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CONTENTS
SECTION - A
S-No. Chapter Page No.

1. History of BhaiEajya Kalpana and its 1-48


gradual development
Bhaisajya Kalpana utpatti (2), Bhesaja
( 2 , 1 3 ) , A u s a d h a m ( 9 , I 3 ) , K a l p a n a ( 1I ) ,
Pharmaceuticfactors (16), Qualitativeand
quantitative aspectsof Ausadha Kalpana
( 2 1 ) , B a s i c f u n d a m e n t a l so f p r o c e s s i n g
techniques (22),Yogas (compound
formulations)(22), Benefit of drug
combination (.23), Synergism (24),
Potentiation (24).Stability ('24), Pharma-
c e u t i c a l P r o c e s s e so f A a 1 ' u r v e d a( 2 4 ) .
BhaisajyaKalpana itihasa and Kramrka
Vikasa (30), Vedic period (30), Sarhhita
k a l a ( 3 1 ) , C a r a k a s a r h h i t a( 3 2 ) , S u S r u t a
sarirhita(33), Ka5yapasariihita(36), Harita
sarirhit[ (38), Sangraha Kala (38),
Adhunika kila (3ti), Sarangadhara sarhhita
(38), Cakra datta (40), Gadanigraha(41),
Bhesajakalpah 141), BharataBhaisajya
Ratnakara(42), The Ayurvedic Formulary
of india-part - I (42), Pharmacopoieal
standardsfor Ayurvedic formulations(43),
The drugs and cosmetic act (44), I{istory
of modern pharmacology (45).
2. Adkarabhuta siddhantas of Bhaiqaiya 49 -93
Kalpana
A n u k t a d r a v y a g r a h a r . r a( 4 9 ) , U s e o f
candana(50), selectionof drugs(51), Drugs
to be used in wet- form (51), General rule
( 5 1 ) , V i S e s o k t ad r a v y a g r a h a n a ( 5 2 ) ,
Paribhasa (53), Form of ausadhakalpana
(58), Naming a recipe (60), Importanceof
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Rasa, Guna, Vrrya, Vipaka, Karma and
Prabhava(61), Bhaisajyamarga (67), Matra
(67), Posology (67), Anupana (72),
Ausadha sevana kala (time of medicine
adiministration) (75), Kalpanas and their
savlryati avadhi (fbrmulae and their expiry
dates) (77), Ausadha sarhraksanaVidhi
(Guidelines for the storage of medicines)
(82), Anrioxidants (84), preservatives(g5),
Packaging of pharmaceuticals(g6).
3. Mdna Paribhaqa 94 - t39
According to the nature of the substance
the Varieties of mana (96), payyamina
(96), Dravayamina (96), pautavamana
' (97), Kalamana (97), Magadha mana (9g),
Kudava ( l0l ), Kalinga mana ( 102),
Paschatya manaparibhasa(106), Metric
system (106), Imperial system (107),
Dravya Sangrahana(collection of drug)
(109), Jdngamadravya sangrahata.(111),
Phala collections (llZ), Dhanya collec-
tions (112), Substitutes(ll2). Substitutes,
P r a y o j y a f r g a s( l l 4 ) , A g r d h y a d r a v y a s
(132), Methods of adulteration (132),
Ausadha Kalpana parlksana Vidhi (133).
4. AuEadha Kalpana
1 4 0- 361
Kalpana classification (140), paffca vidha
KasEya Kalpana (I42), pafrca kasaya yoni
(142), Swarasa kalpana (147), Ardraka
I swarasa(150), Tulasr Swarasa(152), puta
Pdka swarasa vidhi (lSZ), Syonaka puta
Pdka swarasa(155), Vasa pula pika swa-
rase (156), Kalka kalpana (lS7), Nimba
Kalka (158), RasonaKalka (159), Kwatha
Kalpand (159), Sapra vidha Kasaya (164),
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Kwatha curna (165), Punarnavastaka
kwatha (169); Rasna saptakakwatha
( 1 7 0 ) , P a n i y a k a l p a n a( 1 7 1 ) , S a d a n g a
panrya (171), Phanta kalpana (l'72),
SudarSana phlnta (173), PafrcakolaPhanta
( 1 7 4 ) ,H i m a k a l p a n a( 1 7 - 5 .S 1a, r i v a d ih i m a
kalpana (177), Dhanyakahima (178),
U s n o d a k a ( I ' 1 9 ) , T a n d u l o d a k a( 1 7 9 ) ,
L a k s a r a s a k a l p a n a ( 18 0 ) , M a r i r s a r a s a
( 1 8 2 ) , V e s a v a r a( 1 8 3 ) , M a n t h a k a l p a n a
( 185),Kharjlradhi mantha( I 86), Ausadha
s i d d h aP a n r y a( 1 8 7 ) ,Y 0 s a k a l p a n a( 1 8 8 ) ,
S a p t a r n u s t i k ay [ s a ( 1 9 0 ) , A r k a k a l p a n a
(190),Panakakalpana(194),CincaPanaka
( 1 9 4 ) , C a n d a n ap a n a k a ( 1 9 6 ) , S a r k a r a
k a l p a n a ( 1 9 7 ) , B a n a p s aS a r k a r a( 1 9 8 ) ,
P a r u s a k aS a r k a r a( 1 9 9 ) , S y r u p s ( 2 0 0 ) ,
Elixirs (201), Linctuses(201), Pramathya
(201), Phanita (203), Rasa kriya (203),
Rasanjana(.204),Mosabbar (Elua) (205),
Guda paka (206), Guda (207). Avalehya,
kalpana (209), Vasavalehya (216),
K0smandavalehya (217), Vyaghri hantakr _
a v a l e h y a( 2 1 8 ) , C h y a v a n a p r a 6 a vlae h y a
(221), Haridra khanda (223), Narikela
k h a n d a ( 2 2 5 ) , S o u b h a g y a 6 u n t h pr a k a
(227), MuSah paka (230), Ghana sattva
(232), Amrutha sattva (233), Udumbara
Ghanasdra (235), Ctrna kalpana (235),
Modern aspect of c0rqa (powders) (241),
Capsules (245), Sitopaladi clrna (247),
Tdlisadi clrta .(248), Lavaqa bhaskara
clrrla (249), Hingvastaka otrna (251),.
Vati kalpane (252), Gutika (253,254,260),
guda (260), guggulu (260), varti (260),
Vataka (260), Pinda (260), Pindi (260),
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Modaka (260), Candraprabha Vati (261)'
SanjrvanrYati (262), Vyosadi gutike (264)''
Eladi Vati (265), Lavangadi Vati (266)'
Citrakadi vati (267), RasonadiVati (268)'
Arogya vardhani guti (269), Modern
aspect of vati (Tablet) (271), Coating of
tablets (306), Polishing (308)' Varti
kalpana (312), Guda varti (314), SiSna
varti (314), Dhfimavarti (314), Netravarti
(314),Candrodayavarti (314),Vrana Varti
(315), Ndsavarti(315), Phala Varti (316),
S u p p o s i t o r i e s( 3 1 7 ) , G u g g u l u K a l p a n a
(319), Triphala guggulu (328)' Kaisora
guggulu (329), Yogaraja guggulu (331)'
Simhanadha guggulu (334), Lavaqa
kalpana(336),Arka lavana(336)' Narikela
lavana (337), Masr kalPana (339)'
Hastidantamasi (340),Triphalamast(341)'
Ayaskrti (341), Ksrra paka (345), Ksdra
Kalpana (347), Ksara sDtra (356)'
Apamargaksara (358), Snuhi ksara (360)'
Khamira (361).
5. Sneha Kalpana 362 - 414
Ghrta (362), Taila (367), Sneha mfirchand
(37l), Ghrta mltrchand (372), Taila-
milrchand (373), SarsaPa taila
m[rchana(376), General method of sneha
paka (377), MrduPaka (386)'
Madhyamapaka (386), Kharapdka (386)'
A m a p a k a ( 38 6 ) , D a g d h a P a k a 3 8 7 ) '
(
Patrapaka or Gandhapaka (388), S[rya
paka (Aditya paka) (389), Jatyadighrtam
(394), Ksrrasatpalaghrta (395), Triphala
ghrta (396), Apamargaksdrataila (398)'
Sadbindu taila (398), Mahanarayaqataila
f
,l

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(400), Mahamdsa taila (Niramisa) (404),
Mahamdsa raila (samisa) (407)
6. Sandhana kalpana 4ls - 444
Classification of sandhdnakalpana (417),
Asava and aristakalpana(418), preparation
of 6sava and arista (420), Dhetaki puspa
(424), Madhfika Puspa (424), Other types
of sandhdnakalpands (430), Sidhu (430)
S u r a ( 4 3 1 ) , P r a s a n n a( 4 3 1 ) , K a d a m b a n
(431), Jagala (431), Medaka (431),
Bakkasa (431), Vdruni (431), Sukta (431),
Chukra (431), Kanjika (432), Sandaki
(432), Modern aspect of alcoholic
formulations (432), Kumirydsava (433),
Da6amilarista (436), Draksarista (440),
Sarasvatdrisra(441).
7. Pathya Kalpana 445 - 461
Manda kalpana (448), Astaguna manda
(.148), Vatyamanda (449), Lajamanda
(449), Yavagu (450), peya (450),
Peyaguna(450), Vilepi (451), Vilepi guna
(451), Anna (Bhakta or Bher) Kalpana
(451), Guna of anna kalpane @SZ),Krdara
kalpana (452), Gunas of kr6ara (453),
Khada (453), Kambalika (453), Sataka
S a m r d h a n y a( 4 5 4 ) , S a t a k a 6 a k a( 4 5 4 ) ,
Gunas of karnbalika and khada (455),
Raga-Sidava (455), Gurikasddava (456),
Another method of Raga sEdava (456),
Takra Kalpana (Takravarga) (457), Ghola
(458), Gunasof ghola (458), Mathita (459),
Takra (459), UdaSvit (460), Chacchika
(460), Katvara (461), DadhikDrcika-
Takrakurcika (461).
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8 Bahya kalpana 462 - 481
Lepa kalpana (462), Dosaghnalepa(464),
Visaghnalepa (464), Varnya lepa (465),
Technique of lepa application (465), Time
of lepa application (466), Preservationof
Iepa (467), Da6anga lepa (468), Some of
the examples of lepa Preparation(468),
Satadhauta ghrta - Sahasradhautaghrta
(469), Malahara Kalpana (Maraham) (470),
Sarjarasamalahara(Rala malahara) (471),
Sikthataila (472), Gandhakadyarmlahara
(4'14),Atasyadi upandha(175), Dhfipana
kalpana (47 61, Ointments-Creams-Pastes
( 4 7 6 ) , J e l l i e s ( 4 7 ' 7 ) ,L i n i m e n t s ( 4 8 0 ) ,
Lotions (480).
9. Netrakalpa 482 - 494
Seka (482), A6cyotana (484), Pi+di
(Kavalika) (486), Bidalaka (487),
Aksitarpana(489), Putapaka(491), Afrjana
G92).
10. Mukha Kalpana 4 9 s- 5 0 1
Gandtsa and kavala kalpana (495),
Snaihika gand-usa Kalpana (496),
Mukhapaka gandlsa (497), Indications of
gandDsa and kavala (498), Pratisdrana
(Manjan) (499), Pratisdrata yoga (499),
Irimedadi taila (500).
1 1. Nasika Kalpand 5 0 2- 515
Classificationsof nasya (502,507),Ndvana
nasya (504), Avaprda nasya (505),
Dhmapana nasya (Pradhamana nasya)
(505), Dhuma nasya (506), Mar6a-
Pratimar6a nasya (506), Nasya drugs
mentioned by different authors (509),
Indications of nasya karma (510), Contra
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indicationsof nasya karma (510), Nasya
ausadhiKalpana (51 l), procedure of nasva
karma (SlZ), Determination of dosaeeln
nasya karma (513), Instructions foi the
Patientsduring nasya(513), Nasya vyapad
( c o m p l i c a t i o n s )( 5 1 4 ) , A d v a n r a s e s
of
adequatenasya karma (-515).
12. Dhumapdna kalpana 5 1 6- 520
Dh0ma nadi (.517),Dhuma pdna kalpana
( 5 1 8 ) , D h D m a p a n ap a s c d r k a r m a ( 5 1 9 ) ,
Preparationof dh[manetra (519), Method
oi dhlmapana (519), yogya for dh[ma_
pdna (520), Ayogya for dhfimapana(520).
13. Vasti kalpana
5 2 1- 534
C l a s s i f i c a t i oonf v a s r ik a l p a n a( 5 2 1 ; ,k a r m a
vasti-kala vasri-yoga vasri (522),
I n d i c a t i o n s o f a s t h a p a n av a s r i ( 5 2 4 ) ,
Contraindicationsof asthapanavasti(525),
Indications of anuvlsana vasti (526),
C o n t r a i n d i c a t i o n so f a n u v d s a n av a s t i
(526), Procedureof vastikarma (526),
Drugs Commonly used for vasti kalpa
Purpose (528), Common formulations
meant for asthapanavasti (529), procedure
of vasti (530),Vasti pratyagamakala (531),
Featuresof samyak vasti (531), Features
of asamyakvasti (531), Featuresof excess
(Atiyoga) vasti (532), posr_vastiregimen
(532), Activities should be avoided after
vasti karma (532), Vasti vyapad
(Complications) (533), Modern aspeci of
enema (534).
14. Viqa dravya and their iodhana 5 3 5- 542
V a t s a n a b h a( 5 3 5 ) , V i s a t i n d u k a ( 5 3 6 ) ,
Jayapala (537), Dharttra (539), Bhanga
(539), Bhallataka (540), Gufrja (541).
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1 5 . Auqadha nirmaryasala (Rasafala) and 543 - 569


yantras
Rasa(dla (543), Plan of Pharmacy (546),
Yantra (548), Dolayantra (548), Patala
yantra (549), Khalva yantra (550), Sarava
samputa (551), ImPortance of size
reduction (551), Mechanismsof grinding
machines(553),Disintegrator(554),Cutter
mill (555),Roller mill (556),Hammer mill
(557), End runner mill (558), Capsule
filling machine (559), Automatic capsule
fiiling machine (561), Rotary tablet
machine (562), Coating Pan (563)'
M o n s a n t o h a r d n e s st e s t e r ( 5 6 3 ) , P h i z e r
tablet hardness tester (564), Tablet
disintegrationtest apparatus(564), Simplp
dis:illation apparatus (566), Soxhlet
apparatus(567), Hot-air oven (568).
1 6 . Auqadha Vitararya 570 - 577
l arketihg (570), Mar-
P h a r m a c e u t i c am
keting functions (571), Buying (571)'
Modes of Purchasing(572), Selling (572),
Transportation (572), Storage (572),
Grading and packing facilities (573),
Channels of distribution (575), Advertise-
ment of Pharmaceutical Products (575),
Ir,laterialsmanagement (575), Financial
Planning (576).
1 7 . Standardisation 578 - 601
S t a n d a r d i s a t i o no f c r u d e d r u g s ( 5 7 8 ) ,
Standard (579), A multidimensional
approach (581), Selection of parameters
(581), Guidelinesto be followed in the use
of the standards(582), Determination of
pH {582), Determination of Refractive
{

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Index (583), Specificgravity (593), Deter_
mination of fineness of particles (5g4),
Determinationof ash (585), Determination
of water soluble extractive (5g6), Deter_
mination of alcohol soluble extractive
(586),Loss on drying (586),Determination
of alcohol content (587), Determination of
fat content(58S),Volarileoil contenr(-5gg).
Acid value (591), Iodine value (Sg?).
Saponification value (592), Test for the
absenceof vanaspatiin ghee (594), Test
for the detection of Arachis oil in sesame
Basic perceprions of quality
9ll,(594),
(595), Microbial contaminarionlimits in
medicinal plant marerials (596),
Microscopic characterizationot powdered
drug (597).
SECTION - A
Chapter -l
HISTORY OF BHAISAJYA KALPANA
AXO
ITS GRADUAL DEVELOPMENT
Ayurveclais the scienceof life practiced
by ancientAryans
which is based on Atharva_vedct,one of the oliest ,"riftu.", of
Hindus.
According to Indian mythology, Ayurveclctwas
first perceived
(not composed)b' God Brcthnr..-oni
he tau_shttti, ,.i"n." to
Daksa-Prajapati. who raucht it to the
Ast,irti-kttntarcrs, and,they
taught it to God Indra. About the further
hierarchy of Ayurvedic
propounders,differentA urv edic texts
1, considerablyvary.eicororng
to susruta sarhhita,Lord Dhanvantari
learned it from Lord Incrra
and he taught to Divodasa who is
turn taught it to SuSruta,
Aup adhenave, Aureb h ra, p a u,vkarrtvatct,
Gop uri raksi t a andB hoj a.
According to caraka sahhitct,Bharath,rtjurearnt
it from GocrIndra
and he taughtto Atreyctp,nar,esLt.The
latter in turn,uugn, ir,o
Agnivesa, Bhela, Jatilkarna, parasara,
Harita, Ksarap-ani etc.
According to KaSyap_asarhhita, God
Indra taugnt'Ayurvlre-da to
Kasyapa, vasistha, Atreya and Bhrgu.
Many different medical
works were composedby thesesages
of the past. However, all of
them aregroupedundertwo schools
. rhe Ai.vo r;l;"i p".ir*.iry
dealswith medicineand the Dhanvantari
schoolmainly dlals with
surgery.Many of thesetexts are no more
extant.
The object of Al',urvecra
is to counteractthe imbaranceof three
very essentialelements, v'ata,pitta and
kaphctwhich constitutethe
Tridosa from which the body originates.
It is the Tridctsawhich
regularisesthe normal working oithe human
body.
TheAyurvedadrugsareobtainedfrom
naturalsourceonly i.e.
from plants, animals or from minerals.
Anu*edic componndformulationsaredivided
.,r-. into two groups
vtz:
lBK
q
B hai qaj y a Kalp and Vij iidnant

l. KAstuusadhi(predominantlyplant drugsareusedfor preparation


and mainly dealt in BhaiscriyaKalpana).
2. Rasausadhi(predominantlymetals and minerals are used for
preparationand dealt in RasaSastra.)
There are several categoriesof Kctsthousadhifotmulations
such as Asavarista,Avaleha, Ghrta, Curna, Taila, etc., which are
describedin BhasajyaKalpana andtheRasausadhissuchasBhasma,
Pisti, Lauha, Mandftra, Kuplpakva Rasayrtna, etc., which are
describedin RasaSastra.
The systemof A1,ur,-eda (BhaisajvaKalpana)embraceswithin
its fold the drugs of plant, animal and mineralorigin, both single
drugs and compoundedformulations.Presentlyabout 1000 single
drugs and 8000 compoundformulationsof recognisedmerit are in
vogue.
BHAISAJYA KALPANA UTPATTI
The term Bhaisajta Kalpana is formed by the combinationof
words Bhaisajya (Bhesaja) andKalpana.
Bheqaja
!il' tTrrq{i qqfr Ffr tvsrt r
The substancethroughwhich we can over comethe fear of the
diseaseis called as Bhesaja.
The substance(medicine)is called bhesaja,becauseit will
over come the fear of diseaseand also it can be called as ausadha.
In general the term Bhesaja meant the conquestof disease
infact, it comprehendstwo important and vital aspectsof medicine
and therapeuticsviz,
l. Preventive- The Promotion and preservation of health,
strengthand longevity in the swasthaor the healthy person.
2. Curative- The cure of the disease in the ailine and the
afflicted.
Different classics of Ayurveda discribed about Bhesaja
(Ausadhi, dravya) like viz.
According to Acarya Caraka the following are the four
indispensablefor treatmentof diseases,namely:
History of bhais.ajya kalpand

B hi sak (P hysi cian), D ravya (M edi cament), Upasta (attendant/


nursin g p ersonal), Rog i (patient).
Theseare the cikitsa c'tuspada (analogousto four regs)that
supporta table.
Synonyms of Bhesa.ia
fufufruii qrfH qlri qrwr*qgr{ r
lrqfsii wrqi rs.Fdrsrui fec{ rr
F€r( *sq qrqTfr tl
(ar.fu. q.1;
EG?T[il{ ffiefrq ifiF1.{r1fqdfr wgefi':
sni feruri yr rari r
(q. q. q.\e)
{Sft{ il6rJuiiq'i *nrdqq r
(3T.€. { . q.r z)
Acarya caraka further emumarat€sthe mecessaryqualification
of drugs which after words taken by Vagbatain his book as.
Applicabiliry, richnessof quality, abundanceand utility in
multi purposeare said to be the best qualitiesof a drug. Hence
Bhesajais kept in secondpositionamongthepadacatu{!ayabecause
of its greatrole in treatmentgrounds.
qErlgnTlrqt{tu[: a,rui qqfq ?r( il€q{ |
(q.q. q.qq )
A substance which is the constituentcauseof its actionand
properties
residingin it is knownas a dravy-a.
ST{RT:HTg: EfiFF: iFtlqg fflTq.izEt trN:
ifi{f{tr3ri*t aqer qd*rrn r
(w. q. q. €. l.q,.q)
Swarasa, kalka, kwdtha, hima and phdnta are five types of
Ausadhi described. The former more potent, latter less potent (in
descendingorder of potency).
Bhaiqajya Kalpand Vij ltanam

+rnftfEd niqorrnd .twi traE*iwiqrfr g*it


frqri dqile frq{ r
(q.t q,Rq)
With proper(right methodof) preparationa poisoncanbecome
(is convertedinto) an excellentmedicine.Medicine if improperly
usedbecomesa severepoison.
s:ri+qifr{ ntrq5i qrrfr f.if,qqqgffirlr}
aiili gfuqd'q ii ilqfi{hqr
(s.q. ?Q.to)
As per this advice,in this world, thereare many objectswith
medicinalproperties,whicheversubstances (drugs)are available,
usethem judiciously,for servingthe purposein hand.
A substancewhich is the constituentcauseof its action and
propertiesresidingin it is (known as)a dravya (drug).

vrqi qtq+ wFEFfiirqfufr ftqrt


( 3 r .E .{ q . qq )
Drugs are of three types '. Samana(producing subsidence),
kopana (producing aggrevation)and swasthahitam(maintaining
health).
qqrfr{ uqr vrciqqr eTnrtgrFrdqr
ildqqqkf,rd

( q . q . . ? . ql Y )
A drug not perfectlyunderstoodis (fatal) like poison,weapon,
fire and thunderbolt;a perfectly understooddrug is (life saver)like
ambrosia.
qrrsrgfrfunT:f+ad wfr
sfrqdE€rqfir-dni
g{*'wrqtdqrstr
( q . g . .q . q r q )
A drug whose name and form and propertiesare not known,
and when known, if improperly used can producedisaster.
g,qffuqffi {fd nmi qRTEIYIfr:
q*vrrgr
History of bhaisajya kalpana

S'qfTffirdr*qq I
( q .q . l . q t z )
The fall of God Indra's thunderbolton onesheadmay sparea
personbut medicineprescribedby an ignorantphysician,will not
sparethe patient.

aEfuEqe fti
ffi:*rdqr fiTr{ |
(s.{. q.Rr?)
One who knows uses,namesand form is known as Tatvavita
(knowledgeble),then what would be a Bhisak (physician)called,
who knows everythingaboutmedicine.
il(g{ffid?i s}+ qirr+{nrflrfdq{ r
( q . g . .q . E / )
Drugs are of three types : jangamct (movable-animate),
audbhida (immovable) andparthiua (mineral)

fr{i +di Eaifrfr<qriaqq


(s. q.. 1.Y/)
A drug is animate(hassenseorganic)or inanimate(inorganic).
rd,rqr:
s€Efrwgftfm:
@:I
(g { q'io)
Jangamd(movable-animate)is further classifiedasjarayuja
(viviparous),aryQay
uj a (oviparous),swedaja(born of perspiration),
udbhija (plants).
sft<qftig rgFdq{ r qrerfraen*FEr+SF{:
nffi: w*ffi:

(q.R t.sq,\eR)
Audbhida have four varieties : vanaspati (trees), vlrudha
(climbers),vanspatya(shrubs)andosadhi (herbs).Vanaspatihave
only fruits (they are nonflowering), vanspatya have flowers and
fruits (flowering variety).Ausadhi'slife endson ripening of fruits
B hai qajy a Kalp a n d Vij iidnant

(annual shrubsand herbs) while vlrudhas are indentified by their


tendrils.
rirant: Turi?rtrqr+gq*l
(q. h. q.rq)
Lendingotherproperties
to thesubstance
is known assarhskara.
TsTdr-dr*tt ArOn,qrartftro:r
(g q Yq.L\tY)
€dqai qrsSffidffiai qr
(q.q. RQ.Ro)
qrtffiqsq r q f6fulf€fi fai qVnxr''nddrrd:I
(3{ .€. g..3.1")
qarrerfr EamqtqT(TgrsrrrEr(Eggurg$rma
zr{gfr, il(a,,,d+r gdfr, rfrf{T{ g;-dfr
ilfu{ur{ zrfl gft qsr gdfr H
H E6'tFr:
Er(qrqqk il(q-m{ |
(q.q' eq.q,?)
Eq+{ rqr*{i *qi t fr rorqr: r
Fdi TilTrq3kfirnrqr( | |
(3{.€. q. 3.q,,1)
The body is composedof five elementsso is the diet.
F o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s c i e n c e a l l s u b s t a n c e sa r e
Paficamahdbhoutic(products of 5 basic elements). Further,
substancesare of two kinds, animateand inanimate.
Whatever therefore substances(drugs or diet) do by their
nature or qualities or both is their action. Whereby they act is the
potency.Wherein they act is place.When they act is time. How they
act is the mode. What they achieveis the result.
All substancesare composedof 5 basic elements.Therefore
there is no substancein this world which cannot act as medicine.
Dravya (drug) is superior to rasa etc. becausedravya is
History of bhais.ajyakalpand

substratumof thoseproperties.Dravya can effect many rcsas as it


is multifaceted.
Universal therapeuticutility of matter:
As explainedin the precedingparagraphthereis nothing in the
word whichdoesnothavethcrapeuticutility in appropriateconditions
and situations.
Drugs or diet aboundingin thepropertresof a givenmahahhuta
are useful in making good the deficiencyof mahabhurain the body.
There is nothing in the world which doesnot have therapeutic
valuesand at the sametime everythingcannotbe usedfor treatment
ofeverydisease. A drugis usefulin specificconditionsandsituations;
so the selectionof drugs is to be made in accordancewith the
propertyof its administrationand therapeuticneeds.
qdqi rstqi q€Wr*
q{tfr{ififuvrtrtq6rw|;Tr rrdrrnFE
Tsrw{itrESqrqi :TtqrEurfiFfr
ffiqr:,
qqgd5,F4ra i5,roffi r6tSmai
q{rftrtdf{frq:r
( s . q . .? q . Y o )
In this mannerby virtue of the preponderance or paucity of the
one or the other of five basic elements,the six categoriesof rcsc
emerge with varying gradation of preponderanceor paucity of
protoelementsin rcsa.
f{d|;i stqqtri VnwTFdrw*:€Ter;Tr;Trq.....
t
(s. q.. ?q.Yo)
SpecificknowledgeaboutAusadlris (drugs)is obtainedthrough
scientificallybaseddescutions.
fffi{ sq rrd wrwr rtq rgFfqrqfren
vnqi qIqt{ gffifrr
srrdrravr:
(q.q. q,q,.qs)
All the objectsin the world are of two types,real and unreal.
Therefore it should be examined in four ways : information given
8 BhaisajyaKalpana Vijiianam

by elders(trustworthy),directperception,
inferenceandapplication
o f l o g i c( r e a s o n i n g ) .
friffi-{ Er{i q{qr*q qTtrrrT
Tun<iurqtfur
uufi6ltftqqr
(sT.sT.€.q. s.rR,ti)
A drug acts partly through rasa, partly throughpaka, partly
through vTryaandpartly throughprabhat,tt.
q €dqarqrftplaErsils{+ silfti
fd nun+rq r
( q .q . ? q . q r )
Oneshouldnot adviseaboutthedrugby advisingaboutits rasa
only (a drug does not act through rasa alone)becauseeven when
rasa of drugsis similar,actionsof drugsmay differ.
irsqr-gtq) cq-{ia,,{uria,w} sqd rrafr.....
irffiq{frqqfu EF{ '
,q. R. x.t r )
One should know just as a person is capableof performing
many actions so is a drug. An Ausodhc (medicine)is regarded
similar to man who is able to perform diversefunctions.
Commentingon this word KaSyapatold that

@ifiTTSfu,r
iiTqffi fff,fla *Tni qRq{e tr
(6r.s'.
)
Sinceit is ableenoughto be learnedit is known asBhesajaby
the bhisak.From which a bhisakgetsprofitableresults,he calls it
by the name Bhaisajya(Bhesaja).
*rcrr6n +sni d q ik XunguqI
q€eFilflT{fiTrcrfi@ ll
Brir: qr€rTqqi TUrfrd frfrsq: r
ilrcd eitiT: T{Gn*q: rrtffiT: rr
A Physician who is not acquaintedwith the good and bad
History of bhaisajya kalpana

effects of drugs, diet and regimen, does not correctly know the
things which are useful and harmful for healthy persons and
patients.Therefore a good physician who desiresthe well fare of
othersshouldascertainthe goodandbad qualitiesof all thesethings.
Along with thesethe author of Hemakoia was told that

rdi q-A qf qrilqtw{tqfunrffr: I


ffi ffi rrsrq u
(€q-6ieT)
Bhesaja (Ausadha) can be reffered as dravya, but dravya can
be dhana or ksmadaor bhavi etc. But Bhesajais only ment for the
vikara, roga of janta (animal) anddrLrnn (plants).
So in general
*d qrlE Et+r iwd rn*qq{ | r
(3rfidFdT)
By which, the vaidya is treating the vyadhi of the rogi i.e.,
known as Ausctdhi.Caraka also have similar opinion but he given
more stressto the healthy condition and says that
*qi qrq ilgwm-{unffifrrv$
qrg Hqrqrh fuf* lrqirrrFftq il
(qc*)
For maintaining the healthy condition, tbe upakararzawhich
helps the vaidya is said to be as Bhesaja.
That medicineis a right oneandpure onewhich curesa disease
physical, mental and spiritual and does not gives resesto adverse
reactionsand doesnot createother diseases.
Ausadham
sffifirFidri qTfuFtii ilgqm{qr I
Hr( rrd fqfuftffi*qd F-q{ tl
(TrS'[tIt)
As told by ancientscholorsalwaysausadhiwill behitafor the
rogi. Ausadhiword cameasupalaksana(upa rcferesto upasarga)
l0 Bhaiqajy a Kalpand Vij fidnam

But Kaiyapd says

Sfr;nqrq:rilssiffir<ffq: r
irgrdqfhtqsl: | |
(6r. q)
That which bearsthe ousa (it is also known as rasa) is known
asAusadha.By this osawewill getarogya.Henceosadhiis nothing
but Ausadha only.
In general,A usadhameansthe thingswhich arepreparedfrom
drugs for the cure of the diseaseand to attain health.
frtE g-i6rtrci T(rnqrq qet rr
(qffr)
This includesall types medicaments.
Bhaisajya, Bhesaja, Ausadhi, dravya etc.
It is seenfrom the abovethat all theseterms indicatedifferent
aspectsof Bhesaja(medicament),someof theseindicatewhat they
do, andsomeotherswhatthey achive.Irrespectiveof the distinctions
they carry in their literary meanings,all of them in the present
context mean therapeutic devices ernployed for the treatment of
diseases.
The substance,where in exist the propertiesand actionson a
unseparablerelationshipis calledDravya or B hesaja.The properties
and actionshave no identity or existencewithout the substanceand
the substancehasno recognitionwithout the propertiesand actions.
In a broad sense, therefore any substance or mixture of
substancesintended to be used internally or externally for the
preservation and strengthening of health and for the prevention,
cure of diseaseof either man or animal is call Bhesajaor Ausadhi.
Obviously,both the dieteticandmedicinalsubstance s areAusadhas
in this context.
Acary.a Caraka has observed,in the light of this knowledge,
thereis in the world no substancethat may not be usedas medicine
for this or that purpose. Purposivenessand rationality or the two
parametersto judge and use any substanceas medicine.
History of bhaisajyakalpand tl

Kalpand
Kalpa Sabdais originatedfrom " TrT 1Tfqei " slT€and gT{
q eI{ trc?FT.
Different koSagranthasdescribesaboutkalpa (Kalpand)as
mentionedbelow
tf,Ft : f{&ffi rirqrt I
ffii fd& H'di I
lemolw)
mri ce ydrnuri *tri m JmSil r
It canbeconcluded
that,kalpa(Katpana)
means
ffiq, frq6,
dwR, qqffifq
q,fl*ffi:r
(qauliF)
6E* srMrq,e* Ti{a{urfqfr|
(q'ffiqrFT)
According rc Acarya Arunadatta and Acarya Cakrapani,
Kalpanameans Yojana Qtlanning)or usageof SarhskaritaBhesaja.
Hence Kalpana is the processthrough which, a substanceis
preparedinto medicine form by using someraw materials according
to the physician'srequirement.
Different Acaryas of Ayurveda mentioned aboutKalpana (of
Bhesaja-Ausadhi) are describedbelow :
{w,.rt fr ynrtrwrg;ri r
i
fd: qilmrrfidqrfir-
i5,F{.trtr{|Trf{rfr
Rhqffirr
( q .E . t . R q - R R )
The Ausadha kalpana is prepared by different processing
techniquesappliedto the crude drugs.This processingresultsin to
transformationof good pharmacologicalactionsto that of substance.
L2 Bhaiqajya Kalpand Vij fidnam

(Lending other propertiesto the substanceis known as Safuskara).


U s u a l l y p e r f o r m i n g p r o c e s s i n gt e c h n i q u e sa r e b y d i l u t i o n ,
a p p l i c a t i o n o f h e a t , c l e a n s i n g ,c h u r n i n g , s t o r i n g , m a t u r i n g ,
flavouring,preservationin containeretc.
ilErgt fr sS{A ngEur$n{frdiqAdrrc{ra ilfr
nr{arfufiRsqr{ffiiq{dEirFrqT$Ir{Frin'q
{auqFrilfa dqqlT|rdrq f*o,tqs{r.rfrgtr
r q g q t q z n qr:
(q.F.q.qq,q?)
When formulation is employed,one should ascertainthe one
collectiveprabhdva of the formulation, on particularcombination
Hencewe shallexpoundtherasa-dravya-vikara-prabhava-
of do.sas.
tatvamthat is the principlesof actionswith respectto rasa,dosa and
disease.
Frqttni Td s+qrit rTrqrq{ |
(From comentaryby Gangadhar)
That is why we shall advise(instruct) that the principle with
due considerationsto increaseproperties of drugs, a drug with
similar propertiesshouldbe employed.
dlrq€tq,,ffrS ffis q fTo.I\ rffdq
qrrrq+*iqvffi rsqtqqndtqf{ortsrrrflft iE{T*(l
(q. lq. q.3)

In caseof a diseaseinvolvingmultipledosa,usingdrugswith
multiple rasa, oneshouldseparatelyexaminerasadosa andprabhat'a
of individual drugs and determine application of dravya-vikara-
prabhava.
sftqsiqTfrgdrb*wi sqae frq r
f+i q f*|ry{r gih Srsqrdr*-fli rr
(frTTqq{r{dr)
Acarya Kasyapasconceptregarding importance of sarhskara
Qtharmaceuti cal p ro cess) of .Bhesaj a,
Even medicine that is not preparedproperly terns to visa in
Histary of bhaisajya kalpana 13

contrastif viqa is preparedaccordingto rules and regulationit can


be used as in the form of medicine.
grf,rsrfr {6rdiq uqaer-qrf6q 1
gqiqri@:rr
(s.s. qt.YZ)
\\
Eflqftrgrfi ffid qqT fefq: I
rErfui qiwi H: awffirr
1s{sss-aq
t.R)
There is no letter which is not a mantra(incantatas)thereis no
root which is not a medicineandthereis no humanbeingwho is not
useful.Only their yojaka (coordinator)is a rare commodity.
If raw drugs are collectedaccordingto cleSa,kala, guna, as
told in classicalreferenceof dray,t'asohgrahana.By theseBhesaja
is preparedand this kctlpanais consideredas equalto that of amrta.
This is the process,through which, a substance(vanaspatika,
pranija, khanija and ahare dravyas) is convertedin to medicine
form accordingto the physiciansrequirement.
After concludingthe opinionsof Ancient Al,urvedicscholors
regardingBhesaja andKalpanc it can be understoodthat Bhaisajya
Kalpana (AyurvedicPharmaceurics)forms a branch of Ayurveda
which mainly deals with collection and selection of Drugs,
Purification study of their nature and combination as well as
preparation, preservotion, besides mode of administration and
posology (dosage).The ancientAyurvedic Scho!orsare very much
rational and have a strong scientific back groundsin fundamental
Principleswhichareconcernedwith drug manufacturing.Ayurvedic
doctrine tells ro treat the patient as a whole and not the disease
alone.
Bhesaja (Auqadham)

_ Drug therapy,as a separatebranch is very well developedin


Ayurveda. The study of drugs is as elaborate as in modern
pharmacology and we find remarkable similarities and also
.differencesin approach.
q
14 Bhais.ajyaKalpand Vijfidnam

A dravya (drug) is definedin Ayurvedaas a substance which


has its inherent guna (properties) and karma (actions). Acarya
cnraka hasexplainedthis further by saying"a drug is like a fabric,
its guna (physicochemicalproperties)and karma (actions)are Iike
the yarn of the fabric." Through these properties a substanceis
capable of altering the environmentof the body even if it is not
intendedfor medicinalpurpose.Therefore,evendietaryconstituents,
by their gttnakarmaare capableof acting as drugs.This definition
leadsto a widening of the horizon for inclusionof substancesin the
category of what we, in today's terminology, label as drugs and
prompts Caraka to write "there is no substancein the wortd which
cannot be used for medicinal purpose.An appropriatesubstance
only needs to be used appropriately to be effective". Modern
pharmacologyrestrictsthe definition of drug to substanceswhich
are intentionally used to alter the physiopathologicalstate of the
body or for diagnostic,therapeuticor prophylacticpurposes.
In spite of this basicdifferencebetweenthe two systemsof
medicinein understanding the extent and the scopeof actionsof
drugsthe functionsor qualitiesexpectedof a drug remain the same.
It is interesting to read Carakc's comments on drug usage
which are as remarkable as his philosophy about principles of
therapeuticsdiscussedearlier. He says,"substancesare classified
into three groups,some rectify the discordanceof body elements,
some vitiate body elements and some are conducive to the
maintananceof good health". Further he adds," A drug that is not
understoodperfectly is comparableto poison, weapons,fire and
thunderboltswhile the perfectly understooddrug is comparableto
ambrosia". "The drug whose name, form and properties are not
known and which is not properly administered,will causedisaster"
and as cited earlier "A medicineusedwhile relieving symptomsof
one diseaseshould not raise someother problems".
In Caraka'sopinion even a potentpoison is convertedinto an
excellent medicine by the right method of preparationand usage
while evena good medicinemay act asa strongpoisonif improperly
administered.He stressesthe importanceof thoroughknowledgeof
drugs by writing "Thereforethe intelligent man who desireshealth
History of bhais.ajya kalpand 15

and a long life should not take any medicine prescribed by a


physician who is a strangerto the art of application. One may
survive the fall of thunder on one'shead but one cannot expect to
escape the total effects of medicine prescribed by an ignorant
physician".
His appeal to the physician therefore,is to know the drugs
thoroughly, including their identification, preparation,properties
and usage.
Ayurvedic pharmacology developed into several branches,
comparing to thoseon modern pharmacologyas shown below:
Dravya (Drugs)

Dravyavijfidna
PhysicalProperties PharmacologicalProperties

Ndmar-upavijfiana Kalpavijfiana Yogavijfiana


Identification Preparation Administration
(Pharmacognosy) (Pharmacy) (Clinical
Pharmacology)

Gur.takarmavijfiana Prayoga vijfiana


Effect on various Application in
systems different diseases
(Pharmacodynamics) (Therapeutics)

Gunavijfrana Karmavijfrana
Study of Properties Study of Effects

A closeresemblanceis similarly observedin the classification


of drugs in the ancientand modern systems.
In Ayurveda, drugs are classified in different ways according
to their sources,utility, effects or morphology. Caraka classifjed
drugs into three groups,as shown below:
16 B h aiqaj y a KaIp a na Vij ii an am

Dravya

I I I
Jangama Audbhida Parthiva
(animaloriginal) (Vegetableorigin) (Metals,mineralsetc.
e.g. cow'smilk etc. e . g .g o l d e t c . )

Vanaspati Vanaspatya Ausadhi

Pharmaceutic Factors :
In Ayurvedic pharmacology,pharmacv(katpavijnurrc)rs a
',velladvancedbranch.Crudedrugsarerarely administered.Various
formulationsranging from simple distillates(arka), decoctions
(kwatha),linctus(leha,avaleha)andpowders(curna)to elaborate
pharnraceuticalpreparationslike pills of different sizes(v,ati,guti,
modaka)andmedicatedoils (taila andghrta)areavailable.In liquid
formulationstco, a wide range exists.Theseare -rlr.c/.r?.rd (fresh
juice), k*-atha(decoction), phanta( infusionin hot water),kstrapaka
(decoctionin milk), tandulajala (decoctionin rice washings)and
alcoholicextracts.The potencyis highestin freshjuice and lowest
in cold water infusion.
The ancientscientistshavealsogivencertaingeneralprinciples
aboutthe shelf life of the preparations.Curna (powders)losetheir
potencyin two monthsbut differenttypesof pills remaineffective
for almost a year. Formulations containing mercury and sulfur
remain potent for much longer. In fact, the rule is that the older the
formulation, the better its efficacy. Asara (alcoholic extracts)
improve in potency if allowed to mature over a period of time.
In the absenceof moderntechnologicalaids,simpleguidelines
are given to be followed during the manufacturingprocess.For
example, "a candle held over a cask containing incompletely
processedasava would be extinguished (due to generation of
carbon dioxide) as the fermentationprocesscontinues,while the
tank of asava ready for use will let the candle burn and will be as
clear as water to show mirror like reflection of ones face."
Apart from this, there are instructions about which parts of the
History of bhaisajya kalpana t7

plants are to be used, whether it shourdbe fresh or dry


ancrwhat
s h o u l d b e t h e t i m e o f c o l r e c t i o n . I t i s s t r e s s e dt h a t
the
pharmacognostic knowledge(nanrurupcrt,ijnana )is essential, along
with knowledgeof physicochemicar propertiesandeffectsof drugs.
The observationsand the inferencesdrawn by ancientscientists,
regardingtheplantmaterial,appearvery rationalon thebackground
o f r e c e n t l y a c c u ' u r a i e d k n o w r e d g ea b o u t t h e v a r i a t i o n i n
phytochemical contentof plants.which is knownto occurdepending
on place and time of collection.one of the earlieststudiesin thii
respectwas carriedoLrtby Biswasin 1956.He showedthat the root
of Rauwolfiaserpentine yieldeddifferentquantitiesof the alkaloid
reserpinewhen collectedfrom differentplaces,at the sametime.
The root of the plant collectedf}om the Kumani forestyielded 1.6
per cent alkaloid, and that from Kanchollariforest 1.4 percent,
*'hile the specimentiom the iocal marketsof lucknow gave
0.g
pr-rcent.1.2 percentyield was obtainedfrom the roots collected
iront the "medicinalplantscultivationarea."
Tire sameplant at the sameplacemay yierddiff"erent amounts
of alkaloidsin differentyearsor at clifferenttirnesin the samevear.
T h i s n r a v b e r e l a t e dt o r h e n r . t u r i r _ovf t h e p l e n r a n d a l s o t o r h e
en'ironmentalfacrors.In a survey,choudharyreportedvariationin
theratioof hyoscine/hyoscyamine dependingon thematurityof the
plant,Daturastramoniumfrom whichit is obtained.In theimmarure
plant the ratio is 80 : 20 while in matureplantsit is almostreversed
to the extentof 30 : 70.
It has also been shown that the nature of the solvent used in
extractioncan alter the activity of a plant preparation.Similarly,
alterationof the inorganicconstituentsof the plant like K*
can
changeactivity of formulation.
On this background,thus, the instructions to the physician
aboutthe mode of collection,storageandtransportin addiiion to the
time and place of collectionappearquite logical.
A point to noteis thatAyurvedicphysicianshavemainlyrelied
ona combinatioo n f d r u g sr a t h e rt h a na s i n g l ed r u g .A d m i n i s t r a t i o n
of drugsin combination(samyoga)mayeitherenhanceor antagonize
the.response of the individuarcomponent.The mutuaily supporting
or inhancing aspectof combinations is known as saruakarmaia
2BK
18 B haiqajy a Kalp an a Vij nan a nt

(synergy)and the antagonizingeffect in known asrlx'ondakonttuju


effect.
In compoundinga formulation, incompatibiiitiesbetween
constituents arealsoctusidered.They areclassifiedasrnhnqt'iruddlta
( q u a n t i t a tvi e a n t a g o nsi m ) , 8 t r , ? ( it ri 'u t ld h c t ( p h y s i c o - c h e m
i ca l
irntagonism) and karmtvirutldha (physiological antagonism) A
goocl deal of ciiscretionis thus essential in formulating drug
combinations.
One of the requirements for drug actionis its delivervto the
siteof actton.Certain dmgs are knor'"'n to acton certaintissues of the
body. In other words, a particulardrtrg mal shou' affinitv for a
particulartissue.This is describedas adhisthana,which can be
interpretedas"siteofaction".This hasto benecessarily differentiated
from the placewherethe drug may accumulate. Modernknowledge
recognizesaffinitiesor actionsofdrugsonly on certaintissueofthe
b o d y e . g . d i g i t a l i s a c t s o n h e a r t .t h o u g h i t m a y a c c u m u l a t ei n
muscle.
This fact is appliedt0 a sreatextentin .4r'r,'i'edi L' I')ractiL e. An
iclealdrugaccording to Ceraka is effective, easrly available and can
be compound_cd in differentformulationsto suit the requiremcnt of
the patient.A)'urvedaprescribesdrug combinationsof facilitate
deliveryof a drug to its siteof action.PiperIoncumhasaffinity for
liver, while Catechuhas affinity for skin and these plants are
incorporated in formulationsintendedfor activit)'on thatparticular
' g a m i t v a ' a n d ' t ' a h a r u c i 'a- f f i n i t y a n d
o r g a n .T h u s t h e c o n c e p o
tf
carryingcapacityrespectively- are importantin Avun'eda.
The concept of targeting drugs to their site of action was
introducedby Paul Ehlrich in the early part of this century with the
rerm "magic bullet". This science,dealingwith sitespecificdelivery
of drugs, has taken firm roots in modern medicine only after the
pioneeringwork of Christiande Duve on liposomesin 1970.Since
then modern pharma-cologistshave made several attempts at
developingsophisticatcddrug delivery systemslike liposomes,
ghost erythrocytes,monoclonalantibodiesetc. All thesesystems
share,at least at present,the common problems of being highly
complex, expensiveand often toxic in humans.
History of bhais.ajyakatpand t9

_ Ghrta and taila are very attractive techniquesdescribedin


Ayunteda which use the process of incorporating drugs in oily
particlesto targetthem to their siteof action.Similar pharmaceutical
principles are utilized in formulating preparationsfor topical use,
where extensivedetails about drugs and their action on different
layers of skin are grven. If therefore appearsthat the Al,un,etlic
methodof combiningplantsto targetone of them to a certainorsan
needsgreaterexploitationin research.
Compound formulations were also made to improve the
palatabilitymaking oral administrationeasy.During latercenturies
combinationswhere made using mercury or sulphur to retain the
activity of plantsand increasetheir shelflife. Thesearetechniques
describedwhich retardthereleaseof drugsin the stomachfacilitatine
its deliveryto the inresrines(parpati).
Methodsaredescribedto be usedto modify an otherwisetoxic
medicationinto onesuitablefor humanuse.one of thesetechniques
is sarhskara.The translationof sarhskaraas 'refinement' fails to
convey the meaning.sarhskaraaims at alterationof properties.It
includesprocessing beforeadministration with specificobjectives:
the aim could be to reducethe toxicity or undesirableeffectsof a
drug or to increaseits efficacy. one of the techniques of sarhskara
is known as 'iodhana': processof purification. sodharta is the
processby which all the three types of impurities, viz. physical
chemical and natural are removed.
This processis rigorouslyusedin casesof mineralsand plant
products like croton seeds,nux vomica, aconite etc., which are
known to be toxic substancesbut are administeredwith beneficial
effectsinAyurveda. croton oil is apotent purgative : it is known as
'drastic
a purgative' in modern pharmacology. The Ayurvedic
pharmaceutictechniquecombinesit with cordia wallichii which is
slimy in characterand reducesits irritant property. This is why
Ayurveda propoundsthat "with propermanipulationevena poisonous
substancecan be medicinally used".It would be appropriateto add
herethat the corollary of the quotecited aboveis "medicinewrongly
usedcan be poisonous".
Another example which we would like to quote is that of
.
guggulu.Gugguluis a gum resinobtainedfrom thetreeCommiphora
20 Bhai qajy a Kalp an d Vij ii dnam

mukul. This is recommendedinAyurveda for conditionslike arthritis


and hyperlipidemia.The drug is to be usedonly after purification.
The materialtied in a muslin cloth is kept in plain or medicated
boiling water e.g. decoction of triphala (mixture of Emblica
officinalis,Terminaliachebulaand Terminaliabeheda)or certain
otherplantslike Bauhiniavariegataand Boerrhiviadiffusa.
It is interestingto go throughthe modernprocessof extraction
of guggulipid from guggulu.Gum resin guggulu has trvo fractions.
One,an insolublegum fractionwhich is toxic andthe othersoluble
w i t h h y p o l i p i d e r n i c a n d a n t i - i n f l a m m a t o r y p r o p e r t i e s .T h e
hypolipidemicportionis neutralwhile anti-inflammatory portionis
acidic.
The Ayurvedic procedurethereforeappearsto be a sensible
way of purifying guggulu,becausein the processthe toxic resinous
insolublepart is removed.The solublepart melts, oozesout and
comesas a layer on the boiling water.
The choice of plants for the medicated water used for
purificationof gugguludependson thepatientprofile : e.g.guggulu
extractedin infusion of Bauhinia verigata (kanchnar guggulu) is
usedspecificallyin casesof lymph nodularswellings,while triphala
g uggul u i s usedfor obesepatientswith arthritis. P unarneva g ugg ul u
is recommended for arthritisassociated
with excessiveswellingsof
joints. It appearsthat ancientscientistsurecicomplexmethodsfor
selectiveextractionof differentphytoconstituents for selectiveuse.
We have till now seenthe richnessof Avurveda in terms of
pharmaceuticalmethodsand attitudes,which overshadowedother
aspectsof pharmacology.

_Dependingupon this basic fundamentalconcept,approachof


the Ayurvedic pharmaceutics differs from western pharmaceutics
in which now a daysisolatingthe alkaloidsor otherprinciplesfrom
the main drug and using them therapeutircally
is practised.One such
exampleis Reserpine,an alkaloid isolatedfrom RauoffiaSerpentine-
Sarpagandhaan anti-hypertensivedrug. Hence all the Ayurvedic
medicineswereformulatedto achievepreventive,protective,curative
and nutritive qualitiesfrom administereddrug. While manufacturing
different fundamentalaspectswere explainedas mentionedbelow.
History of bhaisajya kalpana 2l

Qualitative Aspects of Ausadha-Kalpanas (Ayurvedic


formulations)
A great amount of stresshas been given on the qualitative
aspectsof drugs, to be selectedfor preparationof formula.
The collection of raw drugs should be basedon the specific
guidelinesmentioned.A herb shouldbc collectedfrom a particular
place, directionand time etc. specifiedfor that herb. Though all
thesepreconditionswerelookedasirrational,but they havescientific
basis,becauseon accountof various ecologicalfactors.This is
strongly suggestiveby Researchin Botany as well as Ethno-
pharmacology shows that herbs when collected according to the
specificationsmentionedin the Ayun,edicbooks shows that the
active principles of the herbs are present in abundantquantities
during a specific time in a day and in the herbs from a particular
region. As the different parts contain different properties, only
those parts which contain the medicinal propertiesare said to be
used in the mentionedformulas. Pancanga or the whole plant is
indicatedfor medicinaluse.Eg. Bhumyamlaki(phyllanthusniruri).
This may be because, herbswhich arevery smalland which posses
uniform active principles in all their parts are prescribed. Hence
whole drugs were used by the Ayurvedic physiciarzsbecauseof
pharmacologicalandeconomicalreasons.Henceit may be saidthat
Paficabhautika chancter of dravvas prominently occupied the
minds of theAyun,eclicphysiciansandnotthe analyticanclsynthetic
methods.
Quantitative Aspects of Ausadha-Kalpanas lAyurvedic
formulations)
The relevant portions in the treatisesand texts on Ayurvedic
pharmaceutics apartfrom the qualitative aspectsalso specify the
ratio and amountof drugs to be taken for different formulations.A
scepticlook, into theseshowsthat if the quantitativefundamentals
specificallymentionedfor therespectivepreparationsshouldnot be
changed,if changed,then the quality of the medicinesuffersor the
preparationmay totally go wrong. E.g., in the preparationof any
medicated orl (taila), the Kalka, taila anddravadravya are taken in
the ratio of 1:4:16in general.Insteadof taking onepart of the Kalka,
if threeor four parts are taken,the moisturecontentof the formula
)'l
Bhaiqajya Kalpand Vijfidnam

may be increasedandits shelflife will decrease,or the final product


may have a different medicinal value. Alterations in any of the
above three Kalka-taila-dravadravya would either increase or
decreasethe periodof processing,due to which the preparationwill
not be upto the requiredstandards,andcannotbe preservedfor long.
Basic Fundamentals of ProcessingTechniques
To make a substancceligible for preparationof formula or to
get the desired effect or to suit the purpose, it should undergo
d i f f e r e n t p r o c e s s e s .T h e s e p r o c e s s e sa r e c a l l e d S a h s k a r a s .
Sarhskaruseffect the changesin the propertiesof drugs.Theseare
brought about by various units of operations,like trituration,
treatmentwith heat, treatmentwith liquids, washing, stirring,
preservingin variousplacesfor prescribedperiod,usingparticular
type of containers,treatingwith variousother medicaments, E.g.
trituration with some dravodravt'n effects the atomisation of
substance. This phenomenawill facilitatesby raisingthe potency
andeffectiveness of the drug,while nullifying thetoxicity.Sn-raller
(microfined) doses are effective and economic,and devoid of
adversereaction,rapid responsetoo is noticed.
A drug becomeAa.sadha or Medicine only when it is subjected
to Kalpana. Kalpana meanspresentation.The nature of the drug
governsthe type of Kalpana to be preparedfrom it. Hence,the drugs
were preparedin different forms due to various reasons.
TherearedifferentAusadhaKalpanasorprocessingtechniques
of different dosage forms prescribedin Avun'edic lirerature.
Dependingupon the drug and its effect on the body. So many forms
have been described.Some of their scientific aspectshave been
discussedbelow.
Yogas or Compound Formulations
The formulas which were formulated by ancient scholars,
seemsto be havestrongscientificbasisandgiving surprisingresults
in clinical grounds.Becausethe fundamentalsareusedfor preparation
arecorrect.Yogas aremainly formulatedby mixing the drugswhich
haveequalcharactersareagonisingcharacterstoo and alsobasedon
by different other principles, E.g. in trikatu, pippali, marica-3unti
are said to be mixed togetherin equal ratio. This is becauseall 3
History of bhais.ajyakalpand 23

ingredients contain cfipono and pacana gttnct.Which is having


definite therapeuticaction. Another example is that, wherever
vatsanabhi folmulas are mentioned, there tarykana(Borox) also
mentionedbecause of its definiteantidoteactionagainstvarsanabhi.
This facilitatesthat Vatsanltbnitoxic effectsarenullified by Tankana
and sametime its therapeuticvalueswrll be achieved.The basic
fundamental principles of drug manufacturing mentioned in
A1'urveda,which aredefinitely having scienti{'icbasis,are seemsto
be betterto fallow as it is by allAvart'etlic Pttysiciunsandaswell
as Ayurvedicdrug manufacturingprofessionspresenttn national
and internationalgrounds.
Benefit of drug combination
It is observedthatthe "Activity" of certaindrugsareactivated
or catalyzedor acceleratedb.v means of combination.This is
explainedin ancienttexts as Yogaprabhava(yoga=compound,
prabhavtt = visi$la karya) tneanslormulation is getting a higher
potencyrvhenproperdrugsarecombined.This principleis important
:n therapy as the number of drugs commonly given during one
episodeof illness,tends to increase'vith ready provision of an
excessfor all purposeand also effect of one drug can also be
modified by the presenceof another.With drug combinationbellow
mentionedobjectscan be achieved.
1. To potentiateddrug action.
2. To avoid severedrug reaction
3. To savetime and money
4. When single drug fails to meet therapeuticneed.
5. For double beneficial effects
6 When physician confused in differential diagnosis or in
of proportionatepreponderanceof Dosa.
assessrnent
7. In dwandwaja or tridosaja disease.
8. In a drug which is having characteristicfeatureto provoke a
dosa,with or without its main action,that canbe counteracted
by the addition of anotherdrug to get its main action in the
diseaseof that dosa which was supposedto be provoked.
24 Bhaiqajy a Kalpana Vij iianam

Thesearebasisof suchlargenumberof formulationsexistine


in Ayurvedic Science.
Interaction of drugs and synergism in the body
In therapeutic practice frequently more than one drug is
administeredat the sametime. Two drugs,given at the sametime,
may either l. Action entirelyindependenton two separatesites,2.
producesimilar actioiison the sameorgan : Synergism(Greek :
Syn = together; ergo = work), 3. Oppose each others actions :
antagonism.
Synergism
Thereare variousways for drugsto act in concert:
Summation or addition
The two drugshavesimilaractionswhich are simply additive
: i.e. SwasaKuthuro Rasa and Mctclhu(honey)eachmay causeanti
histaminiceffect. If the trvo drugs arc administeredtogether,the
antihistaminiceffect is sirnplyan additionof the acrionof the two
i n d i v i d u a ld r r - r g(si . e .2 + 2 = 1 ) .
Potentiation
Drug A' enhancesthe action of drug B'. If drug A, the
porentiator,hasits own actionof drug of B, the combinedactionof
A and B will be greaterthan the simplealgebraicsum of the action
of two. i.e. sv,asakutharaRasaact aspotentexpectorantbecauseit
slowely ciears the airpassages. Kanakasavais a liquid form of
medicine which also have expectorantproperty as well as rt
strengthensthe respiratorysystem.
Stability
The preservationandstorageproceduresdescribedin Ayurvedic
pharmaceuticsare also basedon scientific lines. The fact that the
curnas (powders),tailas (oils), ghrtts (ghee)etc. becomeunstable
after the respectiveperiods. The ever-rastingshelf-life of Asavas
andAristas mentionedin the texts could be very well relatedto the
alcoholicmedium of thesepreparations.
Pharmaceutical Processesof Ayurveda
rn Ayurvedct,different pharmaceuticalprocessesare followed
tnternatlonql Centar
Llbrary tuoffi-o..-...-
Histary of bhaisajya kalpana )<

in the preparationof drugs. Besides herping isolation


of the
therapeutically
activepart of the drugs,theseprocesses
herpmake
medicines. &
l. easilyadministrable.
2. tasteful,3. digestibleandassimilable,
4. therapeutically more tolerableand 5. more preservable.
with a view to obtaining maximum therapeuticbenefit and
making recipe palatabre,different pharmaceutical processesare
prescribed in Avu^'ecra thouse are called Au,roiho Karpctnas
(medicinalformulations).which arepreparedfor the.onu"ni"n."
of administrationthroughdifferent routesin different forms for
the
treatmentof differentdiseaseconditions.
41,i11-t,sdi.
closage.f'orms (forntLtlcrti,ris)can also grossly
groupedinto l'ourtypesdependingupon their physicalforms
i.e.
a) Solid dosageforms: Gutika, Vatikaetc.
b) Semi soiid dosageforms: Avleha, paka, Lepa, Ghrta etc.
c) Liquid dosageforms: Arista, Asava,Arka, Taila, Dravaka,
Pancka etc.
d) Powder dosage forms: Bhasmcr,S(ttt,a, Mandura, pisti,
Pctrpati,Layuna, Ksaro, Cttnla etc.
Drugs or medicinal subsancesfrom prant.animal and minerar
sourcesareusedasraw materials(ingredients)for the formulations.
To extract the above mentionednatural products of various
origin, varioussolvents(menstrum)arq usedin Ayurveda,
suchas
wafer,oils,milk, ghee,cowsurineetc.To converttheminto
suitable
form and also to stabilizethem variousadjuvantsare used.
The use
of sweeteningagents,_binding agents,colourants,flavouring agents
is also mentionedin Ayurveclicpharmaceutics.
Following are the some of the important dosage forms
. of
Ayurvedic Pharmaceuticsmentionedin brief and in later
chapters
they will be dealt in derail.
.Asavaand Arista
Aso,at andAristasarethe medicinalpreparationsprepared
by
soaking the drugs in the powdered forms or in the form
of their
decoction (known as Kasaya), in a solution of sugar or jaggery
(.Guda)as may have indicated,for specified -'
period of time.
Bhaiqajya Kalpana Vilnanam

During this soaking it undergoesfermentation, generating


alcohol, thus facilitating the extraction of the active constituents
contained in the drugs. Alcohol so generatedalso serves as a
preservativein the product.
E . g . K u m d r y a s a v a , P u n a r n a v a s e v c l ,A r a v i n d a s a v a ,
Candanasava,Kanakasava,Lohascwa,Kulajdrista, Draksarista,
D ai amulari sta, Vidangari sta, Ai okarista, Khadirari sta.
FilteredAsava or Arista shouldbe clear and without any froth
(foam) at the top. It should not become sour. It has characteristic
aromatic and alcoholic odour.
Arka
It is liquid preparation obtained by distillation of certain
liquids or crude-drugssoakedin water using the distillationunit
(Arkayantra).
The coarsely powdered crude-drug is soaked in adequate
quantity of water and kept overnight.
Which soften the drug and releasesthe volatile principles
during distillation.
Arka is a suspensionof the distillate in water, having slight
turbidity and colour, depending upon the nature of crude drug
undergoingthe distillation. It has characteristicaromatic odour.
E. g. Aj amoda rka, K a rp ur adya rka and Jatamarhsya r ka
Avaleha or Leha and Paka
Avelehaor leha is a semisolidpreparationof drugspreparedby
additionof sugar,jaggeryor sugarcandyandboiled with prescribed
drug-juice or decoction.
Jaggeryor sugarcandy is dissolvedin the liquid, boiled and
strained.When thepaka (syrup)is ready,whenpressedbetweentwo
fingers or sinks in water without getting dissolved, it is then
removedfrom heatingsource,powdereddrugsin mentionedquantity
areadded,stirredcontinuouslyto form the homogenousmass.Ghee
or oil is addedwhile preparationis hot. Honey, if an ingredientof
the productis added,when the massis cooledandmixed, uniformly.
E.g. Kulaj avaleha,D raksdvaleha, Vasavaleha,Bilvadileha.
History of bhais.ajyakalpana 27

Kwatha Ctrrna
The coarsepowdersof singlecrude-drugor the combinationof
drugskept readyf or preparationof decoction(ka.saya)
areknown as
kwatha currya.Kwatha curna are stablefor one year.They are used
for preparationof kwatha.
E.g. Astavarga kwatha curnu, DaSctmulakwatha curna, Rasnadi
kwathctcurna, Punarnavadikwathu curna
CIrna
Finepowderof drug or drugsis known curna.Drugsmentioned
inyoga are cleanedproperly,dried thoroughly,pulverisedand then
sieved.
It shouldnot adheretogether,mustnot be moist and shouldbe
of 80 mesh sieve.More fine the powder,betteris the therapeutic
value.It can retain its potencyfor one year only, ifpreservedin air-
tight containers.
E.g. Triphala curna, Trikatu curna, Sudariana curna
Drdvaka
The liquid preparationsobtainedfrom lava4as or ksaras are
known as Drayakcts.
These are preparedby distillation process with or without
additionsof any fluids. Theseshouldbe storedin glassbottles and
are quite stableproducts.
E.g. Sankha-dravaka.
Ksdras
Alkaline (basic)substances
obtainedfrom the ashof druss are
known as ksaras.
Drug is cut into pieces and burn to ash. Ash is dissolved in
water, stainedand again evaporatedto get rid of water while solid
obtainedis called as ksara.
Ksara becomesmoist if exposedto atmosphericconditions.It
is quite stablefor years together.The tasteof ksara is salty up to
someextent.
E.g. Apamargaksara, Paldsa ksdra, Yava ksara
28 B haisajy a Kalp ana Vij ii anam

Lepa
'Ihe
preparationsin the form of paste meant tor external
applicationon the body are known as lepa.
The drugsor crude-drugsin the powderedform are mixed with
cows urine or water or .lil or ghee and made into-paste.
Lepas made tiom vegetablepowders are stable only for one
month. Lepas containingminerals or metals last indefinitely.
E.g. Sinduradi lepa, Pathyadi lepa. Daianga lepa, Dosctghnalepcr
Vati or Gutika
Medicamentsin the form of tabletsor pills are known as v,atl
or gutika.
Thesearemadeby usingsingleor combinationsof vegetable,
nineral or animal drugs.
Thesecanbe usedfor two years.Pills with mineralingredients
can be usedindefinitely.
Theseshouldnot loosetheir originalcolour,odour,taste,and
form. Keep them away from moisture if they contain salt, ksdra or
sugar.
E.g. Gandhakavatt, Lasunadigurikr. Marma gutika.Sunkhavart,
Sanjlvani vatt, Pranada gutika.
Netrabindu and Anjana
Netrabinduis madeby dissolvingthe specifieddrugsin warer
or kasayaor honey and used as eye drops.
Anjanas are very fine powdersof medicamentsto be applied _
with netraSalaka.
Their potencydependupon the drugsusedin theirpreparation.
Normally they are used as eye drops.
Anjanas are very fine powdersof medicamentsto be applied
with netraSalaka.
Their potencydependupon the drugsusedin their preparation.
Normally they are usedwithin one year.
E.g. Muktadi mahanjana, Candrodaya varti
History of bhaisajya kalpana 29

Sattva
Water extractablesolid substanceobtainedfrom a drug is
irnown as sattva.
Crude-drugis cut into pieces,soakeclin waterkept overnight,
strained.It is allowed to settle.Supernatantliquid is decanted.
Sattva (extruct) is washedseveraltimes dried and powdered.
E.g. Guduci (Gulvel)Sattvct.
Pisfi
Pisties are obtainedby triturating the drug with the specified
liquids and exposingto sun or moon light.
Pisties are as fine as bhasnta, and retain their potency
indefinitely.They are storedin bottles.
E.g. Pravulapi;yi. Mukrclpisti, Mclryikyapisti
Ghrta kalpana (l\'Iedicatedghee)
Ghrtas are the preparationsin which ghee is boiled with the
prescribed quantity of the Kasaya (decoction) and fine Kalka
(paste)of the drug as specifiedin the formula.
The processof preparation of ghrta ensuresthe absorptionof
the therapeuticallyactive constituentsof the drugs used for the
preparation
Ghrta solidifieswhencooled. Ghrta hascolour odour andtaste
of the ingredientsusedin thepreparation.Ghrtasarethepreparations
for internalconsumptionandarestablefor sixteenmonths.Normally
they are taken alongwith warm vehicle (water or milk).
E.g. ASokaghrta,Nirgundi ghrta, Sukumaraghrta, pippalyadi ghrta
Taila kalpana (Medicated oils)
Tailas are the prepararionsin which raita (Fixed oil) isboiled
with specifieddecoctionandfine kalka Qtaste)of drug asmentioned
in the prescribedformula.
The processof manufacturing Taila ensuresthe absorption of
therapeuticallyactive constituentsof the ingredientsused in the
formula.
Tailas are prepared similar to ghrtas. Tailas are normally
Bhaisajya Kalpana Vijiianam

liquid preparations.
Tailas can be usedinternallyand topically as
well.
Tailas retain their potencyfor about sixteenmonths.If taken
internally they are taken with warm water or warm milk.
Tailas can be preservednicely in glass or aluminium or
polythenecontainers.
taila, La ghu Visagarb ha
E.g. Bhrngaraja taila, M aha Narayaryct
taila, Anu-taila, Jyotismatitaila
BH A I S A J YAK A L P A N A IT IH A S A AND
KRAMIKA VIKASA
The total history of Bhaisajya Kctlpanacan be divided into
various periods for its precisedescriptionpurpose,as mentioned
below.
Vedic period
The earliest Indian records are the Vedas. Ay'un'eda, the
upavedaof Atlnm-a veda has given formulationsfor the treatment
of many human ailments. The BhctisajyaKalpana history starts
from Vedic period, in other words Bhaisajya Kalpana was got
foundationduring the vedicperioditself . Evidencesof Ausadhaand
Ahara Kalpanas are present in Vedas.During the vedic period,
ekamulikaprayoga was more in practice.Swara.sa, Kv'uthu.curna
etc., are preparedwith different herbs. Hence basic foundation of
Ausadha nirmana was made during Vedicperiod only.
More medical descriptionwas availablein Rgvedaregarding
different Ausadhiese.g. kimsuka(palasa),khadira, durva, kamala
etc. Somais consideredas more importantAusadhi and Somarasa
K alp ana i s mentioned in Rgveda. Apart from this,Ab hi sava Ka Ip ana
etc. also mentionedin Rgveda.
ln Atharvaveda, description of Ausadhies e.g. Apamdrga,
arka, aSwatha,khadira, tila, arjuna, yava, pippali, prSniparnt,
bilwa, udumbara, iksu, laksa,sahadevi,soma,guggulu etc andSura
Kalpand, Madya Kalpana etc., Kalpands are also mentioned.
InYajurveda, Saktu,Parlvap, dadhi, soma, madhu, godhuma,
masura, mudga, maSla,tila, priyangu, etc. are mentioned.
History of bhais.ajya kalpana 3l

Different kalpanas mentioned in vedic literature ancl their


similar Kalpanas of Bhaisajyakaipana are ntentionedhere under.

Kalpand mentioned in !'edas Similar Kalpand of Bhaisajya


Kalpana to that of kalpana
mentioned in Vedas.
1. Somarasa-nirmala l. SwarasaKalpana
2. Making pakaof ausadhiesin 2. Ksrrapaka
milk
- J . Arista 3. Arista
+ . Madhya-nirmana 4. SandhanaKalpana
5 . Asavi -5. Asava
6 . Dadhi 6. Dadhi
7 . Takra 1. Takra
8 . Navanita 8. Navanrta
9 . Sarpi 9. Ghrta
Ghrta
Ajvo
Ayata
1 0 .Laja 10. Laja
1 1 .Odana 11. Odana

Safihitd kdla
Ali the main classical rvorks on Ayurveda, such as Caraka
sarhhita,s ui ruta sarithita,Kasyapasarhhitd,Bhelasarhhita,Astanga
Sahgraha,AstangaHrdaya dealswith drugs,their compositionand
action in addition to the other aspectsof the medical system.
Therearemany authenticbookson both the groupsof compound
formulation s (Kasthausa dhi s and Rasausadhi s). while Sarn gadhar a
Sarhhitd, Cakradatta, Bhaisajya ratnavali, Bhesaja Kalpa,
Sahasrayogam,Bharat Bhaisajya Ratnaktra etc., deals with both
the groups of formulations, others like Rasendra Sdrasangraha,
RasaratnaSamuccaya,RasaprakdsaSudhakara,Ayurvedaprakdsa,
Rasatarangini, Rasayogasagara etc., deal with only Rasausadhi
group of formulations. Some of the Ayurvedic books known as
at Bhaisajya Kalpand Viiiianam

Ni ghantuG ranthas l1keDhanvuntarini ghuntu, (raiyoclevanighantu,


BhdvaprukaSanighantu, Rajanighuntu,etc.deal mainly r,vithsingle
drugs,describingtheirhabitat,characteristics
andtherapeuticaction.
Bhaisail,a Kalpana aspectsmentioiletlin .someof the book.s
enli,stedare belotv :

Caraka Sarhhita
contributions to Bheisa-iv-uKctlpana(Bhesaju
Acarya e:araker
and kalpand)arementionedpreviosly apartfrom thosea rviderange
of pharmaceutical
descriptionis availablefiom the CurukctSafihita.
The basic processingtechniqr-res of Bhuisaj ,-a kolpotta are
elaboratelyexplainedin thi s sctiit i t 17.
They arecalled thePoiicavi d ha
Kasaya Kalpanclsviz.
1. SwarasaKulpana 2. Kalka Kalpana 3. KrvathaKalpantl
4. Hima Kalpuna -5.PhantaKul1tuna.

