use MPA (Marine Protected Areas) are generally zoned, each type zone having different objectives, with allowing some greater use and removal of resources than the others. A critical habitat may be zoned for strict protection (Nursery ground/spawning ground for any commercially important fish or shellfish), it may be surrounded by an area managed for broader objective e.g. recreation (National park), and this turn might be surrounded by an area managed for a range of uses (fishing area). Any Marine National Park may also be categorized as core zones with strict protection (no take) zone and general use zone (fishing area). No take zones have become an important tool for marine biodiversity protection and fisheries management. They may comprise a whole MPA or be a core zone within multiple-use MPA. Within them any removal of marine species and modification, extraction or collection of marine resources (e.g. through fishing, harvesting, dredging, mining or drilling) are prohibited. Other forms of human disturbance may also be restricted. Recent research demonstrating the role of no-take areas in increasing fishery stocks and their importance as key elements in the ecosystem approach to marine biodiversity protection has stimulated efforts to create such areas. There are proposals to establish such protected areas in Pakistan. Astola Island, Jiwani-Gawater Bay, Ormara and Miani Hor on West coast of PakistanThe importance of some of these sites
23

http://www.pakissan.com/english/agri.overview/fisheries.sector.in.pakistan.shtml

Director,

Special

Projects

Division,

SMEDA.).

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has already been recognized internationally as wintering grounds for migratory birds and the sites of Miani Hor, Ormara, Astola Island and Jiwani- Gawatar Bay have been declared as Ramsar Sites. The species like Dalmatian pelican (Pelecanus crispus), White pelican (Pelecanus oncrotalus) and Lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) have been recorded from these sides, and these species come under Appendix 1 of CMS (Convention on Migratory Species) that lists migratory species that are endangered. Twenty-seven species of birds were also recorded from these localities which come under Appendix II of CMS (Appendix II describes migratory birds which have unfavorable status among Range States but not declared endangered as yet) Astola Island, Jiwani-Gawater Bay, Ormara and Sandspit-Hawks Bay are important breeding grounds of marine turtles. Two important species of marine turtles, green turtle (Chelona mydas) and Olive Ridley turtle( Lepidochelys olivacea) breed in these areas. Out of 43 species of marine mammals that inhabit the Indian Ocean, 12 species of marine mammals have been recorded from Pakistan waters and all of them are migratory and some of them often listed as Data Deficient because there is insufficient information to determine the risk of extinction. Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus ) frequently use Pakistan waters, Oman and Iran in its western range states and there are several records of its stranding on western part of Pakistan coast. The Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae ) is one of the most common species on eastern coast of Pakistan while Humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis), Bottlenose dolphin (Neophocaena phocaenoides ) and Finless porpoise (Tursiops truncates) are common throughout coastal waters of Pakistan. About 50 species of sharks are reported from South Asian region and their biology is more comparable to large mammals than to the bony fishes. Whale sharks tend to come to inshore especially during periods of heavy rain fall, probably to feed on the plankton that blooms with increased nutrients and coinciding upwelling. Sharks fins have particularly high value and sharks are increasingly being caught for these alone. Dries shark fins are used for soup in many Asian countries. All five maritime nations of South Asia are involved in shark fin fisheries. Pakistan and Sri Lanka feature in top 20 shark catching countries. Large sharks travel long distances. The collection of lobsters in Pakistan began with the demand for the tourists and export markets. Spiny lobsters (Panulirus spp.) are traditionally not a favoured food item among local communities in South Asia including Pakistan. West coast of Pakistan has excellent breeding/spawning grounds for spiny lobsters. A considerable quantity of spiny lobsters is collected from the waters of Ormara, Astola Island, Pasni, Gawadar and Jiwani (West coast of Pakistan) and Cape Montz, Churna Island (East coast of Pakistan). The shrimp fishery in Pakistan bears a strong relation to the extent and status of the mangroves. Mangroves are especially important as nursery grounds for fish and shrimp are widely distributed along the coast of Pakistan. Major portion of mangroves belongs to Sindh Coast. The Sindh Coast (Eastern coast) is studded with dense growth of mangroves extending from Karachi to beyond Indo-Pakistan border. The distribution of mangroves along the Balochistan coast is restricted to three geographical locations namely Miani Hor, Kalmat Hor and Gwatar Bay. Government of Pakistan is earning an average of Rs.8.8 billion from the export of shrimps and fish annually. The destruction of habitats will seriously hamper fisheries production which in turn could jeopardize food security for local communities and reduce the economical contribution of the fisheries sector to the national economy. The coral diversity in Pakistan is very low as compared to other South Asian maritime nations. India is near the centre of coral diversity in the world, with at least 250+ different species of corals. They often occur in association with other ecosystems, particularly seagrass beds and mangrove forests which provide nursery and feeding areas of high primary productivity which provide nutrients for the coral reef organisms. In Pakistan attempts are Page 115 of 116

being made to explore coral reef ecosystems and recently 20 species of corals have been recorded from Astola Island. Similar attempts are being undertaken in mangrove areas at Gawater Bay (Jiwani).24

24

Seminar on transboundary coastal and marine protected areas with special priorities for spawning grounds - Pakistan Concept note on “A Seminar on transboundary coastal and marine protected areas with special reference to spawning grounds” proposed to be held at Karachi, Pakistan in May, 2009

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