T h e p r o c e s s i n gt e c h n i q u e sd, o s eo f t h e m e d i c i n e A
. nupana
(Catalist or vehicle) and niode of administrationof the above
mentioned PaitcctvidhaKasa,vcts have been elaborated.The total
herbal drugs are divided, dependingupon rheir pharmacological
characters into 50 Ilahcpaltcavidha Kasayaganas eg:
Jlv a nly adi g ana, B rmhanlyeg ulta etc.
Sincethe PeiicavidheKasat,eKalpana has sirortdurationof
expiry period,so that the formulationswhich can be preservedfor
long time and can be administeredconvenientlyu,asmentionedin
later part of Caraka Sarhhitacalled "Cikitsa Sthanci'. They are l.
Curna Kalpana, 2. Vait Kalpana, 3. Ghrta, taila Kalpanas 1)
Avaleha Kalpana and 5) Asava, arista Kalpanas are mentionecl
during the explanationof treatmentaspectsof differentdiseasesand
also in Kalpa and Siddhi Sthana's there is a lot of formulations
which can be utilised in Paltcakarma e.g. '. Vamana Kalpancl,
Virecana Kalpana, Vasti Kalpana and Naiya Kalpana etc, are
mentioned.
Dependingupon the presenceof activeprinciplesin particular
part of plant, that part is selectivelychosenfor the medicinal
purposesinthe Sutrosthanaitself. Dependingupon this, rhe author
has divided the herbsinto different groupsllke mulini. phalini etc.
r||

History of bhaisajya kalpand 33

Dietic aspectsof caraka Sarirhita


Different types of rice are describedin detail.
The following arethe tenprinciplesunderlyingthe wholesome
diet and its intake(cf . Vimana l:24-25)
I. The food shoulCbe hot.
2. The food shouldbe unctuous.
3. The food shouldbe rakenin properquanriry.
4- The food should be taken only after the previous meal is
digested
5. The food-ingredientsshould not be contradictoryin their
potency.
6. The food should be taken in a pleasantplace with required
accessories.
i. The food shouldnot be takenin excessivehurry.
8. The processof intakeshouldnot be exceedinglyslow.
9. while eating, one should neither talk nor laugh; dirring this
time one shouldconcentrate on eatingonly.
10. onlv such food shouldbe taken which is wholesometo rhe
physicalconstitutionandpsychictemperament
of an indiviclual.
SuSruta-Safthit5
As it is known that,suiruta-sarhhita is basically reiatedwith
ialya tantra (Surgery), the author ,Su|ruta has given better
rnformation about formulations related with vranaiodhctna,
vranaroparla (wound healing and anti inframmatory), vidhradhi
' ikitsa (Abscesstreatment)and formulations ment for other surgical
(Pre-operative,operative and post operative) complications
with
their method of preparation,pharmacologicalcharacters,mode of
administration, regulationof dosagehavebeenexplainedelaborately.
Basic kalpanas are mentioned as Six varieties in suirutha
Sarhhita as mentioned below
1. KsIra, 2. Rasa(swarasa),
3. Kalka, 4. Srta (Kwatha)
-A-
).slta 6. Phanta
3BK
34 Bhaiqajya Kalpana Viiftdnam

Su6ruta Concept Regarding Drug Potency


Suiruta, after closely investigatingall the theorieson the
subject,i nclinestowardsthe opinion that i t i s thep otencyof the drug
that is curative,though he observesthat in as much as potency
cannotexist ildependentlyof a drug, a drug is of primary interest
for all practical purposesin therapy.
suSrutaformulatedthe processof preparingmedicinal oils
and ghee, and iaid down the use of iatadhauta ghrtam (clarified
butter, a hundred times washedwith water in succession),
sahasrapaka taila (medicinaloil, successively cookeda thousand
times), Kurnbha-Ghrtcttn (clatified butter, a hundred years old)' It
may be fairely said that he was in sight of the principle of drug -
dynamisation.
It is mentioned in the su|ruta sLtuhitd is that, the different
drugs suchas roots,leavesetc. shouldbe collectedin the seasons
proper to each.Suiruta classifiedsoil in to five different kinds for
the purposeof growing drugs of different therapeuticproperties.
Processesfor the preparation of Ksara (alkalies) and the
lixiviation of ashesarevery elaboratelydescribed.Beyondthesethe
clremicalknowledgeof susruta scarcelyextends.
It has beenlately discoveredby a GermanFhysiologistthat
tubercularbacilli do not thrive in goat's bloco. The importanceof
goat'smilk in colitisasan efficientsgentin checkingfermentin the
intestines,or of the close contactof a goat as a powerful auxiliary
in curing tuberculousphthisis was first demonstratedbySuSruta.
The fumigation of the sick-room with antisepticpreparations
such asAstanga dhupa is purely Indian in its origin and in no way
inferior to the modern introduction of cogghills respirators'
Different kalpana (forms of medicines) mentioned in SuSruta
sahhita are describedbelow.
1. Akrtayusa rasa 2. Anjanam
3. Anjana varti 4. Anutaila
5. Ayaskrti 6. Avacfir{ra
7. Avaleha 8. Alepa
History of bhais.ajya kalpand 35

9. Iksuctsanam 10. Iksurasa


I l. Utkarika 12. Utsddanam
13. Upanaha 14. Ulluptamarhsam
15. Usnambu 16. Odanam
17. Kalka 18. Kavala
19. Kasaya 20. Kambalika
21. Kumbhasarpi 22. Kulmasa
23. Krtayfisarasa 24. Ytr1ara
25. K[rcika 26. Kwatha
27. Ksarakalpana 28. Ksaras[tra
29. Ksarodaka 30. Ksrraghrtam
31. Ksrrapaka 32. Khanda
33. Gandlsa 34. Guda
35. Ghrtam 36. Ghrtapdka
37. Ghrtamanda 38. Ctrna
39. Takra 40. Takrak[rcika
41. Tailapaka 42. Dadhi
43. Dadhimanda 44. Dhanydmlakam(kenji)
45. Dhfimavarti 46. Navanita
47. Nasya 48. PariSuskamarhsam
49. Panaka 50. Payasa
51. Prylsa 52. Pista
53. Peya 54. Prataptamdrhsam
55. Pradigdhamarirsam 56. Pradeha
57. Pralepa 58. Bharjitamdrhsam
59. Ph[nta 60. Phanita
61. Majja 62. Manda
63. Mandfira 64. Matsyandika
65. Sandhanakalpana
a. Arista b. Asava
36 Bhaiqajya KalPand Viifianam

c. Iksurasasava d. Jagala
e. Tusambu f. Prasanna
g. Bakkasa h. Madhvlsava
i. MaireYa j. Varunt

k. Suktam L Srdhu
m. Sura n. Surdsava
o. Sauvtrakam
66. Madhu 67. Madhumastaka

68. Mantha 69. Mastu

70. Mdrirsarasa 71. Modaka

72. Yavagu 73. Y[sa

74. RasakriYa 75. RasaYanarn

76. Rasala 77. Ragasadava

78. Lajamanda 19. Lala

80. Leha 8 i. Lohakitta

82. Loharaja 83. Vataka

84. Varti 85. Vasa

86. VatYa 87. VilePi

88. VisYandana 89. Vi(vara


(GodhIma nirmita)
90, Sarkara 9 1 . Sin4an
92. Sltarasa 9 3 . SadangaPaniYam
94. Sadava 9 5 . Swarasa
96. Saktu etc.
Safthitd
Bhaigajya Kalpanfl contributions of KS6yapa
auqadhi'bhesaia'
Detaileddescriptionincluding definition of
seven preparationsi'e'
bhaisaiya,agada andkasayais given' their
kalka Qtast e) andkwat ha
cAr,pa(bo,*ir 11,nt akasa'ya {co ld infusi on)'
(decoction\arementioned'Theahdra(diet)issaidtobethegreatest
medicineandtwentyfivetypesofsoupsaredescribed.Propertiesof
dew-water are also mentioned'
History of bhaisgjya kalpand 37

Just passingreferenceabout dosageshedulefor children is


available in Suirutct Sarhhita,moreover in Kaiyapa sarhhitait is
dealtin greatdetails.Few recipes of KaSyapa- Sarhhitahavingbeen
quoted in Astdnga - Hrdaya.
In Kaiyapa - Sarhhitagood numberof recipesare mentioned.
Thererecipescan be categorisedunder specificheadingslike wise:
l. Dh[pa Kalpana Z. Lehya Kalpana
3. Ghrta Kalpana 4. Taila Kalpana
5. Arista Kalpana 6. Other Kalpana
Ariqla Kalpana : Abhatdrista, Kutajarista, Mahabhatdriqta
Dhltpa Kalpana : Though fumigations are described by other
authors,but the long list of fumigationsof Dhupa Kaladhyayafor
various purposesother than thosementionedby other authorsand
alsocI assifi cationasp rat i dhupa, anudhip a etc.arealsocontributions
of Kaiyapa - Sarhhita.
Lehya Kalpana: Certainlehyasareprescribedmainly asa substitute
or supplementary feedwith detailindicationsandcontra-indications.
e.g. Kalyanaka leha, Kalyanaka-rasakriya, Kagukavinduavaleha,
etc. Agneyadhupa, Arista dhupa, Bhadrankara dhfipa, Brdhma
dh-upa, Caturangika dhupa, Da|anga dhfupa, Ganadhipa,
Gramadhupa, Grha dhupa, GrahaghnadhTtpa, Kanadhilpa,
Kaum[rradhitpa,Mahefvara dh-upa,Moha dhupa, Nandaka dh-upa,
Punya dhupa, Raksoghna dhupa, |i|uka dhupa, Srldhupct,
swastikadhupa, Uttama dhupa, Varunadhupa.
Other Kalpanas mentioned in KaSyapa Sarhhita : Abhaya guda,
A gasty a ha ri t akl, Caksusyd r asak r iy a, Cat urb hadra Kalp a, E rar.r{a
Vasti, Gudaharitaki, Kautukafijana, Kokild gudikd, Laiuna -
Kalpa, Lohitika gutika, Naracaka cftrna,phalavarti, puspakakalpa,
Satapuspd- Kalpa, Satdvari kalpa, Traivrtayoga, Trisamd gufikA,
Trivrtdstaka cfurrya,Vardhamanapippali etc.
Ghyta Kalpana : Abhaya ghrta, Amrta ghyta, Brahml ghyta,
candanddya ghyta, DaSamuladi sarpi, Daianga ghrta, Drdksd ghrta,
Gandhasarpi, Indrani ghrta, Kalydnaka ghrta sarpi, Kautuka sarpi,
Kaumbha sarpi, Mahdkalydnaka sarpi, Mahdnta sarpi, M angalyaka
ghrta, paficagavya ghyta, patoladya ghyta, Hlu ghrta, Punarnavd
38 Bhaiqajya Kalpand Viifianam

ghrta, SaiSuka ghrta, Sarltvardhanaghrta, Satadhrtuta/


Sahasradhautaghrta, Satpala ghrta, Tikta ghrta/sarpi, Tiniradya
ghrta, Vidanga ghrta etc.
Taita Kalpand : Ananta taila, Afimila, Badara taila, Balaka taila,
Bala taila, Draksa taila, Gandharva taila, Guduci taila, Harytsa
taila, Kapittha taila, Karni kara taila, Kraufica taila, kumara taila,
Iaksadi taila, Madhuka taila, I+fina taila, Nagavlrya taila, Pafica-
bhautika taita, Phala taila, Pllutaila, Punarnavl tailo, Raia taila,
Rasnataila, Sahacarataila, Sahakarataila, Sdrlsa taila, Satapuspa
taila, Satavari taila, S1'onakataila, Valgu taila, Vrsa taila,
Yastimadhukataila etc.
Harita Sathhit6
In this book the Kwatha (decoction) has been explained
elaborately with different varteties depending upon their
pharmaceutica!and pharmacologicalaspects.In this book we get
the descriptionabout other formulationstoo.
Sangraha Kdla
The Sangraha Kala includes the time period of Astanga
Sangraka and Astanga Hrdaya too. During this time, most of the
information given by Acarya Caraka, Susruta and kasyapa were
followed with mild changes.During this time the effect of God
Buddha 'n/asso much. So consequentlytherewas a depelopmentof
Bhaisajya kalpana which is interlinked with RasaSdstra.
This period viz, between8th century to 13th century may be
consideredas the Golden Era of Rasaidstra. During this period a
number of RasaSdstraformulations were invented and Acdrya
Nagarjuna wrote very important books related to Rasaldstra and
Bhaisajya Kalpana too. Even though Rasausadhieshas developed
rapidly during this era, it also includes most of the information
related with Bhaisajya Kalpand (HencQRasaiastra and Bhaisaiya
kalpana can be consideredas interlinked subjects.)Most of the
herbs are also used during the pharmaceutical process of
Rasausadhies.Hence this period can also be considered as an
important time for Bhaiqajya Kalpand.
Adhunika Kdla
During this period due to political imbalance,the development
History of bhaisajya kalpana 39

of Bhaisajya kalpana also effected.But during this period, some


new formulations hke Sarabhath, Gulkanda, Panaka, Malehara
and otherkczlpanaswereintroducedinto Bhaisajl,akalpand.During
the British rule, Antibiotics and other Allopathic formulations
becamepopular in India. This too causeda setbackfi Ayun,edic
medicines. However,dueto establishmentof Avuycdicphannacies,
new formulationsanc new packing techniqucshelpedAyurvedic
Pharmaceurics.Largely,manymachinerieslike pulvarizors,tablet-
compressing machinesetc.wereintroduced.Due to which,the time
requiredfor the preparationof Ayurvedicmetlicinesavedand large
scale production of the medicines became possible. Thus, large
quantitiesof medicinescould be producedin shorterduration and
with a systematicand scientificpackingmerhods.
Sarngadhara Sarirhith
T h i s b o o k w a s w r i t t e n i n r h e l 4 t h c e n t u r yb y S h r i A c o r y a
Sarngadhara.It is consideredas an authenticbook for this subiect.
because
l. Clear definitionsof Pharmacological terms are found in the
text and also the method of preparationof all types of recipes
are statedexplicitly.
2. Recipesfound hereinare simple,easyto prepareandeffective,
which makethe practiceeasy,therefore,this book is considered
as the hand book for an Ayurvedic Physician.
3. Opium and some other new drugs were incorporated into
Alturvedic materia medica through this treatise.
4. A new techniquementionedin this book is introducing of a
drug directly into the blood stream through and artificial
wound (Sucikabharar.taRasaPrayoga).This canbe considered
as an example for parenteraladministrationof medicine in
Ayurveda.
It is a considerabletherapeuticand historical interest is the
inclusion of the Sucikabharanarasaderived from Rasendrac-
intdmani,in his samftitaby Sarngadhara.From the point of view of
therapeutics,the dosageof sucikabhararyarasa and the mode of its
administrationare of significance.An exstremely,rninutequantity
of this drug, equal to that which can be taken up by the sharp point
40 Bhaiqujya Kalpana Vijiidnam

of a fine needle,is to be rubbedby the finger into tiresubcutaneous


tissueexposedby an incisionby a sharpknife in theskin ofthe scalp
in suchextremelydesperate conditionsascomadueto high toximia,
syncopeand cobra bites with grave prognosis,on which latter
condition, in specialit is claimed to save the patient from and
otherwisefatal termination.Explainingthc mode of the action of
this drng, saysSArngodhara, "Administeredin the tnannerdescribed,
this drug comesin directcontactwith biood and it is thentakenup
directly by the latter and it thus acts immeciiately.If the patient's
temperatureshootsup, he is to be given sweetsubstances. lt would
appearthat the parentralaciministration of life saving drugs u'as
presentedrnhis sarhhitaonly such formulations,both organic and
inorganic-asareof provenvalue andutility, theSucikabhctranarasa
mustgavepassedthroughextensiveclinicaltrailsandemployedby
physicians ofnotonly thecontemporarv periodbutalsoofsubsequent
periods.
Historically speaking,the credit of the discovery of the
parenteralrnethodof the aclministrationof life saving drugs goes
possiblyto India in the medievalperiod,and its introductionto the
practiceof medicine,rc Sarngadhara.He mayjustifiablybe classed
anongthe pioneerswho richly contributedto the subjectwhich was
slowly buildingup sincethe IX centuryA.D. and which reachedits
climax by about the XIII century A.D. Justifiably too is the
inclu sion of theSarng aclhara salixhita asthenumbertwo of the three
later medical classicswhich as seen elsewhere,were known
togetheras the Laghutrayi. His contributionsmay be said to have
laid the foundationfor the developmentswhich took place from the
XIII century to the XVIII.
Cakra datta (Cakra Pani llth A.D. ) : Many number of
kwdtha yogas are mentioned.Apart from this kalka, cilrna, ghrta,
taila, orista, guda,gutika, modaka,mQrhsarasa,lepaetc.,)-ogasarc
very widely mentionedwith their clinical use.
Cakrctdattastoodasthefirstrepresentativework of the medieval
era which was also acceptedas a handbook of medicine in the
Ayurvedicprofessionand continuedto be so for centuriesto follow.
Cakradatta prescribed Rasausadhis for treatment of various
disorders.About Rasaparpatl,it is saidthat it is described(first) by
History of bhais.ajya kalpand 4l

Cakrctpani.Similarly, use of iron and other rnineralsare seen in


advanced form. A large number of formulations contain these
minerals. There are also some new therapeuticrneasuresand
lormulationsprescnbedfor treatmentof certaindisorders.
Gadanigraha
In this book, on the basis of keilpanas,the chapternamesare
mentionede.g-tailadhikar,ghrtadikctr,c urnadhikaretc.,this shows
that, prime importanceis given in this book for kalpanas.

Bhesaja Kalpah
As the name suggestsis a work on the Bhaisajyakalpana.In
the colophonof the work it is stated"thusendsBhesajaKalpah,the
seventh chapter in ,4;'rrn'crluStrdhinidhi (Amfrocial Ocean of
AyurveCa).This suggeststhat,the authorhad writen a large work
Ayun'edctSudhanidhiof which this portionconsistingof 52-5verse
formed the seventhchapter.
The authorship of this work is attributed to one Bhagawdn
Bharadv,aja.The vie ws of later authorshke Bhoja, Ravigupta etc.
alsosumof thedrugsthatarepeculiartoSouthIndialikeKuppameni,
Pei Meratti etc. are mentionedin this work. It may be inferred that
the authornright have lived in betweenl2th and 15thcenturiesand
belongedto Bharadwaja Gotra and to South India.
Though the subjectmatterBhaisajyaKalpana is alsoavailable
in other printed Ayurvedic books, it is in a scatteredform. In this
work all the information is collected as one place, codified and
aranged in a systematicway, being spelled over under suitable
relevant headings.Thus this work deals with ail the relevant and
important aspectsof Bhaisajya Kalpana, as the part of the drugs to
be used the appropriate season and place of their collection,
substitutesof unavailabledrugs selectionof drugs,pharmaceutical
processingwith their technicalities,weights measuresetc.
During this period (adhunika kala), Brhad yoga tarahgini,
Yogaratnakara, Ayurveda sdra sangraha, rasatantrasdra,
siddhabhesajamanimdla,siddhayogasangraha etc. Rasasastra
books are camein to light. All most all of thesebooks are given the
information about kwdtha, cltrrya,asava, ariqla, gh1ta, taila, loha
Bhaiqajya Kalpana Vijfidnam

etc. Kalpanas too. Particularly in Brhadyoga turangini,


Ayurvedasara sangraha, Bhava prakasa etc. books, mentioned
aboutprocessingofdifferent yogrls(Relatedto BhaisajyaKalpana)
are mentionedmore systematically.
Bh5rata Bhaisajya R.atnEkara
This is one of the useful work of Bhaisajya kalpana and
RasaSdstraduring adhunika kala.It is written in five parts.
Apart from thesesomemoreworks,particularlyconcentrating
theparibhasa of Bhaisajy-akalpana are written during this period.
They are likewise :
Ay urv ediy a Parib haEa : Gangadhar
Vaidyaka Paribhaqa Pra[tpa : Govindasena
Parihhaqa Prabandh : JagannathSukla
NavaparibhZqa: UpendranathDas
Only on concentratngthe Bhaisajya Kalpana some of the
books are publishedrecently,They are likewise :
Abhinava Bhaisajya Kalpana Vijfran : AcaryaSiddinandanamisra
Bhaigajya Kalpand Vijfian : AvadhabihariAgnihotri
Bhaisajya sarhhita : Atridev Gupta
Bhlratiya Bhaiqajya Kalpana vijriana : Acarya Viswanatha
Dwivedhi
Rasa Bhai;ajya Kalpand VijfiSnam Volume II Bhaisajya
Kalpana : Vaidya santoshKumar sharmaKhandal.
The Ayurvedic Formulary of India - Part - I First edition :
Every attempthasbeenmadeto includein it asmany important
formulationsasarecurrentlymanufacturedon a large scalein terms
of value and in use throughoutthe country. Various organisations,
institutionsincluding pharmacyandindividual vai dyas, in di fferent
regions were consulted before the formulary was prepared.The
formulary, therefore, represents the concensus of opinion from
Ayurvedic profession as a whole and committee urges the Central
Government to recommend the adoption of this formulary by all
Ayurvedic institutions maintained by Governmentsin the States,as
History of bhaisajya kalpana

well as semi-Government
andotherinstitutionsmanagedby public
Voluntaryorganisations.
Ayurvedicformulary of India givesinformationaboutfollowing
Kalpands namely : Atoro, arista, arka. avaleha, paka, kwatha
cirna, guggulu, ghrta, curna, taila, dravaka, lavana, ksara, lepa,
vctti,gutika, varti, netrabindu, anjana, s(tttva,kupipakva rasdyana,
parpat| pisti, bhasma,mandltra, rasayoga,lauha.

Pharmacopoeial standards for Ayurvedic formulations


It is publishedby C.C.R.A.S.,New Delhi, the revisededition
of the book consiststhe following :
l. Monogranh: 431 formulationsdivided ilnder 21 categories,
each category and the formulation in it, arrangedin alpha-
beticalorder as per the namewritten in Romanletters.
2. Appendix - 1: Details regardingdefinition, generalmethodof
preparation,characteristics,preservationand storageof each
categoryof formulations are given.
3. Appendix - II : A small note on (a) guidelinesto be followed
in the use of the standardsand (b) General Principles to be
followed in prescribingthe standardsare given.
4. Appendix - III: The methodsof preparationsof all analytical
reagentsand indicationsfor volumetric,gravimetricand other
types of determinationtestsand also the detaileddescription
of the testsare given.
5. Appendix - IV: It is divided into 3 categories
(a) List of single drugs of animal origin with Sanskritname
and common English name.
(b) List of single drugsof mineral origin with Sanskritname
and common English name.
(c) List of singledrugsof plant origin with sdnskritname and
their respectivebotanicalnameswith substitutes,if any.
This revised edition of the book would safeguard and
strengthen the interests of the manufacturer of ethical
Ayurvedic Products, the Physicians and the consumer
with qualitative bestAyurvedicformulations.
44 Bhaisajva Kalpana Vijrliinam

The drugs and cosmeticsact 1940


It is a Govt. Publicationand it givesall the informarionabout
r u l e sa n d r e g u l a t i o n sr e l a t c dw i t h i l r n e d i c d r u gm a n u f a c t u r i n g
and its usage.
Thus An A1,urvecJic medicine as define<Jin the Drugs and
CosmeticsAct 1940includesali medicinesintendedfor internalor
external use, for or on the diagnosis.treatment,mitigation or
preventionof diseaseof disorder in humanbeing or animalsand
manufactured exclusively in accordancewith theformuladescribed
in theauthoritativebooksof At'un,edic systern of medicinespecified
in the first scheduleof the Act.
Indian meteria medica
D r . K ^ M . N a d a k a r n(i 1 9 0 8 )
The pharmacopeiaof India
Dr. Kartik chandraBose (1932) and severalorhersin Indian
languages.
The Ayurveclir:pharryucapeiacomtnitieein the ministry of
health and Family Welfare have therefore.given priority to the
compilationof a NationaiFornrularyof 450 compoundformulations
which are manufacturedand sold on a large scaleby theAvurveclic
pharmaceutical Industryand are also usedby practitionersof this
system.Effortshavesuccessfully beenmadeto establishthebotanical
identity of the plant drugs . Control over the manufactureand sale
of Ayurvedic medicines is also exercisedthrough the drugs and
cosmeticsAct.
A numberof State Governmentshavesetup pharmaciesin the
public sectorfor the manufactureof Ayurvedic Medicines to meet
the requirementsof the medical relief, Institutions of Ayurveda
maintaineciby them. To make availablepotent drugs of Ayurveda
and other systemsof medicine,a centralpharmacyis to be established
by the Central Government.In addition, the Central Government
provides financial assistanceto the pharmaciesmaintainedby the
stateGovernmentsin order to increasethe production capacityof
genuinedrugs, to meet the requirementsnot only of their medical
relief institutionsby also of the public at large.
History of bhais.ajya kalpand 45

There are at present rnany pharmacies engaged in the


manufacture of clrugsof At'un't'luin {hecountr3. Exportof A1'un'e
dic
drugsis confinednot only to SouthEastand Middle Eastcountries
but, also to Europe and America.
Centrctl council for Research in Indian Medicine and
Homoeopatht,(Ayun'erla, sidclha,(Jnuni.Homoeopathyand Yoga)
camein to beingin theyear fgOg.ttre councilis engagedin research
programmesin differentfields,grvingpriorityto thoseareas,aslike
evolving of standardsfor drugs and pharmaceutical preparations
u s e di n I n d i a nM e d i c i n e .
Ayurvedic medicines are mostly manufacturedaccording to
the formulaeand processes mentionedin the classicaltexts.With
the advancesin scienceandtechnologya continuoussearchis on for
new drugs combat unknown and new diseasesand the action of a
drugon conditionsotherthanthoseknownor unknownor described
in texts.Thus, a largenumberof patentdrugshavecome up in the
country.Thesetime testedAyun'cdic drugshaveprovedpopularnot
only becauseof their easy availability, but are prefered for the
treatmentof iaetrogenicdiseases.
History of Modern Pharmacology
The earliest sourcesof Western medicine came from Egypt
andthetwo kingdomsof AssyriaandBabyloniaandGreekphysicians
like Hippocrates.Later thesewere developedvery widely through
out the world. Thenthis specialbranchwasnamedasPharntacology.
Since Pharmacology becamevery elaborate,it was divided into
different subfaculties. Pharmacologyis the sciencethat dealswith
drugs. The word is derived from Greek Words Pharmacon (an
active principle) and logos (a discourseor treatise).
Definition of Drug
'drug' 'drogue' "e
The word is derived from the French wotd , dry
herb". A drug is defined as any substanceused forthe purposeof
diagnosis,prevention,relief or cure of a diseasein man or anirnals.
According to W.H.O. "A drug is any substanceor product that is
used or intended to be used to modify or explore physiological
systemsor pathologicalstatesfor the benefit of the recipient".
Bhaiqajya Kalpana Vijfianam

Pharmacology consistsof detailedstudyof drugs,particularly


their actionson living animals,organsor tissues.The actionsmay
be beneficial or harmful. It includes such allied fields as
Pharmacognosy, Pharmacy, Phormacodynamics,Therapeutic's,
Toxi col ogy and Chemotherapy.
l. Phsrmacognost-
which is the scienceof indentificationof drugs.
2. Phermacy which is the scienceof identification,selection,
preservation,standardisation,
compoundingand dispensingof
medicinalsubstances.
3. Pharmacodynamics is the quantitativestudy of the bioiogical
andtherapeutic effectsofdrugs.Suchstudiesrlso elucidatethe
mechanismof the action of a drug and may correlatethe drug
actionswith theirchemicalstructure.ThetermPlnrmacokinetics
is used to describe the study of the absorption,distribution,
metabolism and excretion of drugs and their relationship to
Pharmacologic response.
4. Therapealic.smeansto care for or to nurse.It is a branch of
medicineconcernedwith thecureof diseaseor relief of symptoms
and includesdrug treatment.
5. Toxicologyis the scienceofpoisons.Poisonsaresubstances
that
cause harmful, dangerousor fatal symptoms in animals and
human beings, rnany drugs in larger doses act as poison.
Treatmentof poisoningare includedin this branch.
6. Chemotherapyis concerned with the effect of drugs upon
micro-organismsand living parasiteswhich multiplying in a
living organism.
Materia medicais the older term for branchof pharmacology
concernedwith sources,descriptionand preparationof drugs.
Pharmacopoeiais an official codecontaininga selectedlist of
the establisheddrugsand medicinalpreparationswith descriptions
of their physical propertiesand testsfor their identity, Purity and
potency, Pharmacopoeia defines the standards which these
preparationsmust meet and their averagedosesfor an adult. A few
well-known pharmacopoeias are the Indian Pharmacopoeia (1.P.)
theBritish Pharmacopoeia(8.P.),the Unitedstatespharmacopoeia
(U.S.P.) and the EuropeanPharmacopoeia(E.P.).
History of bhais.ajya kalpana 47

National Forntulary is published by the American


PharmaceuticalAssociation.British National Formulctry(B.N.f.)
is published by the British Medical Associationand the
Pharmaceutical Societyof GreatBritain.They includeformulaefor
pharmaceuticalPreparationssuchaselixirs, solutions,tincturesand
powders"whoseuseor efectiveness is reasonably
certain."National
Formulary (N f ) of India is publishedby the Governmentof India.
British Pharmaceutical Codex is publishedby the Pharmaceutical
Society of Great Britain. It gives information on drugs, other
pharmaceuticalsubstancesand formulatedproducts.
AMA Drug Evaluations : This is a pubicationof the American
medicalAssociation(AMA) Council on l)rugs. "The purposeof this
volume is to provide the medical professionwith evaluationof
selecteddrugsbasedon the availableevidence.An evaluationmay
be favourable,unfavourableor a combinationof both and it only
representsa statementof the general.meritsof the preparation,not
its specificusefulnessin a given patient."
An attemptin the scienceand art of pharmacy is continuously
'diseased'
being madeto providethe drug in thebestsuitedform to a
personto put him at easeon all accounts.The varied dosagefroms
different formulations and number of routesof administrationare
the outcomeof achievingthe aboveset goal.
Any form in which a drug is administeredin a prescribed
quantity is referred as a dosageform of drugs althoughin caseof
preparationsfor externaluse, the dose is not prescribed.
A pharmacist has to make lot of considerationsbefore giving
a form to the drug. Important onesbeing its stability, acceptibility,
bioavailability, biotransformation,it sphysical andchemicalnature,
dissolution,disintegration availability, onsetof action, duration of
action, absorption,degradationand excretion.He has to meet on
the requirementsof a physician look to the patientsconvenience
andthe acceptabilityof the productby the consumer.Efficacy of the
product be also assure from the date of manufacture till it is
consumed.
The different dosoge forms of the drugs may be broadly
classified as under on the basis of their physical nature. These
48 Bhaiqajya Kalpana Viifianant

catcgoriesincludebothexternalandinternalusepreparationshaving
been formulated with the help of best suited adjuvants
(pharmaceutical aids), many a time dependingon the individual
requirementsof the product.
of dosageforms may be asunder:
A broaclbasedclassification
DOSAGE FORMS

Liquids Solids Semisolids


Mixtures lmPlants Pessaries
Lotions Powders Ear-cones
Liniments CaPsules Nasal-bogies
Emulsions Tablets Creams
Suspensions Granules Ointments
Parenterals Pills Pastes
Eye drops Cachets SuPPositories
Ear drops DustingPowders Gellies
Nasal drops Snuff Plasters
Mouth wash Tooth Powders
Gargles
Parenterals
Elixers
Chapter2
AoHAnABHOTA STDDHANTAS oF
BHAISAJYA KAI,PANA
(Basic principles uf .l;;urreclic pharmaceutics)

Ilhoisajya kctlpani rldharubhuta sitttJhantts can be


consideredas basicfundaurentalprinciplesof Ausadhanirntarya.
By doing different pharmaceiitrcalprocesses,raw drugs are
converfed into medicinal form (kalpana)" While making the
Ausadha kalpani phvsician has t' rhink about the followine
aspects:
l. Antrkto and Viiesokta ,Jrot'ta grahana
2. Paribhasa
3. Form of ausadha kalpurca(soliri - vati, semi solid _
cti'aleh,q. liquid kasayu, panuka ancl external applications -
rntlohors kctlpanas etc.1
1. ,lusudha ,\irrtakerenc (Naming of a recipe)
5. Rasa, Gurya, Wryo, Vipaka, Karma, and prabhdva
6. Bhaisajya margt (Route ot rnedicine administration)
i. Marra
8. Anupana
9. AusadhctsevanaKala (Time of medicine administration)
10. Savin,ata avadhi (Stability period)
Anukta Dravya Grahana (Unspecified part, time etc.)
urdsgt rqd wrgqisgt ura q+( | I
tmrsar g HrFisrmist* a Fmq 1
E+tT*^qci qra tdrg* fmfrqqqtr
qfiqrqtq'f *il qfuTqr{r;{il |
qnd &g.r 6.rd qiEf iltr(friirl. tl
4BK
50 Ilhai;ajr a kalpana vijilanam

qur€rdRrdr gr€wt
$gTrF"irdT:I
\\
rfiirflztFftl-{l: rqa tft|-.{{q lt
(q TT I.i .c. r g. t.Ys- qo)
When no titne is speciiii:d Iin the io.strafor takir'gnedictnc
tle done during I'hentorrtrn.q.
or collecting hcrbs], then it shor.rlrj
When the paft ttf a plarlt fto Lreiised in a recipe] is not
specified[in thc textl tl-renthe rttol Iui tire plant] is to be used.
$ / h e n t h e p r o p o r t i o n I i n u ' h i c h d i f f c r e n t i n g r e d i e n t so f
r e c i p ea r t :t o b e a d c l e dils n o t s p e c i f i e dl i n t h e t e r t ] . t h e n a l l t h e
ingredientsare tc) be taken irr eclualqLrxntititrs.
W h e n t h e k i n d o f t h ep . / I r ( /( \ ' L ' \ s e lItr v h i c hi s t o b e u s e d1 o r
c o o k i n g a m e d i c i n a lp o r t i o n l i s n o t s p e c i f i e d[ i n t h e t e x t ] t h e n
mtrd-potis to be used.
I f t h e l i q u i d t o b e u s e di s n o t s p e c i f i e dt,h e n w u t e r i s t o b e
used.
I i ' r ' a r i e t . vo f t u i l u ( o i l ) r - u o t s p e c iife t l . t h c n T i l u t a i l t r
( S e s a m eo i l ) i s t o b e t a k e n .
I f i n a r e c i p et h e s a t n ei n g r e d i e n it s m e n t i o n e dt w i c e t h e n
this rngredientis to be used in dcuble the quantitl''
Use of Candana
Candanais of the two tvpes, viz.. ,irlr';r.r irvhitc) and ruktcr
(red). If in a recipe ttf curt.rttipowdcr.lctr,qltrta(rnedicateci ghc-e.t
o r A . t e v e( a l c o h o l i cp r e p a r a t i o) no r a t ' u l e h t a( i i n c t u s )
t h e t v peof
canclanuis not specified,then .fx'etn ("r'hite ) r.'arietvof curtdurtct
i s t o b e u s e d .I f , h o w e v e r ,t h e r e c i p ei s a k u s a v a( d e c o c t i o n o )r
Iepa (ointmentetc. for externaluse),then the rakto (red) r arictt'
of cantlonu should be used.
I f i n a r e c i p e .t h e p a r to f t h e p l a n tt o b e u s e di s n o t s p e c r f i e d .
then the root of the herb is to be used.
If the post-prandialdrink is not specified,then rlater should
be used.
if in arecipe,the part of a rvell knorvnplant to be usedis not
specified,then along r.vithroot, its bark, etc., may be used
If it is a big tree with wood inside,then the bark of srch a
trees should be, used in medicine.
AdhArabhuthq siddhdnthasof bhaiqajyakalpand
5l

If the ingredientshas small root, then the entire herb


is to
be used in medicine.
If the recipe is to be used internally, then in the place
of
kr'snajlraka (black vnriety of iTrcrka), svetajiraka (whiti
variety
of jTraka) is to be used.
By the name of Lavana, saindhava ravana is to be
taken.
By the name of Dugclho,Goksira is supposedto
be taken.
By the name of Ghrta, Goghrta is supposedto be taken.
By the name of Mutra, Gomutra is supposedto be
taken.
Selection of Drugs
qEF+qfr qM Fqrrcfuffi{.€ |
ffir feg'5.srrqi XFEr;qrsqqrfiT*r
rr
(w. q. s. u. q.YY)
In general,drugswhich arefreshly collectedshouldbe
usedin
recipes.The exceptionsare vidanga (Embelia ribes), krsna (prper
longum), guda Qaggery),dhanya (cearealsand pulses)
,'ajya ('ghee)
and maksikrz(honey), [which are therapeuticaily-o."-"ff.-"tiu"
when used after preservationfor some time].
Drugs to be Used in Wet-Form

T$1 gied Er+nEqruss wf,r+frr


gT{rrr*rT
F6{rl vrdgqr [{Trfwfr|
tr+trql HM A.Wnte 6rr+( rr

Gudilci, kutaja, vasa, kttsmuon r,!r) 17 r) ;"")))],


",tT always
sahacari, Satapuspaand prasarjnT should "used
be, in
wet-form (green state) and their quantity shourdnot
be doubred.
General Rule

{dr qd* +ni Fqqq,fg | |


err{E frtui Tgttq vda g*, ,
({n. €. q. g. q.yq,-yb)
JZ Bhaiqajy kalpand vijiianam

Horvever"the generalrule is to use a dry drug only rvhenir


is freshly collectecland drieci,and ail wet (green) drugs are to be
used in cloublethe prescribedcluantityin ail recipesharring t he
e x c e p t i o n sd e s c r i b e db e f o r e .
i\Iodification of Recipes
If in a recipe or groups of drugs' an ingredientis found to
he urrsuitablefor a disease.then sttch an ingredientshould be
discarciedand the recipe for that diseaseshould be prepared
cxclucling sr.rchinappropriateingreclients. lf, howevcr, in a
recipe,a drug approprirtefor a diseaseis not incltided,then the
rvise physicianmay add that irrgredrentto the rccipe.
According to AcSrya SuSruta
In fhe recipes describedby me (Suiruta) only a few
essentialingre<lients are included. This is done to avoid details.
If a physicran ad'Js appropriateand similar drugs into these
r e c i p e s , t h e n n o r n i s t a k ei s c o m n r i t t e d . A w i s e p h y s i c i a n '
acquaintedu'ith the differencesin the nature of the time of
administrationand the variationsin the statesof diseases,can
use all or half of ingredients or only those which are readily
available found amongst the group of prescribed drug.
Vi6esokta Dravya Grahana
lf gana name only mentionediII a partlcularformuiae,then
we have to collect the respectivedrugs, in mentionedquanttty'
E.g. Puncakola, triphalu, dafamltla etc'
Irr the Pancakola ganc there are 5 drav)'as respectively,
Pippatl, Pippatt rnilla, Cavva, Citraka and Nagara. Without
rnentioningtheir names specificallywe are supposedto collect
them in ', koiu pramdna each. Hence this gana is called
puritcakola according to Vifesokta Rupa'
Because of the above mentioned reasons Anukta and
Vi|esokta Dravya Grahana of dravya sarhgrahana plays an
important role in AdhAra Bhuta Siddhantasof Bhaisaiya
Kalpana.
Adhdrabhutha siddhanthas of bhaiqajya kalpanu SJ

P AR T BH A S ;T
(Glossary of the Technica! ferrns)

@ffirqr:r
rfrqrw IFaFffiq}fi*trr,gfr1-g.at:
rr
(d.qft"c.l
f+'1a1ffidvfrtnsf<'qrds-frftreFTr
gf{Frdlqf f*q*' qfrr+rqrffi rr
({€-dI. (. ? )
In Bhaisajva kalpanc and .Rc.rairlstra, certain technical
t e r m s a r e o f t e n u s e d . E x p l a n a t i o no f t h e s e t e r m s i s c a l l e d
paribhasa. Those interestedin the details of Rasa iiistra anr|,
Bhaisaj-vakalpana should be acquaintedwith lhe exact meaning
of these technical terms. Some of which related to Bhaisuj.t.a
kalpan7 are described here under
Lavana pafrcaka (Five Salts)
qH€i *Erqs ffifeEQe q r
rrr5iur €ffi{ qls vqdaffi q 11
( q . q . 1 . 3o )
Saindhava lavana (rock-salt), sdmwdra lavana (sea-salt),
vida lavonc (black salt containing Arnmonium chloride),
sauvarcala lavana (sonchal salt containing iron and sulphur)
audbhida, these five taken together in equal quantity ancl are
called pafica lavanct.
Lavana Traya (Three Salts)
fugti w* qrsffierqoi F[tr{ u
(rsar.f .x)
Saindhava, sauvarcala and vida lavana - these three salts
taken together in equal quantity and are called lavena traya.
Triphala (Three Fruits)
qqrffidqntqi q,e: srhrrf,r rr*: r
qft{kh q frsar Hr ?nrErgthtftfilrtl
(qr.x. g<1.
xr)
Bhaiqajya kalpana vijftanam

Collective name of fruits of hantaki ('Ierminalia chebula


Retz.), bibhTtaki(Terminalia belerica Roxb.) and amctlaki
(Emblica officinalis Gaertn.). Generally, the putp (phatarwak)
of thesefruits is used in medicineand taken in equal quantities.
One fruit of haritaki, two fruits of bibhitaki and four fruirs
of amalaki constitute one unit of triphula according to sorne
Acaryas.
Trikatu (Three Pungent Drugs)
firorf,i qFtti {rdi ffirqqurgat s1
( v n .s . q . q . q , R )
Collectivenamefor Sunthi(ZingiberofficinaleRoscoe),pippaiI
(Piper longum Linn.) and marica (Piper nigrum Linn.), taken in
equalquantities.
Ksdra Dvaya (Two Alkalies)
Svarji ksara (Sodium btcarbonate)and r.ar,aA.iarrr(alkali
preparationof barley ash containingPotassiumbicarbonateand
Potassiumcarbonate)these two taken together are called ksara
dvaya.
Ksdra Traya (Three Alkalies)

frR-Fr {FngIkT T{qFfffil


({RTcs3.
Lo.q/)
Svarji ksdra, yava ksartt and saubhdgyaor tankana (borax)
- thesethree taken togetherin equal quantity and are called ftsara
traya.
Ks5ra Paffcaka (Five Alkalies)
rdrvrgq'fisRl ?rr{F{: gaFfan r
ffiqq: qR: rig*; qTnrnrfi{tl
({qTeTsg.qo.qq)
Ksaras (alkali preparations) of kadali (Musa paradisiaca
L i n n . ) , m u s k e k a p a t a l a ( s t e r e o s p e r m u ms u a v e o l e n s D C . ) ,
kimsuka (Butea monospermaKuntze) and,tila (Sesamumindicum
Linn.) and sarja ksara - these five taken together are called
ksdra paftcaka.
Adharahhutha siddhanthas of blmisujya kalpana 55

Ksarastaka (Eight Alkalies)


:l
qetEr:TEHq.I*fr {nrr*TErae{ r r
( qT.c.eit. tqc,)
(Euphorlrianerifolia
Ksdras (alkali preparaticns)of ,rrrulrT
linn.).pala,(u(ButeaInonosperma Kuntzc), uponargu(Achyranthes
asperaLinn.) cinca \Tar'arindus indica Linn.). crkri (C--alotropis
giganteaR. Br. ex Ait),tila(Sesamum (Hordeum
indicumlinn.),1,611'a7
vulgare Linn.) and saja tsarc (Sodiumbicarbonate)theseeight
takentogetherin eilualquantityand are called];s&rustqkct.
Mutrastaka (Eight types of Urine)
srFa115dTqiru qTf6riq q( |
EFfffdtTdqs 6fiq q s{rer q t l
(q. q q.3Y)
Urine of she buffalo, she goat, female sheep,cow. male
camel, male ass, male elephantand horse - theseeight taken
togetherare calledmutrastako.
Amla Varga (Group of sour drugs)
qett Frq.*,.*q aqffiretr r
{KF Erffiq qqrrFi frwqroq rr
a
IFWF,I I
grfiel i'ra vnqrqqw+ri: r*iflfa: r r
({. f,{. ?.q,
t- tY)
Jambira (Citrus limon burm. f .), nimbuka(Citrus aurantifolia
-qwingie),amla vetasn (Garcinia pedunculateRoxb.), arnliku
(Tamarindusindica Linn.), naraiga (Citrus reticulateBlanc.),
dadima (Punica granatum l-inn.), vrksamla (Garcinia indica
Chois.) bija puraka (Citrus medica Linn.), cdngeri (Oxalis
corniculata Linn.), canakamla (Cicer arietinum Linn.),
karkandhu (Zizyphus nummularia W. & Il.), kartt mardaka
(CarissacarandasLinn.) and cukrika (Rumex vesicularisLinn.)
these drugs taken together are called amlu vurgo.
Bhaisajya kalpand vijfianam

Amla pafrcaka(Five Sour Dmgs)


Amla vetasa,jamltiru, matulurtgu (bi.iapura], ,(rrctngtr and
nimbuka - these five taken together are r:alleclumlct paiit:ul:u.
Kola (Zizyphus jujuba Linn.), dcidinra(punica granatum
L i n n . ) , v r k s a m l q ( G a r c i n i ; i i n d i c a C h o i - s . 1c, e t n , s c r (i O x a l i s
corniculata Linn.) and cincu (Tamarindusindica Linn.) rhese
five drugs taken together are callecl tTrnlapctncuka.
Paffca Tikta (Five Bitter Drugs)

XWl f{qTffi8q,-fi{qs*.ffir ft-Rftr*n r


TsFFi' gr5'nTftfEr \ tl
( I s i R . ? .q c )
Guduci (Tinosporacordifolia MiersJ. nimba (Azadirachta
i n d i c a A . J u s s . ) ,y a s a { A d h a t o d a v a s i c a N e e s ) . k a n t a k a r i
( S o l a n u m x a n t h o c a r p u ms c h r a d a n d w r ' i i d l e . ) a n d p a t o l '
(Trichosanthes cucumerinaLinn.) thesefi 'e clrusstakentogether
in equal quantity and are called.parlcu tikia.
Pafrca Mrttika (Five Clays)
rr+qer*Eiryfrql r
Ffu-r-nfirq.r-Filui
Tsrd€vre: a?frfm: trsgfrinrr I
({. {. H-{.qo.cq)
Powder of brick, ash,earth from ant-hill, gairika (red ochre)
and salt - these five taken together are called pafica mrttike.
Madhura Traya (Three Sweet Drugs)
qF Tsi rTrfqas f${i qlrnq r
({. {. 95. I o.\go )
Ghee, jaggeryand honev - thesethree taken togetherin equat
quantity and are called madhura tralia.
PaffcEmrta (Five Nectars)
rtai fir Ee TfrqrfETdr
qrq w*rr r
Tsr5i €qrwtii rve.TfsqTqsq,,
( { s .? . ? q )
Adhsrabhutha siddhanthas of bhaiqajya kalpand

C o w ' s r l i l k , c u r d o f c o r , v ' sm i l k , c o w ' s g h e e . h o n e y a n d


sugar - these t'ive together in equal quantity and are called
paitcirn rtu.
Pafrca Gavya (Five cow-products)
rrdi qh qfq qa tilTj tfrrqi aqr r
qfir qlfoi fe xrsrr6qfudqell
({s. Q.??)
Milk, curd, ghee, urine and dung of the cow - these five
taken together in equal quantity and are called paiica gavye.
Ksira Traya (Three Milky Latexes)
The latexes of ctrkq (Colotropis giganteaR. Br. ex Ait.).
'arrz (Ficus bengalensisLinn.) and .snuhi(Euphorbia nerifolia
Linn.) - these three taken together are called ksira traya.
I)udgha Varga (Group of Milks)
Milk of she elephant, rnare, cow, l-emalesheep, she goat,
she camel, she buffalo, she assand woman and the milky latexes
t'tt kakodumbera (.Ficus hispida Linn. f.) snuhi (Euphorbia
neriifolia Linn.) dugdhika (Euphorbia hitra Linn.), udumbara
(Ficus racernosaLinn.), arka (Calotropis gigantea R. Br. ex
Ait.), nyagrodha (Ficus bengalensisLinn.), asvattha (Ficus
ieligiosa l,inn.) and tilvaka (Symplocos racemosa Roxb.) - all
these teken together are called dugdha vargo.
Taila Varga (Group of Oils)
-{ri gfufr *qr u'fr{ffiEeq I
qarriqffirqrffifr$frildr{ tl
srilfti T6rq,rd firwi frmi^am I
3Tq'qFrk{EIFfr?(?dl gqtFkrdr( t l
q I
Gsry*orrrqrq rrrfi{Fr ffiE rr
( { . { . v 5 .l o . s R - \ s ? )
Kangunl, Katutumbi, Ghosa, kalera, Bilwaphala, Narikela,
KatuvErtaka, Siddhartha, Somaraji (Bakuci), Bhibhitaka, Atasi.
Bhaisajya kalpana vijiianam

Mahakali, Nimbab-rja,Tila, Aparnarga, DevadS(a, Tumburu,


Ankola, Dhattura,Bhallltaka,PalaSaare the plantswhich conrain
oil and can yield the oil which is extractedfrom them and used
in Rasa Knrma.
Govara (Cow Dung Powder)
In the out-door cow-shedthe dung gets dried up and
because of the pressure of the hooves of cattle it becomes
powder. This is called govare.
Dhanvantari bhaga (Share of the physician)
sTSfu*Fs rnrfrsw:
iTSIf TTqfTT:I
qi q?+dfirqr{rrq qfEfhFfHTqwarfr{
uafsstt+gnwi rlrrT:Trwiat: I I
(i€rdq5. 1.i )
If a physicianis employedto supervisethe preparationof
a recipe in the houseof a private individual,then in exchangeof
his free labour he is entitled to a share of the medicine. This
varies according to the nature of the recipe as follows:
Sl. No. Nature of preparation Supervising
Physician's
Share
ghrta, taila, preparations
l. Rasaoushadlties, ll2
2. Bhasma of metals,minerals,gems and jewels,
c[rna, Vataka Il7 th
3. Avalehya l/8 th
This shareof the physician is called Dhanvantari bhaga. If
the physician aspiresor actually takes more than his share, it is
consideredunethical or a professionalmisconduct.
Form of augadha kalpana (solid - vafi, semi solid -
avalehya,liquid - kasaya, p5naka and external
, applications - malahara kalpanas etc.)
By doing ausadha kalpana we can overcome the tikta,
kaqdya, etc. taste, which are usually unacceptedby patients.
Adharabhlttha siddhanthas of bhaisajya kalpana

Example '. Vasapatra kulka, Vu,sapatraswurase, is some what


difficult to consumeby the patient,where as same vasa if it is
processedin to crvalehyoform (v,asavalehya)can be taken by
the patients with high acceptancebecauseof its palatability,
sametime stabilityperiodalsowill be increasedfor that particular
drug product. Example '. Swurasa,Kalka should be taken
S a d h y o s e v a n o ( i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r p r e p a r a t i o n ) .W h e r e a s
avolehya preservationis one year.
For this purposethe physician should know about Bhaisajya
kalpana adharabh utha si ddhanthas. By knowing thesefundamental
principleonly the skill (relatedwith Ayurt'edicpharmaceurics)
of
the physicianincreases.
While doing different Kalpanas or formulae, we have to
follow certain dil'fcrentprinciples. Such principles are called
Bhuisajt'aKalpana AdharabhurhaSiddhanthas.
Depending upon the Rogibala (patient strengrh),Rogabala
(diseaseseverity),Prakruti (Constitution),Vayaha(Age), Satmya
(Tolerance), Sattva(nature),Deia (place),Kalct(time),Dosavastha
(deviateddo.sctsvato,ytittaetc), mode and route of administration
the physicianhas to selectivelychoosethe drug and preparethe
formulae.
E.g., in Jwara, to decreasethe Pitta Prabhava or daha llke
symptoms,we aresupposeto administerpravalapisli. But whereas
insannipatajv,arct,pravalabhasmais indicated.HereBhasmaand
Pisti are selectivelychosenin two differentconditionsbecauseof
theirpharmacoiogical effect,which is havingslightvariationbecause
of their change in the method of rnanufacturing.The Pisri is
considered as having more pittahara effect than bhnsma.
One medicine is supposeto be given in the form of Hima
Kalpana in summer season(GrTsmartu). But the same medicine
in same condition if the seasonis Saradrrr.r(Autumn) we have to
give in the form of Kwatha.
In Navctjwara,'themedicine should not be given in the form
of Kasaya (decoction) because Kasaya Rasa will make doqa
stambhana and does not make Amapacanam. Hence Usnajala
(Hot water) is indicated in such conditions. In Pittajwara tikta
Bhaiqajya kalpana vij iifrnant

rasa dravyas are snppose to be given. lf Jwara is associated


with Atisdra (loose motions) and Vantann(Vomting) to save the
patient's Agni and Grahalti tao, Curna ,Kalpanais indicated.
In the caseof Raktapitta Muncla Kalpanctis indicated,as a dietic
substance. lf jw,ura is associated with Agnimandhya
(Constipation)the specific diet indicated is laja, peya mixed
with specificmedicinaldrugs like Sunthietc.,if patientis having
daha and rrsna (thirst), then ksirapana is indicated.
Depending upon the above conditions Ausadha.scan be
given in any form, like Sw,urasa,Kalku, Kasat,a,Curna, Lehya
etc., dependingupon the necessity.This selectionwill be made
by following Yukti pramana by the physician. Similarly. the
diets like Peya, Yusa, Manda, ltilepi, Odhunu also can be
selectedaccordingto the condition,but the physician.Hence all
these fundamentalsare called Bhaisajl,a Kalpana Artharabhutha
Siddhantas.
Naming a Recipe
A recipe consists of several drugs. The name of the drug
appearingin the beginning of the recipe is used for naming the
recipe. This rule not with standingsomerecipeswhich are named
is generally followed differently.
Some compound preparationsprescribed fbr the treatment
of various ailments are provided with names.According to the
method adopted,thesenamescan be classified into the fbllowine
categories:
l. Based on the name of the person who discovered the
formula e.g. Cyavana-prdSa(Cikitsa l:l:62-74)
2. Basedon the nameof the importantdrug usede.g.Amalaka-
ghrta (CikifiA I:2:4-6)
3. Basedon the name of the drug enumeratedin the beginning
of the formula e.g. Harltaki-yoga (Cikitsa l:l-76)
4. Basedon the therapeuticeffect of the formula. e.g.Brrhhanr-
gwikA (Cikitsa 2:l:24-32)
5. Based on the dose of the formula e.g. Tikta-satpalaka
ghrta (Cikitsa 7 :140-143)
Adharablrutha siddhanthas of bhai;ajya kalpana 6l

6. Basedon the attributesof the drugsusedin the fonnula (cf.


above)
?. Basedon the numberand/orquantityof drugs usede.g. (l)
Astaiatorista (Cikitss 32-33) (2) Karhsa-harltakt
(Cikitsa 12: 5A-57) " 2 :
8. Based on the physical quality of the product. e.g.
(i Pinda taila (Cikitsa 29 123)
(ii) Pitaka-curna (Cikitsa 26: 196-197)
9. Based on the sirniles on the effect of the drug. e.g.
Gandhahcstl-namagada(Cikitsa 23: 65--l6)
10. Based on the method of preparatione.g'
(iS Ksaragada (Cikitsa 23 95-104)
(ii1 Sahasrapakabalu-raila (Cikitsa 29: ll9-120)
1 I . Based on the time of collection of the ingredients.e.g'
Pusyanuga-cun.ta(Cikitsa 30: 90-95)
Terms indicating the methods of preparation are usually
suffixed to thesenames.Terms llke Mahan andksudra indicating
major or minor nature of the preparation are also prefixed to
thesenames.

Importanceof rasa,gu4a,virya,
vipdka, karma and prabhava
rd rai Tdr *d fEqrq':vrffi q I
wqEf:qs frr€Fatd Fi g;dFdu,dq t r
{H: ffi:r
F{tqqTBffird q qqrT*{flr{flr tl
qr6ii qFil lr{lkfirfl:
?t?rruT: isqR I
: firtrd g gdi n
i rrrr: irkrvrrFlrrr{Fil qR tg + |
tlmmmffi :T A E3g:qfrwrqll
i rm: firtrvFrqTrqqFil qF( iS * |
*Erilurugmda li t6fi{irlf{q: tl
62 Bhaisajya kalpana vijiianam

i rm: vAq{Fr<Trrdfu qR tS i r
ffiq a t eg: q'ri rqrrr
. .f q . q . q . q q q - q \ e Y )
(1IIC
Eventhough drugs have got some active principles with
which they work, they have some other fractions too. Which
counteracttheir bad effects,if any. ThereforeAt'urvela aclvocates
that drug should be used as a whole so that the desiredeffects
may be had without any side effects. At,urverlapropounclsthe
principles of rase, guryo, vrtTct, vipaka, ksrma and prabhai,a
and attributesthe actionsof a drug to anV one of the rastt - t,ipuku
- gurya - vrrya - prabhava.
Generally,the body is nourishedby ahara and the disease
is treatedby Ausadha.The dieteticand rnedicinalsubstances are
composed of the Puficamahabhutas(five proto elements). The
healthor diseaseis known by certainnormalandabnormalfunctions
of the closcts in the body. If the symptomsindicatethe increaseof
a c o ; a , w e h a v ef o d e c r e a siet b y g i v i n gd r u g s w
, h i c ha r ed i s s i m i l a r
to that riosa in its predominantpaficabhautika constitutron. If
the dosa is decreased,it is to be increasedby giving substances
having predominant paiicctbhautika constitution similar to that
of the decreaseddosa. The combrnation of the paficabhuta,s
gives rise to six rasas.
Rasa
DeJinition :
Rasa is the object of the gustatory sense- organ which is
locatedin the tongue. But it is not only perceptionof taste but
is an indicator of the composition, properties and probable
action of the drug.
Apart from the above, in Ayurveda the word rasc denores
parada (Mercury), swarasa(expressed juice of a plant) andthe rasa
(first of the dhatus) in the body.
Number of Rasas :
There are six rasas each composed of two Mahabhutas,
suchas:
AdhArabhutha siddhantltas o.l' bhaisajya kalpana 63

l. Matlhuro Prthvi + Jala


2. Ania Prthvi + Tejas
3. Llvana Jaia + Tejas
4. Katu Vayu + Tejas
5. Tiktu Vayu + Akasa
6. Kasdt,cr Vayu + Prthvi
Regarding compositiott of lr.ntlaand lavana rascs there is
differenceof opi ni on betweenCa rukq andSu3r utc. The composition
gi.,zen
aboveis as proposedby Carakrr,while accordingto Suiruta,
amlu ts composedol Jctla+ f ejtts and lavona of Prthvi + Tejas.
Action of ra:os :
Acticrnsof rnsa.smey be studiedon the level of r/osa,s,dhatus,
nrulas,agni and srote.t.
Ac'tictnon dhatus '.
Muclhura,untla andlavana rasastncreasekapha and decrease
vata, on the contrary, katu, tikta and kosuya increase vata and
decreasekapha. The agnet,a rasas (katu, Amle and lavana) and
seumy,aru,sas(madhuru, tiktu and kasaya) increaseand decrease
pitla respectively.
Order o.f athniristraticrt o.f rosas '.
A. In medicine:
In treatmentof diseasesresas should be used in a definite
order according to doso as follows
DOSA I II III
VATA Lavana Amla Madhura
PITTA Tikta Madhura Kasaya
KAPHA Katu TikLa Kasaya
B. In diet :
I II III
' f i k ta -
Madhura Amla - Lavana Katu - Kasirya
In meals, one should start with madhura and finish with
.katu - tikta - kasaya. In between amla and lavana should be
taken. But if the food is excessivelyspicy, the meal should end
64 Bhaisajya kalpani vij iiancnt

with medhura.
Sl. No. Rasa Froperties
l. Madhura Snigdha, Sttct,Guru
2. Amla Snigelhu,(J.sncr,Guru
3. Lavantt Snigciha. [Jsne, (iuru
4. Katu Ruk.su,{}sna, Lughu
5. Tikta Ruksa,ftta, Laghu
6. Kasuya Ruktu, Srtct,Laghu
Guna
Definition :
Guna is that which is located in dravt,tt inherently is
causativeagent and devoid of property and action.
It means that guna itseif has no action but it qriaiifiesthe
dravya for such action.
Number ond classificcttion :
Thereareforty anegunasin all which can be groupedinto four
categories:
1. Gurvadi (Physico- Pharmacological) 20
2. Paradi(Pharmacological) i0
3. Visista(Specific) 0-5
4. Adhyatmika(Psychological) 06
Iotal : 41
Gurvadi gunas :
They are twenty in number and in ten pairs as follows.
1 Guru Laghu
2. Manda Trksna
3. Sita Uq+a
4. Snigdha Rliksa
5. Slaksna Khara
6. Sandra Drava
Adhurabhutha siddhdnthas of bhaisajya kalpana
65

7. Mrdu Kathina
8. Sthira Sara
9. Su k s m a Sthila
10. ViSada Picchila
In each pair the two partners having opposite characters
balanceeach other. For example,if there is excessof guru
gu(ro,
laghu guna dravyasshourdbe administeredto countera;t
it. iirese
guryasare again manifestationof mahabhutaswhich
are indicated
by them (gunas).As gunas cannotbe isolatedin pure and
absffact
for the dravya, the use of gunas will always have to be
considered
in the form of dravya. For this it is necessaryto know the
dravyas
in termsof gunas.
Virya
Definitiort:
Wry-ctis the potency by which the drug acts.Wrya is
more
dominantin drugswhile rasais nroredominantin dietetic
substances.
it is observedthat there is a principre in drug which
is
responsiblefor its action and in the absenceof which
thereis no
action'It is seenin dairy practicethat a particularpart
of the plant
is usedand not all parts at random.The drug also loses
action after
a certainperiod or on defectiveprocessing.All this led to
formation
of a hypothesisregardingvirya.
Effect of vlrya :
Effectson dosas
l. Sln Pacifiespitta
aggravateskapha and vdta
2. U$ryo Pacifieskapha andvata, aggravates
pitta.
Vip5ka
Definition:
vipaka is the transformed state of ingested substance
after
digestion.This is also calredNistapakaasopposedto awasthapdka
(stages of digestion) or prapaka (initial iiansformation).
It is said to take place at the time of division of rasa
and
5BK
Bhaiqajya kalPond vijfidnam

as
mala alter digestion is completed.caraka takes three vipakas
katu stand for
madhura, amla and katu. MacJhura,amla and
kapha, pitta and vdta respectively'
EfJ'ectof viPakas :
According to Caraka :
VIPAKA GUNA DOSA
Ivladhura Snigdha, Guru KaPha increasing
Amla Snigdhc, Laghu Pira increasing
katu Ruksa,Laghu lzaraincreasing

Accordingto SuSruta
VIPAKA DOSA
Guru Kapha increasing
\' lttu pitt a decreasing
Laghu \/ata pitta increasing
Kapha decreasing
Karma
Definition:
Karmclisthatwhichcausessamyoga(conjunction)arrdvibhaga
(disjunction)irrespectiveofanyotherfactorandislocatedin
on
,troiyo. In the contextol pharmacologl'thisrelatesto acrion
orgunr, rlosas,dhatus andntalaswhich rs requiredfor homeostasis
of the person.
Inotherwords,karmaistheresponseofthelivingtissueto
dravya.
Theory of drug action :
Themodeofactionofthedrugsisbasedonthetheoryof
five
pafica mahabhuta. As said above, the body is composedof
mahabhuta.rand similar is the composition of drugs' Drugs
by
when used combine with the selective mahabhuta and
altering its quantity and quality produce their action by further
influencingtherespectivedo;as,dhatusandmalasaccordingly'
lock
This is a sort of selectivemechanismmore or less like the
andkeytheorybaserl.onstructurefunctionrelationship.Asin
Adharabhutha siddhdntttasof bhaiqajyakalpand
67

the living body pafica mahabhura is represented by


tridosa
there is a tradition of describing the action in terms
of dosas
instead of mahabhutas.The bhautika state of drugs
on the other
side is indicated by rasa.
For instance,if madhura rasa Qtarthivapya)is administered
it would thereby increase trte kaphc dosa, dhatus rike
rasa,
mdrhsa, medas, majj, and iukra and maras rike stoor and
urine
which have predominanceof prthvi and,apdhatus. Reverse
wilr
be the effect on administration af ilktu rasa.
Prabhava
Definition :
The specific potency of a cirug is known as prabhdva.
Nature of prabhava:
It is seenthat two drugs though having similar rasa, vipaka
and vlrya differ in action. This difference in action is owing
to
the specific chemical (bhautika) composition of the drug
and irs
action can not be explained by generalrule on the basis of
rasa,
vipaka and vrrya. For instancedanti and citraka are similar
in
rasa (katu'), vipaka (katu) and vrrya (uqrla)-but the former
is
purgative in action while the latter is not.
on the side of body responsethe drugs action on specific
tissue,organ or disorderis said to haveprabhavaand the
action is
directedto diseaseand not towardsdosas. For instancecardiotonic
action of arjuna, antherminticactivity of vidanga,antitoxic
effect
of Sinsa are said to be due to prabhdva.
Bhaisajya Mdrga (Route of medicine administration)
Drrugis administeredthrough the channelsof skin, mouth,
eye, e&, nose,anus,urethra,and vagina. The channelis selected
according to the location of dosa.

M5tra (dose)
Therapeutical propriety depends upon the dose (of the
therapy) and time (of administration). Success of treatment
depends upon the (observanceof this) propriety. A physician,
proficient in the principres of propriety is always superior
to
those who are acquaintedwith the drugs only.
68 BhaiqaiYakalPana vijfianam

while administrationof medicinesnmtra has to be decided


by observing the following aspects.
consideration of dosa is very important to achieve the
desired result becauseif the dose is too large it may cause
harmful side effects, and if it is too small it would not be
effective. Hence the dose may be so regulatedthat the drug may
produce the desired effects but may mot harm the tissues. It
ihoutd be decided according to the condition of deseaseand the
patient.
It is not possibleto prescribea fixed dose of medicines
(uniformlyfor all patients).Dosageof medicinesvariesdepending
upon the following factors:
l. Kata or time including the seasonwhen the drug is
administered.
2. Agni or the power of digestionof the patient'
3. Vayasor the age of the Patient.
4. Bala or the strengthof the patient.
5. Prakrti or the physical constitutionof the patient'
6. Dosaor the natureof the dosainvolved in the cousationof
the disease.
7 . DeSaor the natureof the desainvolved in the habitationof
the patient.
Sarngadhara has suggesteddosagesaccording to age and
preparations.According to him for one month old age child the
dose should be on ratti (125 mg) which is to be given in the form
of confection with milk. honey sugar and ghee.The dose is to be
increased at the rate of one Ratti per month upto one year'
Thereafter, the increase should be maintained upto the age of
seventy, then decreasegradually in regressivemanner. This is
for powders as well as pastesbut in the cases of decoction it
should be four times.
According to preparation,the dose has been suggestedas
follows:
1. Swarasa - 1/2 PaIa
AdharabhAtha siddhdnthas of bhaisajya kalpana 69

2. Kalka - I Karsct
3. Curna - I Karsa
4. Kwathct -l pula
5. Phanta -2 Palas
6. Ghrta -I karsa
7. Taila - I Karse
B. Hima - I Pctla
9. Awaleha - ! Pala
I 0. Asava-Arista -2 Karsct
I I. Gutika -I Karsa per day
12. Rasausadhas - l/2 Rqtti
In kalpas of single drugs particularly for rasayanc use, a
specificdosageis prescribedin which at firsr the doseis increased
in gradualprogressivemannerand then decreasedin the samebut
regressivemanner.The dosageof Bhalletaka Rasayanahas been
fixed in this way.
Posology
The word posology is derived from the Greek word posos
means how much and Logos means science.That means it is a
branch of medical sciencewhich deals with dosesor quantity of
drugs which can be. administered to produce the requirecl
pharmacologicalactions.
The doseof a drug cannotbe fixed rigidly becausethereare so
many factors which influence the dosese.g. age, condition of the
p&tient,severity ofthe diseasenaturaltolerance,acquiredtolerance,
idiosyncrasy,routeof administration,degreeof absorptionandrate
of elimination. The doseslisted below are not binding upon the
prescriber,consideringthe abovementionedfactorshe can change
the doses accordingly.
Doses proportionate to age
Calculation of child dose :
The dose for a child from adult dose can be calculated by
any one of the following formulas:
Bhaiqajya kalpand vijfidnam

Young'sRule :
Age in years
= ProDortionof atlultdose.
A g e i n y e a r s+ 1 2
e.g. If the adult dose is 60mg and the age of the child is 4
years. f
The dose for the child will be

441
4+12 16 4
I
=.;X60=15mg.
4

D i l l i n g ' sR u l e :
Age in years
= Prooortionof adult dose.
20
e.g.If theadultdoseis 60mg. andtheageof thechildis 6 years.
The dose for the child will be
63
=-=-
20 r0
3
= *60= 18 mg.
l0
Becauseof quicker and easy calculationsDrlling's rule is
consideredbetter.
Doses Proportionate ta surface area :
The calculationof child doseaccordingto surfaceareais more
appropriaterather than the methodsbasedon age. This method is
more complicatedthan the methodsbasedon age but tables have
been provided by which dose for a child can be calculated. This
method is based on the follorving formula:
Surface area of child x 100
= Percentageof adult dose.
Surface area of adult
Adharabhuthu siddhdnthasof bhai;ajya kalpana 77

Table :
Age Percentageof adult dose
One month 10
2 months l -5
4 months 20
I year 25
3 years 35
5 years 40
10 years 60
12 years 75
16 years 90
Mdna
Regarding mana detailed information is mentioned under
the chapter of mana paribhdsct.
Mdtra (Dosage of Recipes)
It is not possible to prescribe a fixed dose of medicines
[uniformly for all patients]. Dosageof medicinesvariesdepending
upon the following factors
1. Kala or time including the season when the drug is
administered.
2. Agni or the power of digestionof the patient.
3. Vayasor the age of the patient.
4. Bala or the strengthof the patient.
5. Prakrti or the physical constitutionof the patient.
6. Dosa or the natureof the daqa involved in the causationof
the disease.
7 . Deia or the nature of the habitation of the patient
A suitable dose of a medicine is to be fixed' [by the
physicianl keeping the above points in view.
Small Dose
The physician, aquaintedwith tradition, should administer
1' Bhaisajya kalpand vijiianam

mrdu (less potent) medicinesin smaller dosesto the following


categoriesof patients:
1. Thosewho are emaciated;
2. Thosewho have lesspower of digestion;
3. Thosewho despise(do not like taking) medicines;
4. Young children;
5. Pregnantwomen;and
6. Old people.
Large Dose
To strong persons having more of aggravatedtlosa,s,the
physicianshouldadministerstrongmedicinesin a large dose.
Anup[na
sw *d qA {qq' qrotfqrs{fr r
sqqr;i ildq$ Hur nffr sirq{ rr
(YTI.q. q. q.q)
sr{qFi ffii Tfi ilfq-ffS qmq{ |
gtd qqfd anErflgi q qFTrqq | |
(q.q. e\e.t?q)
slqrdlttqqdrJur{ lrttgs,- sr{qFi Tffi.
ffi, silfrfr, {E?Tfr,qqffrrqfirHffi,
t.frffisrEqfd, ew{i€td fiT{fr, rTr{ilnqr(qfr,
dEqfr, Erqfr, @i
qEndqqrqffi r
(q. ri. $ ?\e/it\e)
sr{qFi6te1wf Efri Eqfti {6rff.ilr{ |
qtl
(3T.€. q /.\ R)
Sarngadhara concept regarding importance of anupdna..
Just as oil spreadsquickly on water so also medicines spread
inside the body by the'strength of the vehicle.
Adharabhuthu siddhanthas of bhaisajya kalpand

The word meaning "Anupana" is that a drink taken with or


after medicineintakeand also it is consideredas "a fluid vehicle for
medicine".
Anupclna is a very important factor which helps in
absorption, assimilation as well as efficacy of the drug. This
should be decided according to the constitution of the patient as
well as condition of dosa. In vataja conditions snigdha - utrya;
in pittaja conditions madhura - SIta and in kaphaja, riksa - usna
anupana is recommended.
The main vehicles used are cold and worm water, honey,
ghee, butter, sugar, jaggery, milk etc. The pharmaceutical
preparationsllkeswarasa,phanta,kwatha,hima, arka etc. are also
usedasvehicles.One drug particularlyrasausadhi,may be usedin
variousdiseases with differentvehicles.For instance, makarctdhwaja
may be useful in fever (jwara) when given with Ardraka swarasa
(ginger juice) and in internal hemorrhages (Raktapitta) with vasa
swarasa.
Usually anupanacanbe selectedon the basisof drug,patient,
d i s e a s el i k e w i s e .
I. According to drug - Such as warm water after ghrta.
2. According to patient - Such as alcoholic preparations
for debilitatedand honey water for obese.
3. According to disease - Such as milk in Raktapitta,
Ardraka in jwara.
Caraka Concept
While explaining the propertiesof Anupdnd, Scholar caraka
mentionedthatAnupdnadrinks shouldhavethe propertiesopposite
to thoseof the food taken.But at the sametirne, suchdrinks should
not be harmful to the tissue elements (dhathus) of the body.
Caraka mentioned that Jalam (water) as well as the eighty four
varieties of the Asavas (alcoholic) preparationsas anupdnis and
also advised that depending upon their wholesomeness,oniy
useful anupdna to .be selected according to the condition and
also it is mentioned that according to the dosa aggravation
specific quantities of anupdnd choice is mentioned. viz.
74 Bhaiqajya kalpand vijfidnam

Dopa Properties
Vata Snigdha, Usna
Pitta Madhura, Srta
Kapha Rtksa, Usna
Anupand Karma (Action)

_ Tarpayati (bring about refreshment), Prenayati (Pleasure),


Urjayati (energy), brumhayati (nourishment), Paryapti
(spreads), bhukta mavasddayati (it pushes food downward),
a n n a s a n g h a t a m( b r e a k d o w n s f o o d i n t o s m a l l p a r t i c l e s ) ,
mdrdhavam (softening), Kledayati, jarayati (digesting), Sukha
parindmitamasuvyvayitam (proper assimilation ctnd instant
diffusion of the food).
Su6rutha concept
Sufrutha says that after the intake of food the drink (liquid)
which is taken is called as Anuodna.
AnupEnE Dravyas
Suirutha mentioned that Sitajalc, usnajala, asava, dravya
pradhana madhya, yusa, phaldmla, dhdnyamla, milk, mdrhsarasa
(essenceof meat) and for whoom the anupdnawhich is useful and
suitable, that can be administeredto them in prescribed dose.
Vyad hl ( di sease),K a Ia (time), d r avya ( drug), type of the food taken,
all theseshouldbe takeninto considerationandby usingintelligence
of physician anupanahas to be selectedand administered.
The best anupana is that Mahendra jal or antariksajal
(water collected from rain directly and preserved in clean
vessel). SuSruta also mentioned specific anuplnas for specific
diseaseconditions.Water may be taken in absenceof the proper
anupdna as after-drank in all cases.That kind of water is whole
some to a person, to which he is habituatedfrom his birth. Hot
water is good in diseaseswhich have their origin in the vitiated
blood, or in the derangedpitta.
Extra anupana actions mentioned by su6ruta
Recanam, Vrsyam, dosasanghatabedanam,
Srama klarna-
haram, Pipasaharam,Varnakaram.
Adharabhutha siddhdnthasof bhaiqajyakalpand 75

Time of anupana administration


The anupdnc which is taken before meals causesemaciation
to body. If anup7nn is taken in the middle of the food it
maintains physiological condition of the body. The anupana
which is taken after food, nourishes and strengthensbody.
Saranghadhara concept
Srsrarlghartharan,entioned dose and mode of action of
anupana, in this way. if we are administering anupana along
with curnu, avaleha, gutika, kalka, anupana dose should be
three, two and one pala respectivelyfor diseasesof vata, pitta
and kaphc. After administration of medicine with anupdna, as
a drop of taila foil) spreads in water very quickly, like that
anupana makes the medicine to spreadall over the body rapidly.
According to Rujanighuntu.onupana is a part of medicine
which is liquid form. After intake of medicine anupanashould be
administeredwith sometime gap.Antrpanafacilitatesgooddigestion
d u r i n gn i g h t .
According to Vogaratnakara, the ausadhi or medicine
administeredto treat the disease,if gi.renalong with anupdnaby
intelligent '.'aid:-ct,that medicine by having strength (bala) of
anupana definitely destroyor curesthat specific disease.
In RasataranginiLheword sahapctnais mentioned.Sahapana
means,the liquid form which is takenwith main drug and which can
facilitates easy disintegration, easy absorption and uniform
distribution of medicine all over the body hencethat liquid form is
called Sahapanu.
According t(, resatarangini tvith main drug sahapdna and
anupanu also mentitinedfor administrationat one time.
Restrictions has to be followed after intake of anupdna
Long walk, a lengthy conversation,singing, sleeping and
reading.
AuSadha sevana kila (Time of Medicine Administration)
r Esrqrfrilfrttrdqsi dfq?it Erqfr,trR
*ffiqvrqrqqrur{ [
76 Bhai;ajya kalpana vijfidnam

iclEr-srq* sr+qdr q?errfrqdrr*


qqifirFliR$rm Tn5{q TSI€: srrRT
TRTFilifirfrr q r
( 3 T{ i..q . R r . q r )
The following times have been prescribedfor administration
of drugs :
Abhakta (on empty stomach)
The drug exerts strongestaction if given on empty stomach
hence this should be prescnbed for strong persons and in
disorders due to aggravation of kapha.
Prigbhakta (before meal)
This is useful in diseasesdue to Apana Vayu and also for
toning up the intestinal muscles.
Madhyabhakta (during meal)
This is prescribed in diseasesdue to Samana Vayu and
gastrointestinaldi sturbancesparticularlypai tt ika ones.
Adhobhakta (After meals)
After lunch the drug shouldbe given in diseasesof VyanaVayu
and after dinner in those of Udana Vayu. This strengthensthe
upper part of the body, is used in its disorders particularly
Kaphaja ones and also for Brmhana.
Samabhakta (Mixed with food)
This is prescribed in children, delicate persons and those
having aversion to medicines, anorexia and in diseasesspread
all over the body.
Antarabhakta (Between meals in day)
The drug is taken first afternoon after the midday meal is
digestedand sufficiently before the eveningmeal. This is used in
personshaving good digestionand in disordersdue to VyanaVayu.
The same is applicable in relation to meal in night.
Samudga (Before as well as after meals)
Avaleha, Cirna etc. are used along with light meal in
AdhArabhutha siddhdntltasof bhaiqajyakalpand 77

hiccough,trembling,convulsions,disordersof thigh, upper and


lower parts of the bodY.
Muhuh Muhuh (Off and on)
It does not matter whether the patient has taken meal or is
empty stomach,the drug is to be given off and on as in casesof
dyspnoea,cough, hiccough, thirst, vomiting and poisoning.
Sagrasa (with first morsel)
The medicine is mixed with the first morsel of rneal and is
taken as such.Curna, Vatika,Leha etc.are usedin this way for the
purpose of ftpana and Vaiikarana. Hingwastaka Curna is well
known example of this. This is useful in disordersof Prana
Vayu.
Grdsantara (Between morsels)
This is useful in disorders of Prar.taVdyu, particularly in
heart disease.
Nisa (In the night at bed'time)
This is useful in diseaseof head, mouth, cye, ear, nose and
throat. Vamana andDhima are used in this way.
Sarngadhara has made it concise in five including all the
subdivisionsin the same.

Aq: qshq:crd trwl5d {uTrtl


f6F(qfrq} wt, aw fr+sqrqi rr
rrrrfr+ dmi q, gg$EIIfr,il{firRt t t
(vn.{. q. t.?)
Medicinesaregenerallyadministeredin the morning specially
so the kasayas(decoctions).Sunrise(morning),the time of midday
meal night meal, frequent intervals, and bed-time : theseare the five
suitabletimes for the administrationof medicines.
Kalpands and Their saviryate avadhi
(Formulaeand their ExPirYDates)
The preservation and storage procedures described in
Ayurvedic pharmaceutics are also basedon scientific lines. The fact
that the c-urryas(powders), tailas (oils), ghritas (ghee) etc.
Bhaiqajya kalpana vijfidnam

become unstable after the respective pericr,Js.The ever-lasting


shelf-life of Asctvasand Aristas mentioned in the texts could tre
very well relatedto the alcoholicmedium of thesepreparations.

TUTTT .r{ a'{qftEr{ |


ITFTETTTfiStf
Tgf tffifo+qrEqr( r I
dffii Tffid a*t Erilrirnr{ I
fr*r: qfd*dTalsgqfurkflTEr tl
efrqc*qqrqr; qFffiafrroTrcq 1
gtun: q1f*SFT sndrfi flir-d,l{€r: | |
qr+r5b Tqio{ rrrhrffi rq*q r
srcurrfr T{giir ffiild i(ga; qg
( $ T .q . q . q - \ q - \ Y )
stalility Period of different categoriesof preparations according
to S6rangadhara
Generally,Ausadhis(medicinalrecipes)lose their potency
after one yearof their Preparation, curnasafter two months,gutikas
andlehvasafter oneye ar,ghrtas andtailaafter l6 months (according
to some scholars4 months), recipes laugh paka which will be
digested easily and quickly, become poor in action after one
year. While dsavas and dhatus (metai anrJ mineral recipes)
become more potent as they become old. If in a prescriptron,
drugs included are inappropriate for the diseases,the wise
Physician should omit them, and can include drugs suitable for
the diseaseeven though not mentioned in the prescription.
As it is mentioned that, different time duration periods for
differentforms of medicineby ancientauthenticAy urvedicscholars
having a very good scientiflc rationalbackground.As they mentioned
the PaficctvidhaKasayas, becausethey contains water content
abundantly and also carbohydrateswithin them, henceorganisms
will reach the substancevery quickly. Becauseof Glucose,
carbohydrateand water content,the medicine also wiil get spoiled
very shortly.. So that, the time period mentioned to these
formulations is very short. whereas curnas are given within two
months time, becausethey were made with dried form of herbal
AdhArabhutha siddhdnthas of bhaiqajya kalpana

remedies. But vatl is given shelf life time nrore, becausethe


surface area of the vati will be reduced markedly than that of
curna. Becauseof lesser su."faceareait will be exposedto outer
atmosphere in lesser extent than the c-urna form. So that its
expiry period was explained as one year.
Texts of Ayurveda recommendedfor Ausadha and Ahara
kalpana's and their Savirvata avadhi (Diet and medicinal
.formulae and their expiry dates, i.e., the period for which they
can retain potency). The following are intended to serve as
guidelines for the purpose..
I Swarasa Sadhyosevana
a
Kalka Sadhyosevaha
3 . Basti kalpana Should be used immediately after
preparation
A
T. Manda kalpana Sadhltosevana
5 . Tandulodak(t Sadhyosevana
6 . Maritsa Rasa Sadhyosevana
7 . Pamathya Sadhyosevana
8 . Kriara Sadhyosevana
9 . Peya Sadhyosevana
1 0 . Kambalika Sadhyosevana
1 1 . Raga Sadhyosevana
1 2 . Sadava Sadhyosevana
1 3 . Vatyodana Sadhyosevana
1 4 . Sikta Sadhyosevana
1 5 . Vesawara Sadhyosevana
1 6 . Udasvita Sadhyosevana
r 7 . Mathitha Sadhyosevana
1 8 . Katvara Sadhyosevana
1 9 . Sankadrava Sadhyosevana
2 0 . Aschyotana Sadhyosevana
2 t . Vidalaka Sadhyosevana
Bhaiqajya kalpana vijiianam

22. Tarpak Sadhyosevana


23. Putapaka Swerasa Sadhyosevctna
24. Kavala Sadhyosevana
25. Gandusa Sadhyosevana
26. Upnaha Kalpana Till it is in hot state after the
preparation.
27. Kwatha Kalpana With in 4 yamas( l2 hours)
28. Ksrra Paka Kalpana I day (shouldbe usedin sukosna
stateonly)
29. Anna Kalpana I day (shouldbe used in sukosna
(Bhakta Kalpana) stateonly)
30. Yavagu Kalpana I day (should be used in sukosna
stateonly)
31. PanukaKalpana I day
32. Mantha Kulpctna I day
33. Udaka Kalpana I day
34. Takra Kalpana I day
35. Peya Kalpand I day
36. Yusa Kalpana 1 day (shouldbe usedin sukosna
(Akruta yisa, Kruta yu+a) stateonly)
37. Vilepi Kalpana I day
38. Dadhi Kalpana 1 day
39. Dadhi Kurchika Kalpana I day
40. Lepa Kalpana Prepared lepafor 1 day
41. Laksa Rasa Kalpand 7 days
42. Saktu Kalpana I Month
43. Khanda Kalpana I - 4 months
44. C-urnaKalpana 2 months (If it is nicely packed,
kept in good condition, can stay
upto I year)
45. Malahara Kalpana 2 months (If it is nicely packed,
AdhArabhhthA siddhsnthas of bhaisajya kalpand 8l

kept in good condition,can stay


upto I year)
46. Paka Kalpana 2 - 4 months
47. Dhumrapana Kalpana 4 months
48. Sarkara Kalpuna 4 months (If it is nicely packed,
k e p t i n g o o d c o n d i t i o n ,c a n s t a y
upto I year)
49. Ksara Sutra 4 - 6 months
50. SnehaKalpana 4 months (According to some
(Ghrta & Taila) scholarsl6 months)
51. DhltpanaKalpana 6 months(can staytill the volatile
principlesand smell is lost)
52. Amla snndhana
u. Arnala 6 months
b. Dhanyamla 6 months
c. Sukta 6 months
d. Kanjika 6 months
e. TusodakaDried herbs 6 months
53. Anjana Kalpana 1 year
54. Arka Kalpand I year
55. Ghana Sattva Kalpana I year
56. Masi Kalpand 1 year
57. RasakriyaKalpana I year
58. Lavana Kalpana 1 year
59. Varti Kalpana I year
60. KaqyaAusadi I year
sattva
6l . Guggulu Kalpana I year
62. Kqara Kalpana lyear-5years
63. Vati Kalpana I year (If it is nicely packed,kept
in good condition, can stay more
than I year)
6BK
Bhaisajya kalp and vij iianam

64. Kumbha Ghrta . 100 Years


(the ghrta kept in earthen
pot and called Ptrrana
ghrta)
65. Ayaskrti Kalpana Older then better
66. Asaro - Arista Kalpana Older then better
67 . Parpati Kalpana Older then better
68. Bhasma Kalpana Older then better
69. Pottali Kalpana Older then better
70. Madya Kalpana Older then better
7 l. Khanija sattva Older then better

Ausadira Sarirraksana Vidhi


(Guidelines for the storage of rnedicines)

When medicineis preparedby following all the restrictions


if it is not storedproperly it will get spoiledhenceAcart'qshave
mentionedthe qualities of the room in which ausadhiesare to be
stored. The room should have entrancetowards East or North,
should have free aeration, ventilation, there should be Gandha,
Dhupa, Balikarmas,conductedfrequently.
As a rule, all the medicineswhich are prcparedshouldbe kept
in air tight glassjars or porcelainjars anCshouldnot be exposedto
light or air. Medicines ar'e more difficult to preserve than to
manufacture.If not storedby groups,they are hard to locate when
needed,andto know what is availableandwhat is not. The following
guidelines,if followed, prevent such confusions.If the medicines
are arrangedproperly, there will also be an attraction'
1. Storehouseshouldface the road,but not far from it, on high
ground.
2. It shouldbe spaciotts,with high ceiling and well ventilated.
3. It should have shelvesand cupboardsfor all medicines.
4. Cupboardsshould have individual locking arrangements.
5. Medicines should be kept off the floor.
Adharabhlttha siddhanthasof bhaiqajyakalpand 83

6. Medicines should be kept in clean containerspreferably


of glass, all containersproperly labelled, closed, sealed and
wrapped.
7, Leave two-finger space between containers for easy
handling.
8. It will be inconvenientto keep them in more than two
rows on a shelf.
9. Labelsshouldbe towardsthe front, with biggercontainers
at the rear and smaller ones in front, so that all labels are visible.
10. It will no doubt be a precautionto have labels on the
- containerand wrappers.
ll. Poisonousitems should be storedseparately,the word
Poison being written on them in blue or red ink in the Mother
tongue and English, and stored with due care.
12. Inspect daily to see that labels are not damaged,
contents have not gone bad and lids are not open.
13. Remove any spoilt product then and there, and find
suitable remedy for any other defect. This should never be
defe rred.
14. Burn a stove or candle in the storehouseduring rainy
, and cold seasonsfor warmth. The secondfloor is preferred for
storage during these seasons.
15. Drizzle, dew, cold and moisture are harmful to
medicines;so is direct sunlight in many cases.
16. Different groups of medicinesmust be storedin separate
roomsor shelves.
17.Aristas must be held in speciallystrongbottlesaway from
other items due to the risk of the bottles bursting.
18. Oils are best kept in chiira porcelainjars properly closed
and taken into bottles only when necessary.
19. Pills must be exposedto the sun once every week in their
containers. Those dried in shade must be covered with a thin
cloth during such exposure.
20. Ghrtas are also to be stored like oils, but in wide-
84 Bhaiqajya kalpana vijiianam

m o u t h c c il a r s .
21. Powdersshould be packed in bottleswhen hot and the
boitles exposedto sun weeklY.
bottles. Those
22. Tailas shouldbe kept in glass-stoppered
with strong scent or potency shculd be seaiedrvitlt rvax or lac'
23. Additives are to be kept in a secure place in glass
containers,properly sealedwith wtrx.
2 4 . M e t a l c o n t a i n e r sd e m a n d s o m e c a u t i o n . G l a s s a n d
China containersare acceptablein all cases.
25. Storehouseshould always be under lock and ke-"".
26. Specialattentionis to be paid to keep the stcre-house
and surroundingsscrupuiouslyclean.
Ausadha Sarirraksana Vidhi According to Modern
Pharmaceutics
Eventhoughutmost care rnight have been taken durine the
formulation of any preparation,but if it is not preservedand
packagedproperly the entirepurposegetsdefeated.Hence all the
measurementsto be taken to increasethe stability period of
pharmaceuticalproducts, by utilizing proper stabilizers.The
medicineshas to be packedproperly.
Stability or expiry date or shelf life of medicine
Stability of a pharrnaceuticalproduct rnay be defined as the
capability of a particularformulation in a specific containerto
remainwithin the physicai,chemical,microbiological,therapeutic
andtoxicologicalspecifications.The substances which areusedto
controlthesestabilitiesareknown asstabilizers.The nlostirnportant
stabilizersare the antioxidantsand preservatives.
Antioxidants
which is addedto a pharmaceutical
An antioxidatttis a substance
formulation to prevent the oxidative degradationof the drug. The
antioxidantshavegreataffinity for oxygenand when they are added
to formulation they compete for it affording protection to other
oxygen sensitive drugs. An idea! antioxidant should be stable
and effective against a wide range of pH, colourless,nontoxic,
A,dhsrabhutha siddhanthas of bhaisajya kalpana 85

n o n i r r i t a n t . t h e r m o s t a b l ea n d c o m p a t i b l e w i t h f o r m u l a t i o n
ingredientsand packaging material. Some of the cornmonly
usedantioxidantsare sodium bisulphate,sodiummetabisulphate,
S o d i u m t h i o s u l p h a t e , a s c o r b i c a c i d . a s ; c o r b y lp a l m i t a t e
h y d r o q u i n o n e ,p r o p y l g a l l a t e , b u t y l a t e d h y d r o x y t o l u e n e ,
butylated hydroxyanisoleand tocopherols.
Preservatives
A Preservative is a substancewhich is added to
pharmaceuticaiformulaticnsto preventor inhibit the growth of
micro-organismsin the preparations. They are added to all
formulationswhich are to be storedfor long periodsof time and
the ingredientsof which supporrmicrobialgrowth. The emulsions
and suspensions(Eg. panuka, iurkara, kv,ath.a, etc.) containing
water and carbohydratesas emulsifying and suspendingagents
r e s p e c t i v e l y .m u s t b e s u i t a b l y p r e s e r v e db e c a u s ew a t e r a n d
carbohydrates provide very good medium for the multiplication
of bacteriasand molds.
A p r e s e r v a i i v ei s u n n e c e s s a r yi n m u l t i d o s e c o n t a i n e r s
p r e p a r e d b y h e a t i n g w i t h b a c t e r i c i d eb e c a u s et h e y a l r e a d y
containa lethal substance, nor thev are necessaryin preparations
which contain medicamentshaving bactericidalproperties.
Choice of Preservatives
T h e P r e s e r v a t i v es e l e c t e d s h o u l d h a v e t h e f o l l o w i n e
properties:
L It should be effective against a wide range of micro-
organisms.
2. it should be compatible with other ingredientsof the
1-ormulation.
3. It shouldbe solublein aquecus
phasewhenusedin emulsions.
4. It shouldbe nontoxic.
5. It shouid be free from odour and taste.
6. It shouldpreservethe preparationand remain stablefor the
shelf life of the product.
. No single preservativepossessall the quaiities therefore it
becomes necessary to use a combination of preservatives to
Bhaiqajya kalpana vij iianam

prevent the growth of micro-organisms. The most commonly


used preservativesare as follows:
c/c
1. Benzoic acid and sodium benzoate0.1 to 0'2
2. Salicylic acid 0.1 Vo
3. Phenol 0.2 to 0-5 Va
4. Chlorocresol0.05 to 0.I Vc
5. Alcohol 15 to 20 7o
6. Chlorbutanol0.5 7o
7. Phenylmercuricnitrate 0.002 to 0.005 Vc
8. Sorbic acid and its salts 0.0-5to 0.2 7o
9. Benzalkoniumchloride 0.004 to 0.02 Vo
ci
10. Methyl paraben and propyl paraben 0' l to 0'2
. Packaging of Pharmaceuticals
Packing is the processby which the pharmaceuticalsare
suitably packed so that they should retain their therapeutic
effectivenessfrom thetime of their packagingtill they areconsumed.
Packagingmay be defined as the art and sciencewhich involves
preparingthe articlesfor transport,storage,display and use' An a
utmost care might have been taken during the formulation of any
preparationbut if it is not packagedproperly the whole aim may be
iost. Different shapesand sizesof containersmadefrom different
materials are used for packing different types of formulations.
Thereforea careful considerationmust be given for the selectionof
packagingmaterial.
A packagemay consistsof following things :
Container
A containermay be defined as a device in which the drug is
enclosedand is in direct contactwith the drug. A containerwhich
remainsin contactwith the drug at all times is known as immediate
container.
Closure
A closure is a device which seals the container to exclude
oxygen, barbon dioxide, moisture, micro-organismsand prevents
Adharabhutha siddhantltasof bhaiqajyakalpana 87

t h e l o s s o f v o i a t i l e s u b s t a n c e sI.t a l s o p r e v e n t st h e l o s s o f
medicamentduring transport and handling.
Carton
Carton is the outer covering which gives secondary
protection against mechanicaland other environmentalhazards.
They are made from cardboard,moulded wood pulp or expanded
polystyrene.
Box
A box is a device which is generally used lor packing
m u l t i p l e so f t h e p r o d u c t . l t g i v e s p r i m a r y p r o t e c t i o na g a i n s t
external hazardsduring the transport and handling. A box is
usually made from thick cardboard,wood or any other suitable
material.
Characteristics of Containers And Closures
l. The container must be sufficiently strong to withstand
handlingwhile empty,when filling, closing,sterilizing,labelling,
transport, storage and use by the consumer.
2. They should not allow any loss of product due to
l e a k a g e .s p i l l a g eo r p e r m e a t i o n .
3. The material of the container from which they are
prepared must not react with the contents.
4. They must be able to withstand heat if processincludes
s t e r i l i z a t i ob
ny h e a t .
5. The surfaceofthe containerntustbe clearfor easylabelling.
6. The container must not absorb substancesfrom the
preparation e.g. absorption of water and oily substancesfrom
ointmentsand creamsby the cardboardboxes.
7. The container must not impart its own colour, taste and
odour to the preparation.
8. The containerand closuremust not react either each other
or with the preparation.
9. The container should be able to protect light sensitive
preparationsfor which amber coloured glass containersmay be
used.
Bhaisajya kalpand vijfianam

10. The size of the containermust be selectedaccordinsto


the size of the preparation.
I 1. The closure must be easy to remove and replace.
12. The cost of containerand closureis an integralpart of
overall cost of the preparation,so it shouldnor be high.
I 3. A containershouldfacilitatetheidentificationof a product
i.e. whethermeantfor internalor externaluse.
14.Apart from all thesecharacteristics
a containerandclosure
shouldbe attractivein appearanceand must have salepromotional
and marketing values.
According to the method of closure and use, the containers are
of following types
1. Well ClosedContainers 2. Air-Tisht Containers
-
3. Hermetically Sealedcontainers
4. Light ResistantContainers -5.SingleDose Containers
6. Multi Dose Containers 7. AerosolContainers
Well Closed Containers
A well closedcontaineris usedto protectthe preparationfrom
contaminationby extraneoussolids,to preventthe loss of potency
of active constituentsand to prevent of loss of contents during
transport,storageand handling.
Air-Tight Containers
Air tight containers are used to protect the contents from
atmosphericcontamination of liquids, solids or vapours. They
prevent the loss of drugs due to efflorescence,deliquescenceor
evaporation.
Hermetically-Sealed Containers
Hermetically sealedcontaineris that which doesnot allow the
air and other gasesto pass through it. Generally these types of
containers are used for injectables.A glass ampoule sealed by
fusion is the most common example of thesetypes of containers.
Light Resistant Containers
Light resistant containers are used to protect the drugs
Adharabhutha siddhanthas of bhaiqajya kalpand

which undergo decompositionin the presenceof light. Such


drugs may be enclosed in light resistant amber coloured or
opaque containers.
Single Dose Containers
They are used to supply only one dose of the medicament.
They are sealedin such a way that the contentscannotbe removed
without removingthe seal,the contentsso removedare consumed
immediatelye.g. ampoules.
NIulti Dose Containers
A multi dosecontainerholdsa numberof doses.It is sealedin
sucha way that successive dosescan be withdrawneasilywithout
changingthe strength,quality or purity of the remaining contents
e . g .m u l t i d o s ev i a l s .
Aerosol Containers
Containersfor aerosolsmustbe strongenoughto withstandthe
pressureevolved inside the container at the time of use of the
preparation.
Classificationof containersaccordingto their Shapes
-1.
bottles(i) Narrow mouth, (ii) Wide mouth
Glass/polythene
2. Dropper bottles 3. Collapsibletubes
4. Gallipots 5. CardboardBoxes
6. Ampoules 7. Vails
8. Polythene packets for intravenous fluids.
9. Polythene bottles for intravenous fluids.
10. Aerosole containers
11. Envelops,strips, cartons,boxes, drums etc.
Materials usedfor the manufactureof containers
The following materials are used for the manufacture of
containers.They areusedeithersingly or sometimesin combination
with each other.
l. Glass 2. Plastics
3. Metals 4. Paper
Bhaiqajya kalpand vij ftdnam

GIass
Glass is mostly produced by heating a mixture of silica
(SiO2),soda ash (NarCO.,)and limestone (CaCO.,)in a furnace at
about 14000C. The fused mass on rapid cooling forms glass
which is soft in natureand is usedfor making bottles,light bulbs
e t c . B u t i f p o t a s s i u m c a r b o n a t ei s u s e d i n s t e a d o f s o d i u m
carbonate, a hard glass is produced which is used for the
preparationof laboratory glass apparatus. Special types of glass
e.g. colouredglass or heat-resistance glass can be producedby
adding certain other substancesto the three basic components.
Advantages of Glass containers
l. They are transparentwhich allows the visual inspection
of the contents.
2. They are economical
3. They are readily availablein various shapesand sizes.
4. They are chemically inert.
5. They are quite strong and rigid.
6. They posses superior protection properties.
7. They do not deterioratewith age.
8. Some glass containersare heat resistant so they can be
readily sterilized by heat.
9. Glass containers can be easily cleaned without any
damage to its surface e.g. scratching or bruising.
10. As the compositionof glass may be varied by adding
suitableamountsand types of sandand silica as well as conditions
of heat treatmentused, the proper containeraccordingto desired
qualities can be produced.
Various types of glass used for pharmaceuticalpurposes
are:
a) Coloured Glass
b) Neutral glass
c) Type l-Borosilicate glass
d) Type ll-Treated soda-lime glass
AdhArabhuthasidtlhanthasoJ'bltaisaiyakalpand 9l

e ) T y p e I I I - S o d al i m e g l a s s
glass
f ) Typc NP-Non-Parenteral
Coloured Glass
Colouredglass is used for light sensitiveproducts.For this
purposeamber coiouredglass is generallyused which does not
a l l o w t h e U . V . r a y s t o p a s st h r o u g hi t .
Neutral glass
It is resistantto alkalies, weatheringand can withstand
autoclaving.
Type - I Borosilicateglass
It hasa high meltin-s pointandcanwithstandhightemperatures.
t ot c h e t n i c asl u b s t a n c e s .
I t i s a l s or e , s i s t a n
Advantagesof plastic Containers
1. They are cheaperas compaledto othercontainers.
2. They can be readilyproducedon large scale.
. tough and flexible.
3. They'are unbre'akable
,1.They are light in weight and can be easily transported.
5. They can be moulded into various shapesand sizes.
Paper
Paper and board as packing material is widely used in
pharmaceutical indtrstriesin one form or the other. They are used
to prepare, containers rangingfrom envelopsusedfor dispensing
powders, a few tablets or a few capsuleson the counter, to the
drums usedfor storinglarge quantitiesof drugs in the industries.
Cartons and boxes made from board are used for packing the
p h a r m a c e u t i c aclo n t r i n e r s .
Propertiesof paper and board can be modified by treating
it with plastic, wax or other materials.Now a days chemically
treated paper known as tetra pack paper is also available for
storing the drugs and chemicals. Such treatedpaper will protect
the products from atmospheric conditions.
Materials used for the construction of Closures
1. Cork 2. Glass
92 Bhaiqajya kalpand vijiidnarn

3. Plastics 4. Rubber
5. Metals
Cork
Cork is essentiallya wood obtainedfrom the bark of oak
tree. It is used for the manufactureof stoppersfor narrow mouth
bottles. Cork is almost chemically inert and does not impart
undesirable odour or flavour to the preparation. The main
disadvantageof these closuresis that sometimesthey lead to
mould growth when used for aqueouspreparationsand may
shed particlesto productsif not used carefully.
Glass
As comparedto cork, glass is an ideal material for making
the stoppersbut these stoppershave the difficulties that they
does not provide leak proof closuresmoreoverthey can slip out
of th.econtainerseasily during transportand handling.Therefore
the useof glassclosuresis restricteCtc laboratoryglassapparatus
e.g. reagentbottles and fancy cut glass items only.
Plastics
As compared to cork, glass, rubber and rnetal closures,
plastic closures,are becomingmore popularday by day because
they are unbreakable, light in weight, can be easily mouldedinto
various shapes and sizes. Plastic c:losuresselecredmust be
tested before use for any extractive rnaterialpresentin them and
for their reaction with the product contained in the bottle.
Rubber
Natural rubber consists of latex obtained from Heavea
braziliensis commonly known as rubber plant. This rubber
imparts a characteristic odour to the product therefore the
physical and chemical properties of rubber are altered by the
addition of some additives such as :
1. Vulcanising agent e.g. sulphur.
2. Accelerators e.g. thiazoles.
3. Activators e.g. zinc oxide, stearic acid and zinc stearate.
4. Fillers e.g. carbon black, calcium carbonate,zinc oxide,
talc etc.
AdhArabhilthq siddhanthasof bhaiqa.iyakalpand 93

5. Softnesse.g. ntineral oils etc.


6. Antioxidants
7. Pigmentse.g. oxidesand sulphidesof iron, cadmiumetc.
8. Lubricantse.g. zinc stearateetc.
Rubber closures are mainly used for vials, multidose
c o n t a i n e r sa n d I / V f l u i d b o t t l e s b e c a u s eo f i t s s e l f s e a l i n g
propertiesand it can withstandsterilizationtemperaturesbetter
than plastic closttres. Rubber is also used for making the
w a s h e r sr e q u i r e di n c e r t a i nc o n t a i n e r s .
Metals
Tin plafe and aluminium are most commonly used for the
manufactureof closuresbut aluminiumis mostwidely usedfor this
purposebecauseit is ductile in natureand closureof any desired
shapeand sizecan be easilymanufactured with it. Further,tearof
closurescan only be madefrom aluininium.
Strip or blistcr Packaging
Unit dosage form of drugs like tablets and capsules are
enclosedindividually in strip or blister packs. In strip packing
the unit drugs are hermetically sealed in between strips of
aluminium foil or plastic film. The contentsare removed by
tearing or cutting the individual pocket. In blister packing the
unit dosage forms are enclosed in between transparentblisters
and suitable packing material, generally aluminium foil. The
contents are removed simply by pushing the drug through the
packing strip.

sua
94 Biniqujya Kalpana Vij fianant

Chapter3
NIANA PARIBHASN
ffisiifrqm{ |
r 3tT{slqT-<IRra:
I
q qThfqn gfudd{ruTiqrqfrefrq r
Q'iT: yqfrr*fqisf rrzrTI I
( w . { i .c . ? . ? Y )
dq- Arq -{gr-ara- ca- vrfir-q.rr-
sTrEn-TT6e-q-€-rFfr-ffi€i qrq_
reFfilT{rTr qErE*{i rrqfr fi{qqr,
@ f*qrqr:t ;r
ffiri fMqF+qwqd
rqfr r
(s.ls. q.?)
qR'qruifEqr6Tfrqrrr{qtqiq-mq | -
ilFr( rrd rp5;r" qffi trEr I t.
(d. cR. Fdql
qmifirqterqf r}qqr{i FFFTq I
+F{t qnifr qngure qrRqrlqqqr r.
(d.cR.rfrc)
knowledge abatt mana (measurement)is very essential
^ ,Th"
for Ayurvedic physician without rhe knowredgeof wlights
and
measurements,appropriate combination of ingredients -
in a
recipe is nqt possible.

f{{r qF{erqTqq: rartq f.nr rfr. r


F**rsffifuqT ildeg enqfrr+rqqrrr
(Iatro-che.of Ayurveda-rasaSastra,
chapter_I)
Mdna paribhdqa

As the moon looks lusturelesswithout the (cooling) moon-light


and as the sun appears dull without its hot rays' similarly a
physician becomesineffective if he is without the knowledge of
various technical terms.
Mana plays very important role in following aspects:
1. Raw drug collectron,2.Preparationof different Kalpand's,
3. Anupana matra, 4. Preparation of Ahara Kalpana (pathya
kalpana) etc.
Raw drug collection
While doing raw drug collection, it is mentioned that, in
particular seasonparticular prayoiyangc of plant is supposedto
be collected. E.g. : Mula - Grlsma rtu., trme for iantava dravya
collection is also mentionede.g: Rakta, Roma, Nakha has to be
collected from adult animals.
Preparation of different Kalpan5's
The relevent portions in the treatiseand texts on Ayurvedic
pharmaceutics apart from the qualitative aspects,also specifies
the ratios and amounts of drugs to be taken for different
foimulations. A scepticlook into theseshow that, the quantitative
f u n d a m e n t a l ss p e c i f i c a l l y m e n t i o n e d f o r t h e r e s p e c t i v e
preparationsshould not be changed.If changed,then the quality
of the medicine sufers or the preparationmay totally go wrong.
E.g., in the preparationof any medicatedoil (taila kalpana)' the
katka, taila and dravadravya are taken in the ratio of l:4:16 in
general. Instead of taking one part of the kalka, if three or four
parts are taken the moisture content of the formula may be
increasedand its shelf life will decrease,or the final product may
have a different medicinal value. Alterations in quantity on any
of the above three kalka, taila and dravadravya would either
increaseor decreasethe period of processing,due to which the
preparation'will not be up to the required standards,and cannot
be preserved for long.
Anupflna mdtra
Anupdna which is given along with some main medicine,
also should be administered in particular quantity, e'g. Anupana
96 BhaiqajyaKalpana Vijiidnant

(vehicle for the medicine) for curna, gutika, kalkc should be


three, two one pala respectively.For diseasesof vata, pitta and
kapha.
Preparation of Ahara Kalpana
While preparingditferentpc thya kalpanas(dietic regimens),
the amount and ratio of dhanya and water etc to be added are
also mentioned by following mana (measurements)only.
E.g. - For preparing manda kalparta,
Satidnanya -tpart
Water - 14 parts
are supposedto be taken, so that, knowledge about Mana to the
Ayurvedic physician is essential. Hence Acaryas given atmost
importanceto the mana.
According to the nature of the substance the varieties of
mdna
dm?i Ee{ qrs{FTfrqHrd* Tq{ |
* Efiqnrre*: Tgt! tl!SErrrTt[.5;
r]
(3TTffi{r.1. q...\)
qrai rqnftfirqfi gati $eqrRFr: r
dmi geat ils Wi FIrffFqq rl
1ffivr.)
l. Payyamana (measurementof length)
2. Dravyamana (measurementof liquid)
3. Pautavamdna(measurementof weight)
Payyamana
By this rirana we are able to measurethe length of the herbal
drugs, medical instruments, patient height, pharmacy
measurementsetc.
DravayamEna
By this we are able to measurethe quantity (Volume) of
liquid, eg. I seru.
Mana paibhdqa

Pautavamdna
By th^r ,tanawe are abie to measurethe weight of the crrug
"
eg. different ausadu matras like kalkct matra - erdh'pala etc.
Kdlam5na (measurementof time)
while preparingthe dirferentrnedicines, the time adiustmenr
s h o u l d b e t a k e n i n i u c c , n : i d e r a t i oann d a l s o t i m e o f m e d i c i n e
a d r n i n i s t r a t i o n( a u s a d h a s e v q n a k a t a ) a f t e r p r e p a r a t i o n ,
preservativetime also will be decideddependingLrponthe frala
(time) only, eg. :
1. vatsanabhi ioelhctnashould be done for three hours r.e.
ane yama for three days.
2. ,4dntini,vtrcttirn
of medicinr afrer food (Adhobhakta) for
Kapha.jo roga treatlnent.
3. curncts should be taken with in the time period of two
rnonths.
trVeightsand Measures of Different Types
System of weights and measureswill be describeclfirst
rvithoutwhich dealingwith drugsand recipeswill be impractical.
I n a n c i e n t t i m e s ( e v e n a t p r e s e n tt i m e s ) t h e s c a l e o r '
weights and measuresdiffered in different parts of India. Four
separatescaleswere mentionedby old compilers. Those were
Mclgadhi or Magadha and Kalinga.
wi q Gfusisrd: qlftrS qrrrsiaEr r
q,rftH.rer"Tri
t€*ci qrfr fug: ll
( q. ?R.Roq)
"h.
q,,rFffiqrrrsi+fr fft qmgu{t r
q,,rftEtqtd *qi qri qrqffi f+g: I I
(ghffisrrqTl
qri qfrFsj rtir 6rffi qprgiaErr
q'fus'rqrrrd*EF{fr qmffi fcr{: tl
fqlrcc.ro{ . qtqqRqrqT
: y€ l t )
a,ffi d6i qri rTrrrei
qrq}Rn{ rr
( Iatro-che.of Atyn eda-rasa.(astra,
chaprer-I)
7BK
98 Bhaiqajya Kalpana Vijiianam

W e i g h t s a n d m e a s u r e sa r e o f t r v o t y p e s , v i z ' , K a l i n g a
-
(which was prevalent in the ancient state of Kali.nga present
orissa in the Eastern Coast of India) and Magadhrl (which was
prevalentin the ancientstateof Magadhir= pres€ntBihar in the
North India). The latter (tnugadha)is better than the former
( k a t i n g a ) . K a t i r i g a t y p e i s f o l l o r v e d o r a d o p t e db y S u i r n t a
(belonging to the school of surgery) and Magadha tr-pe of
weights and rneasurements are followed by Caraka (belonging
to the school of medicine).
Magadha mdna
aqtqdd: ffiivrm q(qruJft{: I
trqifirgr .ivfr Frtrrt rr
rrrn {qq{ Es{ir wr: I
irgr fiynrd qFr: wcnuJ TT i['$ft tl
.\
EilFIIiIGIiT: ffir
Rrtrfh: qqfir€trFqq'tt t
rqdvfrnr+frfu:
fttqf'rr {IF{filftTs q{q: rH {*: r
o615ss{t: ffi Tgr sr@gs{rq ll
qQ*rqrffir: srqrffi1 Mt
qrtfgfif: Ytrut:sr(sruT: q frrril+ tt
zS: TTga Eilrd*il€d fr eai I
ffffii {r€*E Esqqut: TT frrrai rr
qie*i q qd: sr(€ *m: qrfirrqrFrart
erqrfq!l: qrfrrrfti fitffitg ftr€o1 tt
+E iTqTffirq'r qdTI
q,tqsm d1{'r{ gE"f i5ftrll-6: | |
FEqt q qqf+: a,,{ !F ffi r
{qtffiqfqrqdwi Umo,t iTsnll
{furui q qd' tq gF{r'i rgfifo,l t
lr$€: ffi fffii qo+flr effii rr
q6Trlzri fqfdil{r TgfrsI firtrct r
Mdna paribhdqa 99

ryfrrqFrgFd: srqisdsdTrrr*o: r r
eTsrTriq rT tq: gis-drqi q qrfraT r
YRr.ilSEgi{ ild,S{rd f*Eerd: rl
YRrEIg{i qAer*Ergqr€*€ilsr-cnn
{ l
rTMi rirrqi=j F{ w(:ufwn{ q il( ll
qnffiw: unryil qFEITM'I:t
3ilTFTSI rrd Tlffiunrqfqgil51, 11
*unqi yI{FRft q qg:rrfu''vnttrtrr:I
qiqfqi q,raEfrfr EEI'M q HTrgiTtI I
ffiT{s4 sr0 c,,Frdr qwrgkfir: r
wg:wfewfuo'r quu|?rilftr.5r q {Tril
xrirni f{F6i q $TR(tn: ro1ftfa. r
Ef,T rdVki tq rrd+*q frsq: rr
(vn.€. c.€. t. qq-t?)
1. According to the Wise, thirty paramanus (atoms)constitute
one trasarenu and its synonym is vamii. When a beam of
sun-rayscomes to a dark room through a hole or windorv,
the suspendedparticle seen in this beam of rays called
vamit.
2. Six vam(rs constitute one marici.
3. Six mancis constitute one rajika.
4. Three rajikas constitute one sarsapa.
5. Eight s(rrsapasconstitute one yava.
6. Four yavus constitute one gufija.
I . Six gufijas constitute one masa which is synonymouswith
hema and dhanyaka.
8. Four masas constitute one sqna which is synonymouswith
dharana and tanka
9. Two tankas constitute one kola and it is synonymouswith
ksudramo(ko), vataka and dranksane.
10. Two kolas constitute one karsa and its svnonvms are
100 BhaiqaiYaKaIPanaVijiianam

p a n i m a n i k a , a k s a , p i c u , p a n i t a l u ' k i l t c i t p a r y i 't i n d u k c r '


sorlasika,karamadhya',hamsapaela'sut'arna' kuvulagruha
end udumbara.
I l. Two karsas constitute one artlhrt pala and its synonyms
are iukti a;nd.astomika'
ue lrLt'\tt'
12. Two (uktis constituteonepala and its synonyms
amrct, caturthika, prakultca, soda|l and bilva'
1 3 . T w o p r ; , ' a .cr o n s t i t u t eo n e p r u ' \ r t i o r p r a ' \ r t ( t '
s v n o n Y m sa r e
14. Two prasrtis constituteone uiijali' Its
kttcluvtt.anlha-iat'uvuka urtcl o'rtttrnuttu'
synonyms are
I 5. Trvo kuduvas constitute one manika. Its
Sarava and astaPala.
1 6 . T w t r . ( a r c r v a . cs o n c t i t u t e o n e p r u s t h u '
synonyms are
I I. F o u r p r r l . r t f t c t . sc o n s t i t r i t e o n e a d h o k a ' I t s
b h i t i a r r { 1 . k t - r n s c tp, a t r a t t n d c u t u h - s c t s l i - p a l a '
svnonyms arl
18. F o u r l t t l h u k d s c o n s t i t u t e o n e c l r o t . t t t .I t s
kalaia, rtah'tina,armana' unmana, g h a t a a nd :,alt'
are ktrmbha
19 Two dronas constitute one iurprt' Its synonyms
Scravaka'
and catuh-scrsti-
nre ic1/lrt
20. Two iurpas constitute one clron-t' Its s'"'tlt'Jtrls
and gonl.
to 4()96
21. Four dronls constituteone khurt' It is equivalent
palas.
22.. Two thousandpalas constitute one bhara'
23. One hutrdredpalas constitute one rula'
r{|Tfsr{fdrGtrfr $et: tr€rqrdfiq l
{ffi qrR*fr q*trqg{un: ll
(vn.qi.s. €. 1.??)
raSi'
Masa, tanka, aksa, bilva, kudava' prastha' adhaka'
units are four
go(au)nt andkhqri - each one of these succeeding
ones
iimes of the preceding ones i'e' four of the preceding
constitute one unit of succeedingones'
Mana paribhaqa l0l

Weight of Wet and Dry Substances

TsrRqr{qRlq qr{€nqi€tEftEfr: I
{ErruEfi,rqrun dltrttFT HIT IKT( I I
(w. €. c. €. q.i Q-?Y)
From gunja, upto kudava,both the wet and dry substances
a r e t o b e t a k e n i n s i r n i l a rq u a n t i t i e s .I B y i m p l i c a t i o n ,i f a
substanceis describedin the text to be taken in the quantity of
one gultja or multiple thereof,then the substanceis to be taken
accordingto the prescribedu'eight irrespectiveof the physical
natureof the drug (whetherit is wet or dry). This rule is to be
foliowed upto kudctvaor multiple thereof.l
If a wet substance or a Iiquid is describedto be takenin the
quantity of prctsthaor multiple thereof, then rn actual practice
such substances are to be takenin doublethe quantity.(Hor.vever,
in the case of dry substancesdoubling of the quantlty is not
necessary.. Doubling of the quantityof wet and liquid substances
is necessarybecauseof their moisturecontent. If in a recipe,
such wet drugs are added in double the quantity, then
therapeutrcally they will as effectiveas the dry drugs).If a drug
is mentionedin the text to be used in the qlrantityof tuia, then
it should never be doubled even if it is a wet drug.
Size (Volume) of Kudava
qagrqdq I
Tq Eqtalg.dtre$rft'€
' fufuf q ddai q ff;qri
$ed q-( r r
. . c.E. q.1q-?q)
(vne
The unit of kuciava is used for weight and volume of
measurement. For the latter, a cylindrical cup is preparedof
mud, wood. bamboo, iron etc. This cup should have internal
diameter and height of four ahgulas (finger breadth=about112
inch) each.
Need for Red.ircingDose
During the presentkali age,human beings have low power
of digestion, they are of short statureand they have low vita{ity.
Therefore,the appropriatedose of medicinesfor the presentday
102 Bhaiqajya Kalpand Vijiianam

human beings, as suggestedby the wise physicians,will be


described (hereafter).
K5linga Type of Weights and Measurements
Td ilffrnrffrtT{t: *qi ![*: r
TdEnq Tgr srkgs qmr sqi tl
qrqi TgrfiwsrftT; quffiref qa@fu( |
F{ragffi: VI1u1:q fqq'g gE q ll
rrsruilqrq*': vqfn: 6{; prrqq$qrfufi; I
irgr*,,il: wi rtit qvnrnuTfui €S, r
Tgqdg E;sd tr€q-€It: U{qqf,r: rl
( v nq
. . q.€. t. Q3.Y?)
Hereafter, the kalinga type of weights and measurements
will be described:
1. Twelve gaura sersapa (white mustard seed)constituteone
yat,a (grain of barley).
2. Two yavas constituteone gunja [seedof Abrus precatorius].
3. Three gufijas constitute one balla..
4. Eight or seven gufijas constitute one masa.
5. Four mdsasconstitute one {ana. Its synonyms are niska and
tanka.
6. Si-r masas constitute one gadydna.
7 . Ten masas constitute one karsa.
8. Four karsas constitute one pala. It is equivalent to ten
Sanas.
9. Four palas constitute one kudava.
Subsequentunits of weights and measurementsare in
accordancewith the Magadha school.
Thus, ends the explanation of kalinga type of weights and
measures.
It should be noted that liquids, like solids, are measuredby
weiehts.
Mana paibhasa 103

There is one pecularityabout liquid measureswhich should


be noticed. When one Prasths or more of a liquid is directedto
be used in the preparationof a medicinedcuble the quantity is
actuallytaken. Thus if it is statedin any text thar of solid drugs
take one seer,of oil take two seers,of milk take three seers,and
of water take four seers,the measuresto be actually taken are
one seer of solid, four seersof oil, six seersof milk, and eight
seersof water. For measuresbelor.va Prastho or two seers,the
quantitiesof liquid are not doubled.
Tables of Weights and Measures according to i\{agadha &
Kalinga Schools
(A) M[gadha School
(Weightsand measureswhich were prevalentin the ancient
state of Mlgadha)
30 paramanus(atoms) I trasarenu(Vam(r)
6 vamSrs I Manci
6 Marrcis I RajikI
3 Rajikas I Sarsapa
8 Sarsapas 1 Yava (weight of barley grain)

4 Yavas I Gunja
6 Gufrjas (raktikas) i Masa
4 Masas I Sana
2 Tankas I Kola
2 Kolas I Karsa
2 Karsas I Ardhapala
2 Suktis 1 Pala
2 Palas I Prasrti
2 Prasrtis I Anjali (kudava)
2 Kudavas I Manika (Sarava)
2 Saravas I Prastha
4 Prasthas t Adhaka
104 Bhaisajya Kalpand Vij iianam

4 Adhakas I Drona
2 Dronas l Snrpa
^ :-
I Surpas I Dronr
4 Dronis I Khari (equivalentto 4096 palas)
2000 Palas 1 Bhara
100 Palas I Tula
(B) Kalinga School (Weightsand rneasures
prevalentin the
ancient state of Kalinga)
12 Gaura Sarsapa I Yava
2 Yavas I GunjA
3 Gunjas I Balla
8 Gunjas I lvlasa
4 N{asas I Sana(syn.= niska and tanka)
6 Masas I Gadyana
l0 l\lasas I Karsa
4 Karsas I Pala
4 Palas I Kudava
Note : Subsequentunits of weights and measuresare in
accordancewith Magadha School.
Table of weightsand measuresdescribedin Ayurvedic classics
and their metric equivalents adopted by the Ayurvedic'
Pharmacopoeia Committee.
The following tabie of metric equivaients of weights and
measures,linear measuresand measurementof time used in the
A y u r v e d i c c l a ' s s i c sh a v e b e e n a p p r o v e d b y t h e A y u r v e d i c
Pharmacopoeia committee in consultationwith Indian standards
Institution.
Weights and Measures
1 Ratti or Guflja 125 mg.
8 Rattis or Gufrjas I Masa I g.
12 Masas I Karsa ("Tola) 12 e.
Mana paribhaqa 105

2 Karsas(Tolas) I Sukti 24 g.
2 Suktis I Palam 48 e.
(4 Karsasor 4 Tolas)
2 Palams I Prasrti 96 g.
2 Prasrtis 1 Kudava 192 g.
2 Kudavas I Manika 384 g.
2 Manikas I Prastha 768 g.
4 Prasrhas t Adhafa 3 kg. 73 g.
+ Adhakas 1 Drona 12 kg. 2889.
2 Dronas I Slrpa 24 kg. 576 g.
2 Slrpas I Droni (Vahi) 49 kg. 152 g.
4 Dronis 1 Khari 196 kg. 6089.
I Palam 48g.
100 Paiams I Tula 4 kg. 8009.
20 Tulas I B.hara 96 kg.
In the caseof liquids, the metric equivalentswould be the
correspondinglitre and inilliliter.
Linear Measures
Classical Unit Inches Metric
Eq.uivalents
Yavodara 118of 314" 0.24 cm.
Angula 3/4" 1.95 cm.
Bitahasti 9" 22.86 cm.
Aratani l0vz" 41.91 cm.
Nrpahasta(Rajahasta)22" 55.88 cm.
Vyarir 72" 1 8 2 . 8 8c m .
Measurement of Time
Classical Unit Equivalent (in hrs.
minutes & seconds)
2 Ksana I Lava
2 Lavas I Nimesa
3 Nimesas 1 Kastha 4.66 Seconds
I Ghati 24 Minutes
106 Bhaisajya Kalpand Vijiianam

30 Kasthas I Kala 2 Minutes


20 Seconds
20 Kala + 3 Kasthas I Muh[rta 48 Minutes
30 Muh[rtas I Ahoratra 24 Hrs.
15 Ahoratras I Paksa 15 Days
2 Paksas I Masa 30 Days/ One
month
2 Masa I Ritu 60 Davs/ Two
months
3 Ritus I Ayana 6 Months
2 Ayanas 1 Samvatsara 12 Months/ One
yeat
5 Samvatsara I Yuga 5 Years
I Ahoratra of Devas I Year
I Ahoratra of Pitarasa I Month
Plschitya menaparibhSsa
(Weights and measures according to Modern)
There are two systems of weights and measures(a) the
imperial system,(b) the metric system,with which the pharmacist
must be familiar. The imperial system is an old system basedon
arbitrary and unrelated units eg.grains,drachms, ounces and
gallons whereasthe metric systemor decimal system is basedon
related and rationally derived units eg.milligrams, grams,
centimeters,meters,millimeters, litres, etc. Becauseof its easier
calculation, greater accuracy and flexibility and use in other
sciences,now a days this is the most widely used system by
official agencies.
Metric system
Standardunit of measuresof mass (weight) is kilogram and
all other measuresof mass are derived from kilosram.
I Kilogram (Kg) l000gm
1 Hectogram (hg) 100 gm
I Decagram (dag) 10 gm
Mana paribhaqa 107

1 Gram (gm) lgm


I Decigram (dg) 0 . 1g m 1 0 0m g
I Centigram (cg) 0 . 0 1g m 1 0m g
1 Milligram (mg) 0 . 0 0 1g m tmg
I Microgram (mcg) l / 1 0 0 0m g
Domestic Measures
I drop I minim 0.06 ml
I tea spoonful I fl. drachm 4 ml
1 desert spoonful 2 fl. drachm 8 ml
I table spoonful 4 fl. drachm 15 ml
2 table spoonful I fl. our-rce 30 ml
I wine glassful 2 fl. ounce 60 ml
I tea cupful 4 fl. ounce 120 ml
I tumblerful 8 fl. ounce 240 ml
Conversion Factors (For all practical purposes)
I grain 64.8 ing 65 mg
I drop I minim 0.06 ml
I fl. ounce 29.57 ml 30 ml
I gram 15.4 gr 15gr
I milligram l/65 gr 1165 gr.
1 millilitre 1 6 . 2 3m i n i m 15 m
I litre 33.8 fl ounce
1 kilogram 2.2 pound

Imperial System
Imperial system is divided into two systems.
Avoirdupois system: According to this systemthe standard
unit for weighing is pound and all other measuresof mass are
derived from pound. It is representedby lb.
Apothecaries System
It is also known as troy system. The standardweieht in this
108 B haisajya Kalpana Vij iianam

system ls graln.
20 grains I Scruple
60 grains I drachm
480 grains I ounce
8 drachms I ounce
12 ounces I pound
5760 grains I pound
Measures of Capacity
Standardunits for capacityare samein avoirdupoisas well
as apothecaries
system. The standardunit is gallon and all other
measuresof capacity are derived from gallon.
1 gallon 160 fluid ounces
1/4 th of a gallon I quart 40 fl ounce

1/8 th of a gallon I pint 20 fl ounce

l/160 th of a gallon 1 fl. ounce


1/8 th of a fl. ounce 1 fl. drachm
1/60th of a fl. drachm I minim

I fluid ounce 480 minim


I fluid drachm 480/8 60 miniin
Abbreviations commonly used in Measures of Capacity
Latin Name Symbol English Name Equal To
Minimum m minim, lminim
Fluidrachma fl. fl. drachm 60 minim
Fluidunicia fl. fl. ounce 480 minim

Octarius o pint 20 fl. ounces


Congius c gallon 160 fl. ounces
h[ana paribhaqa 109

Dravya Sangrahana(Collectionof Drug)


Accordingto drY and wet state
T{ql gr.d mm 6wrGa vrm*fi I
3un-€n F6fl1 wdgqr vsftufr r
lqtirqr FrM CIJun*E ffiq lt
(w. €' s' {q' i 'Y\-Yq )

On all occasionsthe drugs which are dry and fresh


shouldbe selectecl.In caseof greendrugs,they shouldbe taken
in clouble the prescribed quantity. But Guduci,.Kutaja, vasa,
Kusmanda, Satavarl, AiwagandhQ, Sahacarl, Sotoputpa and
prasaranl should always be used in green statebut need not be
t a k e n i n d o u b l et h e p r e s c r i b e d q u a n t i t y '
According to time
qqriE f6 ffi rqtuqfistrfid'g I
fa*r f*<g'Swnrqi WqrqrqqTf qT*': r r
(fl. d. c. c. q.YY)

O n a l l o c c a s i o n sf r e s h d r u g s o n l y s h o u l d b e u s e d f o r
making recipes, except vidctiga, krisna jlra, guda, dhanya'
ghrta ctnd maksika (Madhu) (which are therapeutically more
effictive when used after preservationfor some time)'
Restrictions should be followed by Physician while
collecting the Drug
rFIrffi{trTI: gfu: Itrfi:garut r I
qnRc*+i5d+{i qrq'il fu'eR r
qrErKursRrfdi Tgrqrgilrim{ | |
qeql : t
*wa: q;ffffiq:
wgqFdFdrqrwr ll
( Y T{.i . r . € . q , . q q - q . )
The Physician who is pure in mind and clean in body
'shiva'
should collect the herbs during sunshinepraying to lord
in silence,herbs growing in northern direction are to be collected.
Herbs growing on dirty places,marshy land, burial ground, salty
rl0 Bhaisajya Kalpana Vijfidnam

s o i l , r o a d s and those which have been infected with


worms,
effected by fire and snow will not yield the desired effect.
Season for drug collection

vr€fuffirqfd qIA rr[sql|qqq I


fetfiqrqrd q qgdri rrqnt\ r r
(Yrr.H. Y.tr.. q.\q )
sorad rra (october, November)is the best time for collection
of herbs for all types of preparations. But for herbs which
are
meant for vumana and virecatta, the best time is the
end of
V(tsentRru (February - March).
sTFd*Tirqar
rn: rlfcrnri Trdndd g*: I
T{ufrerrqqqgTrfr vqererfr gGilqq | |
q!ilqrMr@r: TrR:Tqr(*ilfi.rRa: I
ffis gqrfurwci srfuqmfra: tl
qrmrts gqrfu 13tfi: ffiq r
( I T I q. . Y . u . | . Q o - Q ? )
The root bark is to be coilecfedin caseof big roots whereas
in caseof tenderonesthe entire root systemis colrected;
in case
of big trees like nyagroclhetetc., their outer bark is
to be
collected; in case of trees ltke bijaka etc., their pith, in case
of
ta[tsa etc., their leaves;in caseof tiphara ih"i. fruits; in
case of dhataki etc., their frowers and in case"t..,
of snuhi etc. their
sa p .
sTr*flf**arfursr. ffi ffifi3fus I
eFiltrdlTqrF{ q.fssqrfrf tgftr: rr
srffi rffi E*Trq+S qr
( w .{ i .c . s . q . \ \ - \ q )
Herbs grown in the Vindhya mountains are itgneya (heat
producing) while those growing in the Himarayas
irt*' ,ou*;,o
(coolant), hence they should be so choosen as are
suited to the
person' Plants growing in other forests will have the qualities
of
the place.
Mana paribhaqa nl

Particular part of the plant in that particular seasonwill


possessmore active principles. Hence, different Acaryas were
explained about collection of different parts of plants in different
seasons.
Prayojyanga Caraka Su6ruta Rajani
(part used) Ghantu
M[la Gnsma or Pravrt SiSira
Si(ira
Patra Varsa, Vasanta Varsa SiSira
Satna Varsa, Vasanta
Puspa Yadhartu - Vasanta
Phala Yadhartu Grlsma Vasanta
Sara Hemanta Vasanta
Twak Sarat Sarat
Kanda Sarat - Hemanra
ksrra Sarat Hemanta
Pancangas - Sarat
According to cakrapani datta the usnavlrya dravya mula
should be collected in Grisma rtu, where as 31ta virya dravya
mula should be collected in Siiira rtu.
According to Karma, Paficabhuta adhikyata of the drugs
and their collection in particular season.
Karma Pafrcabhirta rtu
Adhikyata
Vamana Agni + AakaSa Vasanta
Virecana Prthvr + Jala Vasanta
Vasti, NaSya - Sarat
Jdngama Dravya Sangrahana
Dravya Kala / vayas (age)
Rakta, Roma, Nakha Praudha Vayas (Adult age)
KsIra Mfitra, P.urfsa After digestion of food.
tt2 B haiqajya Kalpana Vij ftanant

Phala (Fruit) Collections


All the fruits should be collected when they are ripened
properly expect Bilva Phahuwhich is supposedto be collected
in unripened (apakwavasta)condition only.
Dhanya Collections
Dhanyctshould be collectedwhen it is not very nerv and
when it is not too old.
All these restrictiortsv,ere expluined ht' At'irt,a.thL,(-(uts(,
ol
these below' mentioned reasons:
The usual time for collectionof leavesis r','henthe florl"'ers
a r ej u s t b e g i n n i n gt o e x p a n d ,o r t h e f l o u , e r i n gj u s t a r r i v i n ga t i t s
height.
At .his time it is reasonableto assurethat the leavesare in
the most healthy sta.teand contain an optimum of thc products
of the plants metabolismand one can obtain the most desirable
therepeuticaction. As moisturedecreasesthe constituents.thev
are collectedin dry weather.Collection of flowers must al'uvays
be made in fine, dry weather,becausethe petalswhich are damp
when gatheredbecome badly discolouredduring drying.
Roots and rhizomesare usually collectedwhen their tissues
are fully stored with reserved foods, it being assumed that
m e d i c i n a l c o n s t i t u e n t sw i l l b e a l m o s t a b u n d a n t d u r i n g t h i s
season. In temperateregionsautumn is thereforethe seasonfor
collection. The time for collection of bark is usually spring or
early summer, when the sap is rising in the stem and the
combium is active and therefore,more easily forms than at other
seasons.Galls are collected after the escapeof the gallwasp.
Substitutes
{srrrrag +airRiRurfr+r}g qrft5*q I
tqqrftx.fiai wi Tdrrwi {ot: tl
Msi tq qF Frrcrgfr:I
gtlqrA feT+TiTfir{Ft, q ir{Fr{ tl
grrrrasgq-trmgu,ffiiild q ffi( r
qiilrqrA *fldf Er$F r*GdQ ll
Manu poribhdsa l13

qgi eH Td drftlq ir{ur; 1


sTrrrA
fudnrr&q+qrgqdwreqqraelr|w-r:I I
qitr* ![ {rflRn: s*i q,Twtu-ir{ I
EqTrRiq rrfrrd ErGqrRirdcff{ | I
erTflRs arel,{ farqrsarnffiq r
sTsna u.trrenfr qtr{I{trqq;r{ rl
sr$naqfr fcrrrqirqr$qffir
frrgffilT dqgurg+a rnciErr
( Iatrociremistry
of AyurvedaRasa6astr
a | . 42-45)
1. The physician may Llse t,aikrdnta in the place of vajra
( d i a n r o n d ) a n d . t t , o r n am h k s i k a i n t h e p l a c e o f s v u r n c t
( ,qold).
2. The sattva (essence)of .yt,arryamaksikais similar to s,erno-
bhasm, i* properties. Similarly, thesatt,taof vimala nnksika
is certainly like silver in properties.
i. lf rnukta(pearl)is not available,then in its placemukta_,fukti
(pear! ovester).which has similar properties,may be used.
1. If ubhrako'.rattva is not available, then in its alace kanta
Itiuha may be used in a recipe.
5. According to the text 'Rasa-darpana,,if kanta-lauha is not
available,then in its place fiksna -lauha may be usecl
6 If honey is not available,then old jaggery having similar
propertiesmay be used in its place in a recipe.
r. If .srra(crystal sugar) is not available,then in its place
kher.ttla(a type of brown sugar)may be used in the recipe.
3 If .faii type of rice is not avialablethen in its place .sa:^tika
tvpe of rice may be used.
9. If draksa is not available, then in its place. kaimari-fruit
may be used.
10. If vrksamlais not available,then in its placesour variety of
dadima rnay be used.
I 1. If vetasamlais not available,then in its placeharimanthamla
may be used.
8BK
rt I B haiqajya Kalpand I'iiiianaw

i:. ii ia,hitevllety gf cuntlarlcl:i not availablcthen in its place


rcd varicty af turidttnttshould be ndded to a recipe'
nrscL a recipeare descrihe
1 I If rh* ingr"edie d to bc'impregenatcd
'uvrthjrttcesand biles of anitnals,and if such biles (pinu) are
rrot ayailabl*. tli':;t in thcir plirces, the rccipe sliguld be
impregnaterirvitir tirrr rie';oction of t'isumrtstiwhich has
sir'ilar ptoperties.
+nr-EfiT6-qldrfrderrrr&qdq+( t
lrstfa€*wiryrdriryrd,{qrrrfr'6r{ I I
( irtro chcmis'.r1oi A1'tlrt'cdaRasaillstra I . '19)

If mcrla, mnha-nteda,ilvuka. rsubhukcr'kakotl and k5iru-


l;i|:tt!! ;rre not a'raiiable, then in theil places 1'c'rt7,t'idurl'
ti.i;ttyttrtdhil,bcl,';.!atri,tarr antl t'artrllikctndashould respectivcl)'
i".: rr:rcil
q g*|r@rd HEIr
Elqrk€Frdrdqi w,Fi{Ei {ufrirq | |
I -5o)
of A) urvedaRasaiastra
( iatrocheni-str)

The physician should always discard fruits which are I


rrnripr:aud immature .xcepting hilt,a (in which lattcr is more
urei'::1u'hen it is unrip.:anclimmature,r.Frrritsof drak'.sa'bilvu'
:liiri. etc.. are nlore trseful u'hen thesc are drv'
Aci:-yns i:ar.c mcntionerl different prayo.il'afrgasfor different
ni€diriual plants like u'i'se
!. Atrrorr:aangustaL.inn' Bharadwajl Root
2. Abru:; or':-cator:uR I-iin' Clrnja [-eaf, root, seed
3. i\butilon inrlicum G. fion Atibala Entire plant
;r. Ac;rcia rvilled Babbula Entire plant,
"rrahica
resin
5 Acr:cia eatechuu'illd. Khadirasara sdra
6. A<:acir c,:ttci;inaLle. Phenika Fruit
i Asacia f:rnesiana ri'iild lrimed:r Bark

8. Acacia latiosum Kinkirat Stem' bark' fruit


bldna paribhdqa ll5

9. Acalypha indica [-inn. Akakiya Sara


(Hindi)
10. Achyranthesaspera Linn. Apamarga Entire plant

I l . A c o n i t u m c h a s r n a n t h u mS r i n g i v i s a Root
1 2 . A c o n i t u m h e t e r o p h y l l u mA t i v i s a Root
Well
1 3 . A c o n i t u m n e p e l l u sL i n n . V a t s a n d b h a R o o t
1 4 . A c o r u s c a l a m u sL i n n . Vaca Root
' 15. Actiniopteris dichotoma MayDra(ikha Entire plant
Bold.
16. Adansonia digitata Linn. Gorakha Fruit, leaf, bark
c tn c a
17. Adenanthera pavonia Linn. R a v a nA m l i k a
18. Adhatoda vasica Nees Vasa Complete plant
19. Adiantum lunulatum Hansaraja Complete plant
Burm.
20. Aegle marmelos corr. Bilwa Leaves, fruit,
root
21. Agaricus campestris Linn. Chatraka Complete plant
22. Atlanthus excelsa Roxb. Aralu Bark, Seed
23. Alangiumsalvifoliumlinn. Ankola Root. bark oil
24. Albizzia lebbeck Benth. Sirlsa Bark, seed
25. AlhagipseudalehagiDesv. yavdsakam Complete plant
26. Allium cepa Linn. palandu Root (Kanda)
27. Allium sativum Linn. LaSuna Root
, 28. Alocasia indica Schott. Manakanda Kanda (root)
29. Aloe barbadensisMill. Kuman Exudation
30. Alpinia galanga Willd. Kulifrjana Root
31. Alstonia scholarisR. Br. Saptaparna Bark
32. Alternanthera Sessilis Matsyaksi Complete plant
R.Br.
i i r, IiJ;i,irrr'3 : Kelproii;t f iiitittttttr

'l-.ti",ilrrli1rk;r
l: , ! ; : r : i r ; ' . ' . l t l i r : ; . *ht l i t , . g t : . l - . : i i i i J . . . , c 1 1r c. l t
'IanrJLllivaka
. ? ' ' l , t , , ; - ; ; 1; qi 1; 1 r ! i 1 ; r ' i ' ; F i n i ) : l t l : i {-"+mplr:fc plani

i . .i i ' l : - k in.l

-i5..,\,:-,lnlitr*,.tLlbl;!lltl:r !ltiriilr;!ll \ceds


R.li::h.

,r,t, t!,;.::rlri:]y;i:lrlll,"l't Sl:rlrl:t Kandl {Ror'tl


l r - ' i r p ; r n ' . r Ll t l r : . B i l i m f .
:,': Krndl (lllrt)
.\inoLt.ltlrr:hltllr;rsr'1i.'ltlictis I-r'lnvlt';iir':n'r
l! . ' i i i , : r ( : - i t i . i r : . , i ii .i ,) i : i l l c r l r l ' - ; l i : r i u Sl::rl

. i ' . '. , i i r i i v c l : ;s n r .; r ' f h t ' r . : r i lt ] 1 . . ' \k ' . r r l k r r e h h a R o ' - l t


.iU. itnar::irter,i,rcculurW.&'\.tinktmart Fruit
I L" A i r r l r o p o g o t ti u ' t r l n * u s a . I n m a i j a k a Rocrt
ji-'f,;15

" i r , 1 , ; : i J r n { r r - : r F h i , ; p 3 q i , ' r r1l t-{er t: 'r:rr t i k t n . C o m p l e t ep l a n t


li't'r Kaiaalcghl
-t i ilnilr{)F{)[]on:rchli:nanth!is
Rohisl Trina R-oot
- l ' i , \ l i i s o r n e l e sm a l a b a r i c a S p r i k k a
l": r\nerthunt sowa l--'-rrz. Satapuspa. Seed"oil, arka
r lf . AtithoitFhaiitscadan-'h' Kacleltha R : r r k ' fe l l
F,tig. t-lor"'et
1'i. .\qlieria lg;rllr.,chrRoxh Agi.tp11 \\jserJ. r"il
J 8 . , : . i , * - i r - c act he r i L i r : n . Phgaphala Fruit
-iq /-\rgemnnemexicana Srvarnakstrr Complete plant
:{l ,\rgvrei:,specicrsa B r i r l , l h a d a r u R . o o t ,l e a f . s e r : d
1 l,i i:;trlu,:hi;i !]]a. ic3-te Kitamarr (;omplete plant

i.i. Ariritolccl"riaindica Ishwarlrnlila: Root


l-,inn.
: i Artemi:;ia siversiane Damanaka Complete plant

" : 4 A i - t e m i c i av u l c a r i : l , i n n S a r a p a r n a Irlcrrer
5: ,\,f+i.'arplrs lakoochlRoxh. I,akltca Fruit
:5 .,1:,t';ll:,.'g'-;s l\4aha F'oni
liarrnentosaL,inn. (atiwarT
3f an:r y;*rilt l; ;t:,.t . i'i

5 7 . A s p a r a g r , s ; i d e s i l i i i i r r r : i F i , , : . r: r ill,:,i
Rir.xb. il,|;r,,.rl;
5 8 . A s p ; r a ! , : u : iL a c c i u i ) s ' J s 5lii,i..i i i r , , .j .
witid.
5 9 . A s t e r a c a n t t i aI o n g r f r r l i . : Kilf:ri.:ih..,.r; Su.,r:
l \ i ec s |r...:,irnit r r . : : : p r _ r . .r . t t , . .
6(i. , t \ . i er r . h 0 a C a { a r l l h o l a Ir SlrtiiiIirrillli Frr,ir
6l . Az.rdrraciri"i iirdie: liilrti; I r s , , " i . tl : . , : ; , , . , i , :
A. Juss
b2. Fjaiospernlum tnontanliiu Liiii:ti S : . . ' , - i i. , , , : .),,
( : 1 . L ; . i l s l t l l i f r t i c r r " l r l r r ir : i . y r i l l . i I ' i i l i : t , - _ ; . . , , . i ,.:.,..-,,...
I i . . : ' : r, : l
b-l [iei]}bu:;a alut]dindrcir r.rartr:":ii,L;ii,.:
',\'i I lil

b"i Baianttes tr'gl'l-rtiirija lrr.::,lit i.i':_:i:::i


{..inn.
(r0 l J c i l c ' r i ep r i o i r i i i s i . i r i u . S.ii;t1:i..i. i .:^r,1,i;,.ir,,.i,,i:,
S:Lf.l,-'l':,

6'i . Blrrringtonia acutan;:ul: .!.rrrtri(l:ziphllia


i:i t.,;
r : i i . l J . i s s i al a t i f o l i a M;:dhhkti iil,;,..,;i ,-.,1
r:l i;.i.
( - r L i .B : i u h t n t a r a c e m o s a AStLrni:ll,,a i . , r . : r " 1t -"r . i l ; .
i { ' } i J " t r h t n i l rV u r i e g l t a [ . r : r n K u r r , - : i r r i r l .
i r - r . , . .. r r_.,
-l
i . B en i n c a s l h r s p i d a f h u : t b .K u s l r r a u J ; ! - !r .i r . . . !- . i
i 'l lJerberis aristata DC. Ras:iir3ar:s x r ti : r . , 1 -, i l r : , ,

5ii.:::.i,,i'
l;:iIr:i:;ii,,ir,.i)
7-1. ftetula utilis D. Don. tlirojai;arri i-e.;i, l;;:rii
"1.{
Bixa orellana Sin..iirir lrr.:r:"i.
i 5. i3icpharis edulis Per:" ijr.:ata S, ,:,"is
lb. Bcerhaavia diffur;e I-rnn. I,iii:arna',,a C.;iriiic'rr i,lii{;!
'1
1 . B , ; r a : ; s u sl a b e l l i f e r l - i n n . ' [ a d . : i ili;it flr-r; :,::rrJ
118 Bhaiqajya Kalpand Vij iianam

78. Boswellia serrata Roxb. Sallaki Exudate

79. Brassica Juncea Rajika Seed,oil


Zern & Cross.
80. Brassicanigra Koch. Sarsapa Seed,leaf, oil

8 1 . B r y o n o P s i sl a c i n i e s a Sivalingi Seed

82. Buchanania lanzan Priyal oil


Spreng.
83. Butea monosPermaLinn. PalaS Seed,root, leaf,
flower

8 4 . C a e s a l p i n i ab o n d u c e l l a K u b e r a k s a Complete plant
seed.
digYnaRottle.
8 5 . Caesalpinia Ghrita karafrj R o o t
86. CaesalpiniasaPPanLinn. Patrang Wood

8 7 . C a j a n u si n d i c u s Adtrati Leaf, seed

88. Calamus rotang Vetra Prakdnda

8 9 . C a l o p h y l l u m i n o P h Y l l u mP u n n a g oil
Linn'
90. CalotroPis gigantea Ark Complete plant.
& Ksrra

9l . Cannabis sativa Linn. Bhanga Leaf, manjari


KandasthaRal

92. Capparis horrida Kinkini Fruit

93. Capparis aPhYlla KarIra Fruit, flower,


root
9 4 . C a p p a r i sz e y l a n i c a Vyaghranakht Root
95. Capsicum frutescens Tlksna Fruit, seed

96. Careva arborea Kumbhi Fruit, bark


97 . Cariea papaYa Linn. MadhuKarkati Fruit, seed. leaf
98. Carissa carandas Karamarda Fruit

99. Carthamus tinctorius Kusumbha Complete plant,


oil
100. Carum ajamoda Ajamoda Seed, Fruit
Mdna paribhEv ttt

l0l. Cerum copti:um; I a i..anI


I 0 2 . C L r r y o p hl llu s r r o m a t i c i . \ L , a v a n g e
I 0.-r Caseariaasculenta Sat,rr:;l:r;;
I 0 4 . C a s s i aa b s u sL i n r r . Ca,r'su c',rI
1 0 5 . C a s s i aa n g u s r i f o l i aV a h l . N4arkandi
1 0 6 . C a s s i aa u r i c u l a t aI - l n n . t;l \ ' i f t i . l H ,I -
1 0 7 . C a s s i a1 ' r s t u l La i n n . Aragw.,dha

I 0 8 . C a s s i ao c c i d e r n t a l i s Kasamarci
ir
1 0 9 . C a - c s i tao r i i L r n n . L'ak;arnarla
I 1 0 . C e d r e l at o o n a 'f
ut-,ttr
1 I l . C e d r u s d e o d a r aR o x b . Der,:rrliru
I12. Ceibapentandra Salmali
1 Jw c r a)
I I 3. CelastruspanrculataWilld.J y o t i s n r a t i
I 14. Celosiaar_{entea Siri tralik.i SCCO

I 1 5 . C e n t i p e d am i n i m a L i n n . ch i kki ka planr
116. Cicer arictinum Ciranakdmla
I 1 7 . C i n c h o n as p s Kunayan

1 1 8 . C i n n a m o m u mc a m p h o r a R - l i r r n a s e -
n l K a r pu r a
1 1 9 . C i n n a m o m u mt a m a l a Tau5ia ),*el
i 2 0 . C i n n a m o m u mz e y l a n i c u r n T w a k Bark, ,:il
l2l. Cissampelospareira Linn. pathii Rr.ot, Ccrlgti.:ti
plant
122. CissusquadrangularisLinn.
AsrhiSrinrhla Cornpl*tc plirrrt
Kanria
I 23. CitrulluscolocynthisSchrad.
Indravarurnr ltoert.li uit
124. Citrus sp. Amla Vetas Ror:t, fruii
t20 Bhaiqajya Kalpand Vijiianam

125. Citrus acida Nimbhka F r u i t , s e e d ,o i i ,


l ea v es
126. Citruslimetta Madhu Fruit
lambrra
127. Citruslimon Linn. Jambrra Fruit
128. Cleoma viscosa Karna sphotaLeaf, seed
Bhandir
129. Clerodendruminfortunatum. Root
1 3 0 . C l e r o d e n d r u mp h l o m i d i s A g n i m a n t h a f l o m p l e t ep l a n t .
Linn. root
Bharangr
131. ClerodendrumserratumLinn. Root
132. Clitorea ternatea Aparajita Complete plant.
root, seed
1 3 3 . C o c c i n i ai n d i c a W . & A . B i m b l f l o n i p l e t ep l a n t ,
r ( ) ( r { s. c c ( ! .i f u i t
1 3 4 . C o c c ' - r l uhs i r s u t u sL i n n . P a t a l ag a r u d r C l o m p l e t ep i a n t ,
leaf
I 3 5 . C o c c u l u sv i l l o s u s L r n n . P A t a l ag a r u d i C o m p l c t e p l a n t
1 3 6 . C o c o s n u c i t e r aL i n n . Srrphala F r u i t ,o i l
137. CommiphoramukulHook Guggulu Resin
I 3 8 . C o n v o l v u l u s p l u r i c a u l i s S a n k h a p u s p r C o m p l e t ep i a n t
1 3 9 . C o p t i s t e e t aW a l l . P r k t am i l a Root
140. Corallo carpus epigaeus N[hr kanda Kanda
l 4 l . C o r c h o r u sf a s c i c u l a r i s Bahuphalr C o m p l e t ep l a n t
142. Cordia latifolia Slesmatak Lca[. bark, fruit
(dichotoma)
1 4 3 . C o r i a n d r u ms a t i v u m L i n n . D h a n y a k S e e d ,l e a f . o i l
1 4 4 . C o t o n e a s t er a c e m i f l o r a Y a v a s a i - Suskaslra
arkara
145. Crataeva nurala Varuna Root. bark, leaf
146. Cressacretica Rudantr Conrpleteplant
147. Crinum latifolium l-inn. SudarSan Kanda. leaf
148. Crocus sativus Linn. Kumkum Pollen srains
Matm paribhdry l2l

l : 1 9 . C r o t a i a r i aj u n c e a Shana Seed,lruit, leaf


1 5 0 . C r o t a l a r i av e r r u c o s a S h a n a p u s p i Leaf, seed
l5l . Croton oblongifolius Asti danti Root
152. Croton tigliurnLrnn. Jay'apala Secd
I 5 3 . C r y p t o l e p i sb u c h n a n a Krisna sariva B ark
1 5 4 . C u c u m i st n e l o Kharb nj a Fruit, seed
(Hindi)
155. C. cetilissineus Karkatika Fruit, seed
1 5 6 . C u r n i n u mc y m i n u m L i n n . J r r a k Secd, {ruit
I -57. CurculigoorchioidesGaertn.S w e t a m u s a l r Kanda, root
l 5 t i . C u r c u r n aa m a d a R c i x b . Anrragandhi Rhizonre
h r id r a
i - 5 9 . C . a n g u s t i f o l aR c , x b . Tavaksirl Kanda curna
160. C. longaL,inn. Rajant Rhizome
l 6 l . C . z e d o a r i aR u s e Kachur Rhizorne
I 6 2 . C y a r r o p s i s t e t r a g o n o l o b aG u w a r Fruit, seed, leaf
16 3 . C v d o r t t av t t l g a r i s VrIhi Seed,fruit
l 6 J . C y r n h o p o g o nc i t r a t u s Jambrratruna Leaf, oil
1 6 5 . C y n o d o nd a c t y l o n D 0rva Complete plant
156. Cyperusrotundus N{usta Root
1 6 7 . D a i b e r g i as i s s o oR o x b . ShimSapa Bark, stems
168. Daturaalba Dhatt[r Complete plant
169. D. stramonium KrisnaDhatttr Cornplete plant
Seed, leaf,
flower
170. Dacus carota Gajar Seed.root,kanda
l 7 l . D e l p h i n i u n id e n u d a t u m N i r v i s t Root, kanda
172. D. zahl Trayamana Complete plant,
I lor.ver
173" Daemiaextensa Yugma Leaf
kantaka
122 Bhaisajya Kalpand Vij fianam

174. Dendropthoe falicata Vriksadani Conlpletc plant


1 7 5 . D e s m o d i u m . g a n g e t i c u mS a l a p a r n r C o m p l e t ep l a n t ,
ro0t
1 7 6 . D e s m o s t a c h y ab i p i n n a t a D a r b a , K u s a R o o t
Stapf.
177. Dichrotachys cineria Virataru Complete plant
1 7 8 . D i g i t a l i s p u r p u r e aL i n n . Tilapuspr Leaf
179. Dillinia indica Bhavya Fruit,leaf
i80. Dioscoria sp. bulbifera Varahi kanda Kanda
1 8 1. D i o s p y r o s p e r e g r i n a Tinduka Bark,fruit. oil
182. Dolichos biflorus Kulattha Seed
183. Dracaena cinnabari Rakta niryds Resin
184. Echinops echinatus Urkantaka Root; seed
185. Ecliptaalba Hassk. Bringaraja C o m p l e t ep l a n t
1 8 6 . E i c h h o r i n i ac r a s s i p e s Jalakumbhi C o m p l e t ep l a n r
I 87. Elaeocarous
ganitrus
Roxb. Rudraksa Seed
188. Elettaria cardmomum SflksmaEla Seed, bark
1 8 9 . E m b e l i ar i b e s B u r m . Vidanga Seed
190. EmblicaofficinalisGaertn.Amalaki Fruit; conrplete
plant
l9l. EnicostemnealittoraleBlumeMamajjak Complete plant
192. Eulophia campestris Mufrjataka Root, Kanda
193. Ephedra vulgaris Soma Complete plant
194. Erythrina indica Paribhadra Leaf, bark
195. Eulophia nuda Malakanda Kand (Root;
196. Eupatorium ayapana Vishalyukarni Leaf
Ajaparna
197. Euphorbia antiquorur4 Snuhl Root
(Tridhara)
198. E. glandulifera Dravantl Seed,oil, fruit
199. E. nerifolia Snuhr Root.stem.milk
Mdna paribhaqa r23

200. Exogonium purga Revakandam Root


201. Fagonia arabica Duralabha Complete plant
202. Feronia lirnonia Kapittha Fruit, leaf
203. Ferula alliacea (narthex) Hingu Resin
j0+. pi.ur bengalensisLinn. Vata Prop roots,
complete Plant
205. Ficus glomerataRoxb. Udumbara Fruit, root,
complete Plant,
milk
206. Ficus hispida Linn. Kakodumbara Complete plant
20-1.F. Iacor Buch-Ham. Plaksa Bark, fruit
208. F.religiosa Linn. ASwattha Complete plant
209. F. retusa Nandivriksha Complete plant
2 i 0. Foeniculum vulgare MiSi Seed,root,flower
2ll. Fumaria parviflora KsetraparpataComplete plant
212. Garcinia pedunculata Amlavetas Fruit
2 1 3 . G a r c i n i ai n d i c a C h o i s ' Vriksamla Fruit,oil
214. G. morella Desr. KanKustha (Niryas) Resin

215. Gardeniagumrniferalinn. Nadihingu Resin


216. Gloriosa superbaLinn. Langah Root, kanda
2I7 . Glycerrhiza glabra Linn. Madhu yasti Prakand
218. Gmelina arborea Linn' Gambhari Root, bark, leaf
219. Gossypium arboreum Aranya Complete
Karpasa Plant
220. G. herbaceum Linn. Karpasa Complete plant,
oil. leaf
221. Grewia asiatica Perusaka Fruit, bark
222. Grewia populifolia Nagabala Complete plant,
root. bark
223. G. tiliaefolia Dhanvana Antastwak
224. GymnemasylvestreR&Br. Madhuna5im Leaf
124 Bhai;ajya Kalpand \!ijfidnant

2 2 5 . G ; - n r n o s p o r i an r o n t e r l a Vrkalrkat c'niplctc piarrr


teal
2 2 6 . C y n a n d r o p s i sp e n t a p h y l l a T i l r p r r n i l _ e a i .s c c i . j
227. Hedychium spicatunr Sag" Kunllr
2 2 8 . F i e l i a n t h u sa n r r u s Suryapuspr Secrl
229, HelicterTsisora ,Avartaphala Fnrir. ruti
2 3 0 . H e m i d e s n l t s i n d i c u s R . B rA. n r r n t a m u i R t r { ) r
2 J l . H i b i s c u s a b e l r n o s c h u s L , a t ; , i k a : ; t u r i S c c r l ,l t a f . r o r r r
232. Hibiscusrosa-sinensis Japa F l o i v c r .r . c o r
233. Hiptaeebenghalc-nsis lvladhavi Rrior
2-14. Flolarrhenaantidyscnrerica
Inclravava Secd. bark
2 , 3 5 .H o r d e u m v u l g a r c yava Sertl
2 3 6 . H o r d e u r nv u l g a r e , yavaksiir; Krsara
2 3 7 . H y d n o c a r p u sl a u r i l ' o l i a Kat'kapitha sccd. ir.*ii. .rri.
pulp
238. Hydrocotyi rrsiatica Brahrna- Conrplerc-plrnr
nrandi,ikr
2 3 9 . H y o c y a r r l u sn i g e r L r n n . Illrasik S c c . i l i.c ; i
\ ai'anl
2 4 0 . I n d i g o f e r at i n c r o r i a Nili Flower.le.il'
root,$*cd
2 4 l . I n u l a r a c e m o s iH
l ook. puskaranilla Root
212' rpamoea arvensis prasarinec corrrpretcpiant
2 4 3 . I p o m o e ad i g i t a t a L i n n . Ksrra.",idari Kanda (Root)
244. Ipomocareniformis Akhuparnr Co:rpletclri.rr;r
2 4 5 . O p e r c u l i n at u r p e t h u m Trivrita Root. buik
216. his germanicaLinn. Haimavatr ltci_il
2;17. Jasminumgrandiflorunilirrn.
JdtT F]ori.ci, icaf'. crl
248. Jasminum SarnbacLinn. N,Ialiika l;luwcr.ieei.r.;ci
2 4 9 . J a s m i n u mp u b e s c e n s Kund F-ruit
2 - 5 0 .J a n g l a n sr e g i a Aksota Fnrit
*Ifrttu paribhd;a r25

lc 1. Juniprlus c{.}nllnttnis Hapusa Fririt

2 5 1 . K a l a n c h o ep i n n a t a Parnabija l-eaf

I 5 . l L , a g c n t r i a' , ' t t l g a r i ' r I k s t ra k u C o m p l e t ep i a n t

1 , 5 4 .l . a t l t r e ag r l n c l i s Jingini Bark' resin

2 5 5. Lewsonia alba r, leaf,seed


l{adayantika. Florn'e
l-5(r l-eonotis nepetaefolia Dipamlla Fiorver, leaf

- 4 . 5 ?t.. e p i d i i l n ts a t i v u m Chandra(ura Seed


l - { ( : I , : p t l r d r n i ;rrc l r c u l r t ; t . l l rl t r : t i fltmpletepllnt.
leaf

2 5 ? . t - e t a r i as t a i i c a Kangtt Seed

2 6 0 . l - e u c a sc c p h a l o t e s D r o n a p u s p i C o m p l e t ep l a n t
26l.l,,inum usitatissimum Atasi S e e d 'o i l

262. I.ippie no,Jiflora Jalapippalr C o m p l e t ep l a n t

? 6 3 . l " i q u i d a m . b eor r i e n t a l i s Silhaka Resin (Niryasa)

264. Luffa acutangulaLinn. Kosataki Frtrit' root

1 5 5 . I . u f l ' ae c h i n a t a Jimiltaka C o m p l e t ep l a n t

2 6 6 . l \ { a l l o t u sp h i l i p p i n e n s i s K a m p i l l a k a Fruit' raja
Muell
267. Mangifera indica .\mra Complete punt'
resln

268. Ir{arsdeniaroylei Mfirva Complete plant

269. N4eliaazadirachtaLinn. Mahanimba Fruit & pulp

270. Mentha sylvestris PLItihe Complete plant


?71. \{esua ferrea Nagake5ara Stamen
172. Michelia champaca Suvarna Flower, bark
chaniPak
273. Mimosa pudica Linn. Lajjalu Complete plant'
seeo

274. Mimusops elengi Linn. Bakula Fruit,flower'bark

2?5. Mimusops hexandra Ksrrinr Fruit, bark


126 Bhaisajya Kalpand Vijfidnam

276. Mirabilis jalapa Nakata Flower. roor,


kanda
277 . Momordicacharantialinn. Karavellaka Fruit, leaf
278. Momordica cymbararica Ksudraka- Leaf,fruir,kanda
ravellaka (root)
279. Momordica dioica Karkotak Fruit, kanda
(root)
280. Moringa oleifera Sigru Complereplanr,
tru lt
281. Morus alba Tooda Fruit
282. Mucuna prurita Hook. KapikachD Seed,fruit
283. Murraya koenigii Kaidarya Leaf
284. Musa paradisiaca Kadalt Complereplant,
root
285. Myrica nagi Katphala Stembark
286. Myristica fragrans Jayaphal Flower. seed,
K OS A
287. NardastachysjatamansiDC.
Jatamansi Root,
complete plant
288. Nelumbium speciosum padmab-rja seedflower,reaf
289. Nerium odorum Karavrra Root,flower,leaf
290. Nicotiana tabacum Linn. Tamakhl Leaf
291. Nigella sativa Linn. prithvika Seed
292. Nyctanthusarbortristislinn. parijata Leaf, flower
293. Nymphoea alba Swetakamal Flower,leaf,roor,
kanda
294. Nymphoea rubra Raktakamal Flower,complete
plant
295. Nymphoea stellata Nlrakamal Flower,leaf,seed
296. Ochrocarpuslongifolius Surapunndga Stamen,style,
stlgma
297. Ocimumgrarissimumlinn. Ajagandha Complete plant,
seed
Mana paribhdqa 127

298. Ocimum sanctum Linn. TulasT Leaf, seed,ro_ot,


puspamanJarl
299. Orchis latifolia Linn. Munjataka Root, kanda
300. Origanum majorana Maruvaka Seed
301. Oroxylum indicum Syonaka R o o t ,b a r k , s e e d
302. Oryza sativa ShalTm[la Root
303" Ougeiniadalhergioides TiniSa Seed
l04. Oralis corniculata Cangen Leaf
30-5.Paederiafoetida Linn. Gandhapra- Complete
sarini plant.
306. Pandanustectorius Ketakr Flower,root,oil,
pollen grain
307. Papaver somniferum Ahifena Fruit-extract
-108,Peristrophebicaliculata Kakajangha Complete plant
-109.Parrneliaperforata Saileya Sarvdnga
3 1 0 . P a s p a l u ms c o r b i c u l a t u m K o d r a v a Seed
3l l. Pedalium murex Linn. Brihad Fruit, complete
Goks[ra plant
3 I 2. Pentapetesphoenicea B andhDk Flower
313. Phaseolusradiatus MaSaparnT Complete plant,
seed
314. Phaseolustrilobus Ait. Mudgaparnr Complete plant
3 I 5. Phoenix dactylifera Kharj lra Fruit, seed
316. Phragmites maxima Nel Complete plant
317. Phyllan thus urinaria Complete plant
Bhumyamalakr-
3 I 8. Picrorrhiza kurroa Kutakr Root
319. Pinus roxburghii Sargent.Gandhabirojd Ral, resin
320. Pinus succinifera Trinakant Niryasa
321. Piper betel Linn. Tambtla Leaf
valli
322. Piper chaba Hunter Cavika Complete plant
128 Ilhaisaj y a Kalpani Vij ltdnam

323. Piper cubebr Kankola S c e d .o i l


324. Piper Longunr Linn. Pippali Kanda, roct.
fruit
325. Piper nigrum Linn. Marica Frr-ritgrains
326. PistaciaintegerrimaStewart
Pista Fruit
(Mukiilak)
3 2 7 . P l u c h e r l a n c e o l a t aC " B . Rasna [.eaf.complete
Clark. plant
3 2 8 . P l u m b a g oz e y l a n i c aL i n n . C i t r a k a Root, ieaf
3 2 9 . P l u m e r i aa c u t i f o l i a Campak Flower.leaf
-130.Polygonum aviculare Granthi truna Complete plant
331. Pongamia glabra Karafrj Leaf,bark,seed,
oil
3 3 2. Portulaca olerace Lonika Leaf. seed
3 3 3 . P r o s o p i ss p i c i g e r a Samr Leaf, bark.
flower, buds,
kanda
334. Prunusaloochao Allkam Fruit
335. Prunus amygadalus Badam Fruit,bark,oil
3 3 6 . P r u n u sc e r a s u s Elawaluka Fruit
337. Prunusdomestica Arukam Fruit
( U n a n it
338. Prunus mahaleb Gandhapri- Fruit
yangu
339. Prunus persica Aluka Kanda, fruit
340. Prunus puddum Padmakh Stem
341. Psidium guajava Amritaphal Fruit, leaf
342. Psoraleacorylifolia Linn. Bakuchi Seed, oil
343. Pterocarpusmarsupium Bijak Bark extract
Roxb. stern, resin
Raktacandan Kastha (wood)
344. PterocarpussantalinusLinn.
345. Pueraria tuberosa Vidarrkanda Kanda
Mdna paribhdqa t29

346. Punica granatumLinn. Dadima Complete plant


347. Putranjivaroxburghii
Wall. Putrajrvak Fruit, root
348. Quercus infectoria Oliv. Mayaphal Fruit
349. Randia dumetorum Madanaphala Fruit
350. Randia uliginosa Pinditaka Root, fruit
3 5 1 . R a p h a n u ss a t i v a Milaka Complete plant
352. Rauwolfia serpentina Sarpagandha Root
353. Rheum emo.diWall. Cuka Root, leaf,
branch
354. Rhinocanthus communis YIdhikaparni Complete plant
355. Rhus parviflora Tintrdaka Fruit
356. Ricinus communis Linn. Eranda Leaf, root, seed,
oil
357. Rubia cordifolia Manjistha Root, stem
358. Rumex vesicarius Cuka Leaf, seed
359. Saccharumarundinaceum Sara Root, kanda
3 60. SaccharumofficinarumLinn.I k s u Root, stem
36 l. Saccharumspontaneumlinn.
Kasa Root
362. Salix alba Vetasa Stem
363. Salmalia malabarica Salmalr Niryasa
3 64. Salvadoraoleoides
Deene. Brihat prlu Leaf, fruit, oil
365. Salvadorapersica Linn. Prlu Leaf, fruit, oil
366. Santalum album Linn. Sweta candan Kastasana,oil
367. Sapindus trifoliatus Aristaka Fruit
368. Saracaindica A6oka Bark
369. Saussurealappa Kustha Root
370. Saxifraga lingulara Pasdnabheda Root
3 7 1 . S c h l e i c h e r ao i e o s a Kusumbha Flower seed,oil
3 7 2. Schreberaswieteniodes Ksara
373. Scindapsusofficinalis Gajapippah Fruit
9BK
130 Bhaiqajya Kalpana Vii iianant

3 7 4 . S c i r p u sk y s o o r Ka(eruka Kanda
Seed,fruit.Pulp, )
3 7 5 . S e m i c a r p u sa n a c a r d i u m B h a l l a t a k
bark. oil
3 7 6 . S e s a m u mi n d i c u m L i n n . T i l a S e e d ,o i l , r o o t
377. Sesbaniagrandiflora Agastya Complete plant
378. Shorea robusta Gaertn. Rala, Sala Niryasa
)
379. Sida cordifolia Linn. Bala Root' leaf. seed :
Nagabala Completeplant&
lS$,,,3ida humilis
root
381. Silkworm cacoon Kosa Kosa
382. Smiax china DwiPantara Root,
vacd rhizome
383. Smilax zeylanica Badara vallT Root
384. Scilanumindicum Linn. Brihatr Complete plant
385. Solanum nigrum Linn. Kaka macr CompletePlant&
fruit
385..Solanum xanthocarpum Kantakarr. Complete plant
38?. Soymida febrifuga Rohinr Bark
388. Spathodeafalcata Mesa5ringl Root, bark, leaf
389. Sphaeranthusindicus Mundikl Complete plant
390. Spilanthesacmella Maharastri Flower
391. Spinacia oleracea Palakya Leaf, seed
392. Spirogyra Saivala Complete plant
393. Spondias mangifera Amrataka Fruit
394. StereospermumsuaveolensPatola Root, fruit
395. Streblusasper Sakhplak Bark, kstra
396. StrychnosnuxvomicaLinn.Visatinduka Seed
397. Strychnospotatorumlinn. Katak Seed
398. Styrax benzoin Lohabana Resin
399. Swertia chirata Kiratatikta Complete plant
400. Symplocos racemosa Lodhra Bark
Mdna paribhdqa 131

4$. Syzygiumcumini Linn. , Jambl Fruit, seed


402. Syzygiumjambos JambD Bark
403. Tamandusindica Chifrca Fruit, complete
plant
404. Tamarixaphylla phabuka Bark, nirvasa
405. Taraxacumofficinate DugdhaphenrRoot
406. Taxus baccata Tahsapatra Leaf
407. TecomaundullataG.Don.
Raktarohitaka
Bark
. 408. Tectonagrandis Sata Flower,seed,root
409. Tephrosiapurpurea Sarapunkha Completeplant
410. Terminaliaarjuna Arjuna Bark
4l l. Terminaliabellirica Roxb Bibhrtak Kashta,bark,fruit
412. TerminaliachebulaRetz. Hantakr Fruit, bark
413. Terminaliatomentosa Sadada Bark
414. ThespesiapopulneaWilld.Parrshapi- Leaf,
ppali flower, seed
415. TinosporacordifoliaWilld.
Amrita Completeplant
416. Tragia involucrata Vriscikali Root, leaf
417. TrianthemamonogynaLinn.
VarSabhD Completeplant
418. TribulusterrestrisLinn. Goksura Fruit, complete
plant
419. Trichodesmaindicum Adhapuspi Completeplant
420. Trichosanthesindica patola Completeplant
421. Trichosanthespalmata Mahakal Fruit
422. TigonellafoenumgraecumMethikd Seed,leaf
. 423. Typha slephantina Eraka Flower. roor
424. Uraria picta Pri6niparnlCompleteplant
425. Urginea indica VanapaldnduKanda
426.'Yalerianawalchii Tagar K6sta,root
427. Yernonia anthelmintica Krsnajifaka Seed,fruit
r32 Bhaiqajy a Kalpand Vij fidnam

428. Vernoniacinerea Sahadevr Complete plant


429. Vitex angus-castus Renuka b-tja Seed
430. Vitex negundo Nirgundi Seed, fruit
431. Vitis vinifera Draksa Fruit
432. Withania somnit'era A(wagandha Root
433. Woodfordiafruticosa Dhetakr Flower, root
434. Xanthoxylumalatum TumbarI Seed, fruit
435. Zingiber officinale SunthI Dry-root
436. Zingiber officinale Ardraka Kanda
437. Zizyphus vulgaris Sauvtra Fruit-pulp
438. Zizyphusjujuba Badart Fruit, seed, leaf,
root.

Agrdhya Dravyas
Methods of adulteration
Adulteration occurs when a drug is scarce or when the
price of a drug is normally high,thoughthere may be no scarcity.
The adulterant must be some material which is both cheap and
fairly available in large quantities.
l . M a n u f a c t u r e o f s u b s t i t u t e s :M a t e r i a l s a r e a r t i f i c i a l l y
manufactured so as to simulate the general form and
appearanceof various drugs. e.g. Artificial invert sugar for
honey.
2. Substitution of inferior commercial varieties. eg. Provence
senna (cassia auriculata) used to adulterate senna.
3. Substitution of exhausteddrugs: Some drugs are used in
very large amounts for the manufacture of preparations
after which the vegetable residue retain very much the
appearance of the original material eg. preparation of
volatile oils from cloves and cardamom. Removal of
coloring matter and recoloring by artificial dyes as is done
with saffron.
4. Substitution of superficially similar but cheaper natural
substances,usually having no relation of the genuine
Mdna paribhdqa 133

articles. e.g. Clove stalks and mother cloves are often


mixed with cloves.
5. Addition of worthless heavy materials.eg. pieces of
limestone in Hingu (asafoetida) and lead shot pieces in
Ahipena (opium).
6. Addition of synthetic principles to fortify inferior products
such as adding citral to oil of lemon.
7. The presence of adventitious matter naturally occuring
with drug if it is in excessiveamount.
- 8. For powderedmaterials,generallypowderedwasteproducts
of a suitable colour and density are used, eg. powdered
olive stones to drugs like powdered pepper.
Detection of adulteration falls into two main sections.
l. Establishmentof identity of the adulterant.
2. Determination of the quality of the drug.
Establishment of identity
1. Gross morphology.
2. Histology and Microscopical morphology.
, 3. Microscopical linear measurements.
4. Solubilities.
5. Qualitative chemical tests.
6. Physical constants such as specific gravity, viscosity,
refractive index for oils etc.
7. Ultraviolet light.
Determination of Quality
l. Processesof assayfor alkaloid, resin, volatile oil, glycoside
etc.
2. Yield to solvents. "
3. Crude fiber.
Ausadhakalpan5 pariksana vidhi
The Pharmacological
activityof drug formulations
mainly
depends upon the chemical characteristics of drug molecules.
134 Bhaiqajya Kalpand Vijfidnam

Even a small variation in chemical properties may lead to


variation in therapeuticeffects. However the main objective of
a good formulation is that it should maintain its physical,
chemical and biologiczilpropertiesfrom the date of manufacture
to till it reachesto the patient for actual consumption. During
m a n u f a c t u r i n g t h e d r u g s u b s t a n c e sc o m e i n c o n t a c t w i t h
atmospheric conditions, many chemical substancesand other
additives used in the formulation; therby they undergo many
chemical r"hangeswith change in pharmacological activity.
Therefore it is necessary for a formulator to have thorough
knowledfe regarding the principles by which drug undergoes
degradation and the factors which influence the rate of
degradation. The factors which lead to degradation of drugs
include temperature,light, pH, catalysts,hydrolysis, Oxidation-
reduction reactions, racemization, decarboxylation etc. but
majority of drugs are decomposedby hydrolysis and oxidation
reduction reactions.
Effect of Temperature
The stability of drugs is markedly influenced by temperature
because the rate of all chemical reactions depends upon
temperature. Therefore the drugs as well as formulated products
must be stored at an optimum temperature.
Effecf of light
Many drugs are photosensitive, when lhey are exposed to
light, they get decomposed. Absorption of ultraviolet radiations
leads to many degradation reactions. Liquid preparations are
easily degraded by light than the solid dosage forms.
The drugs and pharmaceutical preparations which are
decomposedby light must be storedin coloured glass containers.
Yellow-green glass, amber coloured glass containers are the
most suitable and widely used for storing the light sensative
substances. Further the containers should be stored in a dark
place.
Effect of pH
pH is one of the most important factors which must be taken
Mana paribhdqa 135

into considerationwhile lormulatinga product. To increasethe


stability of a preparationthe pH of the formulation may be
adjusted by incorporating small amounts of acids, alkalies or
buffers'
:-
Effect of Hydrolosis . r" ";.;^
, ..
Hydrolysis is one of the most important process which
leads to degradationof drugs. Solid drugs can be protectedfrgm
moisture by packing them in well closed containers.Tablets Can
be protected from moisture by giving a water proof coating to
the tablets.
Oxidation - Reduction Reactions
L i k e h y d r o l y s i s , O x i d a t i o na l s o i s a m a j o r s o u r c e o f
degradationof drugs and pharmaceuticaladditives, therefore
steps should be taken to prevent the oxidation reactions.
Oxidation of Oxidizable substancescan be preventedby packing
them in sealed containersin which air above the surface of ttto
contentSisrep|acedbynitrogenorSomeotherinertgas.Trace',
'
elements can be eliminated by incorporating some che.lating .
agent to the formulation. The drugs which are oxidised by light
should be storedin ambercolouredglasscontainersand protected
from light.
Oxidation may be preventedby incorporatingan antioxidant
to the formulation. The antioxidantsinhibit the free radical chain
reactionsthus act as effective stabilizingagentsin pharmaceutical
formulations. The commonly used antioxidants for aqueous
preparationsinclude sodium sulphite, sodium metabisulphite,
sodium thiosulphateand ascorbicacid, and for oily preparations
a s c o r b y l p a l m i t a t e ,h y d r o q u i n o n e , p r o p y l g a l l a t e , b u t y l a t e d
hydroxytoluene and alpha tocopherol etc. are used.
Proper care must be taken in the selectionof an antioxidant
that it should be stableover a wide range of pH, compatible with
container, closure and formulation ingredients. It should be
colourless.nontoxic, nonvolatile, thermostableand nonirritating
and should be effective in low concentrations.
Effect of Formulation
The ingredientsof a formulation and various stepsinvolved
136 Bhaiqajya Kalpand Vijftdnam

in the processing of a dosage form strongly affect the


bioavailability of the drug.
Variation in quality of a finished product may result from
the following sources which may ultimately affect the
bioavailability.
Raw materials
On the laboratory scale development of a dosage form
formulation, the materials supplied by one manufacturermay be
used, but on large scale manufacturing raw materials supplied
by different suppliers are used which may result in the variation
of quality from batch to batch or even in the same batch.
Type of equipment
If different types of machines are used for the same kind of
process or there may be some difference in cleanliness,
maintenanceof the machine or any difference inits adjustments,
may lead to difference in the preparation of different batches due
to variation in machines even in the same company.
Method of manufacture
There should be a well defined and set procedure for the
manufacture of a product, if the set procedure is not followed
there will be differences in the final product. Differences occur
in the same product manufactured by two companies due to
differences in the procedures followed during manufacture.
Method of prescription
Prescription is an order written by a physician, or any
other registered medical practitioner to a pharmacist to compound
and dispense a specific medication for the patient. The order is
accompanied by directions for the pharmacist that what type of
preparation is to be prepared and hory much is to be prepared.
It is also accompaniedwith the directidnsfor the patienfthat how
much medicamentis to be taken,how many times it is to be taken
or at what time and.how it is to be taken.
The prescription provides a common link of mutual interest
between the physician, the pharmacist and the patient. It is not
sufficient that the pharmacist should only compound the specific
Mfina paribhdqa 137

medication but he should make the patient understandabout the


proper administration of the drug and ensure that the patient
sticks to these instructions.
Parts'of a Prescription
A complete prescription should have the following parts:
1 Date
2. Name age, sex, and addressof the patient.
3. Superscription.
4. Inscription.
5. Subscription.
6. Signatureaddressand registrationnumber of the prescriber.
An example of a typical prescription :
General Hospital
Date 20-12-r99s
Name Basawaraj Patil,
Age 30
Address Banker's Colony, Hassan.
& 1. Mahayogaraja guggulu I tab T.i.d.
2. Mahdrasnadikedhel5.Ml. T.i.d.

Dr. Name & Regd. No.


Handiing of prescription
l. Receiving.
2. Reading and Checking
3. Collecting the materials
4. Weighing
5. Compounding
6. Finishing.
Guidelines for handling and serving medicines
'medicines
1. Persons handling must be thoroughly truthful,
clean, knowledgeable and devoted.
2. Hands should be cleaned before handling medicines, be it
r38 Bhaiqajya Kalpand Vijiianant

ever so clean belore.


3. Never touch a medicine with bare hand.
4. Measuring glass must be cleaned and weighing balance
dusted always and the pans adjusted.
5. Even though medicinesmay have to be mixed, measuring
glass must be cleanedeachtime, and the pans of the balance
dustedand adjusted. It is never proper to be satisfiedwith
the previous cleaning and leave the rest to the end.
6. Measuring glass and balanceused must be appropriateto
t h e q u a n t i t i e s t o b e m e a s u r e d ,b i g g e r o n e s f o r l a r g e r
quantitiesand small ones for small quantities;never the
reverse.
7. Nothing but clean cloth and clean water is to be used for
washingand wiping. Adequatequantitiesof cloth nust be
on hand before starting work.
8. Containersfor repacking must be clean and appropriate.
Metal ones are mostly taboo,earthen,china and glass ones
alone.aresuitable. Glassis the best. Cleanthem once asain
before use.
9. A work table is essential,and it must be clean. Medicines
to be repacked should all be arrangedon the table before
starting.
10. Containersmust not be opened before everything is ready.
1 1. Containersfor mixing and repacking must be ready before
opening the bulk containers. They must be closed again as
soon as possible.
12. The containersmust be wiped clean before and after taking
out the contents.
i 3. When decanting,savethe labelsfrom drippingsby holding
the labelled side up.
14.Never take out from the bulk container more than what is
actually required. If this is inadequatemore can be taken
out again. Putting back the surplus will spoil the contents.
15. Extra care is necessary.when measuring and mixing items
for internal use. In the case of any error, discard the item
Mdna paribhdqa 139

taken out and take fresh quantities. Never let the error go
as negligible.
16. Never be approximatein measuring medicines,however
minor.
17. Use appropriatecontainersand never let any item go until
they are properly closed, sealed and labelled.
l8.In the case of medicinesfor internal use, dosage,timings,
mixings if any, must all be indicated on the containerlabel.
Medicines for external use must have labels showing details
of any poisonouscontents and the harm that may ensue if
consumed. If this is not possibledetails must be written out
and handed over to the patient or his representative.
19. Bottles for oils for use on the head must be cleaned and
dried two or three days in advance. If this is not done, wipe
them clean with a fresh dry cloth. Don't wash them.
20. After all operations, all connected equipments are to be
cleaned and restored to their proper places.
21 . Also, containermust be cleaned,labels changedif damaged,
Iid applied tight, and wrapped before putting it back in its
place. r
22.Do all such operationsyourself if possible. Keys may be
entrustedonly to the most faithful.
23.8e it even your enemy you are giving medicines,never
deviate from your sincerity and care even by a hair's
breadth.
24. Whatever be the hour, serve your clients promptly without
any dilly-dallying and enter the transactionin your books.
25. The place for such operationsmust be well lit.
26. All details required by the Drugs Act must be indicated on
the label
s|/Z-
140 Bhaiqajya Kalpand Vij frdnam

Chapter4
AUSADHA KALPANA
The raw drug has to be purified and transformed into a
useful and agreeableform, so that it can be used as a medicine.
Sodhana(purification)is the first process,which is applied
for removal of physical and chemical impurities of the drug. It
also lessensor eliminatesthe toxic effect of suchdrugsas in case
of aconiteetc. Particularlyfor mineralsand poisonsit is a must.
Then this purified drugs are converted into Ausadha kalpana.
There are patients who are averse to the taking of the
swarasa (juice) of a drug, some others in Kalka (paste) form.
Similarly, there are certain diseaseswhere a Ausadha (medi-
cament) is required to be administeredin a particular form. For
example, kwatha (decoctions) form a special therapy in the
treatment of fever. So it is necessarythat the medicamentsare
amenable to preparations according that the medicaments are
amenable to preparations according to various pharmaceutical
processes,Moreover, medicamentsshould be potent and free
from infections and dampness. Hence Acaryas mentioned
different types of Ausadha Kalpanas.
Kalpands can be broadly classified in to following groups.
Kalpand

kalpan5

Primary Kalpands Secondary Kalpands Manda,Peya,Vilepi


Paffcavidha kasdya 1. Sneha kalpana Takra, Y[ga,
kalpand 2. Sandhdnakalpana Vdtyodanam etc.
3. Other kalpands-
C[r4a, VatI, Varti, Guggulu
Pdnaka,Sarkara,Avaleha, Rasakriya
Khanda p6ka, Lehya, Phdnita,Ksdra,
Auqadha kalpand t4l

Arka, Satwa
Laksdrasa,Pramadya,Lavana,Masf,
Ksrrapdka,Bahyakalpana,Netra kalpana
Mukha kalpana,NdsakalpanS,
Dh[mapdnakalpana
Vasti kalpana.Ayaskrti etc.
Au;adha Kalpana also can be classified into different types on
the basis of its mode of administration,its effect, nature of its
formula and its physical form.

Ausadha Kalpan5

Bdhya Kalpand Kalpani ment for abhyantara


(External application) Prayoga (Internal administration)
E.g. lepa, malaharaetc. E.g. VatI, avalehyaetc.

Ausadha Kalpani

Urjaskara Rogaghna Apunarbhava


(Restorationof (Removal of (Preventionof
vitality) disease) recurrence)

Augadha Kalpand

Ka;laujadniG"ani
(PredominantlyPlant drugs (Predominantlymetals and
are used for preparation) minerals are used for preparation)

Ayurvedic dosage form

Solid Semi solid Liquid Powder


dosage form dosage form dosage form dosage form
E.g. Gutika, E.g. Avalehya, E.g. Arista, E.g. Clrna,
vatl etc. pdka, lepa, Asava, lavana,
Ghrta etc. Arka, Taila, pisti etc.
Kwatha etc.
142 Bhaiqajya Kalpand Vijiidnam

Pafrca vidha kasaya kalpana


The word kasayais formed by the combinationof *'1* erc
and the meaningof this word is that, the form of crude drus is
converted by destroying its original form in to another firm
(Kalpana), by some pharmaceuticalprocessis (8.g. mardana,
kuttana, bhavana,etc.) in to consumableform (medicine).
For example,the nimba patras are convertedby pounding
in to kalka (pasteform), this kalka once it is producedit has to
be used as medicinebut it can't be reconvertedinto original
nimba patras. Hence the phenomenais that, without destroying
the original form of the crud drug, the medicine form of same
drug can not be produced.
tfi{un(!1-fr ttnqi iilsfr qqqh r
isTdrFT
Hqrqflq: TrErqr( Fffiis q,aqt rr
(smqqrio, fuo i?3)
The kasdya labda will be. produced,when tongue causes
obstructionto the kantasrotus.Samemanner kasavawill obstruct
the diseaseprocess.Becauseof the importanceof kasayaSabd'ait
can be combined with other yogas, F-.g.Swarasakaqaya,Katka
kasaya,Him-akasdya,Phdnta kasaya.
q,tnd r€Qt s'eHtrn ffi I
fitqfi q qqrfrsq gr$ efrfrt+eqr r
tEs-+}ql
EE{r.T:
g(+frT* ........ I
nqqqfr firqtfr ffig ffi rr
(dq:)
The kasaya Sabda is having the following paryaya padas
(synonyms): Rasabheda,Angaraga, Vilepana, Niryasa, Surubhi,
Lohita, Rdgavastuetc.
Paffca kapiya yoni (sources of five formulac / recipes / drug
formulations)
rrg i5'qr{r*{q Efr rgr6qrq; ggpftf,rffit; I
tn(tFeFT:
frwqqrq: 6qr€r6qrqv+fr
rd rin n
(". q. x.q1
Auqadha kalpana 143

ffii q grw{dlfr vlilEiemrrtBrtzrurs}Gr:


I
qq vfra-q,ra-dtqt*a En+{Rrnrq: Eqi6
r€T:i[-tn-{drq sfr r
fr-duTTqf
(3Tgrf,'Kq,q-f,t. q./ 61fi-sTatrr(f,:)
qer q,qrfiil-{dsfffir q$srd mqrqs*fr
lTgtrqrq:W Vinqfrr ile {fr{+{ rcror{i qftd{r
qgfl(qi T€T:trqr.niim qEffi fsri srawrq
Ffr l[trtfr, ;rr* qrc;rq*gn Efrl 3IE f6'qd
gflm'Sur uqnr*ffi n?rrer qg{riftq
gurTFdintrGpeirsr rdtg frxq,,tffi ,d
q{rftrqunerq' (a. fq. qq) ErqrFnlRg{q+'I-
tlrqffiq (q. fE. e) qra'S@er€rffig
tg fu q$rRq-EqRssqfrsrq: ffii Tqe-
"o,qrqriidffil arffig rMur f+*frrrmI
w{ tt *Tfltq irqunq rffi ilfu, qgTrdqig
ffi r*rnsfw ffiui g {aniT-
t*igffi+*qgqat qgnRg wrq6,ffiG d{un
i5-fr;TTgn+afr, T a-{,frt rfr ;T iTtqRrrurFt
r+r$sf+a,qiclsfr qq*q EAurfuur{ffi , arr
q qnrqfr a-qd,rrquifr qrffirrr(qTiH'{ rrqfr,
Tsfr frFqdq QEfr[uf,qpk] ? Flqurs rrxrqfr
iTensfrEqnrsWfsTdrr@
Mc, ffiqqsndqasqTfiile
Tql-ir€ qfrtrrrqfuE{rq:
rerquffi iftrreT i[FT-
rqsqfre:, {avfrcuruaa;qt !i-qs qld-
qqFfurs irtmiwrtqvrr({aSrefiq +#{,reqErd-
y*vndgqM:, t{ai dffi Hnrqfr, irqui ft fe
w{$ Fdftq+{ EErgrRirrqfr; irrrnffiqui Ecr€
rdrnqrqr(qerfl sgnrEr"qrqr{vr6,qr{dsrqulq+
Frsrfrfrq@:r
(q|*q. v.q *qrqfrqrtrr')
'1.44
Bhaiqajya Kalpand Vijftdnam

FFIUTFT il Tilftri5.tr{r*rfr ;T 1Tr$rind€tE


{qFt|frr( | i5G5?5?rr;lTsfr q Hnrqfr,lrd T€d
EAurfsr+i firuslqqfr r C fdrflqt il( ircfi-
df,rqrswfrt itgn r{qq* €rEfu€r ilcTqfit_qt,
@6fia ar*wn tFtqurFT
E ffii q HnpafrfrVftr6tr{r4 3Tq-
r qi VfraurreMte qrt*rgrsm: 5q*
Trgutit:
iilquT{qf {st: if,qrqdm Vfrr
(siuq.a{q,*-fl. q.z,f+'r eT{'uKf,:)
F i v e s o u r c e s o f K a s d y a s ( F o r m u l a e/ R e c i p e s/ D r u g
Formulations)namely
l. MadhuraKasdya 2. Ada Kasdya
3. Katu Kasdya 4. Tikta Kasdya
5. KasayaKasdya
Among the Sadrasas(Madhura, Amla, Lavana, Katu, Tikta,
Kasaya), except lavaryarasa the drugs of rest of five rasas are
consideredas sourcesfor Kasaya. Bscauseby utilizing Madhura
etc., five abovementionedrasds,Kasdya canbe prepared,where as
with Lavaryarasa alone it is not possible to prepare any Kasaya,
becauseit is possibleonly whenLavaryarasaiscombinedwith other
five rasas.
Another reason is that as Acarya Caraka mentioned five
pharmaceuticalprocessesrespectively, Swarasa,Kalka, Srta,Sita
and Phdnta. To prepare these Paficavidha Kasdya Kalpands also
this lavana rasa is not useful. The reasonsare as follows :
By utilizing lavaryait is not possible to extract Swarasa.
Becauselavana is available in dried form. Usually for extraciing
swarasa from any dravya it is to be convertedinto Kalka form by
pounding with adding appropriatequantity of water. This Kalka is
squeezedto get separate,Sara Bhaga (i.e. swarasa) and Kitta
bhaga(i.e. unwantedwastepart).By this usualswarasaextraction
method it is not possible to extract swarasa from lavana,
becauseafter adding water, Iavaryabecomesinto solution form
Auqadha kalpand 145

and it can not be get separatedinto Sara Bhaga (Swarasa) and


Kitta Bhaga (unwantedwaste part).
Kalka will be made from any drug by two methods,i.e. wet
drugs can be poundedand convertedinto paste form, or dried
drug powder can be mixed with appropriatequantity of water
and poundedinto kellet form. By thesetwo methodswith lavarya
it is not possible to make Kalka, becauselavana is always
available in dried form, it would not become into paste by
pounding. Only lavana and if water is added to that, then it
becomesinto solution form and does not produces any Kalka.
Kwatha (decoction). Stta (Cold infusion) and Phanta (hot
infusion)in all thesethreeKalpanaswateris usedasa mediaandthe
main aim of theseKalpanasis that to extractthe activeprinciples
(evidentlywater solubie)into water by heatingor without heating.
By doing so, Sara Bhaga (active principles)of dravya will be
dissolvedin water andKitta Bhaga (waste product)is thrown out
after filtration. By this method,from lavana it is not possibleto
separate theactiveprinciplesinto watermedia,becauseaftermixing
lavanain water,Iavanacompletelygetdissolvesin waterandforms
solution,hence it is not possibleto separatethe Sara bhaga and
Kitta bhagaby theseextractionmethodsfrom lavarya.
Because of all abovementionedreasons,
preparationsof Kasaya
(extracts,formulae,recipesetc.) from lavalta,not being possible,
usageandutility of lavanaindividuallybeinglittle.HenceAcdryas
might have excluded the lavana and made five Kasaya Yonies.
Acaiyas explained first of all paficavidha kasaya kalpand.
Which are the basic kalpana for all the other kalpana. e.g. For the
preparationof avalehya,snehakalpana etc. kalpanas one are the
anothervariety of paftcavidhakasayakalpana are essential.
Acarya caraka mentionedpafica vidha kaqayakalpand's as
follows :
qgF?i qqFfficr{FTfrt icrem-r.rttT:, IFGF:,
lfiT:,pfl?t:,qtru?ryifrttqiqqrT*{frrkfii, wfr:
isqr{r6-e{fiqr?rrrs(frdrtf}[UfrtriFiErqTrcf fr r"
Ffrqdrnfr qqFar
(q.q. Y.Y)
I OB K
146 BhaiqaiYaKaIPand Vijfidnam

l.lrSwara.ra (uice), 2' Katka (paste),3'SPa (decoction)'4'


Sira (cold-infusion), 5. Phanta (hot infusion)
preceding
The potenti ality (gurutva) of the medicinesof the
preparations
categoryis greaterthanthe succeedingones;so these
regard to the strengthof the patienr
,t ou"taie ples"riued with due
All these preparations are not equally
andseriouinessofthe disease.
useful in all cases.
Acarya Sarangadharaalso given sameopinion like Acarya
as mentioned
caraka regarding pafrca Vidha Kasaya Kalpana's
i
below.
l. Swarasa(fresh juice), 2' Katka (wet bolus)' 3' Kwatha
(decoction),4.Hima(coldinfusion),5'Phdnta(hotinfusion)'
the
These are mentioned as paficavidha Kasdya Kalpands'
succeedingonelaghu (easily digestible) than the proceeding'
greater
As statedabove,the potentialityof the preparationsis
to the succeeding ones' It is'
in the precedingones in relation
the strength of the
therefore, necessaryto take into consideration
of the diseasewhile prescribing these
patientand the seriousness
iiff"r.n, categoriesof preparations'.For example'when the patient
is strong enough and the diseaseis equally serious' the swarasa
be so
preparatlonotitre drug will be eminentlyuseful; it will not
whenthepatientisweakorthediseaseisoflessserioustype.Infact,
likings or
there are severalother factors including the personal
to be taken into account while
otherwiseof the individual patient
thesepreparations.If the patient has got aversion to
prescribing
-swarasa,this
preparationwill not be useful to him at all irrespective
ofthefactthatheisstrongenoughandhisdiseaseisofserious
- by a
nature.According to the scienceof medicine, a drug disliked
patientisnotbeprescribed,inasmuchasitmightinstantaneously
or anorexia.Thus, prescriptionof thesepreparations
"uur" "a"ris patient
is to be madewith due regardnot onlyito the strengthof the
of the diseasebut also to the suitabilityof the drugs
or seriousness
or dislikes of the
in questidrr, specially in ralation to the likes
patients.
Even the utility of different drugs lies in their different
preparations.Asitismentionedthatmaryd-ukaparnrshouldbe
Auqadhakalpand 147

administeredin swarasa(uice) form, yastimadhuis to be taken


with milk in p,sta)d.,(curna) fornt guduci along with its root
and
flower is to be taken in swarasa (f uice) form and sankhapuspi
in
Kalka (paste)form.
Acdrya Kdsyapa concept regarding Kaqiya kalpanEs

vfrroqrqs wrdslkEmqr r
rStu€: iffir:Rrsn€rd qErq* ffiq q ,,
(q.rqq.fu,. i-?v)
Curna, Sita Kasaya, Swarasa, abhisava (Madhya Kalpana),
Phanta, Kalka, Kwdtha.
Acarya KaiyapamentionedAusadhaKalpana,s(SevenKasaya
Kalpana's) seven in numbers and included Abh.isava(Madhya
kalpana) and Curnq Kalpana.
' The sequencyof theseKarpana'sis not accordingto guru and
laghu guna's.
Acdrya Su6ruta concept regarding KaEiya Kalpand,s

St vg, i6'GFTer:
rf,rn{3ltilg vfrfrga*e qTrre{r
i6FtT:€:i rrq trffni qdvi t wal yRsr: tl
(q5fr.{. YY.3q)
Acarya Suiruta has mentionedsi.r kalpand,sas follows :
K;ira, Rasa (Swarasa),kalka, Syta(kwathfi, Srta"Ctrna.
Each precedingone, more strongerthan its succeeding.
Acarya caraka has not included cilrna andabhisava(madhya
kalpana) in paffca vidha kasaya karpand's,becauseit .ight huu"
considered that, cltrna as a antargata kalpand (Upakatpaaa) of
'
kalka and abhiqava as a antargata kalpana of Sita kaqayi, ',
Swarasa kalpand
'.
Synonyms Rasa,swerasa,nirydsa
Td TR: rq'rtrs:*m': t
(qfS {fr: {. x)
The juice expressedfrom particularsubstanceis called
swarasaof that substance-
148 Bhaiqajya KalPana Viiiidnam

qa firufrkarErarqw: Ffftt sq+ |


(s. q. .Y)
The juice extractedfrom a drug, pressedby a machine is
known as swarasa(Purejuice, nativejuice or extract)'
The rasawhchis producedby compressing, e.g.Draksa,Iksu,
Amalakietc.,is calledswarasa.Thisswarasa be combinedwith
can
othersarhsamanakalpana's and administeredfor the treatmentof
different diseases.
{r€I:{$ffiiTr(quun(q' u\ratffcrq t
Fr({T: TT qgf{qs: ll
q.3)
( 3{ .€.s.
Thejuice takenout from a freshgreenherb,well poundedand
squeezedthrougha cloth is known as swarasa.
qfir{fd ssqgdnnFr+q
fri s{ri{r
q"ri Tcqtk€ ,qrod irFI {Tt:
TT{€: I Ffr
(Ml
The green fresh drug should be collectedon the sameday'
Thenswara.sccan be preparedby washingand poundingthem, by
squeezingand filtering througha clean cloth. The liquid which is
producedis calledSwarasa.
itlr F€t: (f({a: ryrfotquune
frrffiF{*ktr{a frqfq: IFrrF:j
(3TEngsrrd t6. z.q o )

Immediatelyafter the drug is collected.it shouldbe washed,


crushedand squeezedthrough a cloth. This is said to be swarasa
or niryasa.
sTrdfrffdwn6sr{ Tql?quur{r(ngqk I
qaRdBfr q: H {ff: Rsg rq} 11
(vn.d' {. q.q)
The juice extracted from a fresh green drug by pounding it
then squeezingthrough a cloth, is known as swarasa or rasa'
Auqadha kalpand 149

General procedure of swarasa preparation


collect the fresh greenwet drugs and make them into paste
form by pounding.Thenextractthejuice by squeezingit with a croth
or yantra, thus obtainedjuice is called swerese.
Anukalpani in swarasa abhdva

iTFqqi
sr{ff( Tdwr1 r(qrsr:nqaTr$ il{i
T.|{gfrfu:l)
(v'E' q.?.qi )
if wet drugs are not available,then for the preparationof
swarasa the following special methodsshould be adopted.The
powder of the plant drug should be taken in the quantity of one
adhqkain an earthenpot and to this one adhaka(samequantity)of
water is addedand kept for one ahoratra (24 hours),thereafierit
shouldbe squeezedby handand filtered.The Iiquid rhatcomesour
after filtration can be usedas swarasa.
gisdqfrfti rdf fwuilrEfrgd q-&r
ertiri f+qii rcqwr*drrq firrr: tl
t*q$ qR.q.)
Onekudavapowderof a dry drugput in twice its quantityof
water,keptoverfor a dayandnight,thenfilteredandobtainedliquid
is alsocalledasswarasq.
sTrqttt{Efi-rd in Fr{TFmnrnr} |
crdsqfrri sui qRfu a rlgi rr
(Yn. {. q. q,.Y)
In the caseof drugs,which are very dry and which do not give
out anyjuice, boiling themin eighttimestheir quantityof waterand
reducing to a quarter can be also used as sv,arasa.
qg {aar $f qrrq EfrGirFraoi6q1;
Fi fui q qqffq*nq"i r* f$tq n
(YtT.
{. q.q1
150 Bhaiqajya Kalpand Vffidnam

Fi fiffii nF Si frqFi r0 fqtq t


al?turwrqurffrffi qTq*( r r
(* qrq fil
Prakpepa DravYa'S of swarasa
Madhu (honey), Sarkara (sugar), guda Qaggery), ksara
(alklies),jtraka, lavana, ghrta (ghee),taila (oil) are any powder if
required to be added should be one kola each in quantity (ThesE
should be mixed \n two tola or half pala of swarasa)'
some of the common swarasa kalpand's with their lmayika
prayoga
Name of the'Swarasa Amayika prayoga.
l. Amrata Swarasa Prameha
2. DhathrTSwarasa Prameha
3. VdsaSwarasa Raktapitta, kdsa,ksaYa,kamala
4. Triphala swarasa,
Daruharidraswarasa' Kamala
Nimba swarasa,
Gudlct swarasa
5. Jambu,amra, Riktatrsara.
dmalakaswarasa
6. Ardraka swarasa Vrsana vdta, Swdsa-kdsa,aruci,
pratiSyaya.
7. Btjap[ra swarasa ParSwa(ila, hrcchfila,vastiS[la,
kosta vdta.
8. Satavariswarasa Pittaja 5[la.
9. Kumdri swarasa Pliha vrddi, apacl,
10. Alambusa(gorakhmundi) ApacT,gandamdla,
swarasa kdmala
1l. Brahmi, k[gmanda,vac6,
Sankhapuspi swarasa All types of unmdda'

Ardraka swarasa
I
sTr{q,,RtlrT: fra: grTurtJsfiTf}T:
wqT$rrftqivflf rffirrrn rr*( rr
tt. ter. liltl
Auqadha kalpand 151

Apparatus required
Mortar, pestle and clean.cloth
Drugs required
Ardraka- quantity sufficient
' Procedure

Collect completely developedqrdraka, clean it well and


remove externallayer and make it into pasteform by pounding.
Then keep the pasteover the cloth and squeezeit till total liquid
content is get separatedfrom the kalka, the obtained juice is

called ai'draka swarasa.
If drdraka swarasa is kept in a container for some time,
sedimentation of starchlike substanceat thebottonfofthecontainer
takes place. While administerin g the ardraka swarasa,it should
be adminstredalong with that sedimentedportiort:
Pharmacological Actions
Rasa .: Katu
Guna Guru, tiksna, uq4a, rlkga
Vrrya U$tra
Vipdka Katu
Dosaghnata VatakaphaSamaka
Karma Bhedani, dipana, rucya, jihwa6odhana,
kanta viSodhana.etc.
Indications
Ardraka swarasa mixed with honey relieves vyqana vam,
swdsa,kdsa, aruci andpratisydya.
A,rdraka swarase, if it is taken along with purdna guda or
ajakqira, all types of Sothawill be relieved very quickly.
Mdtra
112 pala (24 gms).
Anupdna
Madhu, ajakstra, purdlaguda, etc.
r52 Bhaiqajya Kalpana Vijfianam

Tulasi swarasa
Apparatus required
Mortar, Pestle and clean cloth
Drugs required
Tulasi - quantity sufficient.
Procedure
Take fresh and cleanedTulasl leaves and make them into
paste form, with the help of mortar and pestle. Then keep the
paste over the cloth and squeezeit and obtainedliquid portion
is called Tulasi Swarasa.
Pharmacological Actions
Rasa Katu, tikta
Guna Laghu,Rlksa
Vrrya Usna
Vipaka Katu
Karma Drpana, Kapha Vata Samaka,
Pittavardhaka.
Indications
Swasa, kasa, hikka, pdrSva6ila,kusta etc.
Mdtra
1 to 2 tola
Pufr pdka swarasa vidhi
gztrfig qr+ti eT{qrF.RqufHT
I
fti q ggd rqri g;qtar{sqrf,nqrr
I
(+srd6
cR.rr4c)
rqrn{ffi qqaiat wed trfi: t
rilri fqqrq EsTuriqhrM( E6{ | |
q*"r qarTrffiqfrAr qR+s+(|
ffi sr|.{TETfuRrrtrlr.Trd vcrqq(rr
Auqadha kalpand 153

tr {E {{-qr re {rgqh I
3r$'rrcrurf
ildi {i qqsi
ggqr*t rqlq}( | |
(r. 1. F., ai qrqstfr)
ga q?ttrel qqs E{d T6t EriT:I
erfrs?ige{r6: sq frqr+ irs q'qt t t
(cR.rfrc)
In certainconditionseven though the drugs are collectedin
wet andfreshform, theycannotproduceswarasabyusualpreparation
method of swarasa (pounding into paste form and squeezing
with cloth). Eg. Vasa, Kutaja, aralu etc.
Hence Acarya Sarangadhara describedputapaka vidhi as
an alternativemethod for swarasa,since the juice taken out by
this method is also consideredas swarasa.
In this procedure the drug will be getting agni sarhskdra.
A bolus of mud holding within it the kalka (paste)of drugs
put in to fire and removed, when it becomes red hot. The
thickness of the layer of mud should be two angulas or two
angustas.It is better to wrap the paste of drugs with leaves of
kasmarr,vaya,jambu, etc. The putapakaswarasa(uice) should
be taken in the dose of one pala to which is added one karqa of.
honey and the proportion of kalka, currya or other liquids if to
be added shall be the same as described earlier under swarasa.
Usual method of pufapaka swarasa vidhi
Vasa li.ke plant leaves are takon and made in to paste, the
paste is madq into bolus form. Which is wrapped by kafmari,
va[a, jambu etc., big leaves and tied with thread and it is covered
externally with mud. The thickness of the layer of the mud
should be two angulis (fingers) ot two angus{as(thumbs)' After
drying, this should be kept in between cowdung cakes and kept
in fire. After the mass changesin to red hot, then it is taken out
from the fire and the mass is broken for removing the external
mud etc., then this kalka (in hot state only) is collected and kept
over the cloth and squeezedfor obtaining swardsa.This obtained
swarasa is called puta pdka swQrasa,because of making the
paka of drug in puta (cowdung cakes) the swarasa is produced.
154 Bhaiqajya Kalpand Vij fidnam

Some of the examples of putapdka swarasa vidhi are


mentioned here under:
Twak- Kutaja twak, aralu twak etc.
Patra - Nyagrodha patra, vasa patra, amra, jumbu, patra
etc.
Phala - Pakwa dadima phala, vibhltaki phala etc.
Paficdnga's- Kantakdri etc.
Mula - Ftjapura, dmra, jambu, sltrana kanda, Sunthi cunpa,
etc.
In Sdrangadhara sarhhita for each drug in puta paka
swarasa vidhi some of the specifications are mentioned.
e.g. : For making kugaja puta pdka swarasa, 4 palas of
fresh bark mide in to a thick paste with tandulodaka (rice -
wash) is wrapled with tenderleavesof jambu, tied with thread
ever this ball. One layer each of paste of godhumaand mud is
made, later slightly dried in sun, put into the fire of cow dung
heaps.Here pasteof godh-umais applied to the bolus externally
before applying the mud.
For making nyagrodha patra swarasa vidhi, leaves paste
of nyagrodha is to be filled into the abdomenof a yellow tittira
Dird whose internal organs have been removed. It is then
subjected to puta paka, and the juice is taken our.
For making dadima puta pdka vidhi, a ripe fruit of dadima
is subjected to putapaka directly without any covering with
mud.
For making pugapaka swarasa of Sunthi c-urna,the powder
of iunthi mixed with little quantity of ghee, rolled inside the
leaves of eranda and subjectedto puta paka in mandagni (mild
fire).
Mdtra of Pufa Pika Swarasa
Here the mdtra of putapdka swarasa is mentioned as one
pala 6y Acarya Sarahgadharawhich is more than the quantiry
of swarasa (Prepared with usual method), becauseputa pdka
swarasa is considerably having laghu guna with comparing to
the swarasa which is obtained from fresh druss.
Auqadha kalpand 155

SyonekaPuFPekaswarasa
Apparatusrequired
Khalvayantra,clean cloth , vessel,thread, cow dung cakes
etc.
Drugs required
Syonaka m[latwak aPProPriatequantrty
Vata patra or jamblpatra - appropriate No.
wheat powder - aPProPriatequantity
Procedure
Syonaka mlula twak collected and cleaned with water and
dried._Then SyonakamilIa twakis madeinto fine pasteform with the
help of khalva yqntra and this pasteis madeinto bolus form (round
mais), then it is covered externally with appropriate number of
gainbhdri, Kaimari patras etc., and tied with thread, then again
coveredwith mud or sticky soil with two anguli thicknessand it is
dried in sunlight. Then this mass is kept in between sufficient
number(usually 8) of cowdungcakesanil burned.When massturns
into red hot, it is takenout from fire, then all externalcoveringsare
breaked and removed, then internal Syonakamltlatwak kalka is
collectedand while it is hot, kept over cloth, thensqueezedfor many
times and obtainedjuice is called Syonakapu1apakasv)arasd'
Pharmacological actions
Rasa Madhura,tikta, ka$aya
Guna Laghu, rfiksa
Wrya u$na
Vipaka Kalu
Karma Kaphavitafdmakam,diPanam,grihi
Mdtra t I pala.
Amayika proyoga Atisara. Swdsa,kdsa, 6otha,dmav6ta,
sandhivdta,vrana,aruci,
agnimandhya,Pravdhika,udara
krmi, sannipatajajwara etc.
156 Bhaiqajya Kalpand Vijfidnam

Visa puta p6ka swarasa


fqsrqi qqrcTuri gaqrqT{m frq: I
qffira;rrqttrqr{tt
(w. fr.q. q. ?.tY)
Apparatus required
Khalvayantra,clean cloth, vessel thread, cowdung cakes.
Drugs required
Wheat powder * appropriatequantity
vata patra or jambu patra _ appropriatenumber.
Freshly collected vdsapatra_ appropriatequantity
Procedure
Freshly collected vdsapatras are cleaned with water
and
dried by washing with dry cloth. Then vasa patras are
made in
to fine paste form and this paste is made in to bolus form (round
mass),then it is coveredexternally with appropriatenumber
of
vata patras or jambu patas and tied with thread, then
it is
covered with paste made by wheat powder in one
anguli
thickness,then again covered with mud or (sticky soil) with
two
anguli thicknessand it is dried in sunlight. then tlhismass
is kept
in between I cow-dung cakes (vanyopala) and burnt,
when
mass becomesred hot, it is taken out from fire, then all
external
coverings are breaked and removed, then internll vdsapatra
lcalka is collected whilc it is hot itself and'kept over
cloth; then
squeezedfor many times and obtainedjuice ii carled vdsapatre
putapAka swarasa.
Pharrnacological actions
Rasa Tikta,.kasdya
Gupa Laghu, r[ksa
Wryu Sita
VipEka Kagu
karrna Kaphapittaharam,
swaryam,hrdyam.
MEtra I pala
Anupina 'Madhu
Auqadha kalpand 157

Amayikaprayoga : Vdsaputapdkaswarasawith madhu


relieves raktapitta,kdsa, jwara,
ksaya etc.

Kalka Kalpanfi
Synonyms
Praksepa,Avapa
q: fiTudTsfirsrqitnGf,':€ qFntfrfiT:I
(s. q. Y)
e-calEqRifrc : r
(q. q.fr. q..x)
srrrd;vHrrfisK 6ffi'! |
(eL {i. s" Ll \a)

Fqqr{ffid gei ar wi qaE t


s*vrqrrfiFu,rd irqri qd{f{fr{ | |
(w. +Lq" €. \.q)
A green drug or a dry drug convertedinto a pasteby rubbing
it on a stonewith a little quantityof wateradded,is calledkalka.Its
doseis one Kar;a.
Procedure
Freshwet drugsarecollectedandcleanedwith water and made
into pastewith the help of khalva yantra. Some'timeswith dried
drugs (Suska dravya) also can be converted into kalka form,
Suskadravya is powdered and filtered with cloth and mixed with
appropriate quantity of water, kept in khalva yantra and made
into paste form bY rubbing.
It is consideredas Laghugunayuktathen the swarasa. This
is sopposedto be taken immediately after the preparationor with
in one ydma (three hours).
Kalka mfrtra
I Karsa
Prakqepa Draya MStra for Kalka
ad. ug Ti fui tq tlprqrrqT t
158 Bhaiqajya Kalpand Vij frdnam

fudr$i €d <ar{qqT
t*rgffi: rr
(Y[" €" q" GL q..l)

Honey, ghee and oil is added,if r€cessary,in double its


quantity, sugar or jaggery in equal quanrity and any liquid in
four times the quantity of kalka.
Uses of Kalka
l. Directly kalka can be given in $e form of medicine,
2. For the purpose of sneha M-urcchana and sneha pdka,
Kalka is used,
3. As a Lepa Kalpana, kalka is used, e.g. for the treatment of
Vrat.ta,Sotha etc.
Examples
Pippalyidi Kalka - Urustambha
Nimba Kalka - Vrana, Kusta, Krmi, Vamana
MahE nimba Kalka - Grdhrasr
Vi${rg Krdnta Kalka - Parinama 6ila
Sunthi Kalka - ParindmaSlla, Amavdta
Badarl mila Kalka - Raktatl Sera
Ldksa kalka - Raktaksaya,Urahksata Ksaya
Tanduliyaka Kalka - Rakta Pradara
Ankolam0la Kalka - Atisdra

Nimba kalka
ffi: qml Fuwilffi ttrT:tl
q{ura€tf€rfrl@qr
({[. g. q. u. q.\)
ApparatusRequired
Khalvayantraetc.
Drug Required
Nimbapatra-appropriatequantity
Procedure
Collect green and fresh Neem leaves,clean them with
Auqadha kalpand 159

water and dry them and make them into fine paste form with the
help of khalva yantra. Then it is called Nimba kalka.
It is used both for external application and also for internal
administration.
Karma
Vrala Ropana, Vrala Sodhana.
Amayika Prayoga
For the treatmentof Vrana it is usedas external application
and for the treatment of Chardi, Kuqgha,Pitta Vikara, Kapha
vikdra, Krmi etc diseases,it is used for internal administration.

Rasona kalka
ga: ael rrts{R ftrai+{ fiTfrtT:t
Enttlrng€ltfiqrf=rtrrrcqtilYr:T: ||
(Yn. €. q. E. q.\e)
Apparatus Required
Khalva Yantra etc.
Drug Required
Lasuna : approPriatequantitY
Procedure
Collect the completely developed garlic, remove external
layer and make them into piecesand then into pasteform with the
help of Khalva yontra and is called RasonaKalka.
Anuphna and Amayika Prayoga
Rasonakalka if it is administeredby mixing with appropriate
quantity of taila then it curesVata roga and Visama Jwara etc.

Kwitha kalpanE (decoction)


Synonims
6,q[qgirrla: q f+rrsa r
l[il: tFrTer:
({n."{.q. €. ?.1)
Srta, kasaya, niryltha these are the synonims of Kwatha
kalpand.
160 Bhaiqajya Kalpand Vijnanam

Ragarding kwatha kalpana different Acaryas mentioned


like viz.
qrd g Ffqd ipi gctqflrfurrm: r
(s.q. Y.i\)
According to Ayurvedic Physiciarzs,medicine preparedby
boiling a drug on fire is called Srrc.
qrfr{i frTrgui qgd EE{qe{h*q r
qilTi mr@rr
irffii qrq*dqf{51ui Tfr€rfsrd{ r
(YIr. Ti. q. R.q,)
Onepala of Coarselypowdereddrug is boiledwith l6 partsof
waterin an earthenpot over a mild fire till liquid is reducedto I /8th
of the orginal quantity.
sT|qqrt5d qri wi gSrni rtqr
ilmqr{{ui FFFITRrErfi{iffigq: rr
.
(w. q. q. ?.\e)
Thepdtra should not be coveredwith a lid while preparing
the kwdth(,-(decoction), by doing so the decoction will not
becomeeasily digestible,becausethe drops which are collected
in the lower surfaceof the lid will be mixed again with kasaya.
So that, it will be diluted.
Jala pramd4a (According to consistency of drugs)
ffitqqr*riiqirllryfdl-
i +Enfr qusvry&Efu6{r,
qqfrar, sr.rgr-{q,
rfu1;quJvil sr6erJfrr
*svr-
Tfu il5n1ff5{iTfrq, wneri T{qfrn ERT
rie*rqfusrsqEtffiq if,'{rtfiffi[3,srcmil+q-
6Fefi Fr6-rpr-rn?T-Tdrfrqi gdrqrErq
Tgqfrnqfrrdf+wrgfiT6i@q inffrrif,Ft: I
( 9 . | + .1 q , . 2 )
By following the specification of the mana, twak (bark),
Au;adha kalpana 161

m u l a ( . r o o t s ) a n d p u l r u ( l e a v e , s )e t c . o f l n e d i c i n a l d r u g s s h o u l d
be dried in sun light (itapo pariiosit[t) then taken and should be
c u t i n t o s m a l l p i e c e s , o r p o u r r d e d ,a s t h e c a s e m a y b e a n d s o a k e d
in a quatity of water weighing eight or sixteen limes their
c o m b i n e d w e i g h t . T h e y s h o u l d t h e n b e b o i i e c io v e r a f i r e a n d t h i :
decoction should be taken down fronr the fire i.r,ithonly a guaster
part of the water left. This is the nrethod of kr.r,rrJ,r,a kul.pani.
Ksarapanisconcept
Td qg$i *i u,ftissgui weq r
a,fd{rffifd+*i g*, ffirrir Errr{ ll
TdlF€Twiqr*qfq,rdt frfutrn'I
qtlrei@i q6qtl
(lailo-chemistr-v
of Ay'urveda-
146-| 47 )
I f t h e d r u g u s e d f o r k a . s i 7 , 6r s n t r d u ( s o f t ) . t h e n f o u r t i m e s
of \\ater should be added and boiled, if it is katina (hard) then
eiglrt times of water should be added and if it is katinatkatinalt
(very hard) then l6 times of water should be added and boiled
for preparing the decoction.If the recipe is a mixture of nrclu,
kutina and katinsthkathinah drugs and the quantity of water to
b e a d d e d i s n o t s p e c i f i e d ,t h c n i t s h o u l d b e t r e a t e d a s a r n e d i u m
type of recipe which is applicable to both (Mrdu and
Katina drugs) and eight times of water should be added to thrs
recipe for preparing the decoction.
Sarangadharas concept regarding jala pramana according to
consistency of drugs
qg{ui TS{A qfa}sugui crcrqI
flsr q wri 44 EaTils1pitl'€t:tl
qi{lqr6'fr'} rA *r ffirdr rtr{ |
(Ei. ti. TT.rg'.'\e.i-Y)
For preparing kwatha, onc part of drug is boiled in fotu
parts of water and reducedto a quarter.If the drugs are o! ntrdu
( s o f t n a t u r e ) w a t e r i s t a k e n f o u r t i m e s o f t h e i r q u a n t i t l , :i f
mediurn or moderatelyhard (.madyamoor kothina), eight tinres
and if atyantakathina (very hard), 16 parts water to be takenancl
rl BK
162 Bhaiqajya Kalpand Vijftdnam

reduced to quarter (chaturdhavafesa).


Jala pram64a according to qulntity of drugs.
According to Varahamihiral
qrr*lfr1wi qrr( €r( +sfl?isq I
il(eild Ssd qrrftrqsyi q+( rr
wqG: gisEr{s{,Trfui q Tg{uE I
$€qrRil!Rri*r ur0 vr*ag{uq rr
(Iatro-chemistry
of Ayurveda-144-l 45)
If the quantity of drug is from one masa to one pala, then
sixteentimesof watershouldbe addedto it andboiledfor preparing
lhe kwatha. If the quantity is above one pala trp to one kudava
then eight times of water should be added for preparing the
kwatha. If the quantity is above one Kudava up to one prastha
then four times of water shouldbe added.If the quantityis above
one prastha up to onc khari then (also) four times of water
should be added to it and boiled for preparing the kwatha.
According to the other scholarsdependingupon the drug
consistencymrdu, madhyame,Kathina,the rvaterwtll be addedin
theratio of 4:8:16times,to thequantityof drug powderandthe total
quantitycontentsare reducedto ll4th of original quantityand the
liquid will be filtered is called Kasayaor Kwatha.
€rA I
termscrifrsgqfsqds*:
Erdfirffiqki* ffii qg {Eir{tl
*Git x'gei qrr Freoiq fvmrsr(|
frE fr6g*t Wf ani vnuilFqiifwt( r r
q*r qa xii fui qii ur+q*i nn t
ffiit WrfRitFrA frflrffic{ tt
(w. q. c. €. ?.Y-q)
PrakpepaDravyas
Sugarmaybe addedto thedecoction in dosesof ll4,l/8 and
for vdta,pitta andkaphadisorders.
l/ l6thpartrespectively If honey
is to be added,it shouldbe in the reverseorder of proportion
(1116,lr8 & ll4).
Auqadha kalpana 163

J-iraka,guggulu, ksara, lavana, silayt, hingu, trikatu are to


be added in proportion of one Sana each.Milk, ghee,jaggery,
oil, cows urine or any other liquid, kalka, curryaare to be added
in doses of one karsa each.
The following table shows that the varities and quantities of
prakqepadravya concernedwith kwatha according to different
ancient scholers.
Author Name of the prak;epa Quantity Vyadhi
dravyas
Atreya Madhu (honey) l/l6th part of kwatha Vataja
l/8th part of kwatha Pittaja
l/4th part of kwatha Kaphaja
Atreya Sarkara(sugar) li loth part of kwathaKaphaja
l/Sth part of kwatha Pittaja
ll4th part of kwdtha Vataja
Caraka Ksira, ghrta, guda.
taila, gom[tra, other
drava dravyas,kalka,
clrna and guggulu I karsa each
Su(ruta Trikatu, Silajitu,ksara,
lavana,hingu, jTraka,
taila, ksrra, ghr!;r :r,rd
guda I tanka each
K a S y a p aH i n g u 1 masa
Guda, ksIra, sita I karsa
Hingu and saindhava I mdsa each
lavana, (kasdya which
is used for na5ya)
Sarang-
dhara Madhu (honey) l/l6th part of kwatha Vataja
l/8th part of kwatha Pittaja
1l4th paft of kwatha Kaphaja
Jarang-
dhara Sarkara (sugar) 1/16th part of kwatha Kaphaja
t64 BleaiqaiynKatrpanal'iiiidnant

1/8th part of kwatha Pittaja


il4th part of kwdtha Vataja
Sarang-
dhara Jiraka, guggulu, ksrra,
lavana,(ilajitu. hingu,
trikatu Onc (ana each
Sarang-
dhara Kstra, ghrta, guda,
taiia,gomutraor other
dravadravva.kalkil
cfrrna I karsaeach
varities of krvdtha according to the pharmacological actions
Atreyas r:oncePt
qff$ qir$ qs vilryq: vFFr€TqT I
afur: *{':{; pfuui;€[E: {qrkd{il: | |
(iirs{i-<- '. q .3)

Kwatha is of seventYPes,viz.
l. Pacana(carminative)
powerof digestion)
2. Drpana(which stimulates
(whichcleanesthe body)
3. Sodh;rna
dosas)
(which alleviateslhe aggrevated
4. Sarnana
5. Tarpana(wtrichrefreshes)
6. Kledana{which hilps in producingstickiness)
?. Sosana(which dries up the tissues)
According to Harita sarhhit[ the quality of kwathn reductions
time fatr sapt:rvidha kasaYa
qrdlsffifr rErdqr* ErqfliYr#:I
qiiqqsrg.fug rr
vrrr$set{vfrf,{fr:
ftffi erfflq a{sls wtivFn: I
ffi slsflitrs wrerrt{r: nqtftldt:ll
(ET.€. i {qr{. q)
Aw;adha kalpart?i 165

Pacana:lt is a kvuathain which tlte drova isolution) is


reduced to one-half of the total qllanttty.
S o d h a n a : I t i s t h a t t y p e o f k v i ; t 7 t h ai s w h i c h t h e d r a v ' a
dravya is reduced to one-haif of the total quantity.
Kledana: It is a kw'atha rn which the tlrava dravya reduced
to one-forth.
S a t n a n o : I t i s a k ' , v a t h ui n r v h i c h t h e s o l t r t i c n i s r e d u c e d t o
one'eighth.
D i p a n a : I t i s a k w ' t l t i t t tr n v u h i c h t l l s s o l u t i o n i s r e d u c e d t o
one-tenth.
T a r p a r y a : I t i s a k w a t i t t t i n r v i r i c l t t h e s o i t " l t i c i ni s b o i l e d t i i l
i t r e a c l t c st h e b o i l i n g P r . : i n t .
v i l a s i : l t i s a k v e t h u r n t v i r i c i t t h c s o i r . r t i a ni s r c d u c e c lt o
o n e - s i x t e e n t h I. t c a u s e s t h i r s t .
Pharmacological actions af sapta vidha kasayas
rnEFT: rrq't Mrqiffisqiryq I
vntni rdqfr* {efl-ggfffi;vFqAtt-'t I I
a,{urmd* ET'{dE1 trqt{srs; I
ffiqi vilqqrq+6qffi61q1qffiq*qfl*t rI
(dE-{I-{q q\Y-qL,u')

1. Pacanatypeof decoctionhelpsin thernetabolictransformatlon


of tissueelements"
2. Dlpanatype of decocticnstimulatesthe powcr of digtstion'
3. Sodhanatypeof decoctioneleminateswastf productsfrom the
body.
4. Samanatype i-,fdecoctionalleviatesdiseases.
to tissues.
*5. farpanu type of decoctionprovidesnourishment
6. Kledana type of deccction produces hrtkledana
7. Sosanatype of decoctioncausesclrynessof the body'
Generatrpreparation of kwatha c{tn.ta:
Certaindrugs or combinationof drugs are made into coarse
powder and kept for preparationof kasaya. Such powders are
166 BhaiqajyaKalpand Vijfianam

called kwatha curnas or kasaya curnas. Kwatha curna are


i n t e n d e d f o r u s a g e w h e n e v e ra s p a r t i c u l a r t y p e o f k w a t h a
(decoction)is required.These kwatha curna are not to be used
as c-urna,which is ment for internal administration.
Drugs and equipment required
l . T h e d r u g s c l e a n e da n d d r i e d , 2 . M o r t a r a n d p e s t l e , 3 .
Trays for drying.
Process of preparation
The drugs that are to go into the composition of the
particularkwathacurna are takenand cleaned.They are perfectly
dried and powdered separatelyand then mixed. The powders
should be coarse.
Poundingthe drugs in a mortar until coarselypowderedis
sufficient, because the kwatha curna should not be a fine
powder. If the powder be very fine, the decoctionis not easily
filtered into a clear liquid, this is due to the fine particles,passing
through the filter. In large scale preparationof Kwatha curna,
electricallydriven disintegraters are used.When the decoction
is preparedwith the kwatha curna, the vessel should be kept
open to allow the water vapoursto escapeand finally kwatha is
obtained in the vessel.
The decoction thus preparedshould be made used within
twenty four hours after it has cooled.If storedfor a longer time
fungal contaminationwill occur.
Some of the observations to be followed during preparation of
Kw[tha
l. Kasaya will be preparedby utilizing coarsepowder which
is made by dry freshly collected single or multiple drugs.
2. After making the kasaya drug into coarsepowder form it
may loss its potencycrossingrainy season.Henceaccording
to requirement little by little quantity only kasdya raw
drugs are to be powdered and preservedin glass contitiner
to make kasaya whenever required.
3. A decoction should not be allowed to evaporateafter the
proper strength is reached,nor should it be boiled again
Auqadhakalpana 167

after being once taken off the fire and placed on the
g r o un d .
4. A decoction should be rejected when
1. It assumesa dark, blue or red colour
2. It becomesthick, slimy or weak
3. It is overboiled
4. It emits a bad smell.
5. The odour of the decoctionshould be of the nature of the
drugs used and its appearencepure on lustrous.
Preservation
The Kwatha curna keep good for about an year, if protected
from moisture and insects. The Kwatha curna shculd be packed
in air tight container.Generally they will be packed in plastic
polythenebags.Thesepacketsare again enclosedin card board
boxes.
Uses
The requiredconcentrationof decoctionshould be prepared
from these and used within a daY.
Generally kwathas are prescribed as anupanas of other
drugs. The pricipal drug should, therefore,be taken or mixed
with suchdecoction.
According b Acarya Caraka it is used in 7 types, they are
sneha kalpana, 3eka, pdna, vranaiodhuna, aschothana,
gandusa, nirfthavasti. According to other Acaryas this kwatha
also used for Aristanirmarya,Avalehya nirmana etc.
At presentsome of the Ayurvedic pharmacies are preparing
kwathasin concentratedliquid form, where in all the properties
of the crude Kwdthas have been preservedr:p to some extent.
Where as other pharmacies are preparing Kwatha
concentration,which is ment for preparationof instantdecoctions.
Matra and mode of administration
Ancient phyiciansadvise its administrationshould be after
the digestionof food in the dose 2 palas per time. Which is in
slightly warmed media.
168 Bkuiqaiya Kalp ana Vij iianam

Somcofthccommonlyusingkwittrracltrnaswitlrtheir
references are mentioned below :
Formulation Reference

Amrtottara Kwatha curna Sahasrayogit,


Kasayaprakarana.

A r d h a b i l r ' . tK w l t t h r c f i r t t r Sa h a sr a y o g a ,
Kasayaprakarana

1\sluv:rrgrKrvltha c iirtta S a h a s r a y og a ,
Kasayaprakarana

A r u g 'a d h l d i K w a t h r c l r n a A s t a n g a h r d a Y a .
Su t r a s t h a n a ,
Adhyaya 15 .

GandharvahastaK
d iw a t h a Sahasrayoga,

Curna K a s i r y ; r p r a k a r an J .
Kwirthl Curna B Lrai-!aj i'I ruttiarva IT.
Chturbhaclra
G r a f r . tr t T r o g l d hi k r ir a

C h i n n o d b h a v a dKi w a t h a Sahasrayoga,

C0rna K a s a ya p r a k a r a n a .

Trayantyadi Krvatha AstIngahrdaYa,

CDrna Cikitsasthana,
A d h y a y a 13 .

DaSamulaKatutraYa Sahasrayoga,

Kw5tha Clrrna Kasayaprakarana

Da$arnulaKwatha Clrna B h a i sa jy a r a t n a v a l i ,
Kasarog[dhikara.

Dafarnula Pafrcakoladi Sahasrayoga

Kwatha Cltrna Kasayaprakarana

DaruniigaradiKwatha Sahasrayoga

Curna Kasayaprakarana

Draksadi Kwatha AstangahrdaYa,

Curna Cikitsasthana,
Adhyaya l.
4uqtdha kalpana 169

N a 1 ' o p a y a nK w a t t r a S a ha s r a y u g a .
Curna K a si i y a J r r ak a r a n a .
Nirnbadi Krvatha Cakradattt.
Curna J v a r a ci k r t s a .
Nyagrodhadi Kwatiia Astangahrdaya,
Curna Su t r a s t h a r t a ,
Acihyaya 15.
N{odern Concept of Kwltha (Decoctinn)
Decoction is the process in which the rvater soluble and
h e a t s t a b l e c o n s t i t u e n t o f h a r d a n d r v o o d y c r u d e r , i r u g sa r e
e x t r i r c t e do u t . H e r e w a t c ' ri s u s e d e s n . l e t . i s t r u m f o r t h e s t a t e dt i m e .
Adjustment to finai voiurne is rectssaLylo get a uniform product
b e c a u s ed i f f e r e r r t w o r h - e r su i i i u s e d i f f c r e n t t v p e s o 1 ' r ' e s s e l sa n d
d i f i ' e r e n t s o u r c e sc i f h e a t r e s u l t r i i g i n t o l o s s o f l v a t e r i n d i f f e r e n t
quantities bv evaparation fornt. A freshly prepared decoction
should only be dispensed and the same must be consumed
' . v i t h i n2 4 h o u r s . A t p r e s e n tn o d e c o c t i o r ri s o f f i c i a l i n I . P . o r B . P .

FunarnavagtakakwEtha

@sTal-Erdrrqrqqrq: I
qruglrqr{6lrT | |
(zt-fr-{a,
3-{wl ??)

€rsfr
q-6r I
qTrgffir€rlEt{rdn*rvtFrFrrfFvfr
{YII" €. g" R.'€\e)
Apparatus required
K w a t h a p a t r a , c l o t h , m c a s u r e n l e n ts c a l e ,khelvayantra
etc.
Drugs
_-l
l. Purnarnavo
2. AbhayaRhalatwak
I
3 " N i m b at w a k I
170 B haiqajya Kalpana Vij iidnam

4. Daruharidra
5. Katuka All together I part and all drugs
6. Patola patra should be taken in equal quantity
7. Gudlci kanda
8. Sunthi
9. Water 16 parts
Procedure
Above mentioned 8 drugs are made into yavakuta curnq
separatelyand mixed together,then taken in to kwathapatra and
l6 times of water is added,then it is kept for one night, next day
morning contents are heated over mrdvagni, till total contents
are reducedto l/8th quantity and filtered with clean cloth and
obtained kwatha is called Dunarnavdstakakwatha.
Mdtra
2 to 4 tolas
Amayika prayoga
Punarnavastaka kwathataken with gomutrarelievespandu,
kasa, udara, fwasa, Sula and sarvangaiotha.
According to needpunarnavastakakwatha also can be taken
by mixing with guda,Sarkara,Silajit, lavana,ksara,hingu,gomutra
etc. in appropriatequantity.
Rasna saptaka kwatha
rfrffi+<ro 5.{+{rr
RTq+qi ffi(rr
{rffi d5i l@rdr
@ ggwtrr
(YIL q. q. q. ?.zq-29)
Apparatus required
Kwatha pdtra,cloth, measurement
scale,khalvayantraetc.
Drugs
l. Rdsna
2. Goksura
Auqadha kalpand t7r

3. Eranda
4. Devaddru
5. Punarnava All together I part and all drugs
6. Guduci should be taken in equal quantity
7. Aragwadha
8. Water l6 parts
Procedure
Risrro exceptwater (7 drugs)are made into yavakutacurna
separatelyand mixed together,then collectedinto kwatha patra
and addedto l6 times of water and it is kept over night, next day
morning, contentsare heated over mrdu agni tlll total contents
get reduced to l/Sth part, then contentsare filtered with clean
cloth, obtained kwatha is called Rasna SaptakaKwatha.
Anupana and Amayika Prayoga
Sunthicurna or erandataila is dissolvedin this kwatha and
takeninternally,thenit relievesjangagraha,katigraha,pariwaplda,
prsthuptda, urupida, dmavata.
Mdtra
2 to 4 tola

Paniya kalpana
qgui irqwi qrui T{:qffi we r
sTdFrdq ntq qri qinlR+ihd tl
(gt {i" q" g. ?.q\e)
One pala of drug boiled in slx4rfour palas of water and
reducedto half the quantityis calledpaniya and usedas a drink.

Sadanga paniya
Apparatus required
Kasdyapatra,stirrer and meausurement
scale,cloth etc.
Drugs required
-l
Usrra
Parpata
I
172 Bhaiqajya Kalpand Vijiidnam

Udrcya
Musta t_
I
: I Part
Nagara I
Candana
Water
_J 64 Parts

Procedu::
Yavokutacunla ':i above mentionedsi,r drrrgsis made and
addedto 64 timesof r.vater to thatof drugs.Thentheliquid contents
are to bc boiled with mandagnitill the total quantity t;f contents
are reducedto half of the quantity.Then the contentsare filtered
with cioth and collected liquid is called SadangaP.lri-r'rr.This
p a n i y a s h o u l d b e c o o l e d b e f o r e a d m i n i s t r a t i o nT. h i s r e c i p e
plpularly known a.ssadtutgapanlvu becauseit consistsof six
drugs. All the drugs of this recipe except nagaro are havtng
fiktsrasa.Nagora has been specilicallyaddedto this recipe to
c o r r e c t t h e a f i i i c t i o n o f n n u . i c t , - cTt .L r i sd r u g a l s o h e l p s i n
allevationof jwara.
Acarya Vaghbhatain ttie place of Sw.rthi,anotherdrug has
nrentionedcalled as padmaksa.
Karrna
pacanam
DTpana,amadosaharam,
Amayika prayoga
Jwara, pipasa,daha

l\{[tra
Dose has to be altered accordingto the requilement.

Ph5lfa kalpana
One pala of a powdered drug and one kudava of hot water
are kept in a mud pot and filtered through cloth after some time.
This liquid known as Curnadrava or Phanta (infusion), is
administered in dose of two palas. Honev, sugar ot iaggery to
Auqadhakalpana r73

be addedshallbe in the sameproportionas that of kwatha.


mentionedin someof the classicsas
Phantapreparation
lbllovrs.
For the preparationof the phanta firstly water has to be
troiled,duringthattime therespectedquantityof drugin coarse
powder form has to be immersed,then earthenpot has to be
takenout from thefire thenrvaterbecomessomewhatcnld,then
it souldbe rubbedwith handsanclfilteredwith cloth,thenit is
allowedfor adnrinistration.

SudarSanaph64{a
Apparatusrequired
Khalva Yantra, Vessel,cloth etc.
Drugs
Amalakr Hantaki Vibhitaki Haridra
D[ru haridra Kanta Kari Brhati Satl
Su n t h r Pippali Marica Pippalrmula
M urva G u du cr Yavasa Katuka
Parpata Nagaramotha Trayamana Netrabala.
N i m b a t w a k Puskaram[rla Y a s t r m a d h uV a t s a k a
Ajavain Indrayava B h a r a n g T Si g r Lbr r ja
Saurastrakam Vaca Dalcrnr Padmakastha
USTra Sweta candana Ativisa BalamDla.
Saliparni PrSniparni V idanga Tagara.
Citrakarn[rla D e v a d a r u Cavya Patola Patra
Jrvaka Rsabhaka Lavanga Vam(alocana
Kamala puspaKakoli Teja Patra Jatlpatra
Talisa patra.
Procedure
All drugsin equalpartsarepowderedandto it is addedhalf
thetotalquantityof powderof Kiratatiktacurnaanduniformly
mixed well. This recipeis known as Sudarianacurna and by
using this Sudar|anacurna,phanta can alsobe preparedand
174 Bhaiqajya Kalpana Vijiianam

calledsudarSana
phanta.(Acarya Sri Yadavjiinhis Siddhayoga
Sahgraha- jwara Prakarana,mentionedthat, by using this
SudarSanaCltrna, hima or phanta can be prepared.)
Onetola of sudarianacltrnacanbe immersedin I6 tola of
boiling water then the vesselis takenout from fire and when
water becomescold, powder is rubbedwith handsand then
filtered with cloth. Such obrainedliquid is called Sudariana
p hanta (Si ddhayoga sangraha).
Amayika Prayoga
All typesof jwara, santApa.
Mdtra
4 tola.
PafrcakolaPh64fa
fiw,cn rq+gr{ qilrca'Fngriw& r
frftE rFq?i qaf Tqai qErqrcrfi: n
(qr. q. E \eY)
Apparatus Required
Khalva yantra,vessel,cloth etc.
Drugs
Pippali (1 kola)
Pippall mula (1 kola)
Cavya (lkola) F lPart
Citrakamlla (l kola)
Nagara (1 kola)
Water 4 parts
Procedure
Above mentionedfive drugs has to be made into coarse
powderform separatelyand takenin equalquantity (eachdrug
I kola or Vztola Pramarya)and this powder is immersed in
AuEadhakalpand 175

4 parts ( l0 tola)of boiling water. Then, vessel has to be taken


out frorn the fire and when water becomes cold, powder is
rubbed with hands and then filtered with cloth. Obtained liquid
is called Paficakola Phanta
karma
Drpana, Pacana.
Amayika Prayoga
Kaphavikara, vatavikara, kapha jwara, vatajwara,
pratiSyayaetc.
Anupdna
Sarkara,ghrta
Some of the phanta kalpana with their amayika prayoga
mentioned here under.
Name of Ph54ta kalpan5 Amayika prayoga
phanta
1. Brhanmadhuka Vata pitta jwara, daha,
trsna, mlrcchd, arati,
bhrama,raktapitta,mada.
2. Amradi phanta S e v e r ej w a r a , p i p a s a ,
chardi,atisdra,Mfirccha.
puspadi
3. Laghumadhuka Tfqla, pittahara,daha,
phanta mfirccha,bhrama.
4. Kutajaphanta Vamana.Atisara.
Hima kalpana
(Cold Infusion)
Synonims
Hima, Sita kasaya.
Introduction
The drugs having Slta vIrya and volatile principles may
loose their active principlesby heating,hence for such type of
drugs the l,ima kalpand is mentioned,by which active ingredients
can be collected in cold infusion form.
t76 Bhaiqajy a Kalp anii Vij iianatn

Yfr-d) {rFi qe ftffit: i


( 3 1 .€ 6 . E - ? , o )

In Drutrya Gurrrl Vijiiana, it is metttioned that cne part of


the drug has to be itnniersed in -l parts cf l"iater.
qqcdwi ryrui afsrffi: Str{. I
qpn
fiwilkifaq: q RIIREI qdi'rrer r
furq{gsr-4K €'rqq sfi{Af@ t
(q-q{uTfflfl-r : si ?TIEqcl)

Prakgepa Dravyas
Sira. natlhrt, gutla etc are mixed rr.'ifh /rtrtla kalpr'uti
a c c o r d i n g t o t h e n e r : d a n d a l i o r v e d f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o r t .H c r r : t h e
ratio of praksepa dravt'a's in hima krtl\c'ttt is followed like
kwathct kalpana.
N{atra
According lo AcArt'u iiirohgacllnru, hintu kaipotti mii:a
is sarne a.s tne tniitra of ltlta1tta and it is tti'o lloltl'\'
Acar,-a Yiduvjt ntentioned hitnu kclpurtii ntrttra t,s 1 palo'
According to Ac[rYa Caraka

rerilqifter-dr*t rd* f{Fr dftrydr-{I


6utqi Ssfi+Frqffrrr Yfrt: Fgar6fl: tt
tl

(q {. x, q-*-qlTrliz-tTl t qih-* wral


According to Acarva L'araka, hima kalpttrlrl is prepared by
putting the coarsely ground drug in boiled v;ater and kept over night
then filtered and the obtained liquid is called ilta kalpana. Here
i n s i e a do f c o l d w a t e r b o i l e c lw a t e r i s m e n t i o n e db y A c ' a r t a C a r r t l : a .
qusi rqwi {rq,wEftrffi: q?r{ I
twilki fre: q Rrtsn Yfi?trqr*s': li
ilqri q"ro?trS?i €d**q frsq: t
(Yfl.{i c' . u. Y q,-?)
One pala of porvdeted drug is put into eight palr-rsof cold
water and kept one ni.u.hiin i,|pot. It is filtered through cioth next
Ausadhakalpand fi7

morning and used in the samedosageas that of phanta.


This is
known as hima or jlta kasayct(cold extract).
(while filtering the riquid the curna has to be
rubbed with
handsto get properactivatedform of hima kalpana).
E.g. of hima kalpnna with their amayikaprayoga.
1 .Gudlcr hima : Jrrnaiwara
z- Dhanyaka hima : Antharddha,trsna, srotoviSodhaka.
J. Dhanyakadihima : Rakta pitta, jwara, ddha,trsna,Sosa
A
+. Amradi hima : Rakta pitta
Maricadi hima : Trsna, vamana
o. Nrlotpaladi hirna : Vatapittajwara,pralapa, bhrama,
vamana,moha trsna
7. Vdsahima : Raktapitta,kdsa, jwara.
Introduction
Hima (fita kasaya) kalpana usually prepared by Sltavtrya
and sugandhitadravyas and it is administeredfor the purpose
of
pittapraiamqna.Hima kalpanais useddirectly ur u *.ii"ine
and
also used for the preparationof other karpanas like sarkara,
parruka etc.

SarivaOihima kalpand
Ref: Siddhayogasangraha
- Sri yadavii
Apparatus required
Earthen pot, khalva yantra, cloth etc.
Drugs required
l. Ananta mfila
2. Brhat Sariba
3. Copcini
4. Manjista
5. Guduci All together I part and all drugs
6. Yavdsa should be taken in equal quantity.
7. Rakta candana
8. Gulavanapsa
I2 BK
178 B haiqaj_ta Kalpand VijnAnam

9. Uslra
1 0 .M u n d r
I l. Cirayata
12.Kamalapu$pa
I 3. Gulab putpa
14.Drona pulpa
I 5. Padmakastha
1 6 . S a n k h ap u s p i
1 7 .W a t e r - 6 parts
Procedure
A l l t h e a b o v e m e n t i o n e dd r u g s s h o u l d b e m a d e i n t o
yavakutacurna and mixed 5 times of hot water in an earthenpot
and it is kept for one night, by exposingwith moon rays, then
next day morning contentsare rubbed with hands and filtered
with clean cloth, such obtainedproduct is called Sarivadi Hima
Kalpana.
Matra : 8 tulas
Anupina : Sugar
Amayikaprayoga : Raktajavyadhi,pittaja vyadhi, paldu, kandu,
hastapddedaha, amlapitta, puranajwaraetc.
Dhlnyaka hima
srd: {ryr#{: Hffi qlqrfidr:Ft:ll
gr<rdd dfi ilrri wffiffiqq: t
(w. €. c. €. t. u-z)
Apparatus required
Earthenpot, cloth, khalvayantra
etc.
Drugs required
Dhanyaka(dhaniya)- I Part
water - 6 parts
Procedure
Dried dhanyakais made in to yavakutacurna with the help
of khalva yantra and it is collectedin to an earthenpot and hot
water is added,then kept it for one night by exposingit moonrays.
Next day morning contentsare rubbed with hands and filtered
Auqadha kalpand fig

with clean cloth, obtained product is called dhdnyaka hirfta


kalpana.
Mitra
8 tola
Anupdna and time of administration
Dhanyaka hima is advised to take in pratah kara and whire
administration appropriate quantity of sugar has to be mixed
with dhanyaka hima.
Karma
S r o t o v iS o d h a n a m .
Amayika prayoga
Antarddha, r{$f a
Usnodaka
oTst{tvritur Tg*Trd*r EnI
srrfl ts.q++qfirdgstilq* qt( r r
ffir+tr
i5'rgargqf{r fr-d5'Ert{q*tfirpr r I
( { T .€ . q . € . i . q \ 3 - q , q o )
Requirements
Vessel, pure water
Procedure
Reductionof water after boiling to l/gth, rl4th or l/2 of lts
original quantity, is called usnodaka.It is ad'ised to take at
night.
Karma
Slesma haram, vasti|odhanam, ftpanam.
Amayika prayoga
Amavata, medovikdra, kdsa, jwasa, jwara

Tandulodaka (Tanduta jata)


a,frsii trrgaqti crdsu'gfuri
{eryQE
I
qrqfu{r wi qld tq q{r afg ;1
({n.d. q. €. ?.tz)
180 Bhaiqajy a Kalpand Vii iidnam

Introduction
Broken rice is immersedin cold water and tandulodakais
prepared with that. The method of preparation is similar to
Sttit<asaya.But it is mentioned under the context of swarasa
kalpana in Saranghadharasarhhita.
Apparatus repuired
Earthen Pot, cloth, vesseletc.
Drugs required
Broken rice (Tandula)- I part (lpala)
water - 8 parts
Procedure
Broken rice (Rice is brokeninto piecesor made into coarse
powder form), is taken in an earthen pot and added 8 times of
water. Then it is kept for 3-6 hours. After that, contents are
rubbed with handsfor some time, then contentsare filtered into
another vessel, with the help of cloth and obtained product is
called tandulodaka.
Here, keeping the contents for 3-6 hours, specific time
period is not mintioned in SarngadharaSarhhita,but usually in
practice it is done in this manner.
Some of the Ayurvedic scholars mentioncd that, tandula,
after pounding, cleaned with fresh water, then immersed in
specific quantity of water. Here regarding quantity of water
some have mentioned 4 times and 6 times also. Tandulodaka
prepared with 4 times of water may posses more Suruguna'
Karma
Grahi
MEtra
4 tola
Amayika proyoga
Swetarakta pradara etc.
It is usually given as anupana with some grahl ausadha
Ldkp6 rasa kalpanfl
Likpd (Carteria lacca, insect product)
Auqadha kalpand 181

Sanskrit name : Laksa


English : Lac
Hindi : Mah
Laksa is a resinoussubstanceusually of redish or dark
brown colour, with a disagreablesmell and easily breakable
with a cracking sound,depositedon the twigs of trees such as
Banyan, croton, acacia and plpul by a small insect called the
Carteria lacca. Regarding formation of laksa different opinions
are present.
Some statethat the insectsattachthe young branchesof the
trees above mentionedand fix themselvesto the branches;the
female insect after ovapositionis effecteddies; giving out from
her body a reddishliquid which solidfiesand forms a crust about
an inch thick round the branch attached.
According to anotherconceptthe sting of the insect affects
the sap or gum of the trees,which forms the laksa.
According to other concept the deposit is the excreta of the
lnsects.
Pharmacological Actions
Hikka, Kasa, Rakta Pitta, Dhatugatajwaram, Dantagata
roga. Laksa is also used for inunction in the form of several
medicinal oil as Laksadi taila, Candanadi taila, Angdrika taila
etc.
LakqE Rasa Preparation
Aquiring the active ingredientsin water media by heating
is called ldksd rasa kalpand.
itqiMffiqr
fTr{EilqTqRqrqT HTKRSF{Ii ftr{: tl
(r' 1' F' qrqils)
Apparatus required
Dolayantra etc.
Drugs required
Laksa - I part, Water - 6 parts
182 BhaiqajyaKalpana Vijfianam

Procedure No. I
One part of Laksa is takenand separatcdfrom forien bodies
etc. and collectedin a cloth then made in to pottali and it is kept
hanged in the vessel, which contains 6 times of water inside
(dolayantra). Then contents are heated over mandagni, till
liquid portion is reducedupto l/4th quantity. Then contenrsare
cooled and filtered for 2l times, with the help of cloth and
obtained product is called laksarasa.Next day morning the
Laksa powder is crushedwith handsin water, then this liquid is
filtered for 2l times with a cloth. The obtainedred colour liquid
is called Laksa rasa.
Procedure No. 2
Drugs required :
l. Laksa - 10 gms
2. Lodhra twak c[rna - lgm.
3. Swarjikdksara- 100 gm
4. Badarapatrakalka - little quantity.
5. Warer - 160 ml.
Method : Laksa, Iodhra twak curna, badara patrakalka ano
swarjikaksara are taken in mentionedquantity in a colth and
made in to pottali form, then hangedin a vessel(dolayantra) and
it is heated over mandagni, till the water is reduced to l/4th
quantity and vesselis taken out, then contentsare filtered with
cloth for 2l times and obtained product is called laksd rasa
kalpana.
While heating, in betweenpottall has to be compressed
with forceps by which proper quantity of laksarasa dissolves
in water. Here it can be noticed that, water quantity mentioned
as 16 times.
M d t r a : 2 5 m . 1 .t o 5 0 m . l .
Indications
Vrarya,asthi bhagna,jwara, urahk;ata.
Mirhsarasa
@ frgq qii Fd* frgui rrrT:I
ri*tri qrc+urgi q{ T€{i tl
(*. q. c. B. q. qe)
Auqadha kalpana r83

One part of dravya, two parts of rnarhsaancl four parts


water, all togethermixed in a vesseland cookedtill the total
contentsare reduced up to l/4th quantity. The contents are
filtered with a cloth, then the obtainedliquid is made bharjana
with appropriatequantityof Goghrla,thenit is calledmaitsarasa.
This is also called as sadangavusa.
qrd,qri Td {sr+dg irEqlEril:I
iH frE EF.{i q qd*ilE+ilq rl
unTdTftq-rFsiqfi il€frs?i {q{ |
qti fir'rffoi ilRqqi irsf,+61: tl
(rfl.C Edfdstf:.o-L\)
Acarya Bh.avaMiSra regardingmaitsa rasa preparation
mentionedlike this, ghrta is taken in paka patra (The vessel
which is used for the preparationof mahsu rasa) and melted"in
the abscencveof ghrta, taila also can be taken.After ghee is get
heated hingu and haridra are added and fried (Bharjana) well,
then ajamarhsa(Goat meat) is mixed in the form of bone less
pieces (Before adding the meat pieces they should be cleaned
rvell) and meat pieces are made bharjana..Then appropriate
quantity of water is added,then appropriatequantity of lavana
is to be addedand mixed well. Then vesselis closedwith lid and
cooked well. Marhsa is filterd, then after, in obtained liquid
vesavara dravyas (spice of meat) in the form of praksepu
dravyas are added and mixed well, then heated for some time
after that, contentsare filterd with cloth and obtainedproduct is
called marhsarasa. When marhsais properly cooked, vesat,dra
(spiceof meat) which is grindedin water is takenand mixed with
contents.The obtainedproduct is called mamsq resa.
Vesavdra
Vesa vara kalpana is similar to the marhsarasa.
Tqrfrr qFrrodqcrfr q I
drgdrg ffif,fi qfiiqrfr F{RtiT: tl
(qi. c. ?-dtE-qil)
According to Bhava MiSra vesavara term is mentioned for
some group of drugs, i.e. Nagavalll patra, tandula, lavanga,
184 BhaiqajyaKalpana Vijfianant

m a r i c a . T h e s e a l l d r u g s a r e s u p p o s et o b e t a k e n i n e q u a l
q u a n it t y .
f{drh frwfrqri ftrmfrq+nrrq r
Erq?h tl
+yrqngfr wm: vr*lftg f{qtil+( | i
led?I{iRm)
According to Atreya sarhhita, citraka, pippatt muta, pippali,
cavya, nagara, dhanyaka, haridra, tandula, are suppose to be
taken in equal quantity by the name of vesa t,ara.
Here vesa vara dravyal can be considered as praksepa
dravyas of marhsa rqsa.
Regarding the ratio of marhsa and water while preparing
the marhsa rasa, sri Yadavji in his dravyaguna vijn.ana mentioned
like wise.

wfrrEriwe r€A q+sq qeri il q I


Etrci grqi( grsAil{* lfr rr
(q. T. E. qTETS)
l. If marhsa rasa gharuais supposeto be prepared then
marhsa8 pala andjala I prastha in quantity are taken and
marhsa rasa is prepared.
2. If madhyama maritsa rasa is suppose to be prepared 6
, pala's of marhsa and I prastha of water are taken.
3. If tanu marhsa rasa is suppose to be prepared then I
kudava of maritsa and I prastha of water are taken.
Varities of Mdrhsa Rasa
sr+FEUi ndr5ii
f{ftf itaurrrtq*: igi iFiq rl
(g {. Yq/i\e3)
l. Krta mahsa rasa.,2. Akrtq marixsa rasa.
Pharmacologiial Actions of Mirhsa Rasa
tr ffiE Efui g€qR ifreqr
Trqkfr{ tl
Auqadha kalpana 185

tFeri qtqi(sq" arrqmgfr qa: r r


(t.{.xezteq)
Mantha kalpana
Different scholors of Ayurvedc explained about mantha
kalpana like wise :
Sarangadharasconcept
rr$sfr wrrartE:sr+{ q}q q,qt r
wd wg:ud
TnA qcraqrrur{inrnrr fsncifir*q r
( T r .€ . { . l e . Y . ! - { o )
Acarr-a iarahgadhara consideredmantha kalpana as a
p hantabhedrz( varietyof p hanta) andexplained,aboutmantha kalpana
under the heading of phanta kalpana. One pala of powdered
drug is put in fow palas of cold water and churned well in a
earthen pot for some time to thick consistence.Then after
filtered with cloth and obtainedliquid product known as mantha
and it sould be administeredin the dose of two palas.
Eg-
Kharjtrradimantha - Madatyaya
Masuradimantha - Chardi
Yavasaktumantha - Tf$r.ra,daha, rakta pitta
Sarkaradimantha - Apatarpanajanya roga, krsata
Tyusanadimantha - Santarpana
janya roga
(Becausecold water is used for the preparationof mantha
kalpana, this is more appropriatedthat, to considerDnderthe hima
kalpana)
Susruta concept
€ifiq: rfifqtsszlfi't:
qTF*qr qrfitqrqr rwr Fqqfrwt tl
({.q.Yq/?z\)
186 B haiqajya Kalpand Vij franam

General preparation of mantha kalpana


Apparatus Required
Earthen pot, churner (mathani),cloth etc.
Drugs Required
Medicinal drug powder : I part (lpala 48
gms)
Water : 4 parts (4 pala 192
gms)
Procedure
I Pala of medicineof drug in fine powder from is put in 4
palas of cold water in an earthenpot and contentsare churned
well, while doing so active principlesget disolvedin water. Then
after contentsare filtered with cloth and obtainedliquid is called
mantha kalpana.
Matra : 2 pala (96 gms)
Anupdna : Sita, madhu, guda,
Acarya agnivesa concept
rr{t: s{rt*o,qqrtTrq#itqrBt! |
qsq*': qrrd*{*l rrsknrr{q tl
srfrq-Fq(d wirg'iT:s*d sq rF qr r
€-€r: Trd{uil q;E: T*+qufftrrE:tl
( s . { .i r / a 3 )
Kharjtrridhi mantha
r3r{5<mrnqfrffi: rt
- sq6t: qp-frrrv: Td€k6rcd( |
(Yn.€.q.s.Y.qo-qq)
Apparatus Required
Earthen Pot, churner (mathani),cloth, khalwa yantra etc.
Drugs Required
Seedlesskharjlra : lpart
Pakva dadima phala brja : I part
Drdksa : 1 part
Auqadha kalpand r87

Tintidika : I part
Amlika : I part
Amalaki : I part
ParDsaka : I part
Water : 4 parts
Procedure
Make paste form of above mentionedall 7 drugs with the
help of khalvayantra and this contentsare immmersedin 4 times
of water in an earthernpot for I to 2 hrs. then the contentsare
churned and, rubbed with hands.Then after contentsare filterd
with a cloth and obtainedliquid is called kharjuradi mantha.
Mdtra
2 Palas(96 gms)
Amayika prayoga
1. Madhathyaya
It can be administerdevery 4thhr to get good result.

Auqadhasiddha pEniya
quqi rqwi qrei Tg:qffi wA I
srdRrd q dt{i qri rrin'rR{iFd tl
(YI.{. q. s. ?.qq\e)
One pala of drug boiled in sixty four palas of water and
reducedto half of the quantity then contentsare filtered with cloth
and obtainedliquid is called Ausadhasiddhapaniya or pantyajala.
Uses
This ausadhasiddhapantya is used as a drink and also used
for the preparationof peya etc.
Ausadha siddha panlyg is to be considerd as one form of
kwatha kalpana, hence it is mentioned in the context of kwatha
kalpana.
qq$ Tdvftlr{ wFG rgwi r
afu''i 6 *4 qrq+(srftEbsrufu
||
r88 Bhaisajya Kalpana Vij iianam

srdud qqtmdi qri qqrR{ifrq}|


{r;a1wFtn,qlq({S)
Sri Yadavaji in his dravyaguna vijiiana regarding ausailha
siddha panrl;a mentioned like wise :
One tola of ausadha dravya is made into coarse powder
form and it is mixed with one prasta (64 tota) of water in a vessel
and heated with mandagni ttll it reduces the liquid quantity to
half prastha then vessel is taken out from tosli and colttents are
filtered with cloth, the obtained liquid is called ausadha siddha
paniya, then after it cools, it is advised to take internally.
According to the patients disease condition medicinal drug has
to be selected. This is used for the preparation of kwatha siddha
yavagu etc.

YDsa kalpana
Ausadha Siddha Ylsa
Introduction
Water, kw,atha,swarasa,hima, and takra etc. Dravadralta's
are mixed with Simbi-Dhanyaetc. except rice and cooked well.
Obtained iiquid portiun is called Yusa kalpana. In Kaiyapa
sarhhita, khila-sthana, Yusa nirdeslyam adhyaya wide range of
description is mentioned regarding yusa kalpana.
For the preparationof yusa, mrdu vlrya dravya katka, is
taken in I pala pramana and Suntt. pippall etc. tlksana vlrya
dravyas are supposeto be taken in I karsa pramana and mixed
with I prastha of water in a vesseland boiled till up to, contents
are reduced to y2 of the quantity or according to the need
reductioncan be done and after that, contentsare filtered with
cloth, then obtainedliquid is called Yusa kalpana.
The substancecooked with so many articles along with
liquids exceptrice is called Yusa(soup) and cooked with rice is
Yavagu (gruel).
Definition of Ytla
Tfr ilr Efiq-flrrqra-{il:
Auqadha kalpana 189

{ffifr qW 156: F{tr FfliT:


(ot. €. fu. x-qb-qz)
The wise call the root y 7sa for liquifaction and
metabolization.ln this way the cookedyusa liquifies the dtets.
Yiiga gunas
'lhe
Yilsa is rocana, dlpana, vrsya, svaravarnabalagnikrt,
prasvedajanana,Pustl and sukhakaram.The Yusa suppresses
vata due to being sneha and usnadravyas,the pitta due to being
sneha and kasaya dravyas, and the kapha due to being uusna,
ka[u dravyas.
Yh;a Bhedha
The yusa are said to be of two types basedon addition of
sneha- l. Krta ytrsa'. Sufficient quantity of sneha and lavana,
marica, dalcini, pippall etc. katu dravya are mixed and fried.
2. Akrta yu;a: It will be preparedwithout adding any
sneha, lavana, katu dravya.
Varities of Yiipa
25 Varities of Yisa are mentionedlikewise :
l. Mudga Ylsa 2. Virasika Ytsa
3. Dadima Ylsa 4. Citraka Ytsa
5. Amalaki Y[sa
6. Paflca kola yuktha sangrdhlY[sa
7. Pafica kola yuktha Drpana Y[sa
8. Dhanya Y[sa 9. Kulatha Y[sa
1 0 . P h a l aY l s a 1 1 . P u s P aY t s a
12. Patra Ylsa 13. Valkala Ylsa
14. Pallava Ytsa 15. Maha Y[sa
16. RasnaYtsa 17. Masira Y[sa
18. ChangeriYlsa 19. Milaka Ylsa
20 PunarnavdY[sa 21. Atibala Y[sa
22. Guda-kambalikaY[sa 23. Trikatu Ytsa
24. Lasuna Y[sa 25. Vasttka Saka Yusa
190 B hai qajy a Kalp and Vij ft dnam

Sapta mustika y[sa


Apparatus required
Khalva yantra, vessel,cloth e t c .
Drugs required
Kulatha I part (Mustika)
Yava I part (Mustika)
Kola I part (Mustika)
Mudga I part (Mustika)
Suskamil (mili) I part (Mustika)
Sunthi I part (Mustika)
Dhanyaka I part (Mustika)
Water 16 parts
Procedure
Kulatha etc. 7 drugs are taken and made into yavakuta
curna and taken into vessel,then mixed with l6 times of warer
and heated over manddgni, till reducing the total contents up to
Yz of the quantity or l/4'hquantity (accordingto need) vesselis
taken out from the fire and contents are filtered with a cloth and
obtainedliquid is called sapta mustika Yusa becausehere each
of the drug is taken in mustika (fist) pramana.
Karma
Sleqma haram, vdtaharam, khantha-hrdaya-Mukha
iodhana karam.
Amayika Prayoga
Sannipatha Jwara, ama-vata.

Arka kalpani
Definition
Arka are distilled essences,which contain the volatile
constituentsof the drugs used in the preparation,in a medium of
water and they are equivalentto the 'aquae' or 'waters' of the
Western Pharmacopoeia,which are prepared in the same way.
Some of the drugs which contains active principles in the
Auqadha kalpand l9l

form of volatile oil. Hence by using these drugs if kwatha is


piepared while doing preparationitself active ingredientsmay
get vapourised.Arka kalpana can be preparedwith such drugs
e.g. gulabipuspa,kevada puspa, vedamuska,somph, candana,
yavani, khas, anantha mula, pudhina etc.
Arka kalpana stabrlity period is comparitively more than
swarasa,kalka, kwatha, hima,phanta and cfirna etc. and alsoarka
kalpemapossessgood palatability and attractive colour, hence
its acceptencyis more.
Method of preparation
Arka is prepared by a process of distillation of water -
soaked -raw drugs. The volatile principles which are evolved
admixtured with water vapour are condensedand taken.
Apparatus required
Distillation apparatus (Arka yantra) :
The still consistsof a basalreceptacleto containthe drugs,
and a cover with an exhausttube which is convenientlybent to
drain the distillate into the bottle.A cupularreservoiris provided
at the region where the exhaustleaves the lid portion.
The receptacle of the retort may be an earthern pot or
preferably a metallic one. When made of metals like brass or
copper,the interior shouldbe tin coated.Iron shouldnot be used
becauseit gets rusted and corradedin a short period. Stainless
steel stills are excellent.It is advisableto provide a perforated
false bottom in the receptacleto keep the drug intended for
extractionand to avoid charring.The cupular reservoirover the
lid is filled with cold water during distillation and it serve as a
sort of crude type of condensor.This crude devise could be
replaced by a good condensorin the form of a water jacket
around the exhaust tube, or even a spiral type of condensor
could be provided.
Drugs required
L The essential drugs from which arka is to be obtained- I
part
(Arka can be preparedby singel drug or compound
form of drugs)
192 Bhaisajya Kalpana Vijfidnam

2. Sweetwater- 10 parts
Process of Preparation
If wet and freshly collecteddrugs are used,then they have
to be made into small piecesand if dry drugs are used for arka
kalpanathen they have to be made into coarsepowder form and
soakedin l0 timesof sweetwaterand mixedwell with hands.the
contentsare kept for about 24 hours in tin coatedcopper vessel
and then the contentsshould be transferedwith water into the
still for distillation which softensthe druss and releasesthe
volatile principlesduring distillation.
Concentration
This whole crkq is filtered with cloth and preserved.Thus
producedarka is a suspension of thedistillatein waterhavingslight
turbidity and colour,dependingupon the natureof the crudedrugs
under going for the distillation, the arka will have characteristic
odour.
While doingarka preparationdistillationapparatusshouldnot
b e e x p o s e d w i t h t l v r a g n i , b e c a u s eb o i l i n g t h e d r u g s w i t h
excessiveheat, water will get evoparised.There by spoiled
kwatha like preparationis producedand also becauseof more
heat very soon the water contentwill get evoparisedand there is
a chanceof burning and spoilageof arka dravya, then little bit
arka is producedwhich contains improper taste and smell and
which will be up to mark.
If arka is possessingbad smell then it has to be fumigated
with dhuma produced by hingu, jiraka, methi, rai etc. drugs
powder mixed in ghrtha and put in navlnahandi.Like this if
fumigation is done frequentlyarka will loose its bad smell and
develop good odour (flavour) and also this arka will get the
capability of increasingthe Jataragni.
The lid is tightly placed and sealed around to prevent
vapours from escaping.For the purpose of sealing, a cloth
ribbon with a pasteof black gram is used.Heat is applied to the
drug mixture and the distillate is collected in large bottles and
mixed well to ensure uniform concentrationof the medicine
becausethe first distillate is much concentrated comoaredto that
Auqadha kalpand 193

collected at the end of the processwhen the drugs are depleted


of the medicinal principles.A continuouswater current should
be maintainedin the condensor.When a cupulartype of condensor
is used,water is replacedby cool water as and when it becomes
warmed up. The vessel or bottle in which the distillate is
collectedis placedin a containercontainingcold water (In large
scale preparation,large stills which are heated by super heated
steam are employed for distillation).
The end of the process of preparation is marked by the
escapeof dark fumes, from the exhaust.Further attemptsto heat
and collect the remnantsof condensateshould not be made once
this phenomenonis noticed.Usually the volumg of the distillate
is 70Voof the total volume of the drug and water mixture taken
for distillation.
The whole of the distillate should be mixed to make a
preparationof uniform concentration.
Storage and usage of Arka
Arfta should be storedin tightly stopperedglass bottles. Any
arkaif keptopenandexposedto air will looseits volatilemedicinal
principles.Somephysiciansremovethe oil drops in the arka and
considerthe oil as undesirable.Usually, the bottle is well shaken
before use to mix the oil droplets with the arka. Theseoil droplets
V are in reality, medicinally important. Arka are mixed with equal
quantity of water before use.
Expiry .date
I year
Mitra
Some of the commonly using arka
Yavanyddi arka Jwara. vamana. atisara etc.
Gulabi zrrka Atisdra
Pafrcakoladiarka Vi6[cika
Sunthyadhi arka Visamhgni
Pdnduhara arka Pandu
Triphalddhi arka Kdmala
13BK
194 Bhaiqajy a Kalpand Vii fidnam

Pdnaka kalpan6
Usually pdnaka is preparedby immersing the fruits in cold
water, and rubbed with hands, then filtered product is called
pdnaka kalpana.
Procedure
No I: Pdnaka is preparedby utilising the fruits which-have
the dmla, madhura rasa e.g' Ananndsa (pineapple), Amra
(mango), Parltqaka (grewia asiatica), Cinca (Tamarin), Dadima,
Drdksa (grape), orange,Kharbuia etc. fruits are fried or made in
to paste form and mixed in 16 times of water, then rubbed with
hands to dissolve their soft part in water, then contents are
filtered with cloth, then Sarkara, sita, marica, e/4, sweetining
agents and flavouring agents etc. according to need mixed and
pdnaka is prepared.This methqd usually applied for unripened
fruits and which does not producesjuice easily by squeezing.
No. 2 : Above .mentionedripened fruits juice is extracted
separatelyand within that appropriatequantity of sugar candy or
sugar and water are mixed andpdnaka is prepared.
No. 3: Usually juice is taken out from above mentioned
ripenedfruits, where as unripenedfruits are cookedwith fire or by
pounding they are converted into paste form then only juice is
extracted.In such conditions this juice is mixed with 16 times of
cold water andpdnaka is PrePared.
No. 4: Sarkara or guSa and Amlarasapradhdna dravya or
sugandhita dravyas are mixed in water and panaka is prepared.
e.g. Lemon juice, sugar and water are mixed together and
pdnaka is prepared.
Amayika prayoga
Pittaja vyddhies, truqna. daha etc.
e.g. : l. Parlrqaka Pdnaka, 2. Cinca pdnaka, 3. Candana
pdnaka

Cinca pEnaka
Reference
Anubh0tayoga
Auqadha kalpana 195

Apparatus required
Khalvayantra,cloth, vessel,stirrer
Drugs required
Ripened cinca phala (seedless): 100 gms
Water 400 m. l.
Sugar 200 gms.
Saindhavalvana lOgms
Fried jiraka cflrna lOgms
Marica ciirna 5 gms
-
Procedure No. I
Water and cinca phala (seedless)are mixed with water in
vessel and kept for one night and next day morning contents are
rubbed with handsand filtered with the help of cloth, then sugar,
lavana. firaka, marlca curna etc. are mixed in the filtered
contents with the help of stirrer. While mixing first sugar has to
be dissolved, then lavarya,jlraka, marica c-urnaetc. are mixed
and obtained product is called cinca pdnaka.
Procedure No. 2
Reference
- Vrdda vaidya
Drugs required
Cinca phalamajja 12 gms.
Sttajala 192 ml.
Mi5reya phalac0rna appropriatequantity
Ela c[rna appropriatequantity
-Sarkara
appropriatequantity
Cinca phalamajja is grinded in khalva yantra, and kalka is
" prepared.This kalka is mixed with water in a vessel and rubbed
with hands and filtered the contentswith the help of cloth. Then
Sarkara is dissolved and mifreya phala c-unp, ela c-un.taetc. are
mixed in appropriate quantity.
196 Bhaiqajya KalPand Viiftdnam

Candana Pdnaka
Reference
Anubh0ta Yoga
Apparatus required
Khalva yantra, vessel, cloth, stirrer'
Drugs required
Sweta candanac[r$a 100 gms
Water 100 ml.
Sugar 250 gms
Lemon juice l0 m. l.
Procedure No. I
with water
Fine powderform of swetacandanais mixed
are rubbed
unA ["pi io, on" night, next day-morningcontents
Sugaris mixed
with handsandfilteredwith clothfor 2 to 3 times'
pdka ov,ermanddgni
in iitterea liquid and contentsare made of paka
ii; i"; proi., paka while making paka' I or 2 drops
dropsspreads'Jhen
.toutObe dropedina anothern"ssel'if those
to be continued' lf pdka bindu-(drop)
,orn" *ot" timepdka has
is the proper stage of paka.and
Oo", no, spreadi, then that
at this level' Then lemonjuice
heatingprocesscan be stopped
When it becomes
has to- be mixed and contints are filtered).
form, contents are taken out from fire
somewhat concentrated
product is called candana
and filtered once again,obtained
pdnaka.This is preservedin glassbottels'
Mitra
2to4t.s.f.
Anupina
as
It can be takenalongwith wateror it can be consumed
it is.
Amaylka Prayoga
jwara'
Ddha, trgna,m0travikira, upadamsa'
Procedure No. 2
Reference
Vrdda vaidYa
Auqadha kalpand t97

Apparatusrequired
Khalvayantra,vessel;cloth.
Drugs required
Swetacandana 12 gms
A-
Jrtalala 192 mL
Sarkara appropriatequantity
MiSreyaphalac[rrna appropriatequantity
Elactrna appropriatequantity
Take the fine powder of sweta candana and add water to it.
The powder is rubbed with hands in water. Then filter the
contents and dissolve the required quantity of Sarkara, then mix
the miSreyaphala curna, ela c-urnaetc. and obtained product is
called candana pdnaka.
Sarkara kalpand
Sarkra kalpand is a palatable liquid formulation and it is
similar to the Sarbath. Usually guldb, banaphsa, vedamaqka,
Satapuqpa,candana, kevada puqpa etc. odorant drugs are used
and dadima, anannas (pineapple), phalsa etc. fruits also used
for the preparation. of Sarkara kalpana.
Apparatus required
Cloth, Khalva yantra, pdtra
Drugs required
Pounded dravya : 1 part (l pala/48 gms)
Water : Sparts(Astaguna)
Sarkara : 4 parts (4 pala 192 gms)
Procedure No. I
Yavaklutac-urna of dravya is dipped in 8 parts of water and
kept for one night. Next day morning, the contents are heated
with mandagni till the total quantity of the ocntents are reduced
to l/8th quantity (aqlamdmsa),then contents are filtered with
cloth. 4 pala of Sarkara is added to this filtered liquid and again
slowely heated till tantu-yuktapaka is obtainedand this is called
Sarkara kalpand.
198 Bhaiqajya Kalpand Vijfidnam

Procedure No. 2
Dravadravya (Hima, phdnta, kwdtha, arka) : I part
Sarkara : 2 parts
Among Hima, phanta, kwatha, arka etc. any one of the
drava dravya one part is taken and two parts of Sarkara is added
to that then heatedwith mandagni(low temparature)till it attains
proper pdka. Here pdka is observed till it attains madhu.like
consistence.After proper attainment of paka vessel is taken out
from fire, contents are filtered with cloth and obtained product
is called iarkara kalpana (during hot state only contents can be
filtered through the cloth easily).
Concentrated form of Sarkara kalpana does not require
any adding of preservatives.Preservativescan be incorporated
in diluted form of Sarkara kalpana. At present commonly using
preservativesfor Sarkarakalparn are sodium benzoate,potasiam
meta bi-sulphide,saitric-acid,glycerin, methyl paraben,benzoic
acid etc.
Amayika prayoga
Truqna daha and pittajavikdras
Mdtra
25 ml. quantity of Sarkara is mixed in 250 ml. of water
while administration.
Expiry period
If proper preservationand packing is done Sarkara kalpanit
can be kept up to 4 months to I year.
This type of formulations in Unani system of medicine is
called as Sarbath, where as in modern pharmaceuticscalled as
syrup.
Banapsa6arkara
Apparatusrequired
Stainless steel vessels, cloth, khalvayantra etc.
Drugs required
Banapsa : I part
Sarkara : 4 parts
Auqadha kalpand 199

Water : 8 parts
Procedure
One part of Banapsais made in to yavakula cilrna and it is
dippedin 8 partsof water in a vesselandkept for onenight. Next day
morning vessel is kept over fire and heated with manddgni till
total quantity of contentsare reducedto l/8th part, then contents
are filtered and 4 parts of Sarkarais dissolvedin obtainedliquid.
This total mixture of liquid is again heated with manddgr?i,till it
attains proper paka. After attaining the proper pdka, contentsare
filtered during hot state only, then obtained liquid formulation
is called Banapsa Sarkara. when it becomes cool, it should be
filled in glass containers.
Mdtra
25 ml. quantity of banapsaSarkara is mixed in 250 ml. of
water, while administration.
Amayika prayoga
Pitta jwara, jirna jwara, pratisyaya, kdsa, swdsa, Sirahsltla.
sukumara type of patients suffering with pitta jwara, if they are
not able to consumethe medicine having katu, kasaya rasa etc.
for such patients banapsaSarkara is advised, for the relief from
pittajwara.

ParEgakaSarkara
Apparatusrdquired
Stainless steel vessels, cloth, khalvavantra etc.
Drugs required
Pariisakaphalarasa : I lit.
Sarkara : 2 kg. to 4 kg. (according to
requirement)
Procedure
Mentioned quantity of parltsaka phalarasa and Sarkara are
collected in a vessel,then it is heated over manddgni till it attains
madhulike consistence(pdka),then contentshasto be filtered with
cloth, and if required preservativescan be incorporated. Then
obtained liquid is called parusaka Sarkara. This has to be
preserved in glass bottels.
200 BhaiqajyaKalpand Vijfianam

Karma
Dlpana, pacana,
Amayika prayoga
Mandagni, pratisyAya,jwara, kamala, pandu.

Syrups
S y r u p s a r e t h e s w e e t , v i s c o u s , c o n c e n t r a t e da q u e o u s
solutionsof sucroseor other sugarsin water or any other suitable
aqueousvehicle. When purified water alone is used in making
the solution of sucrosethe preparationis known as syrup or
simple syrup. When the preparationcontains some medicinal
substanceit is known as medicatedsyrup. When the syrup does
not contain any medicamentbut contains various aromatic or
pleasantlyflavouredsubstancesare known as flavouring syrups.
They are used for masking the. disagreeabletaste of bitter or
saline drugs. They are also used as vehicles or flavours for
extemporaneouspreparations.
In additionto sucrose,certainotherpolyols,suchas glycerin,
sorbitol or other polyhydric alcohols may be added in small
amounts to retard crystallizationof sucroseor to increasethe
solubility of other added ingredients.
In the manufactureof syrupsthe sucroseand purified water
free irom foreign substancesshould be selected and clean
containers must be used to avoid contamination during
preparation.Dilute solutionsof sucrosesupportmold, yeast arid
other microbial growth whereas the growth of such micro
organismsis usually retardedwhen the concentrationof sucrose
is 65Voweight by weight or more but a saturatedsolution may
lead to crystallization of sucrose.
Only small quantities of syrups should be prepared which
can be used within a few months. If large quantitiesare to be
prepared then they must be prdserved well to prevent
contamination. Syrups can be well preserved at a temperature
not exceeding 25oC. In dilute solutions preservatives like
glycerin, methyl paraben, benzoic acid and sodium benzoate
may be added.
Now a days artificial syrups prepared from artificial
Auqadhakalpand 201

sweeteningagents are available in the market. They have the


advantageover syrups preparedfrom sugars that they do not
contain any carbohydratetherefore can be easily given to
diabetic patients,moreover they have lesser stability problems
than sugar based syruPs.
Elixirs
Elixirs are clear, pleasantlyflavoured, sweetened
hydroalcoholicliquid preparationsfor oral administration'The
main ingredientsof elixirs are ethanol and water but glycerin,
sorbitol, propylene glycol, flavouring agents, sugar and
preservativesmay be incorporated to the preparation. The
elixirs may be medicatedor non-medicated.The ntedicated
elixirs usually contain very potent drugs such as antibiotics,
antihistaminicsand sedatives.The bitter and nauseoustaste of
certaindrugscan be maskedby addingflavouringand sweetening
agents.The non-medicatedelexirs are used as flavours and
vehicles.
I-inctuses
Linctuses are sweet, viscous liquid preparationsusually
cqntainingmedicinalsubstances which have demulcent,sedative
or expectorantproperties.They are used for the treatment of
cough.They producesootheningeffect on the mucousmembrane
oI the throat. To obtain the maximum effect they should be taken
in small doses,sippedand swallowedslowly without the addition
of water.
Pramathya
'pra'. Here
Pramathya word is derived from upasarga
'Pra' meansprakarsena, it indicates the churning process wich
is done in pramath.yc.This is modified form of kwdtha kalpana.
This is mainly pacana, ftpana kasaya.
One pala of drug (grinded and made in to kalka form) in
eight parts of water taken in a vessel and boiled over mandagni
till total quantity reduced to quarter and filtered with cloth, then
obtained liquid is called pramathya (here medicinal drugs are
made into kalka and by using it, kwatha is prepared and called
as pramathya. Because drug is allready prepared \n to kalka
202 Bhaiqajya Kalpand Vij fidnam

form before making kwdtha, hencethere is a chanceof dissolution


of more active principles in water (i.e pramathya), hence
pramathya may be a more ccincentratedform than usual kwatha
kalpand. But here pramathya matra is 96 ml., which is seemsto
be more quantity.Now a days on the basisof digestivepower of
the patients,pramathya matra can be reducedto 2 tola to 4 tola).
Miitra
Two palas
Difference between Kwitha and Pramathya
Kwatha Pramathya
1.In kwatha preparationcoarseIn pramathya preparation
powder of drug is used. dravyakalka is usedfor
kwdtha preparation.
2. Kwatha PrakarsenaKwatha
3. Akrutayusa Kruta v[sa.
4. In all stagesof dosa'sit is It is usedin madhyadosas.
used. (madhyamavastha of dosas)
5. Kwatha can be used for the Pramathyais used in the
purpose of samSodhana, form dlpana-pdcanaka;6ya.
samSamana, dlpana, pdcana.
'
Pramathya is advised in madhl,aTndvastha of dosas and it
is given in the form of ftpana, pdcanakasayc.According to the
vriddavaidya parampara (Where as kwdtha is used for the
purpose of samSodhana,sam1amana,ftpanay pdcana etc. Hence
kwdtha can be consideredas one of main Ausadha kalpand and
praniathya can be considered as one of the pathyakalpana).
ln Asgangasahgrahaalso under the context of atisdra
cikitsa, while explaining about magadyadi pramathya and
jaladadi pramathya, it is clearly mentionedthat,'thesepramathyas
can be administered during madhya doqdvasta of atisdra.
According to dcdrya Arur.tadattakwdtha is considered as
Akrta ylsa, where as pramathya is considered as krtayltsa.
Becausedrug is made in to kalka form, then kwatha is prepared,
hence pramathya is called kytayuqa.
Auqadha kalpand 203

Fhfinitha, Avalehya, Rasakriya, Ghana


Thesekalpanai are having many pharmaceutical similarities
with each otber.Phanita is some what less concetratedform than
avalehya. More concentratedform than avalehya and which
can be made into guti form, is called ghana.
PhEqita
Swarasa or kwatha etc. with appropriate quantity of sugar
is boiled till it gets concentratedform like madhu and is called
phanita.
[Sugar canejuice after filtering with cloth and this juice is
madepdka in loha patra, paka is made, till it reachesthe equal
consistenceof madhu. Then it is taken in to earthenpot. This
product also called phanita (one type of iksu-vikara)l
D o s e , a n u p a n aa n d m o d e o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o ne t c . a r e
applicablesame as mentionedto that of avalehya.
Rasakriyd
Even though avalehya, lehya are considered as synonyms
of Rasakriya by Acarya iarahgadhara, but slight variation in
their pharmaceutical preparation can be recognised.
wwrft*i 5q:qrqqrrrdi il rgfr'qt I
(qn.{. q. rq. 4.q,)
Kwathadi (swarasa,kwatha, etc) are boiled down to a thick
consistency. Eg - Guduci ghana, rasdnjana (rasotha),
musdmbara, khadira sdra etc.
Method of preparation
Kwdtha etc. are boiled over manddgni till it reaches the
thick consistency.Then contents are collected in to tray and
spread uniformely and exposed to sun light for 10 - 15 days.
When all the water content is get evaporated, then medicine
moulded in to gutika form if necessary.
Mdtra
gnrqrflgqrtr€ilftriTrrr
(vn.{. q. €. 4.1)
I Pala(48 gms)
204 Bhaisajya Kalpand Vijftdnam

Acarya )tadavaji mentionedthe one kar;a matra (12 gms)


for rasakriya and avalehya.
Hence it can be understood that rasakriya or ilualehya
matra 12 gms to 48 gms can be given accordingto the patient
stregnth,diseasestate and also it can be given in divided doses
for 24 hours.
In Ayurvedic .literature different varieties of rasakriya
kalpanas are mentioned, among those.
l. Rasanjana(Rasotha),2. Musambar
qlwrsK T6si srui q q r
wg.Rr *Gt gil rrqquf(*qir: tl
qql
(eil:qr4qrqfr
I||cnH|RTfffrtg reffir6FTrg q I
TsF*'qrfEqrilqr vM rffiS q rr
(g.q.iq.?o)
Tqfuqr@:,'61ffi'Vfrd* r
TqF*-qrifiFFtT*crq t fqriqqrssrJuT
es{rtJui Er qd esarsgqFnEiq:*wr
lTFrrci* qTiFrTcrrqrd: r ffi: lF q.qr{i
glrilrr( reqtir( qffirrilrFfr: I
(5€6uI:,
g. q. Ae.t. +1*.F,r)
Rasdnjana
Er#€rcr€d St qki lrqcil rrEtqr{ r
ilqt rqrs* *i il+trd: qai Fc{ r r
( qr .q.oR.tot)
qr+€rsmqrfir qrdr€i Tqrw*{ |
irfl r€rsi i{ ilfTd: q(d'fr*{ r r
q. i )
(3Trg.
In BhavaprakdSa, regarding processing method and
pharmacological actions of rasdnjana are mentioned like wise :
One part of ddruharidra is made in to yavakilta c-urna and
Auqadha kalpand 20s

it is dippedin l6 times of water in a vesselfor one night, next day


morning contentsare heated over mandagni till the total quantity
of contents are reduced to 1/6th patt (kwAtha),then the contents
are filtered with cloth, equal quantity to this obtained kwdtha,
cow's miik is mixed in a stainlessteel vessel,and again heated
over manddgni tlll it becomesinto concentratedform. Then this
is collected in a tray and disperseduniformely, then exposed to
sunlight for some days till it becomes completely dry' This
obtained product is called rasdnjana some of the scholars of
Ayurveda mentioned that one part of ddruharidra kwdtha is
mixed with 14 times of goat milk, then made in to paka
(concentratedform) and it is collected in to the tray and dispersed
uniformely and made in to dry form by exposing with sun light'
Nowdays in market rasdniana prepared without adding
milk also available.
Uses
This is ,rsed for application in the eye.
Mosabbar (Elua)
Well formed ghrta kumdri patras are collected and removed
the external thin layer and their internal soft, transparentpart is
collected in to wide mouthed loha patra and it is heated with
mandagni till contentsbecomesin to the consistenceequal to the
avalehya, then contents are collected in to a tray and dispersed
uniformely, then dried in sunlight for 10 days. Obtained product
is called mltsdmber. It will be in shiny black colour and it
breakes easily. It ivill be in crystal form and having punjent
odour (ttksana gandha). It is called musabbar in undni system
of medicine.
At present in market adultrated (with grass, soil etc.)
mosabbaris also available,henceit has to be used carefully after
properly cleaning with hot water etc.
Someof the commonrasakriyaswith their karma and
Amayikaprayoga
Name Karma and AmaYika PraYoga
1. Khadira rasakriya Vrana5odhaka, ropaqa, kusta,
206 Bhaiqajya Kalpand Vij fidnam

vatarakta
2. Udumbara rasakriya Vrana ropala, pradahadamaka
3. Elua (Ghrta kumdri
rasakriya) M r d u r e c a k a ,p a c a k a , p d m a ,
vrana,vamana,trsna,kdsa,aruci;
hrdroga
4. Triphala rasakriya Vibhanda
5. Gud[ci rasakriya Jwara

Guda peka
T{r {fr&q: FTqrr<t qTilddl q\ r
dqqff q w* A fi{d q Frqi g€r tl
fArwgfrffinn*( qFdrqq vfr{R r
tp qr*l Tsfri HSqi qffiftfa: rr
gur{: SqFVil rr*rEufrsrFirfi:I
*H rqil Tfl n's: rftn1FrnT:r I
(d. q. q. R.q?-\Y)
In Ayurvedic classics,guda paka is mainly mentionedfor the
treatmentof bhagandara,ar|orogatreatmentandalsoit is mentioned
for the treamentof other diseasestoo.
For the preparationof Guda pdka, kwdtha is preparedwith
prescribed medicinal drugs according to that formulation and by
utilizing this kwatha and guda, paka is prepared and called as
guda pdka, otherwise fine powder of medicinal drugs is mixed
with pdka which made up of guda. According to necessity
trigu4ta, qaQgunaetc. quantity of guda should be taken for the
preparation
Gu{a pnka siddha lakpana
Guda when it attains proper paka, it sticks to darvi (stirrer),
it will come up thread like (if taken out with a rod).
If little quantity of guda paka is poured in a vessel filled
with water, then it floats without any movcments.
It will have soft consistence.
Auqadha kalpand 207

Gandha, varna, rasa partaining to the medicine will be


produced.
Guda paka if rolled and compressedin between fingers
then finger print is produced.
Administ'ration
Becauseof its palatability, its acceptenceis more. It is
useful for throat.
MItra
I karsa
Anupdna
cold water. milk.
Gu{a (iaggery,saccharumofficinarum)
Introduction
Sweeteningsubstances basicallyservesas a basein avalehya
kalpandand sometimes it also providespalatability to formulation.
They are in dietic_value and having their own pharmacological
activities too. [n Ayurveda various sweetening agents used are
gula, sita,khandaSarkara,Sarkaraetc.Among theseguda QaBgerY)'
sira (purified sugarcandy),Sarkara(sugar)are very commonly used
for the preparationofdifferent /calpanasi.e. avalehya,gulikA,asava
and arista kalpands etc.
Many times while explainingtheir quantityfor the preparation
of different kalpanas (e.g. for the purpose of avalehya
preparation, if sweetening substanceis taken as gu]a, then its
quantity should be two parts to that of drug.
'If
sweeteningagent is choosedas guda for the formulation,
then its quantity will be less with comparitively Sarkara.This is
becauserichness of pharmacologicalactions in guda and its
concentration form, so that more concentrated,thick paka can
be obtained from guda with comparing to Sarkara pdka.
Because of all these considerationsguda quantity may be
mentioned as less with comparing to the Sarkara quantity by
Acarya Sdrangadhara.
Jaggery is explained under the heading of ik;u varga in all
208 B haiqajya Kalp and Vij ltdnam

sahhitas and nighantas.It is preparedby the juice of sugarcane.


Before the formation of jaggary the sugarcanejuice undergoes
four stages i.e., Ardhavafesita when oniy half of the juice
remains in the processof boiling, tribhagavaSesila(when one
third remains), caturbhagavaiesita (when one fourth of the
'ksudra
portion remains).All these three varities are called as
guda' theseare heavy for digestion in their-ascendingorder. The
finally formed guda will be clean and good quality, it is called
as ahoutaguda andusedfor medicinalas well as dietic purposes.
It is one of the most wholesomediets for human being. [t's
efficacy increaseswith its years.Old jaggery is consideredto be
good for hridaya and pathya, whereas new jaggery causes
kapha vrddhi and agni ntandhya.It is sweet in taste and not too
cooling. It acts as a demulcentand purifier of the blood.
J a g g e r y a c t s a s t r i d o s a g h n a w h e n a d m i n i s t e r e dw i t h
different anupana,s.
The different modificationsof treaclesuchas the matsandika,
khanda Sarkarawhich are progressivelymore refined should be
deemed as gaining more in their cooling, demulcentand
aphrodisiaepropertiesand getting heavier in digestion in each
of successivestagesof refinement.
Qualities of sweetening substancesmentionedin Bhava
prakaia as followes :
During the process of sugarcanejuice, solid substance
obtained called as matsyandi and this is called guda Qaggery).
Pharmacological characters of gu{a
Guna Guru, snigdha
karma Vdtahara,vrsyam, mlttraSodhanam,
balakaram,increasesmedodhatu,kapha and
krimi.
Pharmacological characters of navagu{a (new jaggery)
Newly preparedjaggery increaseskapha and causesivvasa,
kasa, kymi and increasesagni.
Pharmacological characters of purd4a guda (old jaggery)
It is laghu, pathyam, not abhlsyandi, agnivrddikaram,
pittaharam, madhuram, vrsyam, vdtaharem, rakta dosa haram.
Auqadhakalpand 209

Pharmacological characters of khanda Sarkara


Khanrla iarkara is m-uclhurum,v!-{),am, c a k . su s l ,a m ,
brmhanam, hitakaram, vata pitta haram, snigdam, balctkaram,
vanti haram.
Pharmacological characters of Sarkara (sugar.l
Sarkara recemblcs as sand, and it is rtaclhuram, rucikaram.
vata haram, rokta pitta haram, duhahararn, murcha haram,
y,anti haram, jwara huram, sukra karam, and having iita vlrya.
Pharmacological characters of sita or sitopala (purified sugar
candy)
Sirrz (sugar candy) is Sita gurya y-uktam rttktapittaharam,
v,ata pitta haram and ftaving lagl:tt, seru gunss.
Avalehya ka$anE (Confections)
Introduction
At'aleh,a or lehya is intended for internal administration
and it is semi solid preparationof drug by the addition of
Jaggery,sugar or sugar candv and boiled with prescribeddrug
decoctionor drug juice etc. liquids. It can be consumedalone
rr ith some Anuparra.
The rvord Avalehva has been originated from the ljlz
Aswa(Jane,here Lih is Dhitu and,Aswadane is the Kriya. Lehya
rs one among the four types of food items, they are peya, Leha,
Bhaksyct and Charvya.
Totally that means,the substancewhich is taken by licking
(chewing)with good palatability.This indicatedthe metabolism
and absorptionof this pharmaceuticaldosageform starts from
the mouth itself, becauseof presenceof more quantity of
glucose,fructoseetc. sweeteningagents.Avalehya,Jacceptency
is more with comparingto other varietiesof Ayurvedic dosase
forms.
Avalehya if required can be considercdas an Upakalpana
of Kwatha since Sarangadharahas given at most importance to
Kwatha in his scriptures.In todays world Avalehya is gaining
rapid importancesince it is easily consumableand has rich in
tasteand also as it is having daitic value.It can be comparedwith
confections,electuries,conservesof British pharmacopoeia.
14BK
210 Bhaiqajy a KalPana Vii fianam

The word Avalehya has different synonyms hke-Leha'


Rasakriya, Lehya, Avalehya and Avaleheka etc' Acarya
Sarangadharamentionedthat, ratakriya as a synonym of leha,
but Dathana disagrees with it. He says that Rasakriya is a
preparationsimilar to that of Phanita is known by a generalterm
Kakavi.
TsF*,,qr '6rEid' gfr afr* t
ffi:
(9. q. I u/ Ro 4i s6q fdr)
€rEr+{i g+: urer(wti qr wfuqt t
Ssqrfr-tg+6:Rr(ir*{rjnsrsdFrar r r
({IT.c. z.)
The solid mass that is obtained as a result of boiling
Kwathadi (that is Kwatha, Swarqsa, Hima, Phanta etc') is ;
known as Rasakriya.It has synonymsllke Avalehyaor Leha.lts
matra is one pala (48 gms). I

Method of PreParation
Equiprnent required
The drug enumeratedin the reciPe.
A wide mouthed stainlesssteel vessel or a similar vessel
made of other metals, tinned inside.
Strongspatulaeformixingthemedicineduringpreparatlon'
Fine sieve or fine cloth.
In factoriespreparingthesemedicineson a large scale,the
heating is carried out by super heatedsteamjacketed vessels.
The mixing is doneby electrically operatedmixing machines,
sieving is done by mechanicalsifters.
Process of Preparation
The componentdrugs which enter in to the composition of
leha are capableof being classifiedin to the following'
The major drugs which are of prime importance (powders
or pulps of certain drugs).
The sweetening agents- these includes sugar, sugar candy
and jaggery.
Auqadhakalpand 2ll

Ghee keeps the lehyo soft and preservesit.


Flavouring agents.
The liquid media, thesemay either be infusionsor
iuice or
simply water.
+a Tdrfu * qnrilsf{HdrEqefiril: I
il*rfr qrlqq,:qml rcrg'rdf*qpmr r r
(tatro-Chem.
of Ayu.n.S.t.ZZt)
According to Thodaramalla, if the ratio of drava dravya
and Kalka of drugs in a recipe,of Avalehya is not specified,
then
the kalka should be taken l/4tn in quantity of the drava
dravy(t.
Quantity of sweetening agents

fudrrdun a,,fqfqqh CWil T€: I


EFi qg{si qgrF{fdq.dT frsq: rr
q. z.a)
(YrT.
Ifsugarcandyis usedasa sweetening agentits quantityshould
be four times the quanrityof drug. In caseof jaggery, ii should
be double the quantity and if liquids are used their quantity
should be four times.

lfdwd wA dd rdi Wr rriTlI


id Terfvnr qrfr Ffr Fgefrfurq I I
(Iatro-Chem.
of Ayu. R.S.1.222)
In the preparationof tehya,if one tu[a of drug is prescribed
to be used, then this should be boiled in one drona of water:
Similarly, if the quantity of drug is not specifiedin the recipe,
then one tula of the drug should be taken and boiled in one drino
o f w a t e r . T o t h i s d e c o c t i o n ,j a g g e r y a n d s u g a r s h o u l d b e
appropriately added and the lehya should be prepared.
The majc.r drugs are dried, finely powdered and sieved
through a fine clean cloth individually as well as collectively.
The ingredientsmentionedin yoga are taken and made in to
kasaya,guda,Sarkaraor sita etc. are addedand it is filtered once
more to remove the foreign particles. It is then kept over
mandagni and subjectedto continues stirring till it reachesa
212 Bhai;ajya Kalpand Viifranam

semisolid stage and form thread like extensionswhen pr,essed


and drawn between the thumb and index finger.
Pdka laksanas of AvalehYa
gr+i il{rn* wfifrdsq rqfr I
ftsRFi mfst {Er'r€rEut{dqq:| |
({lT.q. 4.i )

According to Sarangdhara,well preparedAvalehltashould


come up as threadlike (if taken out in rod), sink in water' takes
finger prints are shapesif rolled betweenfingers' give pleasant
smell possessgood colour and taste.
Vagbhata has explainedthese points more detail,
gqrd: gqs{il rrqquk$Fird: I
mffi rrqt 5.{r ffigrr56; 11
w<rdreq: Frsrq-atil{d' qaq t'
q
dq {uil TErqr} thd w+i W: r r
i$qq f{r*i fteilfrc€g q vfrdfr r
g: ur+1Frfiqi *rffqi qfimtftfui:rr
(sFre)
Signs of proper plka of lehya (Guda P[ka) are as follows
*qgF rr{Tqr} tFta} q qqi Ts: r
fl{6€Er+v*dTwr{qfrdq q vn{ii r
qt qr41n.sfri sdqi nwotRfc:rr
(H.rl. Fq.qTqr{qr€S)
It should be soft in rubbing
It should be soft in touch.
It should possessappropriatesmell, colour and taste.
If it is pressedbetweenthe two fingers, then finger prints
should be appearedover the Paste.
The paka should stick to the stirrer (Darvr Pralepa).
Thread should appear when a small portion of the paka is
lifted out of the vessel.
Auqadha kalpana 213

If a small portion of the paka is placedon a cup filied with


water, it shouldnot float, it shouldrernainstablein water and it
shouldnot get dissolvedin water.
According to Bhela
r*rFsqrsr
i da: Igrvfu rfrtfrfilr:I
+qifr€ftqdqvfr+trffiqu1q lt
(Iatro-Chem.
of Ayu. R.S.226)

If a drop of Rasakriya,lehya or g,udapaka is rrut in water


and it does not get dissolved,then it is the sign of properpaka
of these preparations.
Theseall above criteria indicatesthe properpaka of lehya.
On the basis of this identifying parameterwhen guda etc.
reachesproper pAka state,during that time drug powder has to
be incorpo-rated,so that proper Avalehya will be prepared.
Different concepts regarding adding of the drug powder
(Praksepa eiir4a) to the paka while preparation of Avalehya
According to Ayurvedic formulary of India, Pharmocopial
standardsof Ayurveda andAbhinava Bhaisajya Kalpana Vijnana,
the drug powders(in fine powder form) has to be addedin small
q u a n t i t i e sa n d s t i r r e dc o n t i n u o u s l ya n d v i g o r o u s l yt o f o r m a
homo-genousmixture immediately after removing the vessal
from the fire.
According to Viadya yoga ratnavali and Andhra Pradesh
Pharmacopoeia,the drug powder has to be added after getting
paka laksana while heating (with low temperature)for a short
period.
This concludes that, if more quantity of Dravya cilrna are
described in the particular recipe then dravya cun.ta is added
little by little, while heating with mandagni. lf the quantity of
dravya cunla is less then it can be mixed after removing the
vessel from the fire. Usually Praksepadiavya clrna will be
'nixed after taking the vessel from fire. This is becausemost of
the Praksepa dravya containing volatrle principles and the get
evaporated with more temperature and also prolonged heating
will result in a hard mixture.
214 Bhaiqajya Kalpana Vijfianam

Ghee or oil if mentioned,is addedwhile the preparationis


still hot and mixed well. Madhu (honey),if mentionedis added
when the preparationis cool and mixed well.
When metals are mentioned,the bhasmasof those metals
are used.
I f p o i s o n o u sd r u g s a r e m e n t i o n e d l i k e B h a l l a t a k a ,
purification should be done before their adding.
Acarya Siddhi Nandan Mishra explained another type of
preparationwhich is given below :
Swarasaor Kwatha is further made in to a paste form by
boiling and then curnadi praksepadrovl,ctsare addedto it. The
whole mixture is then kept in a clean vessel.Here we are not
using guda etc. Due to the absenceof such sweeteningagents
the avalehyacan not be preservedfor long and has to be used
with in a short span of time. This can be practicedfor the
treatment of Madhumeha llke manifestationswhere intake of
sugar. is prohibited.
Preservation and storage
The lahya shouldbe kept in widc mouthedglassor porcelain
jars. It can also be kept in a metal container,which doesnot react
with it. Normally lehya should be used within one year. This
shelf life is dependson the quantity of guda, Sarkaraadded in
the preparation.The colour and smell of the finished product
dependson the drugs used for the particular recipe.
M[tra
6-12 gm. (Commonly preseribingdose of avalehya).
Different scholars of Ayurveda mentioned regarding
mltra of avalehya like Viz :
grsdfocr
......irrTrrn rr
({|.r.c. u. z. q)
one pala (48 gms) is the dose.
According to Sarangadhara
Aag qeFITqr*r a,{qrqr nihtFfilr rl
But accordingto Yadavji, it is I karsa (12 gms)
Auqadha kalpand 215

srr+6va *rq il{q qri rreTeq1


tI
According to Todarananda,it is two pala ( 96 gms.)
This seems that Acaryas might have mentionedaccording
to agni bala (pravara, madyama, avara) the dose of Avalehya
has to be two palas, one pala, one karsa respectively.
This quantity also can be taken in three to four divided
dosesin a day. This also indicatesthat, accordingto the variety
o f a v a l e h y a ( d e p e n d i n gu p o n v a r i a t i o n o f d r u g s ) , d i s e a s e
condition, and also prakruti etc, the dosa can be altered. Here
reasonfor mentioningmore quantity of dosa may be becauseof
daitic value of avalehya.
Anupana
According to Sarangdhara,
g"qfrSrs {tr: qg{sTrflnqtq I
qrqr€rd qErrtr€rrdqrisvreTfr
rr
(vn.d. q. gr. z.Y)
Milk, sugar cane juice, yhsa, pafrcamlla kasaya, vdsa
kasdya are good vehicles.
According to Acarya Yadavji Trikamji,
gTeI qs t5qFr€r qd rralswqr r
qErqTfq svrsi r r
(q. 1. F. ct. Y. Y\)
Milk, y[sa, kasaya,water, phala rasa are to be used as
vehicles according to disease.
Avalehva sevana kdla
ss*q{wirrfi qr{i st?irefEfiTI
srdtrrtfr qr e rTrE{ rfrqqrqflT1;
(si.r. 6{r. q. I i q,)
If the patient is having the disease in Urdwajatrugatha
bhaga, Avalehya should be given sayamkala (evening time)
with proper anupdna,but if the diseaseis affected to Adhobhaga,
taking lehabefore food is better, accordingto Bhaisajyaratnavali.
216 B haisaj ya Kalpana Vij iianant

VEsavalehya
Apparatus required
Avaiehya patra, Khalva yantra,cloth, stirrer.
Drugs required
Vasapatraswarasa : lPrastha
Powderedsita : I Mdnika (g pala.s.l
(powdered sugarcandv)
Pippaliclrna :2palas
Goghrta : 2 palas
Madhu : 8 oalas
Procedure
Vasa swarer.sa is extractedfront freshely collected ynsa
leavesand it is takenin to avalehyapatra, then powderedsugar
candy, addedand heated over mandagrr,when it reachesproper
pAka state,pippati currru and ghrta are addeil and mixecl well,
then avalehta patra is taken out from the fire and when
avoleltya becomesin to cold state madhu is mixed uniforrrly.
This recipeis caliedvasavalehya and it is preserved
in clean,air
tight wide mouthedglass or plastic containers.(Some of the
vaidyasadvisesthat if fresh yasizsw,aresais not available t,asa
kwatha preparedfrom t'asa paiicangasalso can be used.
Here is this forrrrula,becausemadhuquantity is more,paka
shouldbe made into more concentrared form, thenmadhuis to be
mixed. By the name of vasavalehyaquite different formula are
explainedin differentAyurvedic classics.Among those above
mentionedformula is more popularand showinggood results.
Matra
4 m a s at o 8 m a s a
Anupana
luke worm milk, Srta (ita jala.
Amayika prayoga
Rajayaksma,Kdsa, Swasa,pdrSwaSlla, hrteila, raktapitta,
jwara.
Auqadha kalpand 217

KhsmSndavalehya
firE'ifr5il q*q t
ftATqfe[uiffiqSset
frfi E;sqrrrssrrsrfr qrsi€6q1q-sr ll
sTrili @ q*qt
fflFr drro-crA q €r{swi qaq | |
iq f*,,b{ qEffudr 5-df€i irffii lqriE I
{rysffimflf EEr Fd+ffi qrq*{ rr
{qd fTqdl {rd1 Efr'tritfeqei Uq{ r
grtrmrd qr<Fh q+ml rTFtEid*q ll
qsnFa nr+m TdTd q+{qwt( |
EFr rmrFrf,lqrd qfr rr
\A

Gn{iltr{f,

E;snrsfi,r-{ffis?i qrdTag gw} rr


\.\
st:€-qr;rFR q|elr Tdun tr€f$eftT:I
( w .s . s Ts. r . z . R ? - R 3 )
Apparatus Required
Avalehya Patra, stirrer, Khalva yantra, tamra patra cloth
etc.
Drugs required
Fine scrapingsof kusmanda(devoid of
outer skin and seeds) 100 pala (4,800 gms)
water 200 pala (9,600 gms)
Goghrta 8 pala (384 gms)
Sita (sugarcandy) 100 pala (4,800 gms)
Pippali 2 pala (96 gms)
Sunthi 2 pala (96 gms)
Jtraka 2 pala (96 gms)
Dhdnyaka lz pala (24 gms)
Patra Vz pala (24 gms)
ela Vz pala (24 gms)
218 Bhaisajya Kalpand Vijfianam

Marlca : Vz pala (24 gms)


Twak : Vz pala (24 gms)
Madhu : 4 pala(192gms)
Procedure
Kusmandaphala is taken and it is devoidedfrom it's outer
skin and seeds.Then it is made in to aproximatelytwo inch srze
pieces. These pieces are boiled in a vessel with water (two
hundredpala's) till total quantity of water is reducedto half of
the quantity.Then contentsare filtered and this obtainedkasaya
is kept ready in another vessel.Then kusmanda pieces are dried
in sunlightfor sometime (by dispersingover a cloth). Then these
well cookedpiecesare piercedwith numerous thick needles(to
make it into a paste form), then fried in a copper vessel with
eight pala's of ghee. The earliar kasaya is kept over fire in a
avalehyapatra,and hundredpala's of sita (sugar candy) is
added, when it attains paka, then kusmandais added and mixed
well then cooked well till it gets paka siddha laksana then
container is taken out from fire, and fine powder of
praksepadravyosare added in following order, two pala's each
of pippall, Sunthi,jlraka, and half pala eachof dhanyaka,patra,
ela, marlca, twak are added and mixed well. When contents
becomescooled, four pala's of madhr is added and mixed
uniformely. Then it is preservedin clean well packedand wide
mouthed glass or plastic containers.This recipe known as
Kltsmandavalehyaand is beneficial for both young and old age
group.
Amayika prayoga
Raktapitta, Kqaya, jwara, Sosa, Trsna, Bhrama, Chardi,
Swasa, Kasa, Urahksata.
Karma
Vyqyam, Bhrmhanam, balya.
Matra
I tola
Vydghri haritaki avalehya

@i wtriurqlTKrdrgl
Au;adha kalpana 219

6nc+hra {Tiificeqlflgrq rler€rutrdtq{ | |


Tss qar vftfair{dfrrr4qllilrdim: ffi r
E€k*-g fdFFffirnoi qmrfr TqSqrF{qqrr ll
ttr+qfqfilRi qqfii rgf${qri f{ftrrrsq*E: t
qrdrf,?h
fitr*q+ffis Gffi q frdq{ rr
qdr€ fmi q rqrqrFnTqrdrtnfl{q q I
qerrqr+*,,wrgrsliTFRe G rsmi rzrq I I
srtl
tslq-q{iqT.
Apparatus
Avalehya patra, stirrer, Khalva yantra, cloth, Vessel etc.
Drugs
Kantakarr(Pafrcanga's) i Tula (ser) (4 kg. 800 gms
Harrtakt 100 No.
Water 2 drona (24 kg. 576 gms)
Purdna guda 100 pala (4,800 gms)
Prakqepadravyas
Trikatu curna 6 pala's
Caturjatacurna I pala
Madhu 6 pala's
Procedure
Freshely collected paficangas (after making them into
small pieces) of kantakari I tula (4 Kg. 800 gm) is taken in a
vessel and 2 drorya'sof water is added then ripened and well
developedbig size haritaki phala 100 No.s are taken in a cloth
and made in to pottall and with the help of stick hanged and
immersed in water, which is present in the vessel along with
paficanga's of kantakari (In the form of dolayantra apparatusis
to be prepared).Then it is heated over mandagni tlll total water
content is reducedup to l/4'hquantity, then vesselis taken out
from the fire and (haritaki) pottali is separated,then liquid
content is filtered with cloth. This kwatha is collected in to
avalchya pdtra nd IOO pala's of puraqu g$a in picccs form
220

is added, then heated over manddgni to obtain paka. When


contentsare going to reach paka (asannapakavasta), pottali is
opened and hnritaki is added ta paku and mixed uniformely,
and heatedtill paka siddha laks(tnasare produced,then avalehya
patra is taken out from fire and praksepa dravya curna (fine
powder of 6 palas of trikatu curna and I pala of caturjataka
curna) are addedand mixed well. When contentsbecomescool,
6 pala's of madhuis addedand mixed uniformely.It is preserved
i n c l e a n , w e l l p a c k e d a n d w i d e m o u r h e dg l a s s o r p l a s t i c
corrtainers.This recipe is known as vy-aghriharttaki avalehya
and it is told by Bhrgumuharsi.
In this avalehya,haritaki will be presentwith seeds,hence
while consuming,seedsare separatedand only soft part only
a d v i s e df o r c o n s u p t i o n .
Some A.yarvedicscholers are pr"eparingvyaghri haritaki
avaleh1,61with
slightchangelike wise. I 00 No. of haritakiphal' s are
taken and their seedsare removed,fine powder is preparedfrom
phala twak. Paka is preparedwilh kantakari padavasesakwatha
and guda as usual and when paka siddha laksariasare appeared,
avalehyapatra is taken out from fire and haritaki suksmacurna
is addedand mixed well, then rcst of thepraksepadravya curna
and madhu is mixed as usual.
Here 100 No. of haritaki weight will be approximately
1 1 7 0g m s .
This vyaghriharltakl avalehya appears similar to the
chyavanapraiavalehya,but in taste it is ka;aya rasa.
Matra
Vztola to I tola.
Anupina
Srta(rtaiajala,mandosnadugdha.
Amayika Prayoga
All varities of kasa, including Vdtaja, pittaja, kaphaja,
dwidosajasannipdtaja,Ksayaja,KsatajaKdsa and plnasa,swdsa,
swara bheda, and severe rdjayaksmahaving I I varieties of
complications.
Auqadlm kalpana 227

ChyavanaprSSavalehya
ffist++q: ydil-tfi':6rv{4: qreff,ddrI
qrdgre: fi1q6q; v.q{qr Tf,frfq I I
TSi drrffiii Erqrr qffi gqrrg€ |
3r$rqr qTq1r EFr$+o{sr4t w& rr
!F gqdET +{r tmr{<;{gtrn1 l
ffi qlqqenh q,r+H qrfi-{rfuq,rn
qqr rdf{q qrrttgBtTr€ITqFFFFT
q I
rna Egrtt*'ezi wdri ffi(rr
FT'dr Trtr{qrddrdqqr;qE ii Tsl l
irf,Frffi-T{gs f{qiti ffiffi: tl
qcdrEvr* TFr qffi qrdwi fiTqg I
F€fusot-qr: {!Fn A6{€rg msr&( r r
F.]rd qg{sH firqvfre qErr+{r
ilCqFi grnqff: Mfewi dsrTtl
TmfrS f{+qra iqffiwqr
Fsd ileFrqryt: qrTfii THr{;r: ll
qr-dritrdT
fu. q.q
t5.rsr4rF{{+{ ffir
Sulfdtqi rdrqi qrdni qrHqdq:rr
wqagtttt'i 6-(t'i qlilvtfu1o{r
fqqrsi qr{E rqr{ dqrgrqrrq{fr t r
qFI qni lrgsa qtrt,-*anr Eilqqt r
srFt rqtrqe{t g.{dsr1g+{artr
fui qfri u'rfuqqmrdqq: rq{ qoftFaqruntr
*S 16{ rrmffid qohsn Tn{qdrq tl
{qr{FrFnFT:R: sdrnffistd q?uilsfrgffivrrq r
qqi srrrilmq rrd fr$rfd 6,i qdfis tr
(qr+-riFor,
fq. q.q)
'r)',
Bhaiqajya Kalpanfi Vijiidnam

Apparatus required
Avalehya patra, Khalva yantra, stirrer, cloth, vesselsetc.
Drugs required
l. Bilva - 40 gms 21. Abhaya _ 40 gms
2. Agnimantha - 40 gms 22. Rddhi _ 3.40 gms
3. Syonaka - 40 gms 23. JTvaka _ a0 gms
4. Ka6marya - 40 gms 24. Rsabhaka _ ,10 sms
5. Patala - 40 gms 25. Sati _ +O lms
6. bala - 40 gms 26. Musta _ 40 gms
7. Salaparnl - 40 gms 27. punarnava_
40 gms
8. Pr5niparni - 40 gms 2g. N{eda _ a0 lms
9. Masaparni - 40 gms 2g.ElA _ 40 gms
10. Mudgaparnl - 40 gms 30. Candan
a0 lms
I l. Pippali - 40 gms 31. Utpala _ a0 lms
1 2 . S v a d a r h s t r a- 4 0 g m s 3 2 . V i d a r r _ 40 gms
13. Brhatr - 4 0 g m s 3 3 . R o o t so f
vrga - 40 gms
14. Kantakarr - 40 gms 34. Kakoh _ a0 lms
15. Srngi - 40 gms 35. Kakanasika-
40 gms
16. Tamalakr - 40 gms 36. Amalaki
phala _ 500 Nos
17. Draksa - 40 gms 37. Water _ tl-.2gg
Lts
I 8. Jrvantr - 40 gms 3 8. Ghrtaand
taila - 576 gm.
19. Puskara - 40 gms 39. Puresugar- 2.400
Kgs.
20. Aguru - 40 gms (matsyandika)
Prakqepadrayyas
40. Honey - 28g gms 41. Tugakslrr _ 192 gms
42. Pippali c[rna - 96 gms 43. Tvak cfirr.ra
_ 4g gms
44. Ela - 4g gms 45. patra _ 4g sms
46. Ke5ara - 48 sms
Auqadha kalpand

Procedure
Drugs No. I to 35 are made in to Yavakutacunla and taken
in to kasayapatra, then addedthe five hundredfruits of amalakl
and mentionedquantity of water. Contentsare boiled till kasaya
is prepared then fruits of amalakl should be taken out, and
contentsare filtered and obtainedkwatha kept ready. The fruits
of amalaki, after the removal of their seeds,should be fried in
Ghrta and taila. The paste of the fried amalakl should be addeci
t o p r e p a r e dk w a t h a . T h i s p a s t e , a l o n g w i t h p u r e s u g a r
(matsyandika),shouldbe boiled with the kwatha,until such time
as it takes the consistencyof a avalehyapaka. Then container
has to be taken out from fire and when it has cooled, madhu
(honey), tugaksirl, pippall, tvak, ela, Patra and Kefara curna
and obtained avalehya is called cyavanapraia.
Karma
Paramottama rasayanam,
Amayika Prayoga
It is exceedinglyuseful in curing kdsa, iwasa. It is a body-
builder of personssuffering from consumption,specially of old
people and children. It alleviatesthe dosasof patientssuffering
from swara ksaya, hrdroga, vatarakta, pipasa, mutra dosa and
sukra dosa.
Matra
It shouldbe usedin sucha dose as would not interferewith
the normal meal.
By the use of this medicine, Cyavana Maharsi, who had
become exceedingly old, become young once again.
Administration of this rejuvenation therapy promotes
intellect, memory, lusture, immunity, longevity, strength of
senseorgans,sexual excitement,great stimulationof digestion,
clarity of complexion,and down ward movementof vayu. By
using this therapy according to kuti-Pravefika method (while
residing in a cottage),even an old man shadesall his ageing
infirmities and emerges with fresh youthful complexion.
Haridr5 khaq{a

afirqrqr:T€nqS {.1rd{ tfrqaqr t


224 Bhaisajya Kalpana Vijfianam

ffi{ rig*;qresdu,i nsntl


u.+{EftrqTffi rrrq} TqA EBr
qh*r Srdki q Ffqd fcTdr aqr ll
frqtmr at{R gri Et6 qfr rni nc{ r
qu{ sQrTFff*ffir*t qer+( rr
qryri q{*qq{ r
YirqF5r€ffirs{r$H rrdfr qrerw n
vtaffiaq €RT6rtqqEr+(r
tfrn qrrrfr:GIE: q.uE3irrtqtqsq I I
(dq-sqwT{d-s-{d{ffi}t
Apparatus Required
Two vessels,stirrer,khalva yantra,cloth, knife etc.
Drugs Required
l. Haridra (wet) n pala
2. Ghrta 6 pala
3. Co.wsmilk I adhaka
4. Sugar 2 . 3 3k g .
5. Sunthi I pala
6. Pippali l pala
7. Manca I pala
8 . S u k s m ae l a I pala
9. Dalcini twak 1 pala
10. Teja patra I pala
I l. Vidanga I pala
I 2. Trivrit I pala
I 3. Amalaki phala twak I pala
14. Vibhitaki phala twak I pala
I 5. Hantaki phala twak I pala
16. NagakeSara 1 pala
17. Mustha I pala
Auqodha kalpand 225

18. Loha bhasma : I pala


19. Water : appropriate quantity.
No.5 to No. 17 all the drugs are made into Vastra palitha.
s-uksmacurna and kept ready.
Procedure
wet form of haridra is coilected and cleaned weil then
external covering is separatedwith knife and it is made into
kalka form with the help of khalva yantra then this kalka is fried
with Go'Ghrta over myduagni till ghrta get separared from
kalka, then vessel is taken out from the fire and kept ready. In
another vessel mentioned quantity of sugar and appropriate
quantity of water is'taken and paka is prepared, wien' paka
lakqnas are obtained, then alr ready prepared ghrta bhirjita
haridra kalka is added and mixed uniformely. vessel is taien
out from the fire and suksma cirrya of No. 5 to lg drugs are
addedand mixed uniformelyand it is preservedin glasscont-ainer.
Haridra is the main drug in this recipe hence it is called haridra
khanda.
MEtra
l/2 tula
Anupdna
Leukwarm water.
Time of administration
Morning and evening
Amayika Prayoga
Khandu, Visphota, dhadru, Sitapitta, udardha, khota and
krmi roga.
It is a special recipe for the treatment of khandu.
Narikela Kha4{a
qrfr*fiwrErgt yr+n s*qsFril r
iltri qr*tot qffi: vgwilfr q rr
{reqds g,-sdr€urd drlq q r
€dfdqFi qrt vr*{'Enm qiq n
1 5B K
226 B haiqajya KaIPand Vii iidnam

grrTfirqiir g€i qrgqfti s€Irdrfi{ |


ffi q{gni UT{ {cr{ll
wflWf f{Frlqq wsrr}qrlrcl 5q: t
€recrFdFi ynui qtertrrqrqfr r r
Fddqq?i yfir+Eli 83tr irtrr I
qRunqqii v1rrq€Fni q qryr\ tt
ffigrgfit 6s En*fior5ilq{ t
ffi *qi oReirr+rvr+tt t
qrnRFi dil*fr*-ctt€rrq ll
^ \
(r{. {frrzffil-rlf,)
Apparatus Required
Two vessels,stirrer, khalva yantra, cloth, knife'
Drugs Required
l. Coconut pulP (water containing
coconut to be taken) 8 pala
2. coconut water obtainedquantity from
t above coconut
3. Sugar I Prastha
4. Go-ghrtha 5 Pala
5. Sualhi c[rta 1 Kudava
6. Cows milk
7. VamSa locana 2 Karsa
8. Sunthi 2 Karga
9. Pippali 2 Karsa
10. Marica 2 Karsa
I l. Musta 2 Karsa
12. S[ksma ela 2 Karsa
13. Dalcini twak 2 Karsa
14. Teja patra 2 Karsa
15. Ndga ke6ara 2 Karsa
16. Dhdnyaka 2 Karsa
Ausadha kalpana 227

17. Pippali : 2Karsa


18. Gaja pippali : 2 Karsa
19. Jrraka : 2 Karsa
No.7 to 19 all the drugsshouldbe made into srtksmacurna
and kept ready.
P r o c e d u r e: C o c o n u t p u l p i s m a d e i n t o v e r y m i n u t e s m a l l
particles then it is taken into a vessel and cooked in milk
till
contentsbecomesinto concentratedform (like cova), thenghrta
is aded and fried then vesselis taken out from the fire and'kept
ready.In anothervesselmentionedquantityof sugarand coconut
water should be heated over madyamagni trll paka laksnas are
obtained,then all ready preparedcova like materialis addedand
mixed well, then vesselis takenout from fire and fine powder of
No-7 to 19 drugs are addedand mixed uniformly and mixing is
continuedtill the contentsbecomesinto iwangaiithala and final
product will be producedin the form of coarsepowder then it is
preservedin glass containers.coconut is the main drug in this
recipe hence it is called narikela khanda.
Matra
l.Sana
Anuplna
Water, cows milk.
Time of administration
Morning, afternoon and evening.
Karmabalya, rasiyana, vdjikarana
Amayika prayoga-All varities of udarasila",parindma Sila,
dmlapitta, vamana,rakta pitta, hrdroga.
Soubhdgya6u4thi pika

I
ffiS vrdgfuoTl l
rTqr+{qsrril41
I
yrdmfrildtd dqi qruufirwfrtr
wtrTeqqI
228 Bhaiqaiya KaIPand Vii iidnam

affitqi {fiflqqffr c,nt(tt


:{FrRzrq qot{q rFcrfiqFii fqtq t
Ea q Tqi qr* ur*iqg6fon tt
rtFrir: q|q'F{td Tfrt-di 6,rt*ra: t
Tdrrsfti qar( Atw{sr{ti 1cnll
€rtfrgad qrr vr#nqrtrfi: tift( r
rlq*( nirserq wqr$i fqa'€ l l
sTrrEFittEfir$6,,ri lrqri qfrrs{ I
q€uffii tr ffiFFi {frf{r(ll
*frrn{fdvrfti fu td[uneaqrvr*(t
qrqfr a dqi Kfirdda.i rrr{ | |
*1g{fftr{+ €furt 5F{ qrgad{qt
($.t. qfr*r)
Apparatus' Required
Two vessels,stirrer, khalvayantra,cloth etc'
Drugs Required
l. Suntht I Karga (12 gms)
2. PiPPali I Karsa (12 gms)
'
3. Marlca 1 Karsa (12 gms)
4. Harrtaki I Karsa (12 gms)
5. Amlaki 1 Karsa (12 gms)
6. Vibhrtaki I Karsa (12 gms)
7. Jrraka I Karsa (12 gms)
8. Dalcinr twak I Karsa (12 gms)
9. TejaPatra 1 Karsa (12 gms)
10. Sflksmaela l 1 K a r s a( 1 2 g m s )
I 1. Nagake5ara 1 Karsa (12 gms)
12. Musta 1 Karsa (12 gms)

13. Japatri : I Karsa (12 gms)


Auqadha kalpand 229

I 4. Jayaphala I Karsa (12 gms)


I 5. Dhanyaka I Karsa (12 gms)
I 6. Lavanga I Karsa (12 gms)
17 . S a t a p u s p a I Karsa (12 gms)
18.Nalika I Karsa (12 gms)
19. Madanaphala I Karsa (12 gms)
20. Ajavayin I Karsa (12 gms)
2l. Ajamoda I Karsa (12 gms)
22. Dhatar,-tpugpa I Karsa (12 gms)
23. Satavan I Karsa (12 gms)
24. Syamamusall I Karsa (12 gms)

. 25. Lodhra I Karsa (12 gms)


26. Gaja pippali I Karsa (12 gms)
27 . Priydla blja I Karsa (12 gms)
28. Gdnci I Karsa (12 gms)
29. Karpura 1 Karsa (12 gms)
30. Rakta candana I Karsa (12 gms)
3l . Sweta candana 1 Karsa (12 gms)
32. Sunthi ctrna 2 Prasthas(1536 gms)
3 3. Go-Ghrta 8 Palas (384 gms)
34. Sugar 2 Prasthas(1536 gms)
35. Cows milk 2 Prasthas
No. I to No.3l all drugs are taken in equal quantity and
preparedinto sukqmacurryaform.Sunthialso preparedinto sttksma
curna form seperately.
Procedure
Milk is taken in a vessel and heated with madyamdgni,
when milk is get boiled well, Sunthi c-urqtais added and mixed
with stirrer continousely till the contents becomes into soft
material (like cova), tlien Go-ghrta is added and contents are
made bharjana then vessel is taken out from the fire and kept
ready. In another vessel mentioned quantity of sugar is taken
230 Bhaiqajya Kalpand Viinanam

and mixed with appropriatequantity of water then paka s


prepared over manda,grzi,when paka laksnas are obtained, the
first prepared(cova like) materialis addedand mixed well, after
that vessel is taken out from fire and suksma curryaaf above
mentioneddrugs No. I to 3l are added and mixed uniformely.
This materialis mouldedinto gfiikA form and preservedin glass
containers.This recipe is called soubhagyaSunthlpaka'
Karma : Pustikaram, dhatuvardhanam,stanya vardhakam,
strlstanapusyikaram.
MEtra
I tola (12 gms)
Anupina
Warm milk of eoat.
Amayika Prayoga
This is a best recipefor inprovinglactation.It is most useful
recipe for the administrationof post-delivary womens. For
sutika-:,ogatreatmentI gutika twice in a day is advised along
with warm goatmilk. It is also useful for amavata,kasa, 3wasa,
Plnasa, grahant, amlapitta, raktapitta, ksatakqaya,rajayaksma,
twenty varieties of strlroga. Surythlis main drug in this recipe
and its administrationafer delivary is consideredas soubhagya
for women hence this recipe is called soubhagyaSunthipaka.
Mu6ali paka

v{qTi FrEt I
rilgrtrr*trqs qrni qr{qFi rcnrfrg Fdt tl
q€ns*qrE gel qqrr rrda.qnrFdM r
dEFqHrhTtmlfRI €nd tqri Trfidqdgl: ||
ril*,trd?h *qyrdrafrrqi ffi: t
qwnx+r<;rriws$?rrt| |
qrfrw,furrr{flS+t qrd atrit Ftri qfrqq t
trffii dq$.q{q srfr: st-{i Trqrf}flqrq{ | |
6dsfr arwqmmm gitsfr qlqrwtofrfrt{!: t
d{$mtffi6qr$qi gir': EEfrrtqdfrfgifi':tl
q.{. Y.Ys 1lq)
(,Tr.
Auqadhakalpand 231

Apparatus Required
Two vessels,stirrer, Khalva yantra, cloth etc.
Drugs Required
l . S w e t am u 6 a h - l/2 Prastha
2. Syarnamu(all - 112Prastha
( I prastha-768gms)
Sfiksmaclrna
3. Cows milk - 1 Prastha 4. Ghrta -8 Pala
5. Sugar-Two times to quantity of all the ingredient.
6. Gokshra - I Pala 7. Talamkhana - I Pala
8. Satavari - I Pala 9. Hantaki(bigsize)- I Pala
1 0 . P i p p a l i ( b i g s i z e ) -I P a l a I l . K a v a c a b - r j a - I Pala
12. Tejapatra - I Pala 13.Lavanga - I Pala
14. Pinda kharjlra - I Pala 15. Jdpatrl I Pala
16. Narikelamajja - I Pala 17. Badam majja - I Pala
18. Cirounji b-rja - I Pala 19. Sweta Candana- I Pala
20. Draksa - I Pala 21. Jayaphala - I Pala
22. Slksma ela - I Pala 23.Tagara - I Pala
24.Yangbhasma -l Pala
25. water- appropriatequantity
Procedure
Two varieties of mu{ali separatelymade into fine powder
form, then No. 6 to No. 24 all drugs are made into fine powder
form. First of all sZksma cftrr1a of two varieties of muiati is
mixed in cowesmilk (in an Vessel)and heatedover madyamagni.
When milk becomesinto cncentratedpaka (kova like), Go-ghrta
is addecland fried the contents,then vesselis taken out from fire.
In another vessel sugar and appropriatequantity of water is
taken and paka is prepared over mandagni. When paka lakq4tas
are attained, already prepared kova like substance(mixture of
milk, two varities of muSa[ictrrna and ghrta) is addedand mixed
uniformely, then vessel is taken out from fire and added the fine
232 BhaiqajyaKalpand Vijfidnam

powder of above mentioned drugs No.6 to No.24 and mixed


uniformely. Then contents are rolled into vatakd form equal to
the size of I tola and preservedin glass container.
As muiali is main drug, hence this recipe is called muiari
paka.
Mdtra
2 tola (2 vataka)
Anupina
Go-ghrta
After consuming,a drink of warm milk is advised.
Time of administration
Morning and evening
Karma
Best Viji karana, Bala vlrya, pourusa Vriddikaram
Amayika Prayoga
Netraroga.
Ghana sattva
Synonyms
Ghana Sattwa, Sattva, s6ra
E.g.: Gud[ci sattva, udhumbarasdra, drdraka sattva etc.
sattva is water extractablesolid substance(potential portion)
of a drug. sattva are sedimented extracts of drugs *hi"h ur"
predominantly starchy in nature. The most common type
of
sattva is the Guduci sattva which is the starch of tinospoia.
Apparatus Required
l. Two large wide mouthed vessels.
2. A very fine sieve
Drugs Required
l. The drug from which the starch is to be prepared_
appropriate quantity.
2. Water - appropriate quantity
Auqodha kalpand 233

Procedure
The method of extraction of sattvadiffers from drug to
drug and can be refered at appropriateplaces. The common
preparationmethod of sattva kalpana is mentioned like-wise.
The drug is cut into small pieces soackedin water and kept
over night. Next morning the contents are churned or repeatedly
squeezedand washedin the water without changingthe water,
when the drug has lost all its mucilagenousproperties by
washing, the fibrous material and other coarse material are
removed.Then the water is kept undisturbedovernightto allow
the particlesof starchto settle down. The next day morning the
supernatantliquid is decanted carefully without disturbing
sedimentedstarch.
The starch is washedin little amountof water and recovered
by settling down. The sattva so sedimentedis allowed to dry and
powdered.
The colour is white oq pale white dependingon the drug but
the colour usually varies from drug to drug.
Preservation
The wet starch is dried completely and packed in damp
proof packets of polythene or tubes of glass or plastic. They
should not be exposedto heat or cold. They are to be stored in
air tight containers.
Expiry date
This can be preserved indefinitely.
Amrutha sattva
Apparatus Required
Vessel.cloth
Drugs Required
Wet Guddci kanda- I part
water- 4 parts
Procedure
Fresh Guduci kanda is collectedand cleanedwith water,
Bhaiqajya Kalpand Vijnanam

then dried and made into small piecesthen collectedinto khalwa


yantra and crushed once again made into small pieces, then
thesepiecesare collectedinto a big vesseland added4 times of
water then kept for over night. Next morning Guduci piecesare
rubbedwith handsin little water for many times.Then nice foam
(Phena)will be generated.That indicatesactive ingredientsget
dissolved.Properlypropertiesin the water in the form of starch,
then guduci kanda pieces are separatedand contentsin the
vesselare kept for sometime to settledown. Then thesecontents
are filtered with cloth into anothervesseland it is kept for l2 Hrs
as it is to settledown the contentsin the water.During this period
guduci sattvagets separatedfrom water and settlesat the bottom
of the container.Then supernatentwater is decantedcarefully
'fhe
without disturbingsedimentedstarch. starch is washedin a
little amount of water and recoveredby settling down. The
sattva so sedimentedis allowed to dry and powdered.
Preservation
The wet starch is dried completely and packed in damp
proof packets of polythene or tubes of glass or plastic. They
shouldnot be exposedto heator cold, they are to be storedin air
tight containers.
Characters
Colour : Harithabha Sweta
Gu4a : Mrdhu, Slaksana
Rasa: Tikta
Mdtra
250-500 mg.
Anupdna
Madhu, water
Karma
Pitta 6amaka,Jwaraghna,Balya, Vffya Sukrala
Amayika Prayoga - Jwara, RaktaPitta,Ddha, Mlrcha,
Apasmara,Kaq4y, Kusta, M[traPradaha,Mfitra Krchra, Prameha,
Aruchi, Trsna, Swdsa,Pdndu, ArSo, Hikka.
Auqadha kalpand 235

Adulteration : At presentin market,sometimes adulterated


guduci sattva also sold which is preparedby arowroot powder
mixed with guduci swarasaand dried in sunlight,this will have
the charactersall most all similar to the gud-ucisattva.
Udumbara Ghanasdra
Apparatus Required
Vessel, earthenpot, cloth, khalvayantra
Drugs Required
Udumbaramila twak - I part
water - 4 parts
Procedure
Udumbaramula twak is cleanedand dried well then it is
made into yavakuta curna and collected into a vessel.Then
added the four times of water and kept overnight. Next day
morning contents are heated till total quantity of contents are
reduced up to l/4th quantity. These contentsare filtered with
cloth for 2 to 3 times, again this filtered kwatha should be
boiled slowly, when the water gets evaporatedand contentswill
get the consistencyequal to madhu, then after equal to the
avalehyaconsistency,at this stagevesselis taken out from fire,
contents are collected into tray and,.dispersed uniformly and
dried in sunlight for 15 days, so obtained product is called
udumbaraghana sdra and it is preservedin glass container.
Amayika Prayoga
Daha, Raktasrdva,Pitta Prakopa, Raktapitta, Pravdhika,
Kusta, Trsna, jwara, arSoroga,bhagandara,Vrana.
Administration
While administrationit has to be mixed in water.
Anupdna
Water, milk.
Ciir4a KalpanE
Curna is that maceratedwithout any liquid.
Cilrna is fine dry powder or a drug or drugs. The term
236 Bhaisajya Kalpana Vijiidnam

cilrna may be appliedto the powderof a singledrug or a mixture


of two or more drugs which are powderedseparatelyprior to
their being mixed to homogeneity.
stiffiUdt aqp{ gfrrs qqrnfrilil{ t
aiF|rqm rtr: $6q-a1 q{TiFTilrtl
( Y n .q . q . € . q . q )
According to author Saranghadhara,curna means, nicely
powdereddry drug which is filtered through a cloth. Rajaha or
ksoda (pulvis, powder) are the synonymsexplained for curna,
it is supposedto be administeredin the dose of one Karsa
Pramdqra.

Wil Wr qfr tq: vr4rrA'goTr


q*t r
qmg$rffiifrEeq:@(rr
fd&$ E*r rril*ndfftuiltuil: r
friag{dia qgfrlre}ki {*: rr
. c. €. q.R- ?)
(Y nd.
Jaggeryif to be addedto this powder, should be equal in
quantity sugar double in quantity and fried hungu only that
much which shall not cause nausea(required amount). Curnas
are usually administeredwith equal quantitiesof ghee,honey or
tailas (Yehicles).If they are be taken with decoction,water or
milk etc., such liquid shouldbe four times to that cun.raquantity.
Acarya Kasyapa has mentionedcurna uses as mentioned
below:
qqqqufitri Wf qrrro;,f{ gwil r
EurcFfg{rRstl
(sr.{. nq€{qrd11.iq)
The substancewhich is made in to fine powdered form is
called ciln.ta. This cftrna is used for grahani roga, ama vikara,
vrarya and for the purpose of anjana etc.
Similarities of ciirpa and kalka kalpanl
qwfw:qgnt@Idryf, r
?r€ q-rq'R*(: tl
( 3 T . d . E 6z. , . q o )
Auqadha kalpand 237

Curna is considered as modified form of kalka kalpana'


and
Because dried form of kalka can be considered as clrrna
manyofthetimescurnaisusedtomakethekalka.Clrnaisnot
different from kalka, becauseit is not devoid of any part of the
drug and used rvell soakedin fluids'
Pharmaceuticalprocessof kalka and curna having many
with
similar features.In certainconditions,kalka canbe prepared
themvastra galita c-urnaand
suskadravyas(drieddrugs)by making
adding drava dravYa.
The processof pounding and vastra galana is similar for
has
bgth curna and kalka. Only for making kalka, dravs dravya
to be added aftet vastra galana'
--, Making Powder-
Curna
- Kalka (currya+dravadravYa)
\uo, tra galana/
on of.curna, it can be mixed with anupana
while administrati
dravya,thencotrvertedintokalka(paste)likeconsistency'then
consumed.
Prqparations
Fine powderis preparedeasily with someof the drugs'those
whicharehavingmorestarchintheircomposition'E'g'ativi;a'
sringaYaka,etc.
Mode of administration
qff Wt *r* tq: YrS-{rfdynsr*q t
q*{g qffiifeiT*i ffiqrq5+( tI
({rt.q. q.1)
rs ghrta, madhuand milk etc'
Usually whereverthearuupana
Thedrugshouldbefirstmixedwiththoseanupanas,thereafter
it is to be taken.
Bhdvanadravya mdtra related with ctrr4a
E*ur qr*arqqiu'Wf wdq6 u\ t
qFtt;IFT:rqrui g {m ftit {\qrqt3 1I
(m. q. 3r.q.q)
238 Bhaiqajya Kalpana Vij fianam

The quantity of any liquid which soaks the powder fully


well is called bhdvancdravya.
Preparation
Equipment required
I . The drugsenumeratedin the recipein clean an well dried
stat.e.
2. A mortar and pestle
3. A fine sieveor fine cloth.
In the large scalemanufacturein pharmacies,disintegrators,
pulvarisers,and ball mills etc. are employedfor powdering.The
sieving is done by mechanical shifters which handle large
quantitiesof material in a short time.
Process of Preparation
The drugs which are to be usedin the preparationshouldbe
taken from recentlycollectedmaterial.Drugs which are aged by
prolongedstorageor changedin colour,taste,smellandthosewhich
are insect infestedshouldbe positively rejected.However,drugs
like embeliafruits, long pepper,corianderseeds,honey, jaggery,
and evencow's gheeare preferredfrom old stock,which shouldbe
unspoiltotherwise.
In general,the aromatic are slightly fried in order to increase
or sweetentheir aroma.Any extraneous rnaterialshouldbe removed
from the drugs.
The drugs rirentionedin thecurna yoga arecleanedand dried.
They are powdered by pounding in with mortar and pestle and
sievedthrougha thin layerof cloth (Vastragalita).In aprescription
where are a numberof ingredients,the best methodis to powder the
drugs separately,weight ,the required quantities of the drugs and
mix them all together.
As some of the drugs contain more fibrous matter than
others, this method of powdering and weighing them separately
according to yoga, and then mixing them together, is
recommended.
'Ihe
reason for. separate powdering of different drugs in
Auqadhakalpana 239

curna kalpana is that, different drugs will have different types


of consistencyas mrdu (soft), madhyama(medium) and kayhina
(hard). If they mixed and pounded together, fitst mrdu dravyas
get powdered easily, kathina dravyas remains as it is, hence
while doing filtration (vastragalitam)variation in the ratio of
ingredientsmentioned in curna formulae take place and also
drugs which containsvoiatile oil property,may evaporateeasily
and burnt sometimes,before kathina dravyas get powdered
uniformly.
So that, it is advisedto powder all drugs of curna formulae
separately,then only they are supposedto be mixed together
uniformly to get better therapeuticresultsfrom the administered
curna formulae.
Swadista virecana curna, lavqna bhaskara curna,
hirtguastakacurna etc.,which are having combinationof sugar,
salt as a ingredient should not be formulated during rainy
season,becausethey may get spoiled with in a short period by
attracting moisture from atmospheric conditions, it happens
becauseof more hygroscopicnatureof ingredientsin the recipe.
A volatile principle may get volatalizedduring the milling
process.This is due to the more exposedsurfaceareaof the crude
drug and also to the increasein temperatureduring grinding.
. Therefore, drugs like clove, cardamom,caraway or cinnamon are
not powderedto a very fine form.
Preservingof a powdereddrug may createa problem. This is
so becausethe large surfacearea of the powder is exposedto the
atmosphere.Oxidation of the active constituent by atmospheric
oxygen or volatalization, may occur. Hence,.powdered drugs
are stored in well closed containersin cool places.
In industry, however, all the drugs are cleaned,dried and
powdered, together by disintegrators. Mechanical sifters could
also be used. The finer the powder,*the better its therapeutic
effectiveness.
When hingu, saindhava lavaryaand similar drugs are to be
added they are fried well and powdered so that they do not
become moist. Sugar and champhor are powdered separately
240 BhaiqajyaKalpand Vijftanam

and added.
curna is often taken with someanupdnaor vehicle such as
m i l k , b u t t e r m i l k , g h e e , h o n e y e t c . , d e p e n d i n gu p o n t h e
formulation and indication.Ghee and honey are addedtwice the
quantity of the powder.
The curna should be very fine, amorphousand should be
perfectlydry. The finenessof the sieveusedshouldbe preferably
80 mesh per squareinch or still finer. More fine the powder,
better is the therapeutic value.
Preservation
Curqtasshould be packed in air tight containers.Usually
the preparedcfurnashould be stored in tightly stopperedglass
bottles. Polythene and foil packing also gives damp pioof
protection.
It is said that the cun.taretain their potencyfor two rnonths
and then gradually deteriorate.In any case, unless otherwise
spoilt by moisture or fungi, the curryakeep active for an year.
In thesedays, for easy handling in a convenientfrom the
curna and pressedinto tabletsof uniform weight and packedin
bottles or tubes made of glass or plastic.
They should kept in air tight containers,and generallyused
within two months.
cltrna which are made with combinationof ksara should
not be preservedin loha patras (iron containers).
Mdtra
ilqHr6'fu'FrfrrI
(ri.{. q. €. q.{)
ilaTrirrf,tTsFril{ |
fd. rt. q. €. q.q)
Ctrrna, kalka and gutika matra is one and same, that is one
kars.a pramdna.
rf cltrna is advisedto chew after making pasteform with the
help of somedrava dravya, then that drava dravya is advised to
take in to two times quantity (two karsa).
Autradhakalpana 241

rf curna is advisedt. drink after mixing indravadravya,


than
the drava drvycrquantity shourd be four times
ffoar karsa) more
lhan c'trrltcr.
Modern Aspect of Ctrna (powders)
Por'';dcrsare the solid dosagefbrm of medicamentwhich are
meantlor internalanii extenraluse.They areavailablein
crystalline
or amorphcu-s form. Thoughthedrugsarepreparedin manyiiff"r"nt
physical forrns and shapesbut many ofthem are prepared
by using
powdersin otlcrwav or thc other.
Advantages of Powders
1 Most of the drugs are available in powder forms
and it
becomcsmoreconvenientfor thephysiciahto prescribespecific
amountof rnedicament accorcringto the needof the patient.
2. The smaller particresize of powdersproducesmore
rapid
dissolurionin the body fluids thanorhersoriddosageforms
of
medicamente.g.tabrets,capsures, pilrs.The rapiddissolution
increasestheblood concentrationin a shortertime, thereby
the
actionis producedin a lessertime.
3. Large quantitiesof bulky drugs which are otherwise
difficurt
to administerlike.A.vurvedicdrugscanbeeasilyadministered
by mixing with liquids or Anupana.
4. They aremore economicalascomparedto other dosage
forms
becausefor extemporaneous preparationlhey do noirequire
any specialtechniqueor machinery.
5. Children and old personswho cannot swalrow solid
dosage
forms can easily injest powders which can be dispersed
in
water or any other liquid and may be administeredthrough
feeding tube to the patients who are fed by tubes which
terminatein the stomachitself.
Disadvantages
1. Drugswhich deteriorateon exposureto atmosphericconditions
are not suirablefor dispensingin porvderforms.
2. Bitter, nauseous,corrosive and unpalatabledrugs cannot
be
dispensedin powder form.
3. Deliquescentand hygroscopicdrugs cannot be dispensed
in
I6 BK
242 Bhaiqajya Kalpana Vijnanam

powderform.
4. Volatiledrugsarenot suitablefor dispensingin powderform.
Classification of Powders
Basically the powders are classified into two categories
dependingupon their mode of administration,they are
The powders ment for external application, Eg. dusting
powders,insufflationsand tooth powdersetc.
The powdersment for internaladministration, they are again
s u b - c l a s fsiic d i n t o t w o c a t e g o r i c s .
Simple powders
Thesepowderscontainsonly oneingredienteitherin crystalline
or amorphousform.
Compound powders
These powders containstwo or more than two substances
which are mixed t.rgetherand then divided into individualdoses.
Separationof particles,accordingto their size. is know'nas
s i z es e p a r a t i oonr s i f t i n g .
Sifting is also necessary,when the crude drug of animal or
plant origin is to be comminuted.Soft portionsof suchcrudedrugs
undergofine particlesizereduction,quickly.However.the coarse,
hard materialtakesa longer time for grinding. ln sucha casea fine
powder of the soft material unnecessarilyremains in the mill.
Hence,sifting is carried out by using sievesand the fine powder is
removed.The coarsematerialleft behind is againfed to the mill to
be ground.Sucha coarsepowder is called as tailing or gruffs. This
processis continued till all the material is reducedto the desired
size. Finally all such fractionsare mixed thoroughlyto obtain a
homogeneous mixture.So while milling, sifting is alsocarriedout
simultaneously.
There are different methodsfor size separationof a powder.
'fhese
are classifiedas :
1. Sieving or screening.,2. Sedimentationor Elutriation.,
5. Centrifugalclassification.
Air separation,
3. Cycloneseparation.,4.
However,during milling, sievesor screensareusedfor sifting.
Ausadha kalpand 243

Sieving or screening
This methodis commonlyemployedforparticlesizeseparatron,
afier comminution.Sievesare usuailypreparedusing a metar
or a
plasticframe,and a wire or a fabric mesh.powderpassed
through
it is commonlydesignated by a number.It indicatesthe numberof
meshes(openings)in the length of 2.54 cm or one inch. Thus
a
n u m b e r1 0 s i e v eh a s l 0 m s h e s( o p e n i n g sp) e r i n c i ro r 2 . 5 4 c m
and
not l0 wires,which rvouldgive 9 meshes(openings). The meshsize
is also dependenton the thicknessof the rvire or the fabric
used.
Therefore,for standardsieves,wire gauge(thickness)is arways
specified.IndianPharmacopoeia (I.p) doesnot specifythe material
of constructionof wire, but it mentionsthp gauge,to be
used.
Commonly used materiarsare iron, copper,stainlesssteel.hair.
s i l k , n y l o n a n dt e r y l e n e .
The following terms are commonly used with respect
to
powders.
Coarse powder (10/44)
All the particlesof this powderpassthroughsieveno. 10,and
not ntorethan 210percentpassthroughsieveNo. 44.
ilIoderately coarse powder (ZZ/60)
All the particlesof this powderpassthroughsieveno. 44, and
not more than 40 percentpassthroughsieveno. g5.
Nloderately fine powder (44185)
All the particlesof this powder passthroughsieve no. 44, and
not more than 40 percentpassthrough sieveno. g5.
Fine powder (85)
All the particlesof this powderpassthroughsieveno. g5.
Very fine powder (120)
All the particlesof this powderpassthroughsieveno. 120.
When the particles are described as above, the terms are
relative such as coarsepowder, moderatelycoarsepowder or
fine
powder.Accordingly,the sizerangesmay be givenas :
Sieve range
All the particlesabove 50 micron diametercome under sieve
244 Bhaiqaiy a KalPana Vii ftdnam

in the pharmaceutical
range. There is no higher limit' However'
inctistry, norrnally are used in powder form' I'P' gives a
"r-dtug'1676micron diameter'
limit for coarsepowderof
Sub-sieverange
Thisextenrlslromlto50microndiameterparticles.
Sub-micron range
Particles of sizebelcw one micron diameter'
Note'. One micron is 111000part of millimeter'
of wire or of
As mentioned earlier, the sievesare made
(thickness or gauge)' I'P'
fatrrics of unilorm cross section
are given below :
specifications for wire and aperture size
Aprox Aperture
Nunrber Nominalsize Nominal Standard
of rvtrc!uugc screeningtolerance
of sieve of aperture diamcrter
in mm wire in nrm areaPer average
cent percent

r.422 l7'0 44 3' 2


6 3.812
2..0s7 1.118 18'5 42 3'3
8
r.576 0.864 20'5 44 3'3
10
0.457 26'0 36 4'0
22 0.6ss
a.417 z 7' 0 35 4'2
25 0.599
0.345 2 9' 0 35 4' 4
30 0.500
0.284 3l '5 36 4'9
36 0.422
0'224 34'5 38 4'8
44 0.353
0.2s1 0.173 '0
3',7 35 5'3
60
0.178 0.122 40'0 35 5'9
85
0.152 0.102 42'O 35 6'2
100
0.076 0.051 41'0 36 8'2
200
by a sievemaybe effectedusingsieveseither
Sizeseparation
means'
by manualoperationor by mechanical
canbe
The abovementionedinternaladministrationpowders
enclosedin
Auqadha kalpand

Capsules
Capsulesare increasingin popularity day by day becauseof
their advantage.Capsulesare the solid unit dosage form of
medicament in which are drug (s) is enciosed rn a practically
tasteless,
hardor soft solublecontaineror shellmadeup of a suitable
form of gelatin.Hardcapsulesareusedfor filling thesolidsubstances.
Whereassoft capsulesareusedfor filling the liquids andsemisolids.
Hard capsulescome secondto tablets in importanceas solid unit
dosage forms. Some of the capsules are administered through
rectum or vagina and are convenient mode of administration of
drugs than suppositories.For oral administration the capsule is
placedon the tongue and swallowedwith a drink of water.
Advantages
l. It is an elegantpreparation.
2. Easily portable.
3. Easeof use.
4. It can be easily swallowed,due to its slippery surface.
5. It is tasteless.
6. It can mask the odour, tasteand colour of the medicament.
7. They are availablein various shapes,sizesand colours.
8. It protectsthe medicamentfrom atmosphericeffects.
9. It is physiologically inert.
10. Economy in large production.
The types of capsules
Hard gelatin capsules
Shellsof the capsulesare preparedfrom a mixture of gelatin,
sugar and water. These shells are preparedin two sections.The
capsulebody and the shortercap. It may be colouredor colourless
transparentor non transparentandusedfor filling solid medicaments.
Soft gelatin capsules
Shells are madefrom gelatin,water, glycerin or sorbitol. It is
used for filling liquid, semisolid or powder preparations.Shapes
may be round, oval, oblong or tube like. Single application eye
246 B h aiqajy a Kalp and Vij iidnam

ointmentsmay be givenin a softgelatinshell,for betterapplicatron.


E.g. Kslra bald taila capsules.
Hard capsulesare availablein varioussizesrangingfrom the
largest(000)to the smallest(5). The capacityof the capsulevaries
accordingto the bulk densityof the medicament,with or without a
diluent,and the pressureappliedduring filling. The capsulesare
usedto encapsulate drugswith weightsbetween65 mg and I gm.
with or withouta diluent.As givenabove,the srnallestcapsule(no.
5) is capableof holdingdrugpowdervreighing65 mg. In orderto fill
the capsulecompletely,a minimum of about 65 mg material is
required.If the doseof the drug or the volume of the materialto be
filled in a capsuleis inadequate,thentheuseofdiluent is necessary.
Properties of powder to be filled
The powder to be filled in the capsulemay createproblems
becauseof poor flow property.This is becauseof
l. Attractiveforcesbetweenthe narticleinhibit nlasticflow or
dilatency.
2. Particlesize,densityof material,porosity,shapesandsurface
texture also affect the flow of powder.
Powderswith small particles(lessthan l0 micron) resistflow
due to cohesiveforcesbetweenthe particles.However,flow can be
improved by removing theseparticlesfrom the bulk. Absorbed
moisture (moisturecontent)also effectsthe flow of bulk powder.
Hence,to improve the flow propertyof the powder to be fiiled
in a capsule,its moisturecontentis regulatedby drying. Mixing and
filling of the capsuleis carriedout in a dehumidifiedatmosphere,at
room temperature(about 30 percent relative humidity and 70 to
75 0F temperature).The rate of flow of a powder may also be
improvedby using glidantslike stearicacid,stearates, talc or glycol
ester in small proportions,upto 1 to 2 percent.
Demixing of the powder ro be filled in a capsule may also
createproblems.This can be solvedby regulatingthe particle size
of the material and by controlling bulk density.
Packing of capsules
Ejected capsulesare polished on cloth, with or without inert
', i1
Auqadhakalpana

oil. This is a manualoperatiol.Polisiringmay alsgbe effectedin a


coatingpan usinga polyurathane or cheesecloth liner placedin the
panor by addingsodiumchloride(saltpolishing)in the coatingpan
andrevolvingthecapsulein the pan.Then,the capsulesarepacked
i1 a strippackor in a blisterpack,usingplasticmaterialhavinglow
moisturevapourtransferrates.Plasticor dry glassbcittlesmay also
be used along with a dehydratingagent(silica gel in the muslin-
bag). Such packing is desirablefor hard as well as soft gelatin
capsules.
Special applications of caPsules
Pastes,oils and liquid medicamentscan also be given in
accuratedoses.
It permits liquid medicationto be handledand transported
easily.
Disintegrationanddissolutionof thedrug showsbetterresults
than other solid dosageforms.
The capsuledosageform can be easilyalteredor adjusted,as
per the needof bioavailabilityof the drug.
Sitopalddi chrna

ffirmr +svr Fqrd FITdvrtfiT ll


firq€fr{qragq.qfsremrqffi r
!F: q,fiffiq' q;ffqrfffiie'a: tt
firdrmf*i; q"f qg{tr$i fefq t
STSd;TfrET{r6{ ||
EFrqr(rsEr6fu(
rrqrfri {wk6d qdvfcrqlt{nq I
q{TSrRi {iit fiffiqru ffi 11

Apparatusrequired
Khalvayantra,cloth,traYetc.
Drugs required
Sitopala(SugarcandY) : l6 parts( l6 karsas/192gms)
Vamsalocana (tavakstri) : 8 parts (8 karsas/96gms)
248 Bhaisajya Kalpana Vij iianant

Pippali phala : 4 parts(4 karsas/,48


gms)
Ela : 2 parts(2 karsas/24
gms)
Twak (dalcini) : I parts(lkarsa/I2gms)
Procedure
Above mentionedall the drugs are to be taken in mentioned
quantity and made in to powder form separately,then filtered with
cloth and all the drugsaremixed together(while sitai.e. sugarcandy
has to be powderedat last and mixed together).compound form of
powder once again filtered with cloth and preserved in glass
containers. This recipe known as sitopalarli curna taken with
madhu,ghrta relievesfollowing disorders.
Amayika prayoga
Swasa,kasa,ksaya,hastapadanga d5ha (burning sensationof
palms,solesand body), mandagni,suptajihwa(lossof tastein the
tongue),par(wa 5[la, arocaka,jwara, Irdhwagataraktapitta.
(This sitopaladi curnabecause
of datcini,e/aprovidespleasant
odour and sugarcandyprovidesgood paiatability,hencethis cltrna
acceptanceis more with comparingto othercftrryas).
Mdtra and anup5na
I to 4 gms with madhu and ghrta.
Tdlisadi Curna
ilrifri rTFci{,rdlffi Eiyrfr{q I I
qr"{irfTq:wgm$rrfrrrqm'acr4(r
qdtrr*Tg 6qfd lrfth rrmqrqtq tl
Gqr vr*TT gS, r
nrmsrsmi Wf +Ei ure;i qFr{ | I
irr€grFqcat ud*qRawFr{|
M@rr
qeGrEI{r#ri qrf lh***rqgk, na: r
(W.q. q.s. q.q,io-qlY)
Apparatusrequired
Khalvayantra,cloth, tray etc.
Auqadhakalpand 249

Drugs required
Taitsapatra 1 karsa(12 gms)
Marica phala 2 karsa (24 gms)
Sunlhi 3 karsa(36 gms)
Pippali phala 4 karsa(48 gms)
VamSalocana 5 karsa (60 gms)
Ela Half karsa (6 gms)
Twak Half karsa(6 gms)
Sarkara 32 karsa(384 gms)
Procedure
All above mentioneddrugs are taken in mentionedquantity
and made into fine powder form separately,then filtered with
cloth and all the durgs are mixed togetheruniformely. This recipe
known as tatlsadi curna and it should be packed in air tight glass
containersor plasticjars.
Karma
rocana,pacana.
Amayika prayoga
Kasa, swasa,jwara, chardi, atisdra, Sosa,adhmdna,pllhd,
grahaniand palduroga.
Matra
I to 4 gms.
Anupdna
Madhu.
This powder canbe madeinto Gutika by cooking it with sugar.
Lava4abh6skara c,ir4a
(Blt6skara lava4a cur4a)
qrg{ffiui 6r${sn{fui E*r r
qs *{*i nra f{d *qqerF{fir( lt
firurd fiTq.frWi lFgr*te,,qrfi{ |
ffiit iTctttt
250 B hais ajy a Kalp an d Vij iian am

ffi sifti' e,rcAEEE'


I
rTfui qitir ffi*ti a;rfqn6q 1,
ErE{ rq|Ergq,{ drH qrffif*' r
qf,qnfui Fd ffiui tnffiTfirer{ tl
VnursFrui+i g qF(rx-{FRr*:r
Erddqq-d T.ei E+'6rrT{r qnr{ | |
qrnftq rtgfr g'ai fffi{i q l{rrqr{ |
vldr vFi srffirsrqrffiii q €6Er(I I
q'qrRi ilvr+ffitri qrqi qq I
rrddimltdrEFq qr€iuilffti g{r | |
( v n €. . q . u . q . t t c - q x x ;
Apparatus required
Khalva yantra,cloth, tray etc.
Drugs required
Sdmudra
lavana 8 karsas(96 gms)
Souvarcalavana 5 karsas(60 gms)
Bida lavana 2 karsas (24 gms)
Saindhavalavana 2 karsas(24 gms)
Dhanyaka 2 karsas(24 gms)
Pippali phala 2 karsas(24 gms)
Pippall mila 2 karsas(24 gms)
Ki$na jrraka 2 karsas(24 gms)
Patra 2 karsas(24 gms)
NagakeSara 2 karsas(24 gms)
Talrsapatra 2 karsas(24 gms)
Amlavetasa 2 karsas(24 gms)
Manca 1 k a r s a( 1 2 g m s )
Jrraka I karsa(12 gms)
Viswa (Sunthi) I karsa(12 gms)
Auqadhakalpana 251

Dadima : 4 karsas(48 gms)


Twak : % karsa(6 gms)
Ela : t/zkarsa(6 gms)

Procedure
All above mentioneddrugs are taken in mentionedquantity
and madeinto fine powder form separately,then filtered with cloth
and all the drugsaremixed togetheruniformely.This recipeknown
as Levana Bhaskora cunru and it was formulated in the past by
Bhaskara for the benefit of the people.This should be packed in
air tight glasscontainersor plasticjars.
_
Mdtra
1 S a n a( 4 g m s )
Anupdna
mastu.takra.asava.warm water.
Karma
DIpana.pacana
Amayika prayoga
Vata kaphajagulma,phha,udara,ksaya,ar6as,grahalt, kustha,
vibandha,bhagandara, kasa,amavata,hrdroga,
6opha,S[la, Swasa,
mandagni.
Hingvastaka curna
fxq*rrv*Er +qti Effi ir
F€,{rtr, r r
uqrrnrf,t* rrfrfuqpf+d-
Ew{qfrwr{fii qrfitrng tfr rr
(t. rer. sTfrqrqq3)
Apparatusrequired
Khalvayantra,cloth,tray etc.
Drugs required
Sunthi : I part
Maricaphala : lpart
7<t Bhaiqajya Kalpand Vij fidnam

Pippali phala 1 part


Ajamoda 1 part
Saindhavalavala I part
Svetajrraka I part
Krsnajrraka I part
Hingu (ghrta bharijita) t/s part
Procedure
Excepthingu all other7 drugsare takenin mentionedquantity
andmadeinto fine powder form separately,thenfiltered with cloth.
Hingu should be made bharjana with Goghrta, then powdered.
After that all the 8 drugsmixed togerheruniformeryand onesagain
filtered with cloth. This recipe is called Hingvdstakacunla and it
should be packedin air tight glasscontainersor plasticjars.
Mdtra
I to 4 gms.
Anupina
Ghrta
Karma
Jatharagnipradrpaka.
Amayika prayoga
Vdtaroga,pravahika,gulma, udavarta,an6ha,agnimindhya,
udaraS[la,aruci etc.
(some of the scholarsmentionedthat, for the preparationof
hingvdstaka cf,irna,Hingu also should be taken in equal quantity
along with other drugs. But if hingu is taken in equal quantity,
provides ugragandha to the cLrna and it becomes difficult for
consumptionof cun.ta,henceit is betterto take l/gth part of hingu
only).
Vafi kalpani
Definition
ils $rw{qqfuqrf{rr( qw.Rt(: r
(s{ETniT66. L)
Auqadhakalpana 253

Vati kalpana is the outcome of kalka kakpana. Later on,


Sarangaclhara in his Sarahgadharasarhhitahasmentioneda specific
chapterfor preparing vati by specific techniques.
Vati is usuallypreparedwith the combinationof kustctusadhi
dravya cilrna, bhasma,suddltct,rasoparasa,sArlharanarusa,guQa,
iarkara, guggulu,iala, swarasa,ntutra etc. drugs conbination.
Vati (tablet), gutiku (pills) and modaka (large size pills) etc.
arepresentedastabletsor pills. Thesearemadeof variousdrugs,of
metals,minerals,gems,animalproductsand vegetableorigin.
Erz?il€IrE6's{t rxrr nftm eal t
ffiEftt-*,rffi1*aftiwffi tl
tffiigrr{e qd $ qr Yr#{rilEr I
Trg.qaf fqrtffi quf dF"FfdrEd u
grqffieq FF*{rJr{.dtqrrdqt
E&urqg{r qrsfr 1f-*,i a,,rc+{lE:ll
(w . e. q. tt. \e.q- t)
According to the Acarya Saranghadhara the imformation
about Vatikalpand is mentioned like this. Gutika, Va[i, Modaka,
Vatika, Pindi, Guda, Varti (tablets, bolus, pills, draggees) are
synonyms of Vatikalpana (These are the names given for vali
kalpana on the basisof shape,dose,rQotof administrationeg.varti
etc.). It is preparedeither by cooking the powder of drugs with
jaggery, sugar,or guggulu or without cooking, by maceratingthe
powder with any liquid like honey and guggulr then rolling into
pills.
fudr r{rfun AtTr{Ag frrJgilnF: I
{uttqufsq: qrd T*Jq{g 6sr{ | |
Ea q Bgui td ffiS {tqrd: I
q,,{rqrui ilql* fti gqrr rgwi u
(vn.€. q. €. u.Y-q)
If sugar to be added, it should be taken four times to the
quantityof powder.Otherdrugslike salt (saindhavalavarya),ksaras
(alkalies), guggulu honey are to be addedin equal quantity to that
of powder. All these contents to be macerated with twice the
254 B haisajy a Kalp a na Vij fianam

quantity of water, thenrolled into pills of one karsctpramana each.


Thenthis materialshouldbe driedin shadeandpreserved. They are
usedin accordencywith the srrengthof the patient.
Above mentioned ratio of diff'erent sweeteningagents and
additivesetc. are prescribedby acarltasis generalanclduring uari
preparationaccordingto the necessityt,aidyacan alter the ratio of
theseingredientsslightly for the preparationof the vati.
Gutika can be compared with piils, where as v'cttican be
comparedwith tablets.vQtikL, vQti, cakrika are having similar
shapeto that of tablet,but variesin size.Gutiktt,gurla arehaving
similar shapeto that of pills, but variesin size.
If more quantityof medicineis expectedto be given then it
should be moulded into vataka, pincla, moclakaform which are
comparativelybiggerin sizeandhavingsimilar shapeto thatof r.,crrl.
Vetaka can be preparedwith more than the quantiry of -500rng.
medicine.
Vati and gutika
They.will be havingsmallin sizeandwheneversmallquantity
of medicineis supposeto be giventhenmedicineshouldbe moulded
in to vati andgutika form.
It is preparedeirher by cooking the powder of clrugswith
jaggery,sugar,guggulu or without cooking, by maceratin_e
the
powderwith anyliquid like honeyandgugguluthenrolledinto pilts.
If sugarto be added,it shouldbe rakenfour rimesto the quantity of
powder.other drugslike salt(saindhavalavana),K;ara(Alkalies).
guggulu,honey are to be addedin equalquantity to that of powder.
All thesecontentsto be maceratedthen materialshouldbe dried in
shadeandpreserved.They are usedin accordencywith the strength
of the patient.
Method of preparation
The vegetabledrugs are dried and made into fine powders,
separately.The minerals,metals,gems are reducedto bhasmaor
sindltra, unlessotherwisementioned,animal productsare purified
if necessary.In caseswherepdrada andgandhakaarc mentioned,
kajjali is made first then other drugs are added, one by one,
accordingto the formula. The requisitequantity of thesedrugs sre
Auqadha kalpana 155

takenandmixed.Thenthis mixtureis put into kholvaandgroundto


a soft pastewith the prescribedliquids.When more rhanone fluid
is mentionedfor grinding,they areto be addedone afteranother.In
caseno liquid is mentioned,rvatercan be added.When the massis
properly ground and is in a condition of matrapakato be madeinto
pills, sugandhadra,-yasllke kasturi,korpura etc.,if mentioned,are
addedand ground again.The criterion to determinethe final stage
beforemaking pills is that it shouldnot stick to the fingerswhen
rolled.From out of this,pills of specifiedsizeareprepared.
Pills can
be mademanuallyor by pill makingmachine.Pills may be dried in
shadeor under the sun in accordancewith the textual directions.
The vati whenmadewithoutcookingthe powderis mixed and
nracerated with thecleanandpurenewgugguluorjaggaryin proper
quantity.It i" hammeredby addingslight amountof ghrta time to
time to time to makeit soft andsmooth.Evenif thegugguluis to be
addedwith somevegitabledrugsarealone,it hasbeensuggested by
Kasi Ram, the commentator of sarctngadhurasalhhita in his
commentrygudarthadipikathatkuttctnam of the meterialshouldbe
done to preparegood uali.
In casewhere sugaror jaggary (guda)is mentioned, paka of
theseshould be made in low fire and removed from the oven. The
powdersof the ingredientsareaddedto thepaka and briskly mixed.
When still warm, gatikasshouldbe rolled into pills in the requisite
sizeand allowedto cool, thendried in shade.Insteadof pills now a
days, these recipes are being prepared in tablet form in tablet
making machines.For this purposein large scale manufactureof
pills and tablets,the preparationof the paste of drugs is done by
eletrically driven mortarsand grinders.For making pills or tabiets,
pill and tablet pressingmachinesare used which producepills or
tabletsof uniform size and weight in large numberswithin a short
time. Countingis also doneby machine.
If gugguluis one of the ingredient,then no binding meterialis
needed.
The final appeara,lce
ofthe vati dependsupon the finenessof
the powder usedif the powder is coarse,the vati will be rough and
cracked besides being round, smooth and shiny. By the coarse
powder, the processingof vati becomesdifficult. To make vali
256 Bhaiqajy a Kalpand Vij iianam

round, smooth and shiny they are allowed for rolling over a deep
plate smearedwith ghee or decoction.
Preservation and characteristics
Pills madeof vegetableorigin kept in air tight containerscan
be usedwithin two years.Pills madeof mineralscan be usedfor an
indefiniteperiod.
Gutikas and vatis shouldnot lose their original colour, smell,
tasteand form. When sugar,salt or ksara is an ingredient,the pills
should be kept away from moisture.
Some of the practical aspectsof vati kalpand
1. Medicinal drug is madeinto fine powder form and madeintcr
pasteformby utilizing dugdha,swarasa,kwitha, madhulike
liquids andguda paka, iarkara pakas,in khalva,/antraor in
vessel and this paste is moulded into gutika like form of
medicine.
2. While preparingvati, swarosa, etc.drava drat,.t-oare taken
flrst in khalva yontra and trituration is done by adding
au;ada dravya curna little by little after properly mixing the
primary c-urna,thenrest of thecurna is addedand triturated.
3. If vamsalocana is mentioned rn the vali formula, first
vamsalocanahasto be grindedu,ith little curna, then rest of
the c-urryalittle by little has to be incorporatedand mixed
well.
4. If guduci satva,daruharidra saua aresupposedto be mixed,
first of all thosesalya areto be powderedand mixed in water,
then rest of the medicinal drug powders are addedlittle by
little and mixed togetherafter that total substanceis grinded
in khalva yantra. Then this substanceis to be moulded into
vati form.
5. If kajjali, dhdtu bhasmaetc. are supposedto be mixed, it
should be observedthat, they are properly preparedand then
only added in khalva yantra and grinded. After that while
grinding, the rest of the kdstousadhidravya cftrna are added
little by little to facilitate proper mixing.
6. Vatsandbhi, rasakarpura, rasapu$pa etc. tiksna dravyas
Au;adhakalpana ZSl

first of all they should be rnadeinto micro powder form in


khalva yantra then mixed with other ingredients.
Modaka, vatakaetc. which are very big in size,they are very
difficult to swallow, hencethey are advisedto makepowder
f,ormwhi le administrarion.
8 . Some of the ,-6ti which are made with guggulz does not
disintegratesproperly and sometimes they come out as it is
with stool mass hence such vatis has to be powdered and
t a k c nw h i l e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .
9 . Someof the Rasousadhis, it is betrerto powderthem while
administration,so that they will undergofor a digestion,and
absorptionfast,hencefacilitatesquick resultsEx.Laxmivilasa
rase, mfty unJaya.rasa.
9. rt dugdha,sv'arase,kwathaetc.liquidsaretakenfor bhavana,
those liquids should be raken in rhe quanrityquantity by
which total quantityof drug powdercan ableto be compretly
immersedin khalva yantre.
10. Sugarandjaggery are used,by making them into syrup form
(paka) then drug powder is supposedto be mixed
. Giggutu
can be used by making paka with water and mixing with
respecteddrug powders.Guggulualsocanbe usedby making
paka with ghrta andmixed with drug powders to makegutikct
kalpana. The quantity of gugguhrshould be equal to ihat of
drug powder. If vati is made by guggulu pdka and, drug
powdercombination,the drug powderhasto be mixecrat one
particular placcof guggulupaka i.e. gugguluwith water has
to be boiled till it attains equal charactersof guda paka and.
this paka should be in concentratedform and it should sink
in the water (it should not dissolve in water and having
stability) when little quantity of guggulu pdka tested,in a
water containing container. During that state of guggulu
paka medicinal drug powders has to be mixed and conGnrs
are rolled into vati form. If guggulu ic to be used directly
without making paka first suddha guggulu and auqadha
dravya hasto be mixed inkhalvayantraand by addinglittle
_____by little ghrta. conrents has to be mixecl uniformf and
1 7B K
258 B haiq aj y a Kalp and Vij rtdnam

molded into vati form. The ghrta has to be added till the
contentreachessemisolidstateby which vali canbe made.
11. Some of the gutika are advisedto make dry with sunlight
after their preparationand some of the gutika are advised to
make dry in shade(chayasuska).According to specifications
mentionedfor drying of gutika, must and shouldbe followed.
Becausethe drugswhich arephotosensitive, they areadvised
to dry in shade(chaya suska)and drugs which can tolerate to
sunlight and drugs which can get more potencyby exposing
to sunlight are might have advisedto dry with sunlight.
12. Drying is an importantoperationin pharmaceuticalpractice.
It is important that the moisture remaining should be low
enough to prevent product deterioration.The term drying
usually infers the removal of relatively small amounts of
waterfrom solid materialand the term evaporationis usually
limited to the removal of relatively large amountsof water
from solutions.In drying processes,the major emphasisis
- '"-usually
on the solid product. In most casesdrying involves
the removalof waterat temperaturesbelow its boiling point,
where asevaporation meansthe removal of water by boiling
a solution. Another distinction is that, in evaporation,the
water is removed from the material as practically pure water
vapour,mixed with othergasesonly becauseof unavoidable
leaks.In drying, on the other hand,water is usuallyremoved
by circulating air or someother gasover the material in order
to carry away the water vapour.
In somecases,drying involves converting a wet vegitable drug
e.g. guditci, into a free flowing solid. Drying is also an important
stagein some formulating operations,notably during tableting by
wet granulation etc.
Specifications has to be followed duting administration of
Vafi
Vati which are made by bhasma etc. rasa drugs will be having
high strength.Where asguti which aremadeby herbalremedieswill
be having smoothnature.Hencethey canbe given safely to sensitive,
strengthlessand chronic patients.
Au;adhakalpand 2Sg

Guggulu vati and another some varieties of vati wiil be


possesingslow drug action over the body. Hence they can be
administerdvery safely without having fear of rapid drug adverse
reactions.For which taking guggulu, dietic restrictionshas to be
followed.
If the toxic drugs are mentioned under formulae of vati thev
should be mixed after their prescribedpurification only.
The vatis which are specificaily mentionedto dry them with
sunlight,they has to be must and shoulddried under sunlight only.
If there is no any specificationthen vatishas to be dried in shade
(Chaya Suska) and free air. After drying vatis they has to be
preservedin glasscontainers.
While consuming hard consistencygutika e.g. Dhafti Loha
Gutika,it hasto be madeinto powderform andmixed with anupana,
then only they are supposedto be administered.so that, its action
will be rapid. otherwise becauseof their hard consistencegutika
without getting disintegrated,they will be expelled as it is along
with fecal matter.
Vati's which are made by nimburasa or amlara,ra should not
be dried by keeping over enamil mae vessels.Becausemedicines
over earthenpots only. After completedrying of vatis only they has
to be preservedin glass containers.without drying properly vati
should not be collectedinto glasscontainers.If at all they getting
spoiled soon. After complete drying never vati's keptfreely-.They
shouldbe filled in a conraineras early as possibleto prolong there
stability period.
Vati's which contains ahiphena etc. norcotic drugs there
cohtainermust and shouldbe specificallylabelledwith precautions
while consuming.
Vati's which containsjamal gutha as a ingredient should be
labelledcontraindicationfor intakein casesof childrens,pregnant,
ladies, old age,ksaya roga and sensitivepatients,at all physician
want to give evenin suchcasesalsomedicinehasto be given in very
low dose.
Vataka, modaka, pindi, guda, varti, vati, vatika, gutika etc.
different namesarementionedbecauseof their variation in size and
shape.
260 Bhaiqajya Kalpand Viifianam

Gu{ika
If the medicineis rolled into small circular shapemasses,then
it is called gutika. This can be compared with pills, in modern
pharmaceutics.
Vati
valiismade in the shapeof flat circularmasshenceit is similar
to tablet.
Guda
Kdstousadhi c-urna is mixed with gudapaka and prepared
product is called guda.
Guggulu
Kdstousadhi c-un1aand bhasma etc. are mixed with guggulu
and guti or va[i is preparedthen it is called guggulu kalpana.
Varti
lf the gutika or vali medicine is modified into this long oval
shaped solid form, then it is called as Varti Kalpana. This is
commonly used for local administrationof following routes viz.
Guda (Anus),Yoni (Vagina),,Sisna (Penis), Netra (Eye)' According
to the specific route of drug administration, the length and diameter
of the Varti wlll be modified.
Vafaka
If medicineis madein to big circularmassform thenit is called
valaka.
Piatlaor pi4{i
Ausadhidravya c-urryais mixed with Sarkara and medicine is
moulded llke pinda and called aspinda ot pind kalpand (2to 5 tula
wt. medicine or big amalaki size medicine if rolled into circular
shapethen it is called pin(a).
Modaka
It will be having circular shapeand having big size usually it
is prepared with medicine possesing weight around 20 gms., 50
gms, 100 gms. of aroundbig lemon fruit size medicine if rolled into
circular mass form then it is called modaka.If more quantity of
medicine is supposed to be given, then it can be given in the form
Auqadha kalpand 261

of pinda or modaka.
CANDRAPRABHAVATI
ApparatusRequired
LohaPdtra,stainless
steelvessel,stirrer,Khalvayantra,cloth.
Drugs Required
1. Kac[ra 2. Yaca
3. Musta 4. Bh[nimba
5. Devaddru 6. Haridra
7. Ativisa 8. Daruharidra
9. PippalTmlla 10. Trivrtmila
11.Dantrmila 12. Tejapatra
13.Dalcini 14. S[ksma ela
15. VarhSalocana 16. Dhanyaka
17. Amlakr 18. Harrtakr
19. Vibhitaki 20. Cavyamlla
21. Vidanga 22. Gajapippali
23. Sunthi 24. Pippali
25. MarTca 26. Yavaksara
27. Sarjikaksara 28. Saindhavalavana
29. Sourcalavana 30. Vidalavana
31. Swarnamaksikabhasma 32. Loha bhasma
33. Sugar 34. SodhitaSilajatu
4..
35. Sodhitaguggulu
Procedure
Above mentioneddrugs No. I to No. 30 all should be prepared
into fine powder form (Vcsrra galitha) and kept ready. Sodhita
guggulu mixed with appropriatequantity of water and heatedover
manddgni, while heating continuosly stirred, to facilitate uniform
distribution of guggulu in water. Then sodhita Silajath is addedand
mixed well, thereafter powdered sugar is added and mixed well.
Then fine powder of above mentioned drugs No. 1 to 30 and loha
262 B hais ajy a Kalpand Vij iidnam

bhasma,swarnamdksikabhasma alsoaddedandmixed uniformely.


Then vesselis taken out from fire and contentsare collected into
Khalvayantra andtrituratedwell for making soft mass(if necessary
little bit hot water also can be addedwhile triturating to get proper
consistency).Then this rhaterialis moulded into vati form having
the weight of 3 ratti and dried in shade(caya suska).This recipe
known as candraprabhdvatT.It should be preserved in air tight
glasscontainers.
Karma
Balya, VfSya. ra sdyanct
Amayika Prayoga
Sarva rogaharam,2Otypesof Prameha,8 typesof mlttrakycra,
4 types of aSmari, 13 types of mutraghdta andavrddi, Pandu,
kamala, hattmaka,Kdsa, fvasa, kustha,agnimandhya,aruci, vata,
pitta and kapha vikara.
Matra
I Vati to 4 Vati
AnupEna
Hot milk. water.
Sanjivanr vati
f€H qrtn Fwn qynrsfrfiaqt r r
{Er T{* trffiii qFEi qrd *a*q r
qdrfr qqqFnfr ril[*fu ftrt( I r
Tgr$ilTEo,rqrqf qqrqr{u,+{t: r
qdrrrfiUtgF+ga fqqi wq+(rl
fxas qdd g atr€r: nrffirt r
TA dqH {rl{r ri+qqfr qw{q tl
€. q. Er.\e.q4-R
(TrT. q,)
This recipe known as sanf:ani valibecauseit brings a dying
man back to life.
Apparatus required
Khalva yantra,cloth, tray, glassjars. etc.
Augadha kalpand 263

Drugs required
Vidanga I Part
Nagara I Part
Pippah I Part
Haritaki I Part
Amalaki I Part
Bibhiraki I Part
Vacha I Part
Gudiici I Part
Sodhitabhallataka I Part
Sodhitir vatsandbha I Part
Gomdtra Appropriate quantiry
(Cows urine)
Procedure
Above mentioned l0 drugs are made in to fine powder form
separatelyand taken in equal quantity, then all together mixed in a
khalvayantraand addedsufficient quantity of gomltra and bhdvana
is done, till contents reaches the matrapaka state of vati. Then
contentsare rolled in to pill form having the size of gunja ( I 25 mg)
and these are dried in shade(chaya6uska).
MEtra
I Gunja to 4 gunja
AnupSna
Ardraka swarasa (Tulasi swarasa arso papular anupEnafor
sanjlvinivatl),
Amayika prayoga
Ajr-rna,gulma, vi5iici, snake bite, sannipatajwara.
According to the disease,the doseof sanjivaniva[i is mentioned
like wise :
One pill (2-3 times per day) - ajrrna and gulma
Two pills (4 times per day) - vi6[ci
264 BhaisajyaKalpanaVijfianam

Threepills (2 rimesper duy) - snake Lrite


Four pills (2-3 timesper day)_sannipatajrvara
Vyosddi gutikh
E+qrm}ili Tdi ilrFfri frr**i aqr r
EfiTirfdfufFir q yA* adufimq 1s
frg'tri fdvTrui
FrrETs:eroffi :r
ff*Jfrffir +d Mq(rr
€fugrnfr @ITfiT ufavqrqmrnFrfi
r
(ttT.Ti.q. €. \e.Rt-Ry)
Apparatusrequired
Khalvayantra,widemouthedvessel,
tray.clothetc.
Drugs required
Vyosa((irnti) I Karsa
Amlavetasa I Karsa
Cavyam I Karsa
Tdlisapatra I Karsa
Citramila I Karsa
Jiraka I Karsa
Tintidrka I Karsa
Trisugandhas 3 Sanas
(ela, twak, patra)
Guda 20 Karsas
Water : Appropriatequantity.
Procedure :
All above mentioneddrugs are made in to fine powder
form
and kept ready for mixing in paka. Guda is made in to pieces
and
mixed with appropriatequantity of water, in a vessel
and heated
over myduagni,when gu.4agetsdissolvedcompletely in
water, then
contentsare filtered with cloth, this filtered liquid is again
heated
till it reachesproper paka. Then vesseris taken out from
fire and
above mentioned drugs (from vyo$a to tintidikd in fine
powder
form, in respected quantity, mixed in pakc uniformely,
then
Auqadhakalpana 265

sugandhitadravya (ela, twak,patra) powder also addedand mixed


uniformely. Then this substanceis made into vatikd, having the
weight of 6 gms and dried in shadethen preservedin air tight glass
or plastic containers.This recipe known as vyosadigwikA.
Matra
6 gms.
Karma
Rucikararn,swarahitakaram
Amayika prayoga
Prnasa,kasa,Swasa,pratisyaya.
Mode of administration
It is advisedto cheweby keepingin mouth,4 vatis per day.
Eladi vati
qgrEr,rffiisqfsT:firqqfrd nw I
@a qfrfu61;11
rryd qqrr g"firgpal: 6*iFm{qi l
srffiHi da*q,i qq{qa fqi ffi rr
Hri sri Et tr46i 6F{{.6f T( YtTtI
rnfirst'qt lJurt qrdvlilT{t{nt r I
vfrqrc{t6rrErdisw{tt {a{qq r
Trdfrr dfqi qqr Tfiiqd' ffi( tr
(t. {r.rtrmil
Apparatusrequired
cloth,vessel,tray etc.
Khalvayantra.
Drugs required
S[ksma ela Yz pala
'feja
patra Vz pala
Dalchini (twak) Vz pala
Pippali Vz pala
Sita (sugarcandy) I pala
Yastimadhu 1 pala
266 B haiqajy a Kalpand Vij fidnam

Pindakharjura(Seddless) : I pala
Draksa : I pala
Madhu : Appropriate quantity
Procedure
Elato yastimadhu arsixdrugs are madein to fine powder
form
and kept ready. seedlesspiryda kharjura and
seedless draksci are
grinded in kharvayantra, then resrof the drugs
powd., i, uJa"o to
them grinded and mixed uniformery madhi
, ii added and again
mixed well.
Then contentsare made into gutikahaving weight
aboutI tora
and dried in sun light andpreserved,air tight glass
containers.This
gutika is advisedto preparein summer season.
Karma
Tarpana,vrsya
Amayika prayoga
Kdsa, sw6sa,jwara, hikka, chardi, mDrcha, mada,
_ bhrama,
raktapitta, trsna, plrswa6tla, aruci, Sosa,p'havrddi,'arnuuatu,
Swarabheda, urah ksata,ksaya.
Mdtra
1 tola, two times per day.
Lavang5di vafi

qqltrgewFs
q,r€rFcEfu
TFq,,rqfrffi.rsEq,r+
rr
(dffi-qq r f{mrs)
Apparatus required
Khalvayantra, cloth, vessel,tray.
Drugs required
LavangacDrna : 1 part
Marlca c[rla : I part
Vibhrtakaphala twak c[rna : I part
Auqadhakalpand 267

Khadhira kasta saraclrla : 3 Parts


Babbula twak kwatha c[rna : Appropriate quantity
Procedure
All drugs (Lavanga, marlca, vibhltaki, khadhira sara) are
made in to fine powder form and taken in to a khalvayantra and
babbula twak kwathc sufficient quantity is added and 3 bhdvanas
are done, then this substanceis made into pill form having the
weight of 3 to 4 ratti, and dried in shade.This recipe is called
lavangadivati andpreservedin glasscontainers.
Mode of administration
It is advisedto chew by keepingin mouth.
Amayikaprayoga
Kdsa etc.
Citrak6di vafi
fud?irfirqefrTaid qnt dEsnfrq I
affiq|a qdi +ffi quf*(rr
TF*,r qq5fg.{q qrB{s r*q qr I
qrqrrsrs qr;r€Itrl
5ar frtr|ErrrFlrli'
q)
(qm-qr-tr6sfr
Apparatus required
Khalvayantra,cloth,vessel,tray,etc.
Drugs required
Citrakamtla cflrla part
Pippalimtla cIrna part
Yavaksara part
Sarja ksara part
Saindhavalavaqa part
Sourchalalavaqa part
Sdmudralavana part
Vida lavana part
Oudbhida lavana pafi
268 B haiq ajy a Kalp and Vij fi anam

Sunthi c[rna I part


Pippali cDrla I part
Manca clrna I part
Suddhahingu clrr.ra I part
Ajamoda c[rla I part
Cavyamtla ciirla I part
Matulunganimbu
Swarasaor dadima
Phalaswarasa Appropriatequantity.
Procedure
All above menrioneddrugs (no - 1 to r5) are made into fine
powder form and collected in to vessel and mdtulunga nimbu
swarasa or dadima phala swarasa in appropriatequantity is added
and substanceis convertedin to pasteform and taken in to khalva
yantra and grinded well then it is dried, like that same(bhavana)
processis done for total 3 times. Then this is moulded into gutika
form, having the weight of 6 rattis to lz rattisend dried in ihaoe.
then preservedin air tight glasscontainers.
Karma
Ama pacanam,agnidipanam
Amayika prayoga
Grahaqi,agnimandhyaetc.
Mitra
6 rattis
Anuplna
Takra, usnodaka
Rasonfldi vati
@d rx6,,$FRqgffrtwq.r
sqGf{qrrilrfrqtfuniErfrSrfrr+rre*qd I r
(d?rfi-+t-f+qtuor)
Apparatus required
Khalvayantra,vessel,tray, etc.
Auqadha kalpand 269

Drugs required
Lasuna(external
covering is removed) I part
Swetajrraka I part
4,,
Sodhitagandhaka I part
Saindhavalavana I part
Sunthi 1 part
Pippali 1 part
Marlca I part
Sodhitahingu I part
Nimbu swarasa Appropriate quantity
Procedure
First up all external covering of the lasuna is removed and it
is taken into khalva yantra and grinded well, kept-readythenyraka
to marlca (no-2 to 7) total 6 drugs are made in to fine powder form
and kept ready.Sodhitahinguis to be mixed in appropriatequantity
of nimbuswarasa and mixed well. Then lasuna kalka, dravya
s-ukqma cltn.ra,andnimbu swarasa with hing uall are mixed together
and grindedwellinkhalvayantra. Then this substanceis madein to
gfiikA having the weight of 4 rattis and dried in shade aftei that
again it has to be dried in sun light for some time. This recipe is
called rasonddi vaii and it is preservedin glass containers
Amayika prayoga
Visficika, ajirna, ddhmana,udaravikdra,
MEtra
2 to 4 gutika
AnupEna
Usnodaka
Arogya vardhani gutr
qqiflq,{ |
#fiT fdwi q fyrdrffig| |
f{wr GrJUn
T{Si gS qc ftrl1ri * 66srr[|
270 Bhaiqajya Kalpand Vijiidnam

fffir rrdsqt t{n Fd gqcrd r6ftT: tl


Aqqqrcnrrrfrfirf{+EfrMq r
ffig qFq,r c,rqf rrqqtetreilqqr tr
qus?i*kfrr *qr €Fil
iligrrrfrqiT; I
rr
qt
*rT wsR+wr+ ii Tcl11rrr I
qrtrfifufr rTcun
Esrtffiifl rr
regfq* fTdi gd{quaftf* r
Eg{tr fo,lFfu Fditg wqt rr
qrM* qrfi TEai?irqtfrfm r
€dfturvFr* @+frFrqr rr
fwwqfd+q-S€l
Apparatusrequired
Khalvayantra,cloth,vessel.etc.
Drugs Required
1. SuddhaParada I part
2. Suddhagandhaka I part
3. Loha bhasma I part
4. Abhraka bhasma I part
5. Tdmra bhasma I part
6. Triphala c[rr]a 2 parts
7. SuddhaSilajitu 3 parts
8. Suddhaguggulu 4 parts
9. Citramflla c[rna 1 part
10. Katukl c[rta 18parts
I 1. Nimba patra swarasaor
Nimba paffcangakasaya Apropriatequantity
Procedure
First up all kajjari is prepared with suddha pdrada and
suddha
gandhakainakharvayantra,thenrest of the drugs(no -
3 to 10) are
addedandgrindedwel for uniform mixing, thenappropriate
quantity
of nimba patra swarasa or nimba paficam-ulakwdlha-arcadded
and
Auqadha kalpand 271

bhdvanais donefor two days.Thencontentsaremadein to pill form


which are equal in size to (raja kola) big size bad,araphala. (But
usually drogya vardhini gutikas are prepared having weight of J
ratti only) and dried in shade(chaya suska),then preservedin glass
container.
Amayika prayoga
Mandala ku;!a, all varieties of kusta, vatika jwara, pittaja
jwara, slesmajajwara, dwandwaja and sannipdtikajwara.
Mode of administration
In the case of jwara after five days of occurence arogya
vardhini vati administration should be started.
Karma
Pdcanam,dipanam,hrdyam, medohara,mala5odhanam.
By changing anupdna this drogya vardhini vati can be
administeredfor the treatmentof all the diseases.This recipe is
called drogya vardhini gutika and it is mentionedby rasa ,siddha
nagarjuna as a medicine to cure all the diseases.
Modern aspectof Va[i (Tablet)
Of all the routesof administration,probably the most important
and popular one is the oral route. The drug are administered orally
usually for systemiceffect, but the route may also be usedfor local
action in the gastrointestinal tract. The parenteral route of
administration is not routinely used for self- medication and the
topical route of drug administrationhasonly beenrecentlyemployed
to deliver drugs to the body for systemic effects. The parenteral
route of administrationis important in treatingmedical emergencies.
Approxjmately 90vo of all drugs used to produce systemic effects
are administered by the oral route. Out of the drugs that are
administeredorally, solid oral dosageforms representthe preferred
classof product. The reasonsfor solid oral dosesare:
1. Solid oral dosage forms, such as tablets or capsules,
representunit dosageforms in which a single dose of the drug is
accuratelyplaced.
2. Liquid oral dosage forms such as syrups, solutions,
suspensions,
emulsionand elixirs usuallycontainmany dosesof the
272 Bhaiqajya Kalpana Vij franam

product; and the patient is askedto measurehis or her own dose


using a teaspoon,tablespoon,etc. There might be an error in
measurement.
3. Liquid oral dosage forms are more costly to transport
becauseof the weight is greater and leakageor breakageduring
shipmentis a seriousproblem.
4. Masking the tasteor odour of the drug is often a problem.
in the caseof liquid dosageforms.
5. Liquid oral dosageforms arelessportableandrequiremuch
more spacefor storage.
6. Drugs formulatedin liquid form are generallylessstable
than in the dry stateand thereforethe expiry datesare shorteri.e.
shelf life is shorter.
7. There is usually a more microbiologicburden and more
contaminationin a liquid dosageform thanin solids,undernormal
conditionsof use.
Tablets and capsulesform the two popular oral solid dosage
forms:
Definition of tablets
Tabletsmay be definedas solid pharmaceuticaldosageforms
containingdrug substances, with or wtthout suitablediluents,and
prepared either by compression or molding method. Indian
pharmacopoeia defines compressed tablets as follows
"Pharmaceuticaltabletsaresolid,flat or biconvexdiscspreparedby
compressinga drug or a mixture of drugs with or without suitable
diluents.They vary in shapeand differ greatly in size and weight,
depending on the amount of medicinal substancesand the intended
mode of administration."
Tablets have been in widespreaduse since the latter part of
l9th centuryandtheir popularityis growing.Tabletsremainpopular
as a dosageform becauseof the advantagesoffered by this dosage
form to the manufacturer and the patient.
Advantages of tablets
1. Tablet is essentiallya tamperproof dosageform; therefore
there are no changesof adulteration or mixing.
Ausadha kalpana 273

2.Thereis accuracvof dosage.They areunit dosageformsand


offer the greatestdoseprecislonand the ieastcontentvariability,
comparedto otheroral and topicaldosaseforms.
3. The cost of tabletsis lowestof all oral dosageforms.
4. They are usuallythe lightestanclmost compactof all orai
dosageforms.
5. They areusuallythe easiestancrthe cheapestto packageand
s h i p( E c o n o m y ) .
6. Productidentificationis 'ery importantand in the caseof
tablets,this is the simplesrand cheapest.This can be done by
employingembossedor monilgrammedpunches.
7. They providethe greatestcaseof swallowing.
8. It is possibleto preparecertainspecialtypesof producrs,
suchasentericcoated(whichdisintegrate oniy in smallintestine)or
delayedreleasetablets.
9. Tablets are better suited for ragre scaleproduction than
other unit oral dosageforms.
10. Tablets offer greateaseof administration,
as compared
to otherdosageforms.
I l.Thereis a diversityof useof tablets.
Although the basicmechanicarapproachto thier manuiacture
has remained the same, tablet technology has undergone great
improvement.Althoughtabretsareusuallydisc-likein shape,lhey
also may be round. oval, cylindrical, triangular,pillow_ihaped,
oblong,capsuleshapedlcaplet).Tabletsaredividedinto tw'general
classeddependingupon whetherthey are madeby compressionor
rnuolding.compressedtabletsare usually preparedby large-scale
production methods,while mouldedtabletsare preparedby small
scalemethods.
Disadvantage of tablets
l. Some durgs cannotbe compressetJ into densecompacts,
becauseof the amorphousnatureof the drug or becauseof iis low
density.
2. Drugs with poor wetting, slow dissolutionproperties,or
large dosagearedifficult or impossibleto formulate andmanufacture
IE BK
274 Bhaiqajy a Kalpand Vij iianam

as a tablet.
3. Bitter-tastingdrugs, or those with objectionableodour or
drugs which are sensitive to moisture or oxygen, may require
encapsulationbefore compression,or the tablets may require a
coating.
Types of tablets
Tablets may be classified according to their route of
administrationorfunction.Dependingon therouteof administration,
tabletsmay be classifiedas follows:
l. Oral tablets :
Thesemay be further classifiedinto:
(a) Compressedtablets
(b) Multiple compressedtablets:
(i) Layeredtablets
coatedtablets.
(ii) Compression
(c) Repeatactiontablets.
(d) Delayedaction tablets.
(e,1Enteric coatedtablets.
(f) Sugarcoatedtablets.
(g) Film coatedtablets.
(h) Chewabletablets.
(i) Controlled-releasetablets.
II. Tablets for oral cavitY :
Theseinclude four types of tablets:
(a) Buccal tablets
(b) Sublingualtablets
(c) Lozenges
(d) Dental cones
III. Tablets administered by other routes :
They are further classified into:
(a) Implants
Auqadhakalpana 275

(b) Vaginal tablets.


IV. Tablets for solutions :
They are further subdividedinto:
(a) Effervescenttablets
(b) Dispensingtablets
(c) Hypodermictablets
(d) Tablettrirurates.
I. Oral Tablets
- (a) Compressedtabrets : This category incrudes
standard,
uncoatedtabretsmadeby compressionand employing
any of three
basicmethodsof manufacture.
(i) Wet granulation
(ii) Doublecompacrion
(iii) Direct compression.
Tablets in this categoryare usualry intended for providing
rapid disintegrationand drug rerease.Tabletsfor Iocal
effect in the
gastrointestinal tractarealsoincludedin thiscategory.Suchtablets,
for Iocal effect, include drugs like antacidsand adsorbents.
other
r^ drugsin this group are intendedto producea systemic
effect. These
drugshave somesolubility in water.The tabletshourd
disintegrate
rnto smalr fragments and particres,in order to release
the drug.
Dissolutionof the tabretis alsoanotherimportantphenomenon,
and
it dependson surfacearea.If the surfaceareais greater,
the rate of
dissolutionis hisher.
(b) Multiple compressedtablets: In this group
are included
t w o c l a s s e s:s
(i) Layeredtablets
(ii) Compressioncoatedtablets
Both thesetypesof tabletsmay containeithertwo components
or three components.production speedsfor murtiple
.o-p.essed
tabletsare much slower than that for standardcompressed
tablets.
Multiple compressedtabletsare preparedusually for
two reasons.
viz., to separate,
physicallyor chemically,incompatibleingredients,
276 Bhaisujya Kalpand Vij fidnam

or to producerepeataction tablet.The layeredtabletis preferredto


thecompression- coatedtabletbecause the surfacecontactbetween
the layers is less.So, production also becomesimpler and more
rapid. It is possibleto preparerepeat-action tabletseasily from
multiple contpressed tablets.Here, the outer layer providesthe
initial doseof the drug and the subsequent layer or layersprovide
the repeatdose or ma.intenance dose of the drug.
(c) Repeat action- tublets : These types of tablets firstly
providethe initial dosetiom the outer layer or outermostcoating.
and tirenthc maintenance doseis releasedfrorn the lorverlayersor
core of the tablet.The core of the tablet is usually coatedwith
shellacor someotherpolymer,sothatit will not releaseits contents
immediatelyinto the stomach.The seconddoseof the drug is then
addedin thesugarcoating: Which is an immediatereleasecomponent
of the drug.
(rJ)Deta-;edoctiottandie) Enteric't'ostedtablet'v:As thename
indicates,the delayedaction tablet dosageform is intendedto
releasea drug after sometime delay.The entericcoatedtabletis a
good example of a Delayed Action Tablet. Enteric coated tablet
remainsintact in the stomach,but quickly releasesthe drug in the
upperintestine.Celluloseacetatephthalateis extensivelyused asan
enteric coating material for tablets' More reccntly, poly I'inyl
acerarephthalateand hydroxy propyl methvl cellulosephthalate
havealsobeenusedasentericmaterials.Entericcoatingareusedfor
a numberof reasons.Somedrugsareirritating in the stomach.Such
drugs should be releasedintestine, and not in the stomach,e'g'
aspirin, Enteric coating thus reduces irritation in the stomach.
Sometimes,the low pH of the stomachdestroyscertain drugs e'g'
erythromycin.In thesecasesanentericcoating may be necessary'At
times, it may be necessaryto releasethe drug in an undilutedform
in the intestineonly, e.g. intestinalantiseptics'
(f) Sugarcoatedtablets: Sugarcoatedtabletsaremistakenby
children for candy.Thesetypes of tabletspermit the separationof
incompatible ingredients,betweencoating and core. This fact is
used in making multi - vitamin tablets.To day's sugar coating
makes use of not only sugar syrups, but also of water soluble
polymers.Automatic sugarcoatingequiprnentsareutilised in order
Auqadhakalpana 277

to increaseefficiency.Sugarcoatedtabletsoffer obviousaclvantases,
suchas coatingbitter or obnoxiousingredientsand protectionfrom
moisture,gases,vapoursand light.
(g) Film coated tablets : In film coatedtablet. a thin film or
layer of polymeric material is applied on the tablet surface.Film
coatinghasseveraladvantages. Film coatinghasbettermechanical
strengththansugarcoating.It alsohaselasticityandflexibility due
to thepolymercoating.Film coatsmay betransparent. embossed or
engraved.Film coating also offers protectionfrom environmental
c o n d i t i o n ss u c h a s m o i s t u r e g
, a s e s .v a p o u r sa n d f l u c t u a t i o n si n
temperature.Film coated tablets can be made enteric by using
specific polymers, which will not dissolve in the sromachbut
releasethe drug only in the intestine,
(h) Cheyvable tablets: Chewabletabletsare intendedto the
chewedin the mouth, prior to swallowing.Thesetabletsare not
intendedto be swallowedintact.The purposeof chewabletabletsis
to provide medicationin a form which canbe easily administeredto
infants, children and elderly patientswho may have difficulty in
swallowingintacttablets.Bittertastingdrugscannot be formulated
in suchtablets.Usually,antacidtabietsareformulatedaschewable
tablets.As chewabletablets,antacidsoffer two distinct advantages.
A typical antacidtablet would be difficult to swallow becausethe
doseofthe antacidis large;thereforechewabletabletsareperferred.
Secondly,theactivity of antacidis relatedto particlesize.Therefore,
betterneutralizationof acid is possibledueio chewing,aschewing
greatly reducesthe particle size of the antacid drug.
(1) Controlled release tablets : These types of tabiers offer
continuousand consistentreleaseof a drug from the tablet,thereby
producingtherapeuticallyeffective and constantconcentrationsof
the drug in the plasma.Thus, it avoids many toxic manifestations
andreducesthe frequencyof administration.In thesetype of tablets,
a drug is embeddedin a polymer matrix which releasesthe drug at
a sustainedrate, so that the drug is availableto the body in proper
concentrationover an extendedperiod of time.
Manufacture of Tablets
The formulation of tablets has undergonerapid change and
278 B h aiqaj y a Ka lp ana Vij ii anam

development over the last several decadeswith the advent and


emergenceof new techniques,methodologies,machineries and
control systems.The designof a tablet usually involves a seriesof
compromises,on the part of the formularor (Pharmacist).The
correct selectionand balanceofexcipient materialsfor eachactive
ingredient or combination of ingredientsto achieve the desired
responseis not, in practice,a simple goal to achieve.Tablet
formulationand designmay be describedasthe processwherebythe
formulator insure that the correct amount of the drug, in the right
form, is deliveredat or over the proper time, at the correctrate and
at the desiredsite of action.Also, the chemicaior biochemical
integrity of the product must be protected.The amount of drug
which is sufficient to producetherapeuticresponsecan be affected
by several factors. With most drugs, the efficiency of absorption
has been shown to depend on the particle size and the specific
surfacearea of the drug. Therefore,the form in rvhich the drug is
absorbedcan affect its activity. Most drugs are normally absorbed
in solution from the gastro-intestinaltract. Therefore,the rate of
solutionof thedrugbecomestheratelimiting stepfor its absorption.
We must also considerthe influenceof inactiveingredienton the
absorptionand the pharmacologicresponseof any tablet svstem.
It is necessary,therefore,that after administrationthe solid
dosageform such a tablet should break down (disintegrate)into
smallerparticles.Theseparticles,will thanreleasethe drug and the
drug will be availablein generalcirculation.The tabletmanufacture,
therefore,involves the incorporationof other inactiveingreadients
along with the activeingredientor drug in the tablet.Theseinactive
ingredientsmay then be classified,deependingupon their t-unction
in the formulation. Theseexcipientsare classifiedas follows:
1. Diluents
2. Binders and adhesives.
3. Lubricants,antiadherentsand glidants.
4. Disintegrants.
5. Colourants
6. Flavours and sweetners.
Auqadha kalpand 279

7. Miscellaneouscomponentssuchas buffersand adsorbents.


Diluents
Diluents are the materials which are used to make up the
required bulk of the tablet, when the drug quantity itself is not
sufficientto producethis bulk. The doseof somedrugsis sufficiently
high and no diluent is required. Although, diluents are normally
thoughtof asinert ingredients,they can affectthe availability of the
drug in the body. Diluents can also affect the physicalproperitesof
the final tablet.Regardlessof why a diluent is selected,diluentsand
all other excipientsmust meet certain requirements.Theseare :
(i) They must be nontoxic.
(ii) They mustbe commerciallyavailablein acceptiblegrades.
(iii) Their cost must be low.
(iv) They must not be contra-indicatede.g. sucrosein the case
of diabeticpatients.
(v) They must be physiologically inert.
(vi) They must be physicallyand chemicallystable.and must
be compatiblewith other ingredientsin the formulation.
(vii) They must be free from any hazardous microbial
contamination.
(viii) They must be colour- compatible.
(ix) They must not have any deleterious effect on the
bioavailability of the drug.
(x) They must not be hygroscopic.
Apart from all theseessentialattributes,a diluent mustpossess
a sufficient degreeof cohesiveness or compressibility.
(a) Lactose : Lactoseis the most widely used diluent. it is
compatiblewith most drugs;whetherit is usedin its hydrousform
or anhydrousform. The hydrousform is most commonly usedin wet
granulationmethods.Lactoseformulations show good drug- release
rates,their granulescan be readily dried and lactoseis a low- cost
diluent. Lacotoseis extensivelyused in tabletscontaining potent
drugs such as steroids. Lactose may show discoloration in the
presenceof amine drugs. Lactose anhydroususually dosenot show
280 Bhai sajy a Kalp a na Vij fianant

browning of the tablets containing cerrain drug as rvith hydrous


lactose.( Maillard reaction).Tabletsmadeirom anhydrouslactose
showfastdisintegration, goodfriability andpracticiillvno sricking,
bindingandcapping.Anotherformof lactose,known asspray-dried
lactose,has improveclcompressionaland good flow properties.
Tablets made from spray- dried lactose generally show better
physicalstability.
(b) Starch : Starch which may come from corn, wheat or
potatoesis used as a tablet diluent. starch is not only used as a
diluent, but also as a disintegrantand trinder.Tabletscontaining
high concentrationsof starchare often soft, and rnay he difflcult to
dry. Now directlycompressiblestarchis also a'ailable, and it is a
liee flowing material.Directlycompressrble srarchis self-lubricatins
and self-disintegrating. Hydroiyzed starchesare also available,
which are basically90 to 92 va dextroseand 3 to -5% Maltcise.They
are also free florving and directly comp,:essible_straches are
compatiblewith mostdrugs,but theirhigherproportionin thetablet
formuiationshouldbe avoidedbecausethe tabletsbecomesoft and
the moisturecontentof the tabietsincreases.
(c) Mannitol : Mannitol finds increasingapplication in the
formulation of chewable tatrlets.Mannitol is perhaps the most
expensivesugarusedas a diluent.Ir{annitolgivesa cool sensation
in the mouthbecauseit absorbsheat'rvhen it dissolvesin the mouth.
It has slow solubility and it gives a pleasantfeeling in rhe mourh.
Mannitol is relativelynon- hygroscopicandcan be usedin 'riramin
formulations. Tablets containing mannitol usualiy require fairly
high proportionsof lubricantsas mannitol formulationshave poor
flow properties.
(d) sorbitol : Sorbitol is more water s'luble than mannitol.
Sorbitolis hygroscopicat humiditiesabove65vo.rtmaybe combined
with an equal weight of cicalcium phosphaiero form a directly
compressible diluent.
(e) Sucrose : Sucroseor sugar and various sucrose_based
diluents are employed in tablet making. sucrose may be used in
chewable tablets, along with other diluents. some manufactures
avoid the use of sucrosebecauseit poses difficulty for diabetic
patients.Sucroseformulationshavea tendencyto pick up moisture.
Auqadha kalpana 281

Sucrosepowder may be used for both, chewable as well as non


chewabletablets.
(f) Microcrvstollinecellulose:Ir haswide usein theformulation
of directlycompressible diluents.The flowpropertiesof this material
aregood.This is an uniquediluentin that,while producingcohesive
tablet forrnulations,the materialalso actsas a disintegratingagent.
It is, however,comparativelyexpensivematerial.Microcrystalline
cellLrlose. when usedin tabletformulation,showscapillarity and
therefore water can penetrateinto the tablet,therebycausingrapid
disintegration of the tablet.As a diluent,microcrystallinecellulose
can be used to control drug releaserates when combined with
lactose,starch,diabasiccalciumphosphate, etc.
(g) Diefu{tsiccalciumphosphate(Dihydrate): It is commonly
usedasa tabletciiluent.lt is usedprimarilyasa directlycompressible
cliluent.It is non-hygroscoic.It has interestingapplicationsin
vitamin-mineralformulationsas both, a direct compactionvehicle
and as a sourceof calciumand phosphorus. It is usedprimarily as
a diluent andbinderin directcompactionformulas,wherethe active
ingredientoccupieslessthan40 to 50Vaof the flnal tabletweight.
(h) Calciunt,sulphate (dihydrate):It hasbeensuggested as a
diluent for granulatedtablet systems,where upto 20 or 30Voof
active ingredientare addedto stock calcium sulphategranulation.
It is economicaland hasbeenreportedto show good stability with
many drugs.
Other diluents include calcium lactate trihydrate, amylose
which is a derivativeglucoseandsomecellulosederivativessuchas
microfined cellulose, calcium carbonate,glycine, bentonite and
polyvinyl pyrrolidone.
Binders or adhesives
Binders or adhesivesare addedto tablet formulation to add
cohesiveness to powders,therebyproviding the necessarybonding
to form granules;which, after compaction,gives tablet. Granules
flow more uniformly fill the die cavity. Granulesdo not entrapany
air, whereas powders may entrap air during compression.The
binder is therefore selected on the basis of previous
experience,particularproduct needs,interatureavailable,etc.The
282 BhaiqajyaKalpand Vijiianam

primary criterionwhile selectinga binderis its comparibilitywith


theothertabletcomponents. The bindershouldalsoimpartsufficient
cohesionto the powedersto allow for normal processing.It should,
at the same time, allow the tablet to disintegrateand the drug to
dissolveuponconsumption. It shouldreleasethe activeingredients
for absorptionfrom G.I.T. Common bindersor granulatingagents
include the following : Acacia, gelatin, tragacanth,gelatin-acacia
mixture, cellulose derivatives,glucose,starch paste, polyvinyl
pyrrolidone,sucrose,sorbitol,pregelatinizedstarch,sodiumalginate,
etc.
(a)Acacia: It is a naturalgum.It hasbeenusedfor manyyears
as a granulatingsolutionfor tablets.In solutionsrangingfrom l0 to
25 Eo,it forms tablets of moderatehardness.The availability of
acacia has been uncertain in recent years. Acacia may be
contaminatedwith extraneousmaterial and bacteria.
(b) Gelatin : It is good binder. if forms tablets as hard as
acacia;butit is comparativelyeasierto prepareandhandle.Solutions
of gelatin must be used warm, to prevent gelling. Increasingthe
percentageofgelatin in tablets,causesincreasein the hardness;and
alsoincreasesthe disintegrationanddissolutiontimes.It is sornetimes
used in combinationwith acacia.
(c) Tragacanth: Like acacia,it is a naturalgum. Mucilagesof
tragacantharedifficult to prepareand use.Thus,tragacanthis added
dry and then water is addedso that the mucilage formed acts as a
binder. Wet granulesshould be quickly dried in order to avoid or
reducegrowth of microorganisms.
(d) Cellulosematerials: Cellulosederivativessuchas methyl
cellulose, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose and hydroxypropyl
cellulose are common binders and adhesives.They form tough
tabletsof moderatehardness.They form tough tabletsof moderate
hardness.They may be usedas viscoussolutionsor addeddry, then
water is added.They are availablein a wide variety of molecular
weight which effect the viscosity of the solution as well as their
swelling properties.Hydroxypropyl cellulosemay also be used as
an alcoholic solution to provide an anhydrous adhesive.Ethyl
cellulose may be used only as an alcoholic solution, and it may
retard disintegration and dissolution rates.
Auqadhakalpana 283

(e) Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP): It is a syntheticpolymer. It


is solublein alcoholand it is usedin concentrations
between3 and
I5Vo. Granulespreparedusing PVP-alcohol system dry rapidly,
compresswell and granulesformed have good properties.PVP is
particularlyusedin multivitaminchewabletablets,wheremoisture
sensitivitycanbe a problem.PVP is usedas a binder,in the caseof
moisturesensitivedrugs.
(f) Starch:Starchis usedasapasteandthetabletsaresoftand
brittle. When starchpasteis usedas a binder,heatis employedand
starchundergoeshydrolysis to dextrin and then, to glucose.Thus,
caremust be exercisedin the preparationof starchpaste, in order to
producea correct and consistentratio of starchand its hydrolysed
products,as well as to preventcharring.
(g) Sucrose:It is usedas a syrup,in the concentrations of 50
'75Vo
to of sucrose. It shows good binding properties. Tablets
preparedusing syrup alone are brittle and hard. The quantity of
syrup added and the rate of addition of syrup must be carefully
controlled. Overheatingshould be avoided, while drying the
granules,or charring of the granulesmay occur.
Glucose,as a 50 7c solution,can also be usedas a binder and
h a st h e s a m ea p p l i c a t i o nass s u c r o s e . .
(h) Miscellaneousv)ater - Soluble or dispersible binders :
Theseinclude alginic and sodium alginate,magnesiumaluminium
silicate, tylose, polyethylene glycol, guar gum, bentonite and
pregelatinisedstarch.Pregelatiniedstarchcan be blendeddry with
the various componentsof a tablet formula, and then, water is
added.
Table gives examplesof somegranulatingsystems.
Typical granulating systems.

Binder Percentage Percentage


of granulating system in the formula
Acacia l0-20 2-5
Cellulosederivatives 05-10 1-5
Gelatin r0-20 1-5
Gelatin-acacia 10-20 2-5
284 B hais aj y a Kalp and Vij iianam

Glucose 25-5A 2-25


Polyvinyl pyrrolidone 0 3- 1 5
Starchpaste 0 5- t 0 l-5
Sucrose 50-85 2-25
Sorbitol 10-25 2-r0
Pregelatinized
starch 02-05 I
t< - J

Tragacanth 03-10 t-4


Sodiumalginate 03-05 2-5
Disintegrants
These are substancesthat are added to the tablet formula
which facilitatethe breakup of a tabletafteradministration,when
the tabletcomesin contcat with an aqueousmedium in the stomach
or gastrointestinaltract.Disintegrationagentsmay be addedprior to
granulationor during the lubricationstep,priorto compressionor at
both the stages.Inother words, disintegrantsadded may be
intragranular(inside the granules),intergranular (in betweenthe
granules)or both together.Intergranulardisintegrantsare also
referredto as extragranulardisintegrants.
The disintegrationof the tablet may be causedby three
mechanisms.
(a) By swelling: After absorption of water from aqueous
environment,the disintegrantswellsandbecauseof an increasein
the internal pressure,the tablet bursts or explodes,thuscausing
disintegration.Absorptionof waterby a disintegrantmay takeplace
by capillary action.
(b) By penetration of aqueousmedium: The aqueous fluid
presentin the gastrointestinaltract may penetratethe table and thus
causeerosion or breakingup of the tablet mass,thus releasingthe
contents.
(c) Liberation of gas, by chemical reoction (Effervescence) : A
tabletmay containingredientswhich when comein contactwith the
aqueousenvironmentof the gastrointestinaltract, react and a gas,
usually carbondioxide, is evolved.This evolutionof gascausesthe
tablet to break up into smaller causesthe tablet to break up into
smaller fragments,thuscausing disintegrationand releaseof the
active ingredients from the tablet.
Au;adha kalpand 285

Six basic categoriesof disintecrantshave been describedas


follows:
(i) Starches (ii) Clays
(iii) celluloses (iv) Algins
(v) Gums (vi) N{iscellaneous.
(r\ starches:thesearethe mostcommondisintegrating agents
starchesshow a grate affinity for water, through capiliary action :
resulting in expansion and subsequentdisintegration of the
compressedtablet.Higher levels of starchin the tablet causemore
rapid disintegfration.However, high starch levels often result in
lossof bonding,cohesionandhardness.it is importantto dry starch
at 800cto 900c,to removeabsorbedwater.starchderivatives,with
excellentdisintegrating propertieshaverecentlybecomeavailable.
thesemodifiedstarches increasein volumeby 200to 3007ois water.
(ii) Clays: clayssuchasveegumandbentonitehavebeenused
as disintegrantsthe use of clays in which tabletsin limited because
of the tendencyof the tabletto discolour they areeffectiveand less
expensive.
(iii)Celtutoses:thesehavenotbeenfoundtobewidely
accepted only microcrystalline celiulose exhibits very good
disintegragtpropertieswhen presentat a level as low as I0 7a it
functionsby allowing water to enter the tablet matrix by meansof
capillary poresExessivelyhigh levels of microcrystallinecelulose
can result in tabletswhich have a tendencyto stick to be tongue.
(iv)Algins(alginates):thesearehydrophilliccolloidal
substancesthey are availableas alginic acid or saltsof alginc acid
they areeffectivedisintegrantsand are usedat the level of 5 to 107o
they have a great affinity for water.
(v)Gums:gumsareusedasdisintegrantsbecauseoftheir
tendencyto swelin water.They displaygoodbinding characteristics
when wet this propertyis oppositeto disintegrationand the amount
of gum in the tabletmustbecarefullycontrolledcommongumsused
are agat,guar, gum, karaya gum, pectin and tragacanth'
(vi) Miscetlaneous: theseinclude surfactants,resins, effer-
vescentmixtures and hydrousaluminium silicate cros-linkedpoly
286 B haiqajy a Kalpana Vij iidnam

vinyl pyrrolidone(pvp) showssuperiordisintegrantqualities.


Table givescertainexamplesof disinregrants.

Material Concentration (Vo w/w)


Starches 2-r0
Gums 2-10
Algins 2-10
Clays l-10
Cellulose 1-10
Wetting agents 0 . 1 -0 . 5
(Sodiumlauryl sulphate)
Thegeneralmethodof addingthedisinregrant to thefbrmulation
is to divide it into two portions: one part is addedto the powdered
material before granulation. i.e. intragranular; the other part is
addedduring lubricationbeforecompressicn.i.e. esxrragranular.
intragranulardi.sintegrants helps indi'idual granulesto brcak up
into smaller particlesor powder and estragranulardisinteArants
broak up tabletsi;nto granules.
4. Lubricants, Antiadherents and Glidants
The main function of tabletlubricantsis to reducethe friction
arisingat theinterfaceof tabletandthedie wall, duringcomprression
and ejection.Though the functionsof !ubricants,anti adherentsand
glidants are overlappingthesemay be defined as follows :
Lubricants: Thesereducethe friction betweenthe granulation
and die wall during compressionand ejection.
Antiadherenls: Thesepreventsticking to the punch and,to a
lensesextent the die wal.
Glidants : these improve the flow characteristicsof the
granulation.Eachof thesewill be describedin detasls.
Lubricants : Lubrication is considered to occur by two
mechanisms.The first is termed as fluid lubrication, becausethe
two moving surfacesare viewed asbeing separatedby a continuous
layer of fluid. Ahydrocarbon,suchas liquid paraffi', is an example
of a fluid type lubricant. The secondmechanismis of boundary
lubrication, which resultsfrom the adherenceof the polar portions
Auqadha kalpana 287

of moleculeswith long carbonchainsto the metal surfaceof the die


wall. Magnesium stearateis an example of boundary lubricant.
Boundarv type lumbricantsare better tluid-type lubricants,since
the adherenceof a boundarytype Iubricantto the die wall is greater.
Lubricants tend to equalize the pressuredistribution in a
compressedtabletand alsoto increasethe densityof the particlebed
prior to compression.When lubricantsare addedto a granulation,
they form a coat around the individual particles, which remains
moreor lessintactduringcompression.This coatingeffect may also
extendto the tablet surface.
Lubricantsareusuallyhydrophobic.The presenceofa lubricant
coatingmay causean increasein the disintegrationtime ; and may
also causea decreasein the drug-dissolutionrate. Presenceof a
lubricantmay give riseto a mechanicallyweakertablet,because the
lubricantcoating may interferewith the particle-to-particle
bond as
the particle size of the granules decreases,formulas generally
require a greaterpercentageof lubricant.Usualy, as the concertra-
tion of a lubricant increases,the disintegrationtime increasesand
also the rate of dissolutiondecreases.
Lubricants rnay be further classified dependingupon thieir
water solubility. Water insoluble lubricants,in general,are more
effective than water soluble lubricants. Generaly, whether the
luhbricant is water soluble or water insoluble it should be of 200
mesh or finer. Since lubricantsfunction by coating the surfaceof
graules their effectivenessand efficiency is relatedto their surface
area which dependsupon the particle size of the lubricant. Water
insoluble lubricantsinclude stearatessuchas magnesiumstearate,
calcium stearate,sodium stearate,stearicacid andtalc,waxes,etc.
Water solublelubricants includeboric acid sodum acetate,sodium
benzofte, sodium chloride,DL-lequcine,sodium lauryl sulphate,
magnesium lauryl sulphate, poly ethylene glycol 600, sodium
oleate,etc. Steartesand talc are used in the concentrationof 0.5 to
2 percentand water solublelubricantsareusedin the concentration
of I to 5 percent.Lubricantsaregnerallyaddeddryat astagewhere
the other componentsare in a homogenousstate.The lubricant is
addedand mixed for a period of only 2 to 5 minutes. Overmixing
may; lead to decreasein disintegration and disoolution rates.
Lubricants may also be added as alcoholic solutions ( e. g.
288 Bhaiqajya Kalpand Vij fidnam

polyethyleneglycols) andasemulsionsandsuspensions of lubricant


materials. Powder lubricants shoulcl to be added prior to wet
granulation,sincetheywill he distributedthroughourthegranulatron
particlesand will not be concentratedon granulesurfaces.
Water soluble lubricants are, in general used oniy when a
tabletmustbe completelywatersoluble,asin thecaseof efferrescenr
tablets.Boric acid,as a watersolubrelubricantis questionatrleclue
to recognizedBoron toxicity.
A lubricantspremaryfunctionis to reducethe fricticn berween
the die wall and the tablet edge,as the tablet is ejecrc:d. l,ack of
adequatelubricationcausesbinding rvhich causesstrain on the
machneand can lead to damageof lower punch headsand even
formed on the dei wall, and ejectionof the tabiet is difficult. such
tabletsusually show vertical scratcheson the edgesor periphery,
andarenot smooth.with excessive bin<iingin thedie thetabletsrnay
be crackedand fragmented.
Antiadhererzts : Antiadherentsare used in forrnulaswhich
show picking and sticking. sticking refers ro adherenceof the
materialto punchfacesand a film of materialis formed on thepunch
face. The advancedstageof sticking is referred to as sicking. In
picking the portionsof the iablctfa.cesare fitted or pickedouiand
adhereto the punch-face.Talc, magnesiumstearateandcornstarch
displayexcellentpunchfaceor antiadtrerent properties.Among the
watersolubleantiadherents, Dl-leucinefunctionsvery rvell.Aerosil
(silicic acid) is alsousedasan antiadherent.Metallic stearatesalso
have good antiadherentproperties.
Glidants : Glidants improve the flow properties of the
granulations,and granulesflow smoothly and uniformly from the
hopper into the feed frame or die cavitly. They act to minimize the
tendency;of a granulationto separateor segregatedue to excessive
vibration. High-speedtablet machinesrequire a smooth and even
flow of material to the die cavites. Glidants include talc, crrn,
starch,aerosil,etc.
5. Colorants
colours are incorporatedin the tablet for one or more of the
given threepurposes.
Auqadha kalpand

L Colours may be added for indentifying similar looking


products.
2. Colourscanreduceandminimize the possibilityof mix_ups.
3. Addition of col.urs usually improvesthe aestheticvalue or
marketingvalueof the tabletsandat the sametime, disguisethe off-
coloured drug. The availability of natural vegetable colours is
limited and thesecolours are often unstabre.Two forms of colour
have typically beenused in tablet preparationtheseare FD and c
colours and D and c dyes.Dyes are water solublematerialswhile
lakes are formed by the adsorption of water-soluble dye on inert
material such as hydruous oxide( usually aluminium hydroxide).
Methodsof incorporationof colour includedissolutionof the water-
soluble dyes in the granulating system or binder solution. This
m e t h o d a s s u r e su n i f o r m d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c o l o u r t h r o u g h t h e
-sranulation,but may lead to mottling during the drying process.
Another method is the adsorptionof colour onto carriers such as
starch,lactose,calcium sulphate,sugaretc from aqueousor alcoholic
solutionsof the colour. The resultantcolour mixtures are dried and
used as a stock. Water solubie dyes may be dry-blended,with an
excipient, prior to the final mix. Lakes are usually blended with
other dry excipients becauseof their insolublti nature. usually
direct compressionformulas include lakesbecauseno granulation
step is involved.
6. Flavours and Sweetners
Flavours are usually limited to chewable tablets or other
tabletsintendedto dissolve in the mouth. water soluble flavours
have poor stability. Flavours are incorporated as solids in the form
of spray-dried particles, and as oils which are sprayedas alcoholic
solutionsover the'granulesprior to compression.since, oxidation
destroys the quality of a flavours, oils are usualry emulsified with
acacia ; and spray dried. Dry flavours are easierto handle and more
stable than oils. Flavours are volatile and therefore they should not
be addedprior to any operation involving the useof heat. sweetners
are added primarily to chewable tablets or lozenges. The only
aritificial sweetnercurrently approved is saccharinsodium, which
is about 500 times sweeterthan (sucrose)sugar.The disadvantage
of saccharinis its bitter after taste.This can sometimesbe minimised
19BK
290 Bhaiyj y a Kalpand Vij frdnam

by adding a amall percentage(usually 1 Vo)of sodium chloride'


Aspartameis anotheraritificial sweetner,but it is not approvedfor
drugs. Manitol, sucroseand dextroseare also used as sweetening
agents.
Miscellaneous Components Such as Buffers and Adsorbants
Adsorbentssuch as aerosil,magnesiumoxide, amgnesium
carbonatearecapableof retaininglargequantitiesof liquids without
becoming wet. This allows many oils, fluid extractsand eutectic
mixtures tr: be incorporatedinto tablets.Silicon dioxide is capable
of holding 50 r7oof its weight of water and still remain free-flowing
p o w d e r s .S i l i c o n d i o x i d e e x h i b i t sg l i d a n t p r o p e r t i e sa s w e l l a s
adsqrbentpropertics.Otheradsorbents i ncludebentonite,magnesium
siiilate, tricalcium phosphate,etc. Adsorbentsare used when the
tablet fqrrnula containsoils or fluids.
:, Afterhavingdiscussed dilferenttabletexcipients,itis necessary
to knew aboutthe methodologyand operatingproceduresaswell as
rrachinefy involved in the manufactureof tablets.
, lfi orderthat a drug,to be formulatedin a tabletform is suitable
for adminiSratibn to produce the desiredeffect in the body I the
materiil rmiithaveattributesandpossess desirablephysico-chemical
chaidbtsfi$ticS,.,These include propertiessuch as compressibility
andflowability. The materialto be formed into a tabletmust possess
goodflow properties,so thatthemateriallluws evenlyanduniformly
to llie fgedingdcviqqsuchas teed frame of the tablet machineor to
the die cavity.'If the materialdoesnot flow uniformly,it may give
rise to prbblems suc,ha overrveighttables or off-weight tables.
Thergfoqg,flow proptirtiesof the soild to be compressedarecritical
for an efficien! labletting operation A good flow of the material to
be compressessed in necessarytc assureefficient mixing and
acceptableweight uniformity. Powders are considerd "Poorly
flow4ble", sinceparqiglgsa19in 4 very fine stateof subdivisionand
becauseofmore surfacearea,frictional resistanceofferedis greater.
tf powdeisareionvertedinto smallsphericalmassescalledgranules,
the flowability i.gimprqved Th!s is due to the reduction in frictional
forqes, Sincethesegranuleshave less surface areasas compared to
fine powders.
Auqudhakalpand 291

Another important crirerion is comperssibility.The ability of


the materialto form a compactunderpressureis dependentupon the
compressibilitycharacteriticsof rhe marerial.powderswhich form
hard compacts under applied pressure without chipping are
consideredas readily compressible.Thesematerial.can be readily
compressed.; by using directl,v-compressibleexcipients.For other
material, a granulationstep is recornmended.
Depending upon the physical characteristicsof the material
any oneof one of the following methodsmay be usedfor compaction
of the material into a tablet :
(A) Wet granulation
(B) Dry granulation
( C ) D i r e c rc o m p r e s s r o n .
The propertiesof a rablerare affectedby both, the formulation
and the methodof manufacture.A suitableformulationis critical to
the manufactureof satisfactorytablets.Holever, the formulation
mustbe designedaccordingto theneeds,advantages andlimitations
of the manufacturin_e
method and equipmentused.
Wet granulation
This methodof making granulesinvolvesthe following steps:
1. Milling of drugsand excipients.
2. Mixing of milled powders.
3. Preparetionof binder solution.
4. Mixing of binder solution with powder mixture, to form a
wet mass.
5. Coarsescreeningof the wet massusing 6 to IZ meshscreen.
6. Drying the moist granules.
7. Screeningof dry granules,through 14 to 20 mesh screen.
8. Mixing the screeneddry granuleswith lubricants,disin-
tegrants.
9. Tablet compression.
The preparationof granulationsfor tablettingby wet granulation
is the oldest method. It is still the most widelv used method.
292 Bhaiqajya Kalpana Vii iianam

However, it involves more labour, considerablernaterialhandling


and severalprocessingsteps.It is comparativelya moreexpensive
method. However, this method continues to find extensive
applications.The reasonfor this arethat the methodassurescontent
uniformity in the tables; and it can be usedfor thoseformulations
where direct compressionis not feasible'Another advantageof wet
granulationis thatthedrying cycleof theprocesscanbe manipulated
to producegranuleswith a low moisturecontent.
The advantagesand disadvantagesof the wet granulation
method,therefore,may be summarisedas follows :
Advantages
1.Thecohesiveness andcompressibilityof powersis improved
becauseof the formulation of agglomeratescalled granules.
2. High dose drugs having poor flow, or compressibility
propertiescan be preparedby wet granulation.
3. Good anduniform distributionandtherfore,uniform content
for soluble low dosage or potent drugs is obtained and colour
distributionis alsomoreuniform as comparedto directcompression.
4. It preventssegregationor separationof componentsof a
homogeneous powdermix during processing.
5 . The dissolutionrateof hydrophobic(water-repellent)drugs
may be improved by the wet granulationmcthod.
Disadvantages
1. Cost : It is an expenssiveprocess,becauseof the labour,
time, equipment,energy and spacerequirements.
2. Wet granulation cannot be used for moisture sensitive
drugs, which are degradedin the Presenceof water, moisture or an
aqueousenvironment.
3. The use of soluble dyes in wet granulation often causes
migration of the dyes during dying.
4. Any incompatibility or chemical reaction between the
formulation componentswill be aggravatedby the moisture used
during granulation.
The variousstepsinvolved in the wet granulationprocesshave
a significant effect on the tabulating properties of the resulting
Auqadha kalpana 293

granulation. It is therefore important to understand process


parameters,becausetheyhaveimpacton processdesignandselection
of ingredients.The following importantstepareinvolved in the wet
granulationprocess.
(a) Preparationof the powder mixture with screening and
mixing.
(b) Addition of the binder solutionand mixing with powder to
proper wetnessand wet screeningthe mass.
(c) Drying the solid liquid blend (wet granules)
(d) Milling the dry granulationto size.
(e) Addition of lubricant,glidant,and/orotherexcipientsprior
to compression.
Wet granulation consists of moistening the mixture of the
active ingredient and the diluent with the granulating liquid
comprisingthe binder in solution in water, alcohol or a mixture of
thesetwo, or any other acceptableliquid to moisten and bind the
powderstogetherby causingthe particlesto adhereto each other-
The wet massproducedshouldhave a dough-like consistency: so
that a handful can be formed into a shapewithout crumbling. If the
wet masshas a tendencyto stick, the granulationis usually too wet-
The wet massis then passedthrough a standard4, 6,8 or 12 mesh
screen.The wet granulesarethen sufficiently dried,passedthrough
a 20 mesh screen.lubricatedand compressedinto tablets.
Dry granulation
Dry granulation refers to the granulation of a powder mixture
by compressionand without the use of heat and a solvent. When
direct compressionis not possibledue to the propertiesand doseof
the drug, and wet granulation cannot be used becausethe drug
is sensitiveto moistureand heat,then dry granulationremainsthe
only methodavailable,e.g.,granulationof Aspirin and granulation
of effervescentproducts. The basic procedureis to form a compact
of the material by compression, and then, to mill the compact to
obtain a granulation.Two methodsare usedfor dry granulation. The
more widely used method is slugging, where the powder is
precompressedon a heavy-duty tablet press ; and the resulting
tabletsor slugs (big tablets)are milled to yield the granules.The
291 B hai qajy a Kalpan d Yij fi anatn

other method is to precompressthe powder rvith pressurerolls,


using a machine such as chilsonator.
Dry granulationinvolvesthe followinq steps:
1. Milling of drugsand excipients.
2. Mixing of milled porvders.
3. Compressioninto large hard tabletsto rnakeslugs.
4. Screeningof slugs.
5. Mixing lubricantand disintegr;rrrr.
6. T a b l e tc o m p r c s s i o n .
Advantages
Dry granulationor slugginghas the following advantages
:
1. It useslessequipmentand space.
2. It eliminates the neeclfor a binder soiution and heavy
mixing eguipment.
3. It eliminatesthe time-consumingand costly stepof drying
requiredin wet granulation.
4. It can be usedfor moisture-sensitivematerials.
5. It can be usedfor heat-sensitivematerials.
6" Tabletsshowimproveddisintegration,
sincepowderparricles
are not bondedtogetherby a binder.
7. Improved solubility.
8. Improved blending, since there is no rnigration of
active'ingredientsas might occur during drying of wet granules.
Disadvantages
The following are the disadvantagesof dry granulation or
slugging :
1. It requiresa specializedheavy-dutytabletpressto form the
slug.
2. It dose not permit uniform colour distritrution,as can be
achievedwith wet granulation.
3. A pressureroll press,suchas a chilsonator,cannotbe used
with insoluble drugs, since it may retard the dissolution rate.
Au;adha kalpand 295

4. This processcreatesrnoredust than wet granulation.


Slugging is often referred as precompressionor double
compression.T'heexcipientsused in dry granulationare basically
the sarneas those used in wet granulationor direct compression'
With dry granulation,it is often possible to compact the active
ingredient.With a minor addition of lubricar-rtand disintegrating
agent,so that the active ingredientwould constitutethe bulk of the
final product.This is the major advantageof dry granulation.Fillers
used in dry granulation include iactose, dextrose, sucrose.
microcrystallinecellulose,calcium sulphate,dicalciumphosphate,
tricalcium phosphateand starch.
Direct compression :
Until the 1950'sthe vast majority of tabletsproducedwere
manufacturedby a processrequiring grantrlation.The primary
purposeof the granulationstepwas to producea free-flowing and
compressiblemixture of active ingredients and excipients. The
availabilityof new excipients,especiallydiluents,andthe invention
of new tabletmachineryhaveallowedthe compressionof tabletsby
the muchsimplerprocedureof directcompression.However,inspite
of the many distinct advantagesof direct compression,it has not
been universally adopted. The form "direct compression" was
longused to identify the vompression of a single crystalline
compound,such as sodium chloride or potassiumbromide, into a
compactwithout the additionof any othersubstances. Few materials
possessesthe flow, cohesion and lubricating properties under
pressureto rnakesuch compactspossible.
The term direct compressionin now usedto define the process
by which tabletsarecompresseddirectly from powderblendsof the
activeingredientsandsuilableexcipients,which will flow uniformly
into a die cavity and form into a firm compact. No pretreatmentof
the powder blent is necessarY.Occasionally, potent drugs are
sprayedin the form of solution onto one of the excipients. Because
of the advent of directly compressiblevehicies, this method of
tablet compressionwas made possible.These vehicles possesses
fludity and compressibility. The first such vehicle was spray dried
lactose ; microcrystallien cellulose. The simplicity of the direct
compressionprocessis obvious.
296 BhaiqajyaKalpand Vijfianam

Diect compressioninvolves comparatively few steps:


L. Milling of drugs and excipients.
2. Mixing of ingredients.
3. Tabletcompression.
Direct compression should not be taken as a simplified
modification of the granulation process.It requires a new and
critical approachto the selection of raw materials, flow properties
of powder blends and effects of formulation variabies on
compressibility.During wet granulation,the original propertiesof
the raw materialsare, to a greatextent,completelymodified. This
is not the casein direct compression.Therefore,the propertiesof
eachand every raw material and detailsof how thesematerialsare
blendedbecomeextremelyimportant.
Advantages of direct compression
l. Economy due to reduced processing time and reduced
labour crrstsand fewer manufacturingsteps.
2. Elimination of heat and moisture,thus increasinsstabilitv
of the active ingredients.
3. Prime particle dissociation, which is one of the least
recognizedadvantagesofdirect compression.In the caseofdirect
compression,after disintegration,each primary drug particle is
liberated. In the case of granulation small drug particles, with a
large surface areaare glued together into larger agglomerates;thus
decreasingthe surface area available for dissolution.
4. Stability of the formulation is improved.
5. Particle size uniformity.
Disadvantages of direct compression
1. Problemsin the uniform distribution of low-dose drugs.
2. High dose drugs having high bulk volume, poor
compressibility and poor fluidity are not suitable for dlrecr
compressione.g. Aluminium hydroxide,magnesiumhydroxide.
3. The choice of excipientsfor direct compressionis extremely
critical. Direct compression filler-binders must possess both,
compressibility and fluidity, and in most casesthese are speciality
items available from one supplier.
Auqadha kalpana

' 4. Direct compressionexcipientsoften cost more.


5. Many activeingredientsarenotcompressible,eitherin their
crystalline or amorphousforms.
6. Direct compressionblends are subjectto unblending.
The lack of moisturemay give rise to staticchanges,which can
leadto unblending.Similarly,differencesin particlesizeor densities
of drug and excipientsmay also lead to unblending.
7. Non-uniform distributionof colour,especiallyin tabletsof
deepcolours.
l- Direct compressiontabletting should not be consideredan
easyor simple process,but rather an alternativemethodof making
tablets,having cost and stability advantages.The physicochemical
propertiesof individual ingredientssuch particle size, fluidity
as
and moisture are critical in direct compressiontabletting.The key
of successin direct compressionformulations is more closely
associatedwith the functionalbehaviourof excipients,particularly
the filler-binder. An ideal direct compressionexcipient should
possesses the following attributes:
1. The materidl should have high flowability.
2. It shouldhave high compressibility.
,
3. It shouldbe phsysiologicallyinert.
4. It should be compatiblewith all active ingredients.
5. It shouldnot show any physicalor chemicalchangeor aging
and shouldbe stableto air, moistureand heat.
6. It should have high capacity i.e. the amount of active
ingredientswhich the diluent can successfullycarry.
7. It shouldbe colourlessand tasteless.
8. It should acceptcolourantsuniformly.
'
g. It should be inexpensive.
10. It should possessproper mouth feel, if used in chewable
tablets.
I l. It shouldnot interferewith the biological availability of
acitve ingredients.
B hais aj y a Kalp an d Vij ii dnam

lZ. It should have particle size range equivalent to active


ingredients.
13. It shouldbe capableof beingreprocessed.
tr4. It should possessgood hardnessafter compression.
Tablet compression operation
Tabletsare madeby compressinga formulation containinga
drug or drugs and excipients,on a tablet press.Tablet cornpression
machinesare designedwith the following basic components:
(a) I{opper or hoppers,for holding and feedingrhe materialto
be compressed.
(b) Dies, which define the size and shapeof the tablet.
(c) Punches,which compressthe granuleswithin the dies.
(d) Cam tracks,fbr guiding the movemetof the punches.
(e) A feedingmechanismwhich movesgranulesor materialto
be compresedfrom the hoprperinto the dies.
Tabletcompressionmachinesor tabletpressesareof two basic
t y p e s:
l. The single -stationor single-punchpress.
2. Multistation or rotary press.
Single Punch Tablet Compression Machine
This consistsof a die and a set of punchesthe lower punch and
the upperpunch.The lower punchcan move freely in the die cavity,
the horizontal metal platform holds the die firmly. There are two
important featuresof the lower punch assembly.Firstly it can vary
the depthto which the lower punchfalls or descendin the die cavity.
Thus it can control the volume or weight of the material to be
compressed.Secondly,the lower punch can be adjustedin such a
way that at the top of the compressioncycle, the lower punch is
exactly at the samelevel asthe uppersurfaceof the die, i e the lower
punch comesflush with the die surface.The upper can be fixed in
such a way that it entersthe die cavity correctson its down wards
stroke. The depth to which the upper punch descends can be
conrolled, thus controlling the pressureapplied on the material.
Thus, the upper punch can control the hardnessof the compressed
tablet.
Auqadha kalpana 299

Compression cycle
l. The first stageis the filling stageduring which the upper
punch rises and the hoper containing the granulesrotatestill it is
over the die. The lower punch is lowered or drops to a present
position adjustedby the capacityregulatingscrew ; to form a cavity
in the die to provide a volume corresponding to the correct
fill weight. Granulesor the materialsto be compressedare filled in
the die.
2. The bottom punch now remainsstationarywhile the upper
punch descendsinto the die, compressingthe granulesfilled in the
die cavity.
3. The upper punch now rises, and then the lower punch also
rises flush with the surface of the die, to eiect the tablet to the
surface.
4. The feedshoeor hoper-shoenow rotatesover the die cavityl
andknocksthe finishedtabletsaside.The hoppernow againfills the
die cavity and the cycle is repeated.
Rotary Tablet Compression Machine
Multistationtabletpressesaretermedasrotarypressesbecause
the head of the tablet machine,that holds the upper punches,dies
andlowerpunchesin place,rotates.As the headrotates,the punches
are guided up and down by fixed cam tracks, which control the
sequenceof filling, compressionand ejection.The portions of the
head that hold the upper and lower punchesare called the upper and
Iower turretsrespectively,and the portion holding the dies is called
the die tablet.
At the start of the compressioncycle, the granules stored in a
hopper empties into the feed frame. The feed frame has several
interocnnected compartments. These compartmets spread the
granules over a wide area to provide time for the die to fill. There
are two sets of cams procided the pull down can guide the lower
punchesto the bottom of their vertical travel allowing the dies to
over fall. The lower punchesthen passover a weight control cam,
which reducesthe fill in the dies to the desired amount. There is a
wipe off blade at the end of the feed frame. This wipe-off blade
removesthe excessgranulesand directs it aroundthe turret and back
300 B haiqajya Kalpana Vij fi anam

into the front of the feedframe.Therearetow compressionrol's, the


uper and the lower. The lower punchesthen travel over the lower
compressionroll while, at the sametime, the upper punchesride
beneaththe uppercompressionroll. The upperpunchesentera fixed
distanceinto the dies,while the lower punchesareraisedto squeeze
and compact the granuleswithin the dies in order to regulate the
upward movemet of the lower punches the height of the lower
pressureroll is changed.After compressionthe upperpunchesare
withdrawn (raised slowly) as they follow over the upper punch
raising cam. The lower punchesride up anothercam which brings
the tabletsflush with the surfaceof the dies. The exact position is
determinedby a threadedbolt called the ejector knob, the tablets
formed then strike a sweep-off blade, which is affixed to the front
of the feed frame. The tablets then slide down a chute into a
receptacleat the same time, the lower punchesre-enter the pull
down cam.The cycle is repeatedmany tabletmachinesaredesigned
so that the compressioncycle is accomplishedmore than once,
while the machinehed makesa single revolution.
Althbugh, tablet ccmpressing machinary has undergone
numerousmodificationsovertheyears,the compactionof materials
modificationsover the years,the compactionof materialsbetwena
pair of moving punches within a stationary die, has remained
unchanged.The main modification is increasein production rate.
Out put from a tablet compressionmachine is regulatedby three
basic characteristicsof design :
(a) Number of tooling sets
(b) Numberof compressionstations.
(c) Rotationalspeedof the press.
In general, all rotary presses are designed for fast and
economicalproductionof all kinds of tablets.
The folowing table are the points of difference between a
single punch machineand a rotary tablet machine.

Single punch machine Rotary tablet machine


l.Compressionof the granules l.Compressionof the materialis
or material is abrupt. sradual.
Auqadhakalpand 301

2. Pressureis exertedby 2. pressureis exertedby pressure


punches; i. e. upper punch rolls.
and lower punch
3. During compression, the 3. Both the punchesare nloving
lower punch is stationaryand
the upperpunch is moving
4. Weight of the tablet is adjus- 4. weight is adjustedafter filing.
ted before filling.
5. For feeding the material, 5. feedingis donewithfeed frame.
a feed shoe is used.
6. This consistsof a fixed die 6.This consistsof a revolving
plate which holds the die turret, in which dies are cont-
i n u o u s l yr e v o l v i n g .

7. This is compartivelylesseco- 7.moreeconomicandit givesvery


nomic and the out put is high outputbecauseof multiple
limited due to the sinele stations.
station.
8. With this machine.thereare
more chancesof tablet capp-
ing, becausethe compression
is abrupt.

Double rotary machines


These are similar in operation and design to single rotary
machines,but possesstwo pairs of compressionrolls, two hoppers,
two feed frames and setsof cams.In this type of equipment,each
punch sgtmakestwo tabletsper revolutionof the turret unlike in the
single rotary where one tablet is mode perrevolution by eachpunch
with double the number of compressionstationsthe output is greatly
incresed.The maintenaceof thesemachinesis comparativelymore
expensivethan single rotary machines.
Drycota machines
This basicallyconsistsof two rotary tabletpressesjoined by a
single driving shaft,and a transversesystemthe tabletsmade on a
302 B haiqajya Kalpand Vij fi dnam

turret of one rotary press are transferred to a second turret. The


coatingis put on coresin the secondrotary press,i.e. tabletcoresare
made on one cotary machine and transferredwith the help of a
transfercup andtransversesystemto anotherrotary machine,where
a coatingis impressedupon the cores.Previouslycompressedcores
are fed by a vibrating feederunit onto a circular feedngdisc which
is rotatedclockwise or anticlock wise, as desired,by a motor. The
cores are connectedto a vacuum system,through flexible tubing.
The cups,which are spring loadedare guided into contactwith the
coresby meansof the cam and the pins. In practice,a bottom layer
of coating entersthe die from one hopper.At the sametin,e, a core
is picked up by a transfercup which is guided by cam ito the die.
Thenthecorerestson thebed ofcoating.The top layerof granulation
is then deposited. The whole is then compressedin the usual
manner.The machine usually has 33 compressionstations.It can
producea maximum of 900 tabletsper minute. There are a number
of problemsin the operationof this machine.
Problems in tablet manufacture (processingproblems)
In the routine manufactureof tablet and in develolping
formulationsveriousproblemsoccur.Sometimes,the sourceof the
problem is either the formulation or the compressionequipmentor
it may be a combination of the two. The production of imperfect
tabletshaving cretainnoticebaledefects,is annoyingand costly. It
indicates improper formulation, or difficulties with one or more
processingstepsor unit processesor incorrecttablet presssetting
or operation.The imperfectionsin tablet are named as follows.
l. Binding 2. Sticking
3. Filming 4. Picking
5. Capping 6. Laminating
7. Chipping 8. Cracking
9. Mottling 10.Weightvariation
I 1. Hardness
variation 12.Doubleimpresion
13. Tablet expansion.
Binding : Binding is generallydue to insufficient lubrication.
The resistanceof the tablet to ejection from the die cavity, due to
Auqadha kalpana

adherenceto the die wall is called binding in the die. Tablets


compressedwith sufficientlubricationis not sufficienttabletshave
rough sidesor edgeswith vertical scratches.Tabletsoften crack or
chip as a result of binding. In caseof colouredtabletsthe edgesof
suchtabletsare light in colour. With excessivebinding. The tablets
are crackedand may crumble apart.The problem of binding can be
overcome by cleaning the dies througiy and lubricating them
appropriately.Increasedquanity of more efficient lubricant should
be used.Eicessive moisturein the granulescan also causebinding
in the die. Problem of binding can also be solved in somecasesby
modifying granulesto reducegranulesize or by increasingpunch
die clearance.
Sticking : sticking also referred[o as "Filming" or "picking"
" is usaully due to incompletelydried to irnproperlylubricated
granulations. Eitherof thesewill allow someof thegranulesto stick
to punch faces.Theseare usually small fragmnetsfrom the tablet
face at first, but the condition becomesprogressivelyworse with
larger and larger pieces of tablet being picked from the face as
compressioncontinues.Tabletsmay chip or breakif picking occours
on the lower punch or may pull apart from the upper punch. The
remedyis to control the moisturein the granulationstickingfilming
or picking happensmore frequently with a single punch machine
becauseof isnufficinet pressureor top pressureonly. On rotary
tabletmachinesincreasingthe pressure,reducingthe running speed
and/ or increasingthe proportionof binder help to over come these
defects. Another approachis to use highly polished punchesor
chormium plated punches.Filming is a form of sticking. It is the
slow build up of a thin film at first of the granuleson the punches.
This is due to lossof polish of the punch faces.Film build up is also
caused6y high humidity or high ternperature.Fitming or sticking
may be causedby rough ort scratchedpunchfacesandnicked punch
tips. Filming may be causedby oily or waxy materialsor too little
lubrication. Filming can be overcome by changing the granules
changingor decreasingthe lubricant,addingandadsorbantcleaning
or polishing punch faces.
Capping and lamination
Capping is the defect in which the top or upper segmentof the
304 BhaiqajyaKalPanaViiftdnam

tabletis cracakedaroundthe edgeor separatedas a cap.It is usually


dueto air entrappedin the die which is compressedaspunchesmove
together to apply pressure,and which then exspandswhen the
pressuris released.This is very common when granulescontain
large percentageof fines. Lamination is causedby the samefactors
as cappingbut by; exaggeratedconditionsat high speedit differs
from chipping in that tablets split or crack on the sides by air
expansionwhen preessureis releasedand then the tablet comes
apart in separtelayers.This may be due to poorly cohesiveor oily
granules.In more severeconditions,tabletsbreak apart or tend to
explode on ejection the following are some of the remedies of
cappingand lamination.Removesomeor all the fines through 100
to 200 mesh screen. In crease or change the lubricant dry the
granulesor moistenthe granulesimprove granulationprocedureor
increasebinder or weiting of the granulation.
Chipping and cracking
Chipping ret'ersto the defect in which pieces are broken or
chippedout of the tablet.This may occouron the facesof the tablets
but usually occurson the facesof the tabletsbut usually occurson
the edges.It may be due to sticking or to damagedpunches or
incorrectly fixed tablet machine.Cracking refers to tablets that are
crackedanywherebut often in the centreof the top. Crackingis due
to expansionasdistinguishedfrom capingor laminating.It may also
be due to binding or sticking. Chipping and cracking may be
remedied by replacing or refacing nicked or chipped punches,
resettingthe tablet machineby increasingbinder or by wetting the
granultion.It can alsobe correctedby polishing punchtips, removing
some or all fines and by reducingthe granulesize.
Mottling
Mottling is an unequal distribution or colour on a tablet with
light or dark areasstanding out. The surface of the tablet does not
show uniform colour. Onereasonfor mottling is drug whosecolour
differs from the tablet excipients or a drug whose degradation
productsarecoloured.The useof colourantsor dyesmay solve this
porblem but can createother problemes.A dye can causemottling
by migrating to the surface of a granulation during drying. To over
come this difficulty, the solvent system may be changed, binder
Auqadlrukalpand 305

systenmay be changed.Reducingthe drying temperaturealso


herps
in reducingmottling.
Weight variation :

. Anything tharcanalter thedie filling processcanchangetablet


weight. variations in the ratio of small to large granulesu-ir,,
*uy
causeweight variation.If iarge granulesare.usedto fill small die
cavity, relatively few granulesarerequirecland this alsocan lead
to
rveightvariation.The filling of the die is basedon a continuous
and
uniform flow of thegranulesfrom the hopper.when the granules
do
not flow readily, the flow is not uniform and sorne dies
are
incompletelyfilled and this leadsro off weight rablets.similarly
n'eightvariationmay occur when the machinespeedis in
excess.
\\'ith poor flow, additionof a gricrantsuchas tarcumor
coroidar
. rl r c am a y b e u s e f u l .
Hardness variation
Hardnessvariation is a problem that has the samecausesas
r'eight. variation hardnessdependson the weight to the material
and the spacebetwen upper and rower punchesat the moment of
compression.If the volume of the materialor the distancebetween
the punchesvaries,hardnessalsomay change.proportion ofbinder
and method of adding binder also may cause variation in the
hardnessof the tablets.
Double impression
This involves only punchesthat have a monograrnor other
engraving on them. At the moment of compression,the tablet
receivesthe imprint of the punch.During its travel the lower punch
may rotate and may make a new impressionon the bottom surface
of the tablet; resulting in a double impression.The newer tablet
machineshave antiturning devices as an integral part of their
designandcontractionandhencethere is no suchprobiemof double
impression.
Tablet expansion
Expansion of the tablet immediately after compression is a
contributing factor or may tablet defects. Expansion ot the tablet
during compressionmay lead to caping. Expinsion varies gratery
with different types of materials. As the granuresare compiessed,
20 BK
Bhaiqajya Kalpand Vij fidnam

expansiontakesplace againstdie walls, and as the tablet is being


ejectedfrom the die this expansionis still takingplaceandthe tablet
has to be forced out of the die cavity. This addedfriction causes
tabletsto cap or laminate.This canbe easilyrecognisedasthe tablet
makesscreechingsoundas it is ejectedfrom the die. This problem
may be overcomeby taperingthe dies a few thousandsof an inch.
This allows the tablet to expand without capping , laminating or
breaking .
Coatingof Tablets
Tablets are coatedfor the following reasons:
1.To preventchangesoccurringin thetabletdueto atmospheric
conditionslike moistureoxidation,reduction,actionof carbon-di-
oxide etc.
2. to mask unpleasanttasteand odour.
3. to improve the appearanceof tablets.
4. to control the site of action of drugs i. e. enteric coating.
Tablet coating has been clasified into following types.
(a) sugarcoating .
(b) film coating.
(C) Enteric coating..
(D) compressioncoating
Processesemployedfor tablet coating may be
(i) pan coating
(ii) compressioncoating
(iii) air suspensioncoating
(iv) dip coating
' ,",(il,pan caating': in,pancoating,a
$tainlesssteelor coper pan
isrusedthe regular method or sugar coating is as follows;
Syrup containing 2 parts of sugar and one part of water is
prepared.Dusting powderonsistingof 50 partsof starch10 partsof
pu5lfie-dtalc ,,qrtdono:partqf acacia may,be used.The proportions
and,lhe,cornposltion,gfdusting powder may vary. , ',,
Auqadln kalpand 307

The tabletsto be coatedareplacedin the pan.The speedof the


pan is so adjustedthat the tabletstumble in the pan.Hot air is blown
in. The syrup is addedin portions.After eachaclditionof the syrup
dusting powder is sprinkled. The dusting powder does not ailow
tabletsto sick together.The altenativeadditionof syrupandpowder
iss repeateduntil a dcsiredcoat is built up. Towards.n,t onty warrn
syrup is aded followed by cold syrup and rhe rabletsare diied by
blowing in cold air. This helpsin obtaininga smoothsurface.
(il) compressioncoating : In this methodgranulesof coating
materialarepreparedanda layer of coatingmaterialis placedunder
the core tablet ( i.e. tabletto be coated)and a layer above..hetablet,
in the die of a tableting machine and compressed.Then whole
operationis carried out in seriesof automaticoperations.Drycota
type of machinesare normally usedfor the purpose.
Enteric coating: this type of specialcoatingis employedfor
rhe following reasons.
( I ) whereit is desiredthat the tablet shouldnot disintegrarein
the stomach. Non-disintegrationis desired where the active
ingredientof a pill irritatesthe mucous membraneof the stomach
or whereit is suspectedthe activeingredientsarerenderedinactive
by acidjuice presentin the stomach.
(2) substancessuch as anthelmintics and amoebicidesare
requiredfor concertratedeffect in the intestivnewherethe parasitic
worms and protazoabreed.
coatingsof certainsubstances arenot dissolvedin acidicjuice
but readily dissolve and releasethe medicamentsin the alkahne
medium of the intestine.Thus substancesusedfor enteringcoating
include keratin shellac, salol, stearic acid. cellulose acetate
insolution.Gelatintreatedwith formaldehydealso forms a material
for enteric coating.
For small scalework the laboratorymethod is used.For large
scalecoatingpansis used.The tabletsto be coatedare all placedin
a coatingpan which aremadeto rotateat sucha speedthat the tablets
tumble ie they float in the air without touchingthe sidesof pan. The
coatingmaterialin the form i;of a solutionis pouredinportitns, into
the pan. simultaneouslywarm air is blown into the pan. which in
Bhaiqaj y a Kalp arrd Vii iid nam

addition to drying helps the tumbing process.


The enteric coating is a trade secret. Methods for enteric
coatinghave beendevisedon time and moistureand thesemethods
are independentof acidic or alkaline medium.
Polishing
To havebetterelegancethe coatedtabletsare then placedin a
polishing pan which havecanvasscoveredby a layer of wax. Thus
tablets receive a layer or thin film of wax, giving the tablets a
polishedlook.
Quality control tests for tablets
The standardsto controlthe quality of the tabletswereadopted
for the first time in british pharmacopoeta1932 addendumVII 1945
The various standardswhich are consideredfor this purpose
are as under :
l. Appearance 2. Shape
3. Uniformity of weights of tablets.
4. Percentageof active ingredientsin tablets
5. Rare of disintegratton
6. Mechanicalstrength 7. Diameter
L. Appearance
The tabletsshouldhavehavegood appearance,uniform texture,
smooth surface and should be free of any extraneous matter or
foreign particles.
2. Shapt
Pharmacopoeiahas defined the shape of tablets as flat or
convex disc, and may have lines or break markes,a symbol or any
other markings.
3. Uniformity of weights of tablets
Though the small variations in the weights of individual
tabletsareinevitableandadmissible,the variationsshouldnot cross
the limits are specifiedin the pharmacopoeial.For standardisation
according to indian pharmacopoiea20 tablets are used if 20 are not
available 10tabletsmuch be used20 tabletsareweighedindividually
and their averageweight is calculated.Only uncoatedtablets should
Auqadha kalpand

be used .
Following tableshowsthedeviationsfrom the averageweight.
Uniformity of weight of tablets
Sr No. Average weight Percentagedeviation
l. 80 me or less l0
2. More than 80 mg and less 7.5
than 250 mg
a
J. More than 250 mg 5.0
Not more than 2 tablets should fall out side this limit if 20
tablet s are taken for standardizationand only 0l if l0 tablets are
available.
However in no casethe testis consideredsatisafactoryif more
than one tablet exceedsthe averageweight by more than twice the
deviation specifiedin the abovetable.
4. Percentage of active ingredients in the tablets
Percentageof active ingredients in caseof official tablets are
mentionedin the individual monographs.The variationmay be due
to severalfactor s suchasvariationin weight of tabletspurity of the
medicament,errors in random sampling or processof preparing
granules. Following table shows the permissible variations as
mentioned in indian pharmacopoeia.These are based on the
requirement of 20 tablets for assay.If 20 tablet are not available at
last 5 tabletsshouldbe used.The tableis applicablewhen the stated
limits are between90 Voand 110 Voof medicament.
Percentage of active medicaments in tablets
Sr No. Weight of drug in substract from Add to the
each tablet the lower limits upper limits for
of samples of samples of
t5 10 05 15 10 05
1. 1 2 0 .m g o r l e s s 0.2 0.7 1.6 0.3 0.8 1.8

2. morethan120mg
andlessthan300mg 0.2 0.5 1.2 0.3 0.6 1.5
310 B haisajy a Kalp ana Vij iiunam

3. m o r et h a n2 5Amg . 0 .1 0 .2 0 .8 0.2 0.4 1.0


5. Rateof disintegration
Unlessotherwise mentionedin the monograph,time required
for disintergrationof five tablets in the prescribedmanner is not
more than l5 minutes,and not more than one hour for susarcoated
tablets.
Tablet disintegrating test.
The pharmacopoeia specifiesdisintegrationtime for tablets
dependingon the purposefor which tabletis to be used.
For examplea lozengetabletis not subjectedto disintegration
test as it is requiredto dissolveslowly in the mouth.
A tablet required to prepare a solution must disintegrate
quickly and hencea time limit is specified.
Tablet intendedfor oral useare expectedto disintegrateand
the pharmacopoeia specifiesthis time as l5 minutes
The apaparatusused for disintegrationtest consistsof the
following :
Instrumentto be usedfor tablet disinteerationtest IP 1985 is
describedhelow.
A horizontalstrip with clamp at oneend is screwedto the shaft.
The baskethaving 6 tubesof 7 .'75 cm long with a diamererof 21.5
mm fitted at the lower end with a disc of stainlesssteelwire gavze
of 10 sieveis fixed to the ciamp one litre Glassbeakerfilled with;
wateris kept underthebasket.The waterin thebreakeris maintained
constantat 37oC temperaturet20C by meansof thermostatfitted on
the front panel.
The shaft with the basket moves vertically up and down
througha distanceof 5 cm. At the highestpositionof the basketthe
wire gauzeremaiansat 2.5 cm below the surfaceof the water and at
the lower position it remains 2.5 cm up from the bottom of the
beaker.
The mechanicalmovementof the shaft is aiso adjustedthat
complete up and down movementof the basketis repeasedthirty
times per minute.
Auqadha kalpand 311

A motor is usedwith reductiongear system,which movesthe


shaft up and down on the upper platform of the cabinet.
Unlessotherwise specifiedthe disintegrationlest apparatusis
operatedfor one hour in caseof coatedtablets.
Solubledispersibletabletsshouldtlisintegratewith in three
minutes.
Entericcoatedtablets shouldnot disintegratefor 2hoursin 0.1,,
N HCL as immersionliquid, while in alkalineph at 6.8 the.vshould
disintegratewithin one hour.
6. Mechanical strength , .: .
No standardshave been adoptedby any pharmacopoeiafor t[e
mechanicalstrength it is due to fact that severaldifficulties are
involvedin devisinga suitabletest.
Pharmaceuticalmanufacturersemploy themselvesmany test
to ensure that tablets withstand the normal risk of handeling
transportingetc.
(a) Monsanto hardness tester
The monsantochemicalCo. Ltd. hasdesignedspring.pressurs:
deviseto test the hardness.
The tablet to be testedis placed betweenthe spindle and anvil
and pressureappliedby turning the screwknob just to hold,theta'btet
in position. The reading of the indicator on the scale is adjusted to
zero. The pressure is applied untit the tablet breaks. Nopg,tbe.
reading.
(b) Pfizer tablet hardness tester
The another devise developed and known as Pfizer. tablet
hardnesstesteroperateson the principle of ordinary pliers. The jaws
holding the table vertically under test are squeezedby hand until it
breaks,the breakingpoint being indicatedby a needledni calib'rated
dial.
(c) Roche-friabilator
Though the tablets are compressedto saisfactory hardness
during manufacturingyet showconsiderablepowderingafter normal
handling giving undesiredappearance.Thesetablets are described
3t2 Bhaiqajya Kalpand Vij fianam

as friable tabletsand may resultdue to additionof non cohesiveor


evendueto high proportionof dry additives.This can be measured
by an instrumentknow as Roche-Friabilator
20 tablets are used for testing the plastic drum holding the
tabletsrevolve2-5timesin a minute.while revolvingthe tabletsare
automatically, packed up from the casing and transferred to a
platform which they face from a height of 6 inchesonto the floor or
the cylinder. At the end of 4 minutesthe tabletsare withdrawn and
weighted.The percentagedifferencefrom their original weight is
usedto expressfriablity.
The tablets having not more than I .6 va friabllity varue are
consideredsatisfactory.
7. Diameter
British pharmacopoeia1958 specifiesstandardsfor diameter
of official tabletsthe diametersare given officially in 32nds of an
inch. The largestbeing 2/32 nds and the smallest 6/32 nds.
In additionto aboveindianpharmacopoeia
l9g5 . hassuggested
"dissolutiontest" for few tablets.
Now it has been proved that dissorutionhas no rerevanceto
'disintegration and henceeven if the tablet disintegratesas per
the
prescribednormsit doesnot meanthat it will passthebioavailability
limits. Thereforeto ensurethebioavailabilityfor therapeuticeffects.
certain tablets must comply the dissolution test in addition to
disintegrationtest.
Storage of tablets
Tabletsshouldbe storedin containerswhich afford protection
againstbreakagemoisture end contaminationwhich may lead to
deterioration.
Varti kalpan5
Ug+frTqAqqEnnggqqFde,,-d
Tr{t arErTrn'TS
tq, r
\ qrhqll.,

Eri q EFdTsqr*q u,16{16drqr qsr IIFTFTqqfr r


(q. R. 3.\z-E q qt qmqrFr)
Auqadha kalpana 313

Tanqi6TG A.rTrwwnrurr€gffhlTrI
ra-rqftt$ qfrf: qeEfifs Hr qfdr tl
f*. -. tr'. e.q\)
Synonyms
Phalavarti, Varti
Introduction
Varti is a similar form of vatr kalpanc. For making varti,
medicine is modified into yavdkrll (long oval shape)solid form,
then it is called as Varti Kalpana. This is commonly usedfor local
administrationof following routesv iz. Guda (Anus),yoni (Vag inc),
Sisna(penis),Netra (Eye).According to the specificroute of drug
administration,thelengthanddiameterof the v art i wlllbe modified.
Usually for the purposeof vatanulomanaalso andvartt is mainly
usedto evacuatesancita dosas(mala, mutra, puriqa, rakta, kapha
etc. dosa) from the body.
Depending up on the roga, rogi, sthana, do;a and karma
different types of Varti arementioned.E.g. Gudavarti,yonivarti,
SiSnavarti,vranavarti, netravarti, ndsavarti, dhilmavarti etc.
General method of preparation of varti
Usually the varti is prepareCby two methods.
Medicinal drug powders aremadeinto fine powder form. Then
thesecontentsare mixed uniformly in syrup made of jaggery and
moulded into requiredsize and shapeof varti.
Vartis are also made by grinding the fine powder of the drugs
with the fluids specifiedin the formulae to form a soft paste.Then
this is made into varti form accordingto required size and shape.
For making gudavarti the guda (jaggery)is usedas a base.In
certain conditions the guda should be equal to the quantity of the
dravya cirna.
First of all guda andappropriatequantity of water is mixed and
guda is dissolvedin water. Then this liquid is filtered with cloth.
Then the obtainedliquid is allowed to makepdkaby heating.When
properpdkais attained,during that time, the vesselis takenout from
the fire andrespected dravya c urnc is mixed little by little uniformly.
314 Bhaiqajya Kalpand Vij ftanam

For the preparation of phala varti, ausada dravya which are


vatanulomana,recakagunayuktaare selectedand made them into
fine powderform. The author Cakra Pani Datta mentionedthat,the
basewhich is usedfor the preparationof Varti shouldhavesnigdha
guna etc. Then only it will bind the ausadha cltrna. Then these
contentsare mixed with syrup made of juggery. Usually guda and
ausada dravya curna should be taken equal quantity, other wise
such a quantity of guda is taken by which varti can be prepared
properly.The substanceis mouldedinto a cylindrical and compact
suppository of the size and shape of thumb. Then it is called
phalavarti or gudavarli. While administeringit should be applied
with ghrta and also little quantity of ghrta shouldbe applied in the
interior of the guda (anus)for easyadministration.
Gudavarti
The gudavarli is commonly usedto remove the suskapurisa
and abstructedvastidravya in guda and for making vatanulomana.
SiSnavarli
Sftna varfi is preparedfor introduction into the urethra.S-uksma
cltrna, made of yavak;ara, suryaksara, sphatlkd, erandablja,
-ura,
gok s p unarnavdmill a, p dsanabheda, t lna p aficamilc etc. drugs
are usedfor SiSnavar{ipreparation. Size and shapeofthis vartican
be preparedaccordingto diameterand length of urethra.
Indications
M utrakrc hra, m-utra g hdta, ai mari, m-utrasaya f-ula, uqnavata.
Dhhmavarti
Described in dhumapanaKalpana chapter.
Netravarti-Candrodaya Varti
vE'rTrn[H$r{q qwtTrTeEtt
qr:frltil r
qR.eigiEiTErAfr sqivrfit I I
ftrur€fr
umdttut dfrrqqfdERrq*Frdq I
EisJqr* {ge w&: qnrfsqrsq r r
fdfrt qiqfri q tld qadrdq{ |
qrrFui Erffiir gd qF$sdqqrqAE r r
(qn.s. \e\-u\e)
Auqadhakalpand 315

Apparatusrequired
Khalvayantra,cloth,vesseletc.
Drugsrequired
Sankhanabhi One part
Vibhrtaki majja One part
Harrtaki twak One part
Manahsila(sodhita) One part
Pippati One part
Manca One part
Kusta One part
Vaca One part
Ajadugdha(Goat milk) Appropriatequantity
Water Appropriatequantity
Procedure
Sankh.anabhietc, all drugs, are powdered separately then
filtered with cloth, with the help of khalvayantra.Then all the drugs
aremixed in equalquantityinkhalvayantra,andappropriatequantity
of ajadugdhais addedand nicely macerated,rolled into varti form
equal to the shapeof yava, then it is made chdyasuska(dried in
shade).At the time of applicationit is made into pasteform with
water and a quantity of one hareryuis applied as afijana in to the
eyes.This recipe known as candrodayavarti.
Amayika Prayoga
Timira, mdrhsavrddi,kdca, patala, arbuda, ratryAndhya, one
year old'puspa.
Vranavarti
Haridra, nimbapatra,sphatika,lavanga,etc. drugs aregrinded
well and varti is prepared and introduced into Vrarla (through
vrancidra) for its heeling.
Indication
Ndfivrarya, suksmamukha yukta vrarya etc.
Ndsavarti
Tiksna and krimighna dravya e.g. apamdrga bija, vidar.tga
316 Bhaiqajy a Kalpand Vij fidnam

Sirlsablja, katphala, marica, etc. drugs suksma curna are applied


over cloth, andthis cloth is rolled into long varti andintroducedinto
nostril.
Indication
Sirahiula, Sirokrmi, pratisyAya, plnasa etc.
Phala varti
qEi fqqtfr IF€ 'ftns q{qr: I
!pffiftl: qdEftfR*qe tl
(t. t. r+qtl
Apparatus required
Mortar & pestle,vesseletc.
Drugs required
Madanaphala beeja I part.
Pippalr I part
Kusta I part
SwetaSarsapa I part
Sarkara I part
Guda I part
Water Appropriatequantity.
Procedure
Except Guda all above mentioned drugs are made into fine
powder. Then Guda is made into paka form in a vessel by adding
appropdate quantity of water, all the prepared c-un.tasare mixed
uniformly and made into g uda varti f orm (vart i having 2-3 ang ul as
length) and made into the size equal to that of little finger. Then it
is preservedin a glasscontainerand kept in moisturelessplace.
Indication
It is supposedfo be administered through guda (anus) only.
Udara vikdra, maldvarta, adhmdna, andha.
Characteristics and preservation of varti
All the vartis should be mblded to get smooth surface.Colour
and smell dependon the drugs used. Varti canbe kept in cotton and
Auqadha kalpand 3t7

preservedin glasscontainer.If varti is having volatile principles,


then the containercap shouldbe coveredwith wax paper to avoid
escapingof volatile principle;. Thesecan be preservedfor one year
if kept in air tight container,In caseof varti formulationshaving
mineral ingredients,the drugs are preservedindefinitely.
Suppositories
Suppositoriesare special shaped solid dosage form of
medicamentfor insertioninto body cavitiesotherthanmouth.They
may be insertedinto rectum,vaginaor the urethra.Theseproducts
are so formulated that after insertion, they will either melt or
dissolvein thecavity fluids to releasethemedicament.Suppositories
variesin shapes,sizesandweights.Generallysuppositories weighing
I to 2 gms are prepared Cocoa butter or glycero gelatin is used as
base.
Uses
Suppositoriesare used for any one of the three different
purposes.
1. To producelocal action.
2. To producesystemicaction"-
3. To producemechanicalaction on the lower bowel and facilitate
evacuationin the treatmentof haemorrhoids.anal irritation.
constipationetc.
Suppositoriesareconvenientmode of administrationof drugs
which irritates the gastro-intestinaltract, cause vomitting, are
destroyedby the hepaticcirculationor aredestroyedin the stomach
by pH changes,enzymesetc.
They can be easily administeredto children, old personsand
to unconsciouspatientswho cannot swallow the drugs easily.
The rectalsuppositoriesmay be usedfor lubribating,soothing,
antiseptic,local anaestheticaction or for astringenteffect. Therefore
they may contain antiseptics, local anaesthetics,astringents,
hormonesand steroids.The rectal suppositoriesmeantfor systemic
e f f e c t c o n t a i n a n a l g e s i c s , a n t i s p a s m o d i c s ,s e d a t i v e s a n d
tranquilizers.
The lower portion of the rectum affords a large absorption
318 BhaiqajyaKalpand Vijfidnam

surfaceareafrom which the solublesubstances canpassquickly and


reachthe venouscirculation directly and rapid action of the drug is
produced.However the rate and extent of absorptionof the drugs
dependsupon the nature of the base in which they have been
incorporated.The maximum therapeuticeffect is producedif the
drug incorporatedis in the finely divided state,evenly distributed
throughoutthe baseand in a readily absorbableform.
The rectal suppositoriesare extensivelyusedas a mechanical
aid to bowal evacuationwhich produce its action by irritating the
mucous membrane of the rectum or by lubricating action. The
glycerin suppositoriesare representative example of evacuante
suppositories.
Types of suppositories
Rectal suppositories
These are meant for introduction into the rectum for their
systemiceffect. They are taperedat one or both ends and usually
weigh about 2 gm. The rectal suppositoriesmeant for children are
smallerin sizeandweightthantheadultsuppositories. They usually
weigh about I gm.
Vaginal Suppositories
They are alsoknown aspessariesantl aremeantfor introduction
into the vagina.They are larger than rectal suppositoriesand vary
in weight from 3 to 6 gm. or more. The vaginal suppositoriesmay
be conical,rod shapedor wedgeshaped.They are exclusively used
for their local action on the vagina.
Specialshapedsuppositoriesaremanufacturedand aresupplied
with applicatorsto facilitate insertioninto the vagina.Now a days
a few specialtabletsand capsules,oval or suppositoryshapedare
preparedfor use in the vaginaand are known as vaginal tabletsand
vaginal capsulesrespectively.
Urethral suppositories
They are also known as urethral bougies and are meant for
introduction into the urethera. They are long, thin and cylindrical
forms rounded on one end. Their weight varies from 2 to 4 gm. and
length from 2 to 5 inches. Urethral suppositories are very rarely
:i,1ri:' .-- r-
Auqadha kalpana 319

used.
Nasal Suppositories
They are also known as nasal bougies or buginaria and are
meant for introduction into the nasal cavities.They are similar in
shapeto urethralbougies.Their weight is about 1 gm and length 9-
10 cms. They are always preparedwith glycero-gelatinbase'
Ear Cones
They are alsoknown asaurinariaand aremeantfor introduction
into the ear. They are very rarely used.Generaliytheobromaoil is
used as a base, preparedin an urethral bougies mould and cut
accordingto the requiredsize.
Suppository bases
Sincesuppositories arespecialsoliddosageformof medicament
they must retain its shape,solidity and firmnessduring storageand
administrationbut must melt or dissolvein the cavity fluids when
inserted into the body cavity. Therefore the materials used as
suppositorybasesmust impart thesepropertiesand also fulfil other
foimulation requirements.There are a large number of basesused
but theobromaoil, glycerogelatinbase and polyethyleneglycols
fulfills the above mentionedrequirements.An ideal suppository
baseshould have the following properties.
1. It should be good in aPPearance.
2. It shouldmelt at body temperaturedissolveor dispersein the
body cavity fluids.
3. It should retain its shapewhen being handled
4. It should be stableon storagei.e. it should not undergo any
physical or chemicalchangeon storage.
5. It shouldbe completelynontoxicandnon-irritantto the mucous
membrane of the bodY cavitY.
Guggulukalpand
Itrs niryasa(oily latex) achievedfrom small treecalledIndian
bedelliurii. Bofanical name is commiphora mukul (hook ex stocks)'
Guggul'uii ur, u.notphous,transiucent,solid adhesive,oleo-gum-
,.rio'is i;i"duced by:the ptb'Cessof'gummosis'fiofiI its plant:
320 B haiqajy a Kalp an d Vij fi dn a nt

Introduction
From the literary study it can be revealedthar the gugguluhad
been describedby the name of gulgutu in vedic period. During
sarhhitaperiodits descriptionsarefound in carakasaixhitu,suiruta
sarhhita, astanga sarhgraha and a.stangahrdaya. Most of thern
contain its various therapeuticuses,only in suiruta .sarhhitait is
mentioned that rasa, gur\a, v1rya,vipaka and varieties also other
thanthe therapeuticeffectsand usesto curevariousailments.Many
otherAyurvedic classicshave mentionedvarious formulations of
guggulu for the treatmentof various ailments.
The following synonyms of gugguln are mentioned on the
basisof its pharmacological
actions,pbysicalpropertiesetc.
Guggulu; That which protectsfrom diseases.
Palankasa; Thar which reducesthe bulk of the body.
Mahisaksa: That which is colouredlike eyesof a buffalo.
Deva dhupa : That which is used for the fumigation durine
worship.
Kausika: That which occursin the hollow spacesof the tree.
Pura : That which is the best anrongstall medicines.
Kumbha: The exudatescomeout from the hollow spacesof the
tree like that of the empty spaceof earthenpot.
ulukhalaka: That which comesout from themortar (ulukhala\
shapedspacesof the tree.
Marudeiya: That which occursin maru desaor sandyregion.
Kala niryasa .. That comes out from the trees during the
summer seasondue to the excessiveheat of sun.
Gandharaja: That which is best amongstall aromaticdrugs.
Kana guggulu : That which dries in hot atmosphere and
convertsto small particles.
Swarryakana: That which aftergettingdriedin hot atmosphere,
convertsto small particle form having golden yellow brightness.
sarasa: That which is sticky in natureafter getting moisture.
In Ayurveda, guggulu has been used as single or compound_
Auqadha kalpana 321

drug in the form of pills. Formulationswhich containguggulu as


main ingredient, they can be called as guggulu kalpana. Here
guggttlu is used in yoga for both purposes,as a baseand as well as
medicamentalso.
Varieties of Guggulu
There are severalvarietiesof guggulu describedin Al,itrvectic
classics.rn carakasarhhita,susrutasarhhitaandastangasarhgrahu
thereis no any particulardescriptionexcepttheold andnew variety
of guggulu.The new one is snigclha, picchila in quality,looks like
jam fruit, having good flavour and it is bnnhana, vfqya.
The old one is dry havingloul smell and devoidof its natural
colour and vlrya (potency).
Later thereare fivc differentvarietiesof guggulumentioned.
Hor'e."'ertwo of the varieties, namely, mahisaksa and kanakct
guegulu usually preferredfor medicinal preparations.Mahisdksa
guggulu is dark greenishbrown and kanaka guggulu is yellowish
brown in colour.
Pharmacological actions
Rasa : Tikta, katu, madhura,kasaya
Gulta : Laghu,trksna,snigdha,picchila,slksma, sara
Wrya: Usna
Vipaka: Katu
Prabhdva '. Tridosa iamanam
Karma : Medoharam, agnimandyaharam, iodhahoram,
vedanaharam,vranasodhanam,vranaropanom.
Amayika prayoga : Medoroga, snayukanclara iodha,
sandhiSula.
Becauseof suksmct,laghu, sara gunas it will provide fast
obsorptionin body throughsilksmasrotasand becauseof snigdha,
picchila gunesit will provideprolongeddrug actiontoo.
Usesof guggulu : InAyun,erlicclassics,gugguluis usedin the
following forms, either as a single drug or as a combination.
1. Vati - Gutika (pills) 2. Rasc kriya 3. Kwarhe 4. Dhupa
5. CItrna 6. Taila 7. Ghrta 8. Avaleha 9. Lepa 10. Rasayoga
2TBK
1^r) Bhaiqajya Kalpand Viifianam

11. Modaka (combinationswith jaggery etc.) 12. Malahara and


pradeha13.Utkarika (fried preparationetc.)
gugguluis usedonlyafterit's Sotlhanu.
In all suchpreparations,
Modern pharmacological aspectsof gum guggulu
It is usedasdemulcent,aperient,carminativeand alternative.
It is chiefly statedthat it can be used in leprosy,rheumatism,
syphillis,scrofulousaffections,nervousdiseases andalsoin urinary
diseases.Ointment preparation from gum resin is used in the
treatmentof chroniculcers.
Externally
On the abradedskin and the mucousmembrane,it acts as an
astringentand antiseptic.It has no action on unbrokenskin.
Need for Sodhanaof guggulu
It is a rasinousmatter of a tree (commiphoramukul) exudes
from thestemon incision.Beingstickyin nature,it getscontaminated
with manyphysicalimpuritiesfoundon the groundnearbythe tree'
like small piecesof stones.vegetablematters,sand,dust, insects
etc. So it is an essentialthing to make it free from all theseforeign
mattersbefore its internaluse.After purification guggulugets such
a state,by which guggulucanbe mouldedeasilyinto pills form by
manually as well as by machinetoo.
Processof Sodhana
Apparatus required
Dola yantra,cloth, tray etc.
Drugs required
Guggulu-appropriatequantity
Drava dravya
Any one among triphala Kasdya, vdbapatrakasaya,vdsapatra
sworasa, nirgundi patra swarasc with haridra cf,trna,godugdha,
gomiltra can be selected.
Procedure
Market sample of crude guggulu resin is collected and the
vissiblemacrophysicalinpuritieslike sand,stones,glass,vegitable
parts and insects etc. are removed by picking manually from the
Auqadha kalpana 323

guggulu resin. Guggulu is then broken into small pieces. It is


thereafterbundled in a piece of cloth and the bundle of guggulu is
kept immersedin the liquid, then boiredin dola yantro.ontuinlng
any one of the following liquids
I . Triphala kasaya,2. Vasapatrakasaya,3 . Vasapatraswarasa,
4. Nirgundipatra swerasa with haridractrna, 5. Godugdha,6.
Gomutra.
Boiling is done in constantslow heat and the boiling of
gugguluindolctyantrais continueduntil all the guggulupasses
into
the liquid throughthe cloth.
Thepottall (bundle)shourdbe very often usedto be rubbedso
as to squeezeout the sol,ble gug,qulufrom the cloth. The residue
containing impurities in the bundle is discarded.The obtained
Iiquid is filteredthrougha cloth andallowedto srandfor sometime,
so that the heavy micro sandparticlesetc. may get settleddown.
Then the supernatantpart of the fluid is decantedin anotherpor
leavingbehindthe impuritieslike sandand dust etc. in the bottom
of the pot. The supernatantpart of the fluid is again boiled to
evaporate its watercontent,till it formsa mass.This semisolidmass
is takenin an enameltray and is dried under sun.while drying it
shouldbe protectedfrom the dust and othercontaminantsfrom the
surroundings.This dried guggula is poured in a stonemortar and
ground with pestle adding ghee in small quntities till it becomes
waxy type material.This end product is called Sodhitaguggulu.
Sarangadharnscommentator, kaiirama, in his Gudhclrtha
DIpika mentionsthat Gugguhrshouldbe dissolvedin any vdtahara
warm kasdyaand then dried. It shouldbe pounded(kuttanam)with
gheeit becomeswaxy. This is possiblein 24 hours.
The other method is that, sand,stoneetc. which are common
impurities are first removed and then broken into small pieces.
Thereafterit is, tied in a piece of cloth and boiled in dolayantra
containing abovementioneddrava dravyas.The boiling is continued
till guggulu becomesa soft mass.It then taken out of the cloth and
spreadover a smooth wooden board smearedwith ghee or oil. By
pressingwith finger the sandandotherremainingforeign impurities
areremoved. It is takenout and dried in a place free from dust. These
bits are again fried with ghee and ground in a khalva yantra. This
324 Bhaisajya Kalpana Vii iianant

end productis calledSodhitaguggulu.


There is also another practice of steaming the guggulu in
vapourby suspending it in thedolayantrawithoutactuallyimmersing
it in water.
Precautionsto be taken during the Sodhana:
1. Heatshouldbe mild within the rangeof 600- 700C,so that the
contentof the drug may not be spoiled.
2. Pottall (bundle) shouldbe immersedtotally within the drava
drctv,vaof dola Yqntrl.
3. Rubbingof the pottall shouldbe mild and constant,it should
not be vigorous otherwise, the cloth of the pottatt will be
breaked and the contaminantsmay mixed in the filtered
material.
4. Constantstirringshouldbe doneto avoidguggulustickingand
burning at the bottom of the Pot.
Characteristics
Sodhitagugguluis soft, waxy and blackishbrorvnin colour
(milky white on dissolution).Smell is aromaticin odourand sticky
in nature.
Preservation
Thus purified gugguluis kept in glassor porcelainjars which
are free trom the moisture.
Matra
Matra of Sodhitaguggulu- 4 - 12 rattl (480 - 1440 mg.)
Restrictions to be follorved during the treatment with guggulu
One should avoid qtnla, tlksna, ailrnakara dhara, madya
pana, sexualitercourse,physical exerqise,exposureto heat of the
sun, emotionslike angerduring the treatmentwith guggulu.
Commiphoramukul is the sourceof Indian bedellium.It is a
small treeor shrubof 4-8 ft. height.The ashcolouredbark comesoff
in rough flakes exposingthe underbarkwhich also peelsoff in thin
papery rolls. Gum resin is obtainedby incision of the bark. Each
plant yields abour 1.5-2\b. of the product which is collectedin the
cold season.
Auqadlm kalpana 32s

Characteristics of the Resin


When the oleo gum resin is fresh,on look at it is golden in
colour,thereis fragrancein it and it is moist and viscid.It burnsin
fire, melts in the sun and forms a milky emulsionwith water.The
resin occursin pieces,pale yellow or dull greenin colour with a
bitter aromatictasteand balsamicand feeble odour. The fractured
surfaceresiststhe finger nail.
Period for collection of Resin
The period for collection of the guggula resin is summer
season,becausein summerseasondue to excessiveheat it comes
out naturally from the tree through incised barks. It's dropper
collectionis only possiblein winterseason.
Theamountof collection
variesfiom plantto plant.Usuallyoneplantyieldsabout1..5to 2 lb.
of the product.
Examination of the purity of Guggulu
As regardsthe purity of the guggulu,it shouldpossessit's all
s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c sI.t s h o u l d b e s o f t , b i t t e r , y e l l o w i s h ,
completelydevoid of dust and solublein hot water giving white
solutionlike milk.
Chemical composition of guggulu (Resin of commiphora
mukul)
Guggulu mainly containsgum, oleo-resinand free acid. The
gum is nearabout32Vo,outoftheoieo resinstherearetwo important
constituentsone is essentialoil which is about I.05otb,
the second
one is resin which is found in two forms one is saponifiablestage
and another is unsaponifiablestage. The saponifiable material
containsthree main chemical constituents:
l. Mycene- 64Vo 2. Dimercene- lla/o
3. Polymercene- Percentageis not exactly known.
After acid extractionof the unsaponifiableresin a complex of
terpenoidacids are found.
The Potta[I (bundle)shouldbe very often usedto be rubbedso
as to squeezeout the soluble Guggulu from the cloth. The residue
containing impurities in the bundle is discarded.The obtained
liquid is filtered througha cloth and allowedto standfor sometime,
326 B haiq aj y a Kalp ana Vij iianam

so that the heavy micro sandparticles etc. may get settled down.
Then supernatantpart of the fluid is decantedin anotherpot leaving
behindthe impurities like sandanddustetc.in the bottom of the pot.
The supernatantpart of the fluid is again boiled to evaporateit's
water content,till it forms a mass.This semisolidmassis takentn
rn enamel tray and is dried under sun. While drying it should be
protected from the dust and other contaminants from the
surroundings.This dried guggula is poured in a stonemortar and
groundwith pestleaddinggheein small quantitiestill it becomes
waxy type material.This end productis callediodhita guggulu.
Guggulu yoga preparation
By doingguggulukalpana,activeprinciplesof themixeddrug
powders remain for prolongedtime, at the sametime therapeutic
value of guggulualso will be providedto the patients.
Apparatusrequired
Mortarandpestle.
Drugs required
Sodhitaguggulu : I part.
DravyaC[rna : 1 part.
Method of preparation
The suksma curna (fine powder) of mentioned drugs and
Sodhitaguggulu powder should be taken in equal quantity.
Procedure No. I
Guggulu Vati canbe preparedby making p aka with water and
mixing with respecteddrug powders.The water shouldbe taken in
appropriatequantity to getpaka. The drug powder has to be mixed
at one particularplace of guggulupaka i.e. guggulu with water has
to be boiled till it attainsequal charactersof guda paka andthispaka
should be in concentratedform and it should sink in the water (it
should not dissolve in water and having stability). When little
quantity of guggulu pdka tested in water which is collected in
cantainer.During that stateof guggulupdka medictnaldrug powders
has to be mixed little by little by doing continous stirring and
contentsare rolled in to vatr form (similarity of both guggulupaka
Auqadha kalpand 327

and guda paka is mentionedonly for thepaka stateonly. But after


the preparationofgugguluvatl, it will havehardconsistency,where
as guda paka wrll have soft consistency).While making guggulu
gutika little amountof ghrta has to be appliedto handsand for the
tray so that,it wont stick to the handsas well as tray while drying.
Procedure No. 2
Guggulu Vati can be prepareddirectly wit"houtmakingpaka,
Sodhitaguggulu and ausadhadrctvyasuksmecurna (fine powder)
has to mixed by doing trituration uniformly and molded into Vati
form. More time trituration will producemore efficaciousform of
guggulu gutika. The Ghrta has to be addedtill the contentreaches
semisolidstateby which Vati canmouldedeasily.Theseare draid
in shade.
As per our treditiona referenceavailableby KanshiRam the
commentratorof SarngadharqSaLhhitaadvocatesthe processingof
GugguluVatibyhammeringalongwith Gheeto makethepills good
and shining.
Procedure No. 3
Due to the advancementof the Pharmaceutical Processing
Ayurvedic trends are getting modified and are being given such a
shapewhich may be able to maintain the standardof the dose and
quantity. For this purpose modern Pharmaceuticalconcerns are
processingthe guggulu in th form of tablet. For this purposethe
ingredients (According to yoga) are taken in powder form and
moistenedwith the granulatingagent (Solution of gum of acacia)
using sufficient quqntity. The coherent material is then passed
through a sieve (No. 10).The Shifted materialwhich is now in the
form of granules,is dried thoroughlyby spreadingon enameltrays
in thin layers and kept in an oven at a temperaturenot exceeding
600c.After drying, the granulesarethenpassedthougha finer sieve
(No. 20) and any fine powder rejected.Now the compressionof the
granulesin to tabletsis carried out by meansof a tablets machine
which stampsout the tabletsin a die betweenpunches.
Colour and other characteristicsof Guggulu Kalpana vary
from preparationto preparationdepending upon the ingredients
addedto the formulae.
328 B haiqajy a Kalpand Vij na nant

MItra
50 mgs to 500 mgs
Visista Yogas
Yogaraja guggulu, Sirhhanada guggulu, Trayoda6anga
guggulu, Triphala guggulu, Laksadi guggulu, Vatari guggulu and
Goks[r5di gugguluetc.
Preservation and storage
It shouldbe keptin glassor porcelainjars, which arefreefrom
moistureand heat.
Expiry period
The potency"is maintainedfor two yearswhen preparedwith
vegetablcingredientsand indefinitely when preparedwith matals
and minirals.
Triphala Guggulu
frfti fitq-iTtqufg'Enryf qdfoq I
TT{ q'-sqftrit SE+6rd+inlT:tl
?ffi{g Tfr!-fii qFar rgwrEGirtqrqrI
rrqq{ T.da{vfrqrqvrffiq q ffirvr*( r I
(vn .q '.q. €. \e.cR- ci)
Apparatusrequired
Vessel,khalva yantra,cloth etc.
Drugs required
Triphalac[rna : 3 palas(144 gms)
Pippali cflrla : 1 pala (48 gms)
Sodhitagugguluctrla : 5 palas(240 gms)
water : appropriatequantity
Ghrta : appropriatequantity
Procedure
No. I : Sodhita guggulu is taken in a vesseland addedlittle
amount of hot water and heated over fire with madyamdgni when
total guggulu is completely dissolved in water rest of dravya c-un,ta
Auqadha kalpana 329

mixture (4 drugs powder) is added little by little and stirred


continouselytill the contentsareuniformelymixed andthencontents
arecollectedinto khalva,,,antraandgrindedwell, thenthis substance
is rolled into pills having weight of 6 rattis to 8 rattis and dried in
shade,then preservedin air tight glassor plastic containers.This
recipe is known as Triphala guggulu.
No. 2 : There is another method is also practiced for the
preparationof triphala guggulu likewise : fine powder of triphala
andp ipp ali i s mixed w ith Sodh i t a g ugg uI u c u rna in a khalva y ant ra
and made into pasteform by adding appropriatequantity of ghrta
(little amount)and grindedwell. Then it is rolled into pills.
Mdtra
1 to 2 gutika per day.
Anup5na
Usnodaka and any Vranaropaka dravya kwatha.
Amayika prayoga
Bhagandara,gulma, iotha, aria.
Kaiqoraguggulu
f*qerqrwq! sprT:trF*o,rqr{ilTq*( r r
{g.a @ur srfqrurq.{r qn-t r
wmqd5i inr{r t5dquwnfutr{ | |
inT:iFilifqT+qet gr{gT:lrs{ifrd{ |
g;T: q+{q:qT} (qf {v{tgg: rl
vr{Xi rd inar {sqro,tqr5Fr{|
qutrFil iftrgrr qqrunqrfrf,rflR+(r r
f?q-flr erd{T iqT Wgt qfr*r rm r
\.
l|!'q lI{uT sm' frsgqi Tmr*d{ tl
ed u,*Ant qrqf frfu,,{Fm rIFr I
riT: firr+sii Fd qilqri frfrftft( rr
XfrmT: vrlqrqr*ur ggrdqrsiqqr I
srqqr+f@si *i trdsqqTrr
330 Bhaisajya Kalpand Vij fidnam

qFqfq$ Erfr gfu'gnTnrrrqI


q+*rqffrrgisrfr Emrihffire{ r r
Fffi TeqrR yiaFrGa,raqrr
il
Ef{ saftrqrF*erg{gfri rnFFT:I
ffi*qrnsri Xrgq:qrkqnq': r r
ErqrFfir @r
€raq qffi ilrrSg;rfr qrgr+(ll
e[Ft diEurrqtufq qrqFi :rqrTrflr{I
rlEi tri Fr+ffqrJunfr gtitrtr,: rr
(W.q. 4. €. e.uo-4q)
Apparatusrequired
Khalvayanffa,lohapatra,cloth,iron laddle,pot etc.
Drugs required
Triphala yavakutaclrna 3 prasthas(2304 gms)
G u d D c iy a v a k l t ac l r n a i prastha(768 gms)
Water for kwatha I 7zdronas( 18 kg. 432 gms)
4,,
Sodnltaguggulucurna 1 prastha(168 gms)
Triphalaslksma clrna 2 pala (96 gms)
Vidanga I pala (48 gms)
Dantr sfiksmactrna I karsa(12 gms)
Trvrt stksma cIrna I karsa(12 gms)
Ghrta appropriate quantity
Procedure
Three prasthds of triphalA yavakuta currya, one prastha of
guduci yavakilta c-urnaare to be boiled in a loha patra (ftonvessel;
with one andhalf dronas of water. Then total quantity is reduced to
half and filtered through cloth. This kwatha is againcollectedin to
sameloha pdtra and oneprasthA of Sodhitaguggulu is addedto the
kwatha and heated over manddgni, stirring all the while with iron
laddle. When the massbeginsto solidify (rachesproperpdka),the
fine powder of the following drugs (two p alas of triphald, onepala
Auqadhakalpand 331

of vidanga, onekarqa eachof dantl andtrivrt) are addedand mixed


well uniformely. The massis then transferredto a pot containinga
little quantity of Ghrta and when massbecomesslightly cold state.
Then it should be rolled into pills of one sdna each.This recipe
known as Kaisora guggulu.
Anupdna
Warm water, mrlk, manjistddi kwatha etc.
Kdrma
If used daily, acts as rasayana,Kanti vardhakam (imparts
good lusture to the skin).
Amayika Prayoga
Kusta, tridosaia vata rakta, vrarya,gulma, prameha pidaka,
prameha, udara, mandagni,kasct,iotha of pandurogaand all other
diseases.
Withvdsadikwatha it is beneficialin diseasesof the eye, with
varunddi kwatha in gulma, with khodirAdi kwatha in casesof vrana
and kusta.
Apathya
During treatmentthe patient should avoid indigestion,foods
which are sour and hot, sexual intercourse,physical exertion,
exposureto sun, alcoholic drinks and anger.
Yogarija guggulu
qrrn frrurd wdi fqq-dqf,kjr+t ll
Ud l@Er q n{fr *c*-eqqt
iq+ffirr rIRn ffi rrqftqd rt
a.ga.rFdkqr,ilg{ T{r$ fiqrrrfrs 1
frrfr: tl
rg.fqrufrqrfr
r+i vnor*,,rfr
rdrq: rrqdcqs f*wfir frnfunq+( t
qFtTarfiFt'sil: vfr tqa grg: ll
ag tai q ili q dcqrrmqTs-in1 |
qr{i TsRtq{ r&h Tntifuil{ l l
T.sqrifi-€riFiEr Fq Esrs*fufr{ t
332 Bhaiqajya Kalpana Vijfidnam

qofrqd irit: FEr qrrftgdqrq+ n


gEar: TTrqqrdrq Fdr rrflr {dfuiTr: I
xrgq+rrflqls?i ffi T{rreFT:tl
rrg{ril|Tlrflqr FTTTft*qn ffi r
TEurlrrq | |
rt6 Eril{ii' q qrfiwlri rrrrqq I
sffif qrq ll
T<rfii srur*,.riq :TrYr+S6Ri iTer I
tddqfl: IFr qftt{F{: fur( t l
Esrqffitrfti {qHi TrfEREr I
rrqrf{ffisn+g.*} fdFdsi Ek qr5ilq I I
a,,rSF{GTdrFffii fi.wqrfra€nlq{r I
ilfiT+{ fus rfu{iur q wrgar{| |
+ffid q qg4 IfB f{qTil{ q I
rt'er.FtTsf,{ qkfr€T
frdr€Taq yrTq vriT
EI|dr€Tvnsl {If, iwTtrliTl-( ll
qrar+arrerH fE{ {ro.ci q*q I
fxq,ar+mqsflrfrffi{ aFa qr6un{ rr
grt{rft+Er*q fqrnrdEnunrfrr
(Y n{i
. . s. E. \s.\q- q3)
Apparatusrequired
Khalvayantra,cloth,vessel,Laddle,pot etc.
Drugs required
Nagara 1 sana(4 gms)
Pippali I sana(4 gms)
Cavya I sdna(4 gms)
Pippalimila I sdna(4 gms)
Citrakamila I sdna(4 gms)
Bharjita hingu I sdna(4 gms)
Ajamoda I sana(4 gms)
Sarsapa I sdna(4 gms)
Auqadha kalpana 333

Krsnajrraka I sana(4 gms)


Swetajtraka I sana(4 gms)
Renuka I sana(4 gms)
Indrayava I sana(4 gms)
Pata 1 sana(4 gms)
Vidanga 1 sdna(4 gms)
Gajapippali I sdna(4 gms)
Katuka I sana(4 gms)
Ativisa I sana(4 gms)
Bharngt 1 sana(4 gms)
Vaca 1 sana(4 gms)
M[rva I sana(4 gms)
Triphala 4 0 s a n a( 1 6 0 g m s )
Sodhitaguggulu 60 sana(240 gms)
Ghrta appropriatequantitY
Vangabhasma I pala (48 gms)
Roripyabhasma I pala (48 gms)
Naga bhasma 1 pala (48 gms)
Abhraka bhasma 1 pala (48 gms)
Mandfra bhasma I pala (48 gms)
RasasindhIra I pala (48 gms)
Procedure
N.dgara to mlurva- these twenty drugs (fine powder form)
eachone sana,tirphala (fine powderform) doublethe total quantity
andguggula equalto the total of all are taken,nicely powdered,put
in a pot containinga little quantity of ghee,cookedwell and rolled
into pills of one sana in quantity.
Nagarato m-urva(thesetwenty drugs each oneqana, triphala
double the quantity (40 saryas)are made into sltksma curna (fine
powder form) and mixed togetherand kept ready' Sodhitaguggulu
(60 ;ana) is taken into khalva i*antra, little quantity of ghrta is
334 B hai saj y a Kalp and Vij iidna m

addedand grinded well till contentsattains properpdka(similar to


the guda paka), thenabovementioneddrugspowder is addedlittle
by little and mixed uniformely by grinding. Then vangabhasma,
roupyabhasma, nagabhasma, abhrakabhasrna, mandilrabhasma,
rasa sindhura each one pala pramarya is added and grinded then
mixed unitormely. This substanceis made into gutikcs having 1
sanapramanc andpreservedin gheecoatedearthenpot andwhenever
required gutika are taken out from pot. This recipe known as
Yogaraja guggulu.
Karma
Tridosaharam,vdta haram, rasayana,makesmen fertile and
barren women to becomepregnant.
Avoidence of sex, food and drinks are not necessary.
Amayika prayoga
All types of vatavyddhis,kustha, arSa,prameha, vdtarakta,
nabhi 3ula, bhagandara,gulma, apasmara,urograha, mandagni,
swasakasa,aruci, seminaldisordersin men andmenstrualdisorders
in women.
Anupdna
Taken with rasnadi kwatha it cures all vata disorders. with
kankolyadi kwatha, pitta disorders and kapha disorders with
aragwadhadi kwatha, pandu-roga with cow's urine, medovrddhi
with honey, kustha with nimba kwdtha, vdtarakta with amrtavalli
kwatha, Sotha and Sula with kana kwatha, musaka visa (poisoning
by rat bite) with patala kwdtha, eye diseaseswith triphala kwatha
and all types of udara with punarnavd kwatha.
Simhaniidha guggulu
qtrf,{i if,qr{Fq fd;!ilqT,
EqFfiil{ |
rfrrrRffiqF*ir qd nqr rr
gisd ffif,R qdrTqq ediT: I
qrq+nru,,f{Bs: qr} ffi Edrr
EfrEriilqTfrf veqruiqsTtn{ |
\rdn*t-gf4 Efr a,r{iqsfrd-iTertl
Auqadha kalpana 335

gitdrfr Errrfirfr TF{vldE{rfrrq I


snrnii qaffi' +sfu{Gfid{| |
qfiq${rF*+{ cffrqftrtr{rT|;r{|
ll
ft4F{R vFd wrd iT{RUr4f6r I
qft{Geor: tsi qrta wsqrfirmrr
(?q-{a;, 3ilq-qTde{. q q. ? ?- ? Z )
Apparatusrequired
cloth,lohapatra,laddle
Khalvayantra,
Drugs required
Amalaki : 50gms
Harltaki : 50 gms
Bibhitaki : 50 gms
A ,,..
Sodhitagandhaka ; 50 gms
Sodhitaguggulu : 50 gms
Erandataila : 200 ml
water : appropriatequantity
Procedure
Triphala is madeintoyavak-utacilrna andits kwcrha is prepared.
This kwatha is taken into loha pdtra and Sodhita guggulu is added
and boiled over mandagnl. While heating contents are stirred
properly, when guggulucompletelyget disolvedintriphala kwatha
then gandhaka curna and eranda taila are added little by little and
mixed well. When it attains proper paka taken out from fire and
rolled into pills and preservedin glasscontainer.
Karma
Rasayana
Amayika prayoga
Vdta, pitta and kaphaja vikdra, khanja, pandu, swasa, five
varieties of kasa, kuqp, vdta-rakta, gulma, fftla, udararoga, severe
pain of dmavata.
336 Bhaisajy a Kalpand Vij iianam

Pathyaduring its administration


ghrta, taila, Salidhanya, marhsa resa.

Lavana kalpan6

_ Lavana Kalpana is one of useful pharmaceuticalpreparation


in Ayurveda.
Procedure
No I : Saindhavalavana is powderedand combinedwitharka
patra, narikela etc.,andpakcz
is madeover agni,finally black colour
lavana is produced and called as lavaryakalpana (preparationof
sauvarcha lavuna also consideredone type of lavana kalpana
becauseit is alsopreparedby heatingwith agni)
Lavana kalpana also can be prepared with eranda-citraka-
kararLja-vasapatra, paribhadratwak, palaia kastu etc.
Amayika prayoga
Sula,gulma,yakrut phha vikara,udaravikara,
Arka lavana
g.{frfii *r{d srTr*Eni,15r{
|
sffi{Ti qffiqr{ erV{fltrqffi( rr
qga €€sfuFj il{ui ifiEcrcTlnTq
I
{trttl
i rfu( rrfr+qq I
ffivc: Trqrwftimis*cqui ![S: | |
qTqr+,.rdfui
R+fiqui oMum r
qs{rfrrfiq got. wad qfinfrr*q r r
vdfui ETfrqcrt insfr f+qrn r
ErFil?i
qqigfid dTcrqr*o,rrgrqrfr qrtl
( { t f f i t .q Y / q i q , - q i q )
Apparatusrequired
Saravas,cloth, mud (multhani),Khalva yantra,Cowdung
cakesetc.
Attsadha kalpand
337
Dmgs required
ProperlyripenedArka patra ; one part
S a i n d h a vl aav a n cau r n a : one part
Procedure
Equal weight of Arka patra and,powdered
Saindhav, lctvana
are collectedand in the bottom of Saraua,
Arka patra,,
first' then cver thoseA rke parr{r's, ;;;;;;
"r"
sctindhnvaiavar.ta,:nro)is
spreadedin thin layer forrn, againover to be
that sarnemanner'different
rowsArka patra andsaindhanqravanthasto
be urrung.au.ioroing
to the requirement.Then the mouth
of theSaravais crosedwith the
rava.samputu) and
\'s-a sandhi bancthana
'T:Ji: J?ff J^L::: l: :.,
cakesareburned"lU;':J?1:',::::,:,|f
,?,;:,;r;JJl:f
:::#r"
sTturu
state,it shouldbetakenout andsqn(thibancrhartais removed,
then internalcontentis colrected,which
is havingthe colour equal
to that of kaiiati. Then it is kept in
khctlvaycrttr(t and made into
powder form and called asArkcr
lctvurya.This should U" pr"r.ru.a
i n g l a s sc o n t a i n e r .
NIatra
4 Ratti
Anupdna
Usnodaka
Karma
Ruci karam, Mala bhedhanam.
Amayika prayoga
Yakruth pliha roga, udara roga, Atisar
. a, Jwara,and
- -' -"- visama
''e'
jwara can be treatedby changing
th-eAnupana
Nlrikela lavana
gFdq+dvsfui qrR*Fi wqmtqr
sT'r+riwci qmur ffiE
qmrqr*tfrffit Wt-,,
rrd qF,'.Frd
r
utfrfti t*i g qvffirr
f{kEq Tqqrdvr dmr FS f{tiedE'l
22 BK
338 Bhaiqajya Kalpana Vij nanam

Ttr}T vqrEr€I qffi ffiqqr il


ffi fmrilqq 5-it IrdrgaI
ilfrtri v{aq Fqrdtql l
fi-qd a-swffi qqmtvnnn*atq t
oflrfrqrfd*ril-{fl: TrTr€qrdf$tvrqt: | |
tr{uil qfidnd q: riltFT: frrfffVn: t
erwfuf,ir{: q,r{ firwivqy5erfl r r
ETild fqffii v5i y+ErS u.kqltq I
qlcs qfisi qrvraEkfilrorfl: r r
( { q - f , ii.Y / q , ? t - q , i 3 )

iffiuil qTFM qwfiE{sF{d: r


ftrwfrqevlrd(r r
1wd{m qx)
rrft+Fi Ffr{ q d{uh E{ntr{ I
qqrqefui {E*t r€i rftffidPd{r t l
fqqsr qiqqiifa Eg q qirunmq t
tffi
ErFd?ir vefufr {TTffirnq. r r
tqTqq-sTvT-t1dtt.tT)
Appratus Required
Saravas,cloth, niud, Khalva yantra,cowdungetc.
Drugs required
Ripenedcoconutfruit-1, Saindhavalavanaclrna 10 tola
Procedure
Take water containingfully ripenedcoconut fruit andremove
all external fiber content,then provide hole at one end ( Near by
Narikela netra) and coconut v,'atershould be collected in one
vessel.(Regardingremoving of the water from coconut different
conceptsarepresent,Acarya SriBhavaMi,fru mentionedthat,water
shouldnot be takenout andSaindhavqlavanacurna hasto be filled
directly without removing water. This method seemsto be more
reliable becauseactiveprinciplespresentin the coconutwater also
attributeto the Saindhavalavana).Then Saindhavalavana curna is
Ausadha kalpana 339

filled into the coconutfruit andthis hole is coveredwith 1 Aungulct


thickness(multani)mud layer.'Ihen it is exposedto sun light and
dried. After this, it is againcoveredwith cowdung in thin layer.
Then it is kept in Gaja Puta andheated.After the SwangaSithol,
coconut fruit is taken out and rernorredthe externalcoveringsand
coconutshellis brackeedandcoilectedinternalsoftmass(including
Lavana) and this content is graindedwith Nurikela Jela in Kharva
yantra and dried.Then it is preservedin the glasscontainers.This
will havethe colour equalto that of Kajjali (black colour)
l\{5tra
2 Masa
Anuphna
Jala
Karma
Drpana,Pacana
Amayika Prayoga
Amla pitta, Udara S[la, ParinamaS[la
Masi kalpana
Tgq{r{i a.*rqrmnq$TFFTT I
*ilffir qftfilr Xfr{M g;T:ll
(g'tu q,/q,o?)
Introduction
Masi Kalpana is mentioned in Susrutha Sarhhita in some
instances,Acarya Suiruta hasmentionedthat, by using someof the
animal products llke roma, twak, srnga etcmasl canbepreparedand
it will be used for production of hair.
Masi kalpanc is the product which is similar to the calx or
carbon and is used to treat different diseasesboth externally and
internally. Masi Kalpana wlll be preparedfrom both animal and
plant materials.Some of the cornmonma,stkalpana mentionedin
Ayurveda are Hastidanta mas|, Triphalct masl, Mrgasrngabhusma
mast,Mayura Piccha must elc.
Method of Preparation
Medicinal drug is taken into Sarava and it is closed other
340 BhaiqajyaKalpand Vijiidnam

Saravaandbinded with Sandhibhandhanaandthis SaravaSarhputa


is kept in puta and drug is heatedby burning the cowdung cakes.If
at all drug is heatedtn Saravawhich is open with out any closure
then drugs will get burntproducewhite colour ksara and its
pharmacologicalcharactersalso differs lrotn ntastkalpana. Hence
that indicateswhile preparingmasl kalpana drug hasto be covered
completely with earthenpots, so that it can be avoidedthat, direct
exposureof drug for atrnosphericair while preparation.Variety of
Puta can be selectedon the basis of medicinal drug consistence
which is usedfor mctsT kalpana. After SwangaSitala,Saravasarhputa
is removedand inteJnal drug shouldbe collected and powdered
with the help of khalva yefttr@+.henit is sieved with cloth and
obtainedproduct is calledmaslkalpanawhich is similarto theblack
coloursubtance of carbon.Ithas to bepreserved in glasscontainers.
Uses
It is used both externally and internally for the treatmentof
differentdiseases.
Hastidantamasl
ffi FFEIT{ *e rsrsq r
Fittrtr{ qr+fi irqr( qrforcfrqfr rl
({.iq. ? , i? o q )

Ekffiqrfr'Fdr urrfrgrdi{Trsir( |
F*{rAft{ qrqt +qr( qrfrrcdqfr rl
(qr. q. F. q qzq o)
ApparatusRequired
Khalvayantra,Saravas,
clothetc.
Drugs Required
Hastidanta : Appropriatequantity
Procedure
Hasti danta piecesare madeinto powder form and it is placed
in Saravathen it is closedwith other Sardvaand Sandhi bhandana
has to be done. Then this Sardvasarhputais kept in laghuputa and
cowdung cakesare burned.
After swanga Sitala, Sarava saritputa is opened and internal
Auqadhakalpana 341

substanceis collected and grinded in Khalva r-antra, then it is


filtered with cloth and preservedin glasscontainers.
At presentin market,Hastidctntais very costly, hencehastirlanta
piecesand coarsepowder can be obtainedwith low cost from some
factories,where toys are preparedby using Hastidanta.
Amayika Prayoga
Duqlavranaandotherchronicskin infectionsKhalina, pali4,a.
In Sufruta Sarhhitait is mentionedthat, both Hasti dant, masT(l
Sana)and Raslnjana(l Sana)in equalquantity are takenand mixed
withGomutra.It is advisedto applyoverskinleasionseffectedwith
indralupta.In BhavaPrakasaalso samey oga is mentioned,but it is
advised to mix with Goat milk (instead of Gomutra\
while application.
Mdtra
l/2 gm to I gm for internal administrationand for external
applicationit is usedin appropriatequantity.
Triphal5 masi
Apparatus Required
Khalvayantra,Sariva,cloth etc.
Drugs Required
Haritaki : I part
Vibhrtaki : 1 part
AmalakT : I part
Procedure
Take the above mentioneddrugs and make them into coarse
powder and it is placed in Sardvaand closedwith the help of other
Saravaandsandhibhandhanais made.Then this iarava samputais
kept in laghuputa and burned. After swanga Sltala sardvas are
opened,internal subtanceis collectedand grindedin Khalvayantra,
then it is filtered with cloth and preservedin glasscontainers.

Ayaskrti
Synonyms
Ayaskrti,Ayoraja,Ayascur{ra.
342 B haiqajy a Kalp an a Vij iianam

Introduction
The word Ayas meansloha.In ancientdaysloha is the word
commonlyusedfor all the dhotus.Laterloha word is appliedonly
for iron (Fe).Duringthe sahhita kalu,suksmct curnaformof lohas
are advisedfor internal administration.During the sathhitaperiod
swarna,rajitha, tamra, loha curnasarementionedfor the treatment
of differentdiseaseconditions,which can be consideredunderthe
nameofAyaskrri.Forprocessing of dhutttsintosuksmacurnaform
there are two different methods are metioned in both Caroka
sarhhita and Suirutha sarhhitatoo, as mentionedbelo'*'.
According to Caraka sarirhita
In Caraka sarhhita,Ayaskrti is mentioned by the name of
loharasayanam.
r0 Ti .rqi qTItq arqd r
frrwiTrq'r
AqJfrqTriftiqoqnt qE q ll
a.,,nur
alwnqwqr{rfrr qMfr wsr*qt
ftriHffi{F{ q rl
{rdr drqs{r+nr+ qF{urf fr qrrr+( |
ilf{ qurff{ qg{r rt{rrtrq-s q 11
gm'rfrd-ff(€;tti ftsrdrfrTaqrfrt r
{Tffi{ ffi TETd d*E q ll
E€Irgr+si qr0 vmelrt €EI:I
drtr{riqa ITFTtrffi ngvFfwrr
qrn:vrildffiAqfisrei*de $q+1 I
\.
!s (F q Er6r;Tfvfrr: wq+tftftT:tl
sT++{ffi{ tsg rqils q I
r rfrr: Fd*rrdq| |
(q.fu.t.t.q,\-rt)
Procedure
Tiksna loha pcttras are rnade in the measurementof four
angulis length and wedth, its thicknessshouldbe equal to the tila.
These tlksna loha patras are heated till they become red hot state
Auqadlrukalpanu 343

and dipped in Triphala Kwatha, Go-rnutra,J v,-otisntoti ksarodaka,


Ingudi K.garodaka, Kirhiuka (pulasa)ksarodska one after the other.
This processshouldbe repeatedtill the lohaputrawill get the colour
llke Anjana (blackish).Then it should be made into suksmacurna
form with the help of khalvayantra.This curnq shouldbe mixed
with madhu andameilckirusa tlll it gets the consistenceof lehya and
it shouldbe preservedin earthenpot which is get appliedwith Go-
ghrta. This has to be kept for one year under the he:rpof vavctand
every month appropriatequantity of nndhu tnd an;alaki swarasa
areaddedand mixed well, thenagainit hasto be kept as it is. Same
mannertotal 12timeseverymonthhasto be done.After the passing
of one year duration,this loho rttsaycurashouldbe administeredin
pratah kala alongwith maclhuandg,hrlu.'lhis lohu rosayanamatra
shouldbe adjustedaccordingto ctgnibuitL. After the digestionof
medicineeveningsetrnvahartlis aclvised"
This is useful for the treatment of ubhighataja vikrti,
akalamrtl,uharamit increasesthe rogcrksomat,-aSakti,rasayanam,
l i k e e l e p h a n t p e r s o n w i l l g e t t h e b a L Q ,i t t d r i y a b a l a k a r a m ,
buddivardhakam, vaksiddikaram, dhiiranttiaktivardhakam,
ay'us1'am,sarvarogahoram, dhanavrddikarant,these all can be
achievedafter cantinousadminiitration of lctharosdyanafor one
year by following restrictionswhile administration.Sw'arna,raiita
etc.dhatusarealsoadvisedto prepareSuksmacurna fotm ( ayaskrti-
lohacurna)by following sameprocedure.
Ayaskrti preparation according to su6ruta sarhhita
freffir qA wqqra{sffi 'il{qrfu-
rilwrfr ffi Fffiq
isgtqnrt l i f t T : @
qsquTfF{f f i l r d q s n -
fti qrdi vftHgrui *W*wgeta| frd
q q l cr.l I c,(.l'l +("1+l (fl q u l q l Q l 1
Iffid r qi eargqgq
gigHEv*q@Efvtti
qffi | qt{ qffi}eqq:aqi EIr@tnIT:I
({Zn {R-cnF. q,". q,q)
314 B haisajya Kalpand Vij iidnam

Paste has to be prepared with paiicu lavana by adding


appropriatequantity of water and this pasteis appliedover
the thin
form of rTtsna I oha p at ras ancrtheset tksn, ro ha p it rttsaresubj
ected
to heatwith fire which is producedby corvdungcakestill
they get
red hot state,then dipped in triprtara kwathtt andiar,scrarli
gctna
kwatha,in eachliquid the processshourcr be repeatedfor l6 times.
Then it is made tnto curna with the help of loha khalvct yantra.
cltrna is filtered into suksntacurnaform with the help of cloih.
This
is administeredinternally aro*g wrth ntctdhuandghrta in
the close
of 2 ratti. Mdtracan be adjustedaccordingto thebitaof thepatient.
After the digestionof medicinepatient is adviseclto take
amra-
lavanarasarahitctahara.It is mentionedthatafterthe intake
of one
tula of avaskrti curna in divided dosesfor a certain period,
that
person can get rid of kusta,prctmeha,medot,rtldi,iotha, pancluroga,
unmada and apasmara etc.diseasesand that personcan live
up to
100 years.This -yogais cailed aya.skrti.By following this
same
pracedureal,askrti can be preparedwith.syt,erna, rajita andtamra
etc. dhetus
Preparation of sura'aratrigar.ta kv,atha; Berow mentioned
drugsareto be takenin equalquantityandmade intoyavakuta
c urna
and used for the preparationof kwatha.
Salasaradigala -
r r(-r
r. )alavrKsa 2. Ajakarna
3. Khadira 4. Kadara (p[ri or swerakhadira)
-5. Kalaskandha(Tamalavrksa)
6. Pfigiphala 7. Bhojapatra
8. Mesasrngi 9. Tini(a
10. Raktacandana I l. Kucandana
12. Sisam 13. Sirisp
14. Asana 15. Dhavapuspa
16. Talamfih 17. Saka(Sagavan)
18. Karanja 19. PDtrkaranja
20. A6wakar{ra 21. Agaru
22. Kahyaka
Auqadha kalpana 34s

Ksira paka
Kstrapaka is the one of the unique preparationsof Ayurvedic
pharmaceulics.Here milk is used as a rnediafor the formulation.
Becausemilk is a emulsion form, having capability to dissolve
mainly watersoluble,protiensolubleandfat solubleingredientsto
someextent,from the drugsusedfor ts7rapakapreparation.Besides
to this, milk is also having antacidactivity due to its alkalinity.
Becauseof more dietic valueof milk it is usedas a dietic regimen,
and as well as medicine.Becauseof its palatabiliiy,it can be used
easilyfor treatmentpurposes.Becauseof alkalinityof milk and its
antidote activity ksirapaka can be usedin wide range.
Usually kasdya rasa dravyas are used for the preparalionof
ksirapaka i.e. Arjuna ksira paka. Reason is that becauseof the
irritability of the kasaya rasa, acceptenceof thesedrugs in direct
form is comparativelyless.HenceancientAyurvedicscholarshave
madea stepto makethe palatableiormof kasayarasadravyasby the
name of ksirapaka. Moreover synergeticaction of both milk and
medicinal drugs also achievedby meansof this formulation.
Arjuna, rasono etc.dravyas aremadepaka in milk by following
kyvathavidhi llke preparation.As these drugs are having tlksna
vlrya, that will be reducedby doing ksirapakaand alsoby doing so,
activeprincipleswill get dissolvedin milk.
For making the milk laghu paki (easlly digestable),Suntht
KsTrapaka,Ardhraka Kslrapaka, Paficamilla Ksirapdka etc. are
also mentioned.Usually for making Kslrapakc, drugs which are
having amla andlavana rasa arenot supposedto be taken,because
amlarasa and,lavanarasadrugs will spoil the milk.
Drug is mixed after making it into coarsepowder (yavakuta
cftrna) form. Always ksira paka has to be prepared in mandagni
(low temperature),so that sensitiveactive principles may not get
spoiled with severetemperature.It can be administeredby mixing
appropriate quantity of sugar.
Preparation methodsof ksTrapakamentioned in various Ayurvedic
classics :
Sarngadhara concept regarding ksira pdka

SrtTsgui {qr?q*{r?fri wg{rrq r


346 B haiqajy a Kalp ana Vij ltdnam

ffi{ mq.li v5rqrfrqdqt( rr


($i. q. q. l.q,qq,)
Onepart of drug (e.g.Arjuna) is boiledin 8 partsof milk with
the additionof 32 partsof water.The boiling is continuedtill the
water is get evoparatedandmilk aloneis left (ft.rirrzvaiesam
i.e.,part
8). It is usedfor treatmentof ittla andama.
Drug is mixed after making it into coarse powder
(yavakutctcurna)form. Always ksira puka has to be prepared in
mandagni (low temperature).So that sensitiveactive principles
may not get spoiledwith high temperature.
It can be adrninistered
by mixing appropriatequantityof sugar.
Arjuna, Rasonu etc.drav y-asare supposedto be madepaka in
milk by following kwarha vidhi llke preparation.
As thesedrugsarehavingttksnavlrya,that will be reducedby
doing ksrrapaka and rlso by doing so, active principleswill get
dissolvedin milk. For makingthernilk lughupaki(easilydigestable)
Sunti ksrra puka, ardhraka k.sirapaka, paiicamulu ks1rapaka etc.
are also mentioned.
Usually for making ksrra paka drugs which are having amla
andlavana rosa arenot supposedto be taken,becauseamlarasa and
lavanarasawill spoil the milk.
Vrdda Vagbha[a concept related with ksira paka
ffii q rdi:I l{frdfr
qfr{'r+qqevi
Erft-€rET-*ir sr{wd erert( r
( e +€. . s . z . q t )
fficiilgqtvrEA@ildqd
qTR€Iq1.*orrdw?i €rq+( | d*r g Ern{un
sqri wtqt( ililffir rl-6 qffifiT: ir.nE-
tRed: | l5cr fqNE qrc+g f{tq{ | q il
ffi | fisnq ve.Tf,rRgTd q{tnfufrEEiqfdd
iltffit+{ EFRzt!+qqfiwr{ri ;T iI Er€rqr{-
TStgrdk I nrfu{ ?rdr+trtrg{ui *i qfr{rrqdi
ffi A *6s qri qr Ggui Erfruui qr r{{q-
Auqadha kalpand 347

iErqrfirqFi *ara{ffiffir qRlnvqrqFoiit{


weiiwfrfr t
(E-€fr.+l)
When medicinaldrugsare madeptika with kslrcretc-(i.e.ksTra'
dadhi, mastu, mutra), medicine may not releaseactive principles
completelyinto the milk. Henceby using medicinal drug,kw-fithais
prepared.Equal quantity of this kwatha and ksira are taken, then
heatedwith mandagni till the milk alone is left (ksiravafeqami.e.,
part 8).
In this methodcare is taken to avoid the charningof the milk'
Here Vagbhata' s techniqueregarding ksi r apaka i s seem s to be
more relaiblefor separationof more activeprinciplesfrom the drug
and introducingthem into milk.
Acarya Yadavaji trikamji (dravya guna vijfrana) concept

Sr fd|qguiiwr(ffii wi rc{ t
qffi{ a-{ai qffi s4 frfq: ll
(n"1. E. qrudqr<+$)
Medicinaldrug : I part
milk : 15parts
water : 15parts
All aremixed and madepc ka till total quantity is reducedupto
the quantity equal to milk (15 parts) then filtered and collected
liquid is called ksTrapaka.
AnupEna
Sita, Sarkara.
Amayika Prayoga
Ama |ula, i|rrya iwara etc.
For hrdroga - ariuna nak kslra paka.
For udavartha, dmavdta - Sunti ksira paka, rasona k;Tra
paka etc. are used.
Ksdra kalpana
Kqara are derivatives of plant drug ashes in the form of
348 BhaisajyaKalpand Vijfidnam

solutions or crystals,all of which have the basic quality of being


alkaline.Accordingto rheir state,riquid or solid,they arl calledaI
drava ksara (liquid form) and curna ksara (amorphous form)
respectively.The ksarabelongto theagnibhuta sincetheproperties
of ksara areburninganddestructive,that simply meansthe material
is caustic.

itrt qT{un( qTUrTr( qT fl-{: I


(g' q. qq/Y)
The substanceis called ksdra, becauseit causesksarona to
marhsaetc.dhatus.
q{Tun(sn: rrut T€: rgi il{t*-rq
qgEiltrtr+trfii
€6tr{q tfuEqi'
*fEqTdsrfiaii fir'rnfufr{q I
q. q. ?q/q
Becauseof its corrosivenature(ksaranat)it is known asksara
(alkali), ksara is not having rcsa, this is manifested
by the
combination of many rasas and it possessesitself many rasas
dominatedby katu andlavaryarasos.It is the object of many senses
and it involves a specialmethod of preparation.
There are many reasonsfor which. ksara cannotbe attributed
to particular rasa.Ksarasarepreparedby combinationof drugslike
muskakaapdmdrgaetc. eachof them having different roror. Sin""
in the cause'that is the raw drug, there are many rcrsas,theeffect,
that is, ksdra m,stbe in a compound form of rasas.Katu andlavana
rasos aredominantin ksaras.Theseapart,therearealsomany other
subsidiaryrasas in it. Ksaras can be verified by smell and iouch.
Judging from this principle, ksdra is matter and not qualities
\rke r o so rNhere t\rere is neither touch nor smer .F urther, prep
arati on
of ksdra involves a definite procedurelike firterati on
lpirriavana).
Acarya cakrapani has mentionedthat, the term kscrc implies
some thing which goes down.
Here adhogamana is karya of dravya, hence ksara can
be
consideredasa substancenot of the rasa.IJnderthecontextof
rctsas
discusion,ksdrais consideredasone of therasa,amongseven
rdJdr,,
Auqadha kalpand

(madhura,dmla, lavana, katu, tikta, kasaya, andksara)by Videha


raja Nimi, later it was concludedby Atreya Maharsi, ksarcras a
dravl,a not of the rasa for the above said reasons.
AcaryctCaraka under the context of gulma cikitsa efficacy of
ksarahasmentioned,like wise:
fcff fuanssvrqr{ SR: q{ftilr( Q{rrelFIeI:
||
(s. rq. \/\z)
Ksara has the property of ksctrcrna,
henceit gradually erodes
kaphaja gulma and brings it downwards.
It is statedthat the physician should administer ksara after
ascertainingthe natureof the dosa,physicalconstitution,natureof
gulmetand nature of the season.Ksara is more effective against
kapha dosa, it better suits a personhaving kapha type of physical
constitution;it is more effectiveif the gulma is stabilisedand it is
most convenientto be administeredeither during the early or later
part of winter. If all these factors are present,ksara should be
repeatedat an interval of one day. lf only a few of thesefactors are
present,it shouldbe administeredat an intervalof two or threedays.
Acary-aCakrapani has mentionedthat, while administering
ksara, the patient should be given meat, milk and ghee in order to
enablehim to maintain his bodily strength.
Characters
By touch it is having 31taguna
It is hygroscopic,hence when it is exposedto atmospheric
conditions,it absorbsmoisture.The colour of Ksara will be white.
It provides different tastes,when it is tasted.
Acarya Sarngadharaconceptregardingprocessingof ksdra:
qTr{Ts{qifi,,rErfrUE5,Iuqfrqqlq+( I
*ar rqrw Tdn+r'e[Fralt wg{i 11
fEqd ffrffi srdrqt wi q+( I
r*i wtw\@fr9ffi11
Wrtqra:fraqrT:r r
( v n .q . q R . q , o R - q o t )
350 Bhaiqajya Kalpana Vijfidnam

Dried parts of treeswhich exudemilky sap are burnt in to ash


form in fire. The ashthusobtainedis dissolvedin four timesof water
in a mud pot and kept overnight. Next day morning the clear
supernatantwater is decantedout into a clean vesseland boiled till
all the water evoporates,leaving of a fine white powder at the
bottom. This is known as ksara.
Acarya Yadavajiconceptregardingprocessingof ksdra:
Kqara vrksapancangasarecollectedand dried, then they are
burnt (burning shouldbe done till matter get burnt) to ashform and
that ashis dissolvedin six times of water in an earthenpot ald kept
for one night. Next day morning contentsshould be rubbed with
hands and filtered for 2l times and obtainedliquid is heatedlike
kwatha,till total water contentis get evoparated(heatingshouldbe
done over mandagni)thenksara is obtainedwhich is similar to the
colour ol sita.

E.g. of Kqura Part used for Kqdra preparation


Apamarga Ksara Apamarga piicangas
Yaia Ksara Yava
Paliisa Ksara Palasa
Kadali K;ara Kadali Kanda
Snuhi Ksara Snuhi Paficanga
Arka Ksara Arka Paltcanga
Tila Ksdra Tila Paitcanga

According to Rasataranganiprocessingof Ksara mentioned


like wise :
qRiIqRt5'rsrfrwenTfro*q,
ffi rrrqi ;rrg vfufiI qg{ur{ rl
slqq r{\1rurq qrqqri fqq|lfil I
frtufrFrEdurqrE+( rTfuiiril: tl
HrFdii vfugtq {d wilq+ilil: I
fr:tii qfui arsr f+faenqr6t(r r
({. f,. qY.q3-qq)
Auqadha kalpand 351

Ksara vrksa kaste are dried and burnt into ash form (fine
powder).The ashthus obtainedis dissolvedin four times of water
and rubbedwith handsproperlyand contentsare kept without any
disturbancefor 3 hours.Then contentsarefiltered with threefolded
cloth for manytimes.This filteredliquid is boiledin an earthenpot
till total rvater content get evaporated.The soft form of Ksaru is
obtained.
Concept of difl-erent Ayurvedic scholars regarding processing
of Ksdra Kalpana
According to Sarangaclharasarithita,rasa tarangini Ksara
Vyk;a (trees),Kaqla (wood) are supposedto be collected,where as
Acarya Yadavji mentioned that kastausadhipncangas.
rq I
qnrwleq rdwng Erf,q,dq-{T:
WflTilTarnw?q5gw-rswiE{t: | |
: qq{rT*EErunvqffifq: I
vilenrfuunr+e Tf,iTRqmrtftfm:tt
({ d. qY.q?-qt)
According to Rasataranginiif yava Ksdra etc.,Suka dhanya
are usedf or Ksara preparation, thenpaltctingasof thoseshould be
collected. When Ksara is prepared from palasa etc., then Kasta
(wood) of thoseshouldbe collected.
All scholarshavementionedthat,the collecteddrug for Ksara
should be burnt in to ash form. But regarding dissolving of this
obtained ash in water in an earthen pot specially mentioned by
Acarya Sarangadhara.This is acceptedby Acarya Ycdavji too.
Earthen pot specifically mentionedmay be becauseof its neutral
form. As Ksara is having alkaline nature,it may react with vessels
made of Aluminium etc.
R e g a r d i n gt h e r a t i o o f a s h a n d w a t e r q u a n t i t y , A c a r y a
Sarangadharamentionedthat ashshouldbe dissolvedin 4 times of
water. In Rasatarangini also same ratio (four times of water) is
mentioned, where as according to Acarya Yadavii trikamii ash
shouldbe dissolvedin 6 timesof water.Regarrlingthe time duration
of keeping ash and water together, Acar),a Sarangadhara has
mentionedfor one night and it is followedby Acarya Yadavji too.
1qt Bhaisajy a Kalpand Vij fidnam

whereas accordingto Rasatnrangini ashand water togethercan be


kept only lbr threehours(oney ama),regardingthe numberof times
filteration of contents,.4caryaYadavji specifically mentionedrhat
to filter total twenty one times with a cloth and in Rasataranginiit
is mentionedthat,contentshasto be filteredwith fbldedclothwhich
is folded threetimes).This type of careregardingthe filtration is
mentionedmay be becauseto avoidthe undisolvedmacroparticles
of ash ultimately to fascilitatethe productionof fine Ksara.
General procedure of Ksdra preparation
Ksarctyuktaapamarga,palaia etc, plant paiicangcs or kasta
(according to specification)are collected and dried properly.
Collected into loha patra (Iron pan) and burnt to ash form, till all
particlesare burnt properly.Then this ash is dissolvedin 4 times or
6 times of water in an earthenpot and rubbed with handsproperly
for some time. Then these contentsare kept as it is wrthout any
disturbance for onenight or 3 hours,thensupernatant waterportion
is separatedto anotherpot (sedimentedash content should be
thrownout),thenthisseparated warershouldbe filteredfor 21 times
with threefolded cloth.This filteredwarerportion is boiledtill the
total watercontentgetsevaporated.Finally white colour softKsara
is obtainedand it is preservedin tightly packedglasscontainers.
Exposureof Ksdra to cold atmospheremakes the Ksdra in to wet
form because of its hygroscopic nature. Acarya su.irutct has
mentionedthree varietiesof Ksara as mentionedbelow.
l. Mrdu 2. Madyama 3. fiksana
On the basis of mode of administration of K;ara, Acarya
Sarangadhara(shri Dwivedi tao)hasmentionedtwo varieties.
qurfu:qfrsr{: Tq|i+q:rqr( €rqil(fteriT: r
FFdqTrcdfrrr{ucr{Sffi(rr
(W.q. qq. qoY)
qrt g frh?i shi' qrfti qt r+( {4: I
ffi ffiq yMri frrqtqT.,,
(qr' ')' 6' R' 91E+fr)
It is usedin rwoways
Auqadha kalpana 3s3
l. PratisdraniyaKsara - Kqara used forexternar application.
2' Peya(Pnniya)Ksara - Kqara usedfor internaradministration.
(Above mentioned mydu,madhyama, tikganavarieties
can be
applied as varietiesof pratisdrdniya Ksarawhereasvarieties
of paniya K;ara areKsdradraya, Ksaratraya, Ksdrapancaka,
Ksarastaka.)etc
Ksara
I

Pratisaraniy!
Kraru raliyu

Mrdu Madhyama fiksana Ksaradwaya


Ksdratraya
Ksarapafrcaka
Ksdrdstakaetc.
Ksdra Varga
Following groups of Ksaras may form K;dra Varga Viz.,
Ksdra dvaya - Svarji Ksara, yava Ksara
Ksdratraya - Svarji Ksdra, yava Ksdra, Tankala Ksara
Kqara Satka - Langah, tilanala, moksaka, Sigru, may[ra.;a
and yavaja Ksdra
K;ara;taka- Tilan6la, palaf a, moksaka,Sigru,may[rajaksara
and Ksdra traya
Vrksa Ksdra - The Ksdras obtained from vegetable
drugs,
Viz., tila, apdmdrga,Kadall,pal66a,6igru,
moksaka,m[laka, drdraka
and cifrcaksdrasare included.
Khanija Kqara - Tankana Ksdra, Sarja Ksara, S[rya Ks6ra
K;ara daSaka - In this group also vegetable Ksdras Viz.,
cukrikd,prlu, paldsa,m[laka, Sigru,citraka,nimba,mocaka.
sikharl
and iksuksaraareincluded.

F5ia: Tnrrcr rfua,remikcr{r


{Krql fdF{$frdqrcrnqirqrfrrrE r r
23 BK (r.a. qxzqx)
354 B h aiqaj y a KaIp and Vij ii an a m

Ksara mAtra - 2 to 8 gunja (250 mgms to 1,000mgms)


Medecinal plants which are usefull for the preparationof
K;ara are given below.
ufrq-qfriia-
g'6-qqFTrvTrwd,,uf
fi',r$q€T fcqas* T{-dq|qrtf
qrcdl;rffiqrer{qr6''d-{ifr fof,ifi^
5fr*-d*.qq{ffiilr ery.rrrrrtr
@:qivrn-
q,l s{clrrdrfi,-cT{nqr <t-q t
( n r .€ . q . c q 1 / q o ? - q osxK f u r y 1 1 )
1. Kutaja 2. PalaSa
3. A6wakarna 4. Paribhadra
5. Vibhrtaki 6. Aragwadha
7. Bilwa 8. Arka
9. Snuht 10. Apamlrgr
I 1. Patala 12. Naktamala
13. Vrksaka 14. Kadali
15. Citraka 16. Pfitika
17. Indra Vrksa 18, Asphcta
19. Aswamara 20. Saptacchada
21. Agnimantha 22. Gunjacaturvidha
23. Ko5ataki
Ksdra Gunas
frE M ql6qr{E *Srffir fq-+rq: t
Ertrn ffif,r wd: q{rtsfirufrT:ll
( q . q . .R s . t r o q )
Acarya carakahas mentioned Ksara 7uryaslike wi se: Ksrzrn i s
tiksana, usne, laghu, ruksa, Kledana, pacana, Vidarana,
dagdhakaram, frpana, cedanam,there by Ksar works like agni.
ffifiryil q IE: {ffi:v€ryils qfrfu€: t
Auqadha kalpana 355

fvra: vilq: eTRlErsgur:T![-fi:tl


(9.{. qq.qq)
Acurya susruta has mentioned eight ksaragunaslike wise:
K;ara is not more tiksana, it is not mydu and ksara is Sukla,
Slaksana,Piccila, abhisyandi,iiva ( Katyanakari), Slghraprabhat,a
kari.
i-
Acarya Vaghbhatahasmentioned10 typesof ksaragunasllke
wise:
qTftrfrqur5glYcTryt!
frfuq: Vfum:fuiT:r
_ ffi UqFrqfqi{fqEr€ { qrfrr6i5'tl
Sm WIUI: ......'.......
(3T€
. . q. ?o.?Y)
l. Natitrksana 2. Mrdu
3. Slaksana 4. piccila
5. Srghraga 6. Sita
7. Sikhari 8. Sukhanirvapya
9. Avisyandi 10. Natiruk
Kqdra gunas mentioned by defferent scholars are mentioned
- here under
Caraka Sarhhitd SuSruta Sarirhita Astdngahrdaya
(11) (8) (10)
l. fiksana 1. Natitrksna l. Natitlksana
2. Uqla 2. Not so mrdu 2. Not so mrdu
3. Laghu 3. Sukla 3. Sira (Swetavarna)
4. Rtksa 4. Slaksana 4. Slaksana
5. Kledi 5. Picchila 5. picchila
- 6. Pakta 6. Avisyandi 6. Avisyandi
7. Vidarna 7. Siva 7. Sukhanirvapya
8. Dahakaraka 8. Sighrakari 8. Srghragami
9. Drpana 9. Sikhari
10. Ksedana 10. Natiruk
I l. Agni saCr6a
356 Bhaiqajya Kalpana Vijnanam

gunars
Author of Rasarnat'nhasmentionedthat, ructlanASaka
a vi|esagwta of all the ksaras.
Actirya BhdvamiSrahasmentionedthat,Kqara is equalto agni
and it is useful for the treatmentof gulma, Sula
Administration of Ksdra
While formulating different Yogas,Kqara has to be mixed in
the form of curna, when Ksaraisusedforthe purposeof daha,paka,
Vidarana,chedanakarntas,it hasto be mixed in water and applied
in the form of pratisArqna or lepana.
Kshraslttra
qrFdiirtr+qff: g.frqfii g;T:g;I: I
qq{r( EE6 s fiFdTvilqrrq{t ll
(s6-{tr 31qitrr.qxu)

twgda*wt rrfrtrfm q znl


qTnq*urili fuqm vr*ur ?nqtrTI I
(q*-<tqrclqrl. qo)

The threads are prepared with surgical linen size 20 by


repeatedlysmearingit with the latex of snuhi (euphorbianerifolia)
and a combination of certain vegetablecausticsgrown on a large
scalein India and other parts of southernasia,
These substancesare :
1. Freshlatexcollectedfrom theplanteuphorbianerifolia (snuhi)
(family euphorbiacae)by stabbingthe stemat variousplaces.
2. A specially preparedalkaline powder (ksara) derived from
the plant Achyranthes aspera (apamdrga) (family
Amaranthaceae). This powder is obtainedby the evaporation
of the filtered solution of the burnttashesof this plant in the
water, this method is indigenous to the Indian system of
medicineand is termedksarapatanthe powder thus obtained
is also caustic and is locally used as a debriding agent in
chronic non-healingulcers.It has a pH of 8-9.2
3. A fine powder of the dried rhi zomesof curcumalonga(hctr i d r a)
(family zingiberaceae).Theserhizomes are commonly used
as an ingredientof cooking spicesand are termedas turmeric.
Auqadha kalpana 357

The processingof the threadis doneinsidea speciallydesigned


cabinet.
This cabinetis providedwith a devicefor hot blastfor drying
the threadsand an ultraviolet light tor sterilization,the temperature
of the chamber is recordedrvith the help of a thermometer.The
cabinetcontains25 hangerson which the surgicallinen No. 20 is
spreadand hookedthroughout.After the threadis properly hooked
into the hangerreplacedinto the cabinetfor drying when dry, it is
again resoakedin the same manner in a fresh material and the
processis repeatedfor as many as 7 times. When this part of the
procedureis completedthe next 7 coatingsare done with the latex
and the ksdra pc:wderafter processingwith latex, thus permitting
the particlesof the powder to stick over the wet thread,afler which
it is allowed to dry. In the final phaseof preparationof thread the
remaining7 coatingsaresimilarlydonewith the latexandturmeric
powder. During the processingthe threadsare sterilized by ultra
violet light. The tubes are marked for the date of preparationthe
length ofthe threadetc. and are sealed.They arepreservedin sterile
glasstubes.
Method of application of thread
After the patientis examinedthoroughly and selectedfor this
treatmentroutine investigationsarecompletedand in selectedcases
the fistulogram is also done.He is advisedto take a mild aperienta
night prior to the applicationof the thread in order to have clean
bowels and to attend the ano-rectalclinic, the next morning. For
application of the thread the patient is placed in the lithotomy
position and the perineum is cleaned with antiseptic lotion and
drapedwith steriletowels.A tray containingsterilizedinstruments,
specially designedprobesof different sizesetc. is kept alreadyon
the right side of the rectum and the inner opening of the fistula is
located as far as possible.
The selectedprobeis thenpassedthroughthe externalopening
of the tract and is slowly pushed in the direction of the least
resistance.The tip of the probe is guided into the anal apertureby
rotating the handleof the probe slightly or by depressingit. In cases
of blind externalfistulaeit is sometimesnecessaryto usemild force
to pierce the anal canal at a point which is most bulging and closed
to the rectal mucosa.A fresh and sterilizedthreadfrom the sealed
358 Bhaiqajya Kalpana Vijfidnam

tube is threadedthroughthe eye ofthe probepulled out thus leaving


the thread are tied outsidethe anal orifice firmly.
It may be mentioned that this is a painlessprocessand the
patientdo not needany anaesthesia for initial passingor successive
changeof the thread.It is important to tie the threadneitherthe tight
nor too loose,sincea tight threadwill cut thoughthe tissuesrapidly
and thus will not permit the desired action of the causticson the
fibrous wall of the fistula. A too loosethreadwill not cut throughthe
tissues at all and unnecessarilyhamper healing of the wound. A
moderatelyfirm grip of the thread is sufficient to give optimum,
desiredresult and the patient is sent home with instructionsto be
carriedduring the next sevendays,afterwhich he is againcalled and
the threadis changed.He is advisedto takebath for l0-15 minutes
every day during the first week. Changingof the threadrequiresno
specialtechnique.A fresh threadis tied to the original threadnear
the knot and is guided gradually through the other end by rail -
roadtechnique.The changingof the threadremovedand is replaced
by a fresh one. The changingof the length of the threadremovedat
every sitting is measuredand the results plotted on a graph. This
gives an idea of the rate of cutting in each individual. It is to be
emphasizedat the point that the cutting through the tissues is
usually synchronouswith the healingof the wound, that is to be say
that the wound producedby the next week while the fresh wound is
being createdby the migrating thread.In somecaseswhere healing
and cutting are unco-ordinatethe cutting is controlledby lossening
or tightening and cutting the grip of the thread and changing the
thread and changing the threadsat suitable intervals. In majority of
the casesthe healing and cutting achievedsimultaneously.
Apamdrga kqira
rri$Srcfi,r t5,r{ qg.{r ffifue: t
ffimtft v{rt' qrrrqr€rr{rl
rrrrgRq,,rqTrqfr qRsrktr{ |
fui q.d f{**uT qTM Hr{ rwr+qrl
Tfi(wt: ffirqRr
ffiW@rl
qqrqpfqnqf qftFi qFdfudt I
Auqadha kalpana 359

ril{ffiqi+d fffSEi ffi(rr


srqrqr.fqTrwf wqr'f,qlsqFrd{r
yfrft{?ift'r+qr{ Trsqi nqrwfr{ r r
strgnw"rqTn: qdfrqg v*qq: r
vfrft{-frilvr+qTiq ffi6nsTfr Er€urq| |
(rsat. qx)
Ggwc: nrTnrq rfrffiTrdqfuf,r{ r
qTrrq1fdFrg*il qTqrrukr.rft{T{' rr
(wa-t qx.qx)
ffiu:r
qrfqdqrvn: I r
(rvrr 1x.qq1
Apparatus required
Loha patra, cloth etc.
Drugs required
Properlyqrown apamargapancanga : Requiredquantity.
Procedure
Completelydevelopedapamdrgct' paficangaare collectedand
it is cleanedwell then dried completely in sunlight.Driedpaficanga
of apamdrgais to be takenin an big iron pan andburnedcompletely.
After swanga f|tala, ash is collected and mixed with 4 times of
water (6 times of water accordingto other reference)then mixed
well and filtered wrth cloth, into anotherloha patra. Thesecontents
arekept for one night asit is, next day morning the clear supernated
part of water is filtered with a cloth into anothervessellike this 3,
4 times this water is filtered, then this water is heated over the
madhyctmagrzi till all the water content is get evaporatedand sweta
varna (white) ksara is producedthen this ksara is taken into glass
containerand preservedwith tight closure.It shouldnot be exposed
to moisture becauseof its higroscopicnature it absorbsmoisture
from atmosphereand loosesits solid crystal state.
Guna
TTksna,pichila, slaksna
360 Bhaisajya Kalpand Vijfianam

Karma
Tridosaghna, Swdsahara,Gulmahara, m[trala, SDla hara,
bhadiryahara, dlpana,pacana,anulomana,swedajanana.
Amayika prayoga
Swasa,Kdsa, udaraS[la,adhmana,mDtravarodha,bhadhirya,
gulma, udararoga,Switra.
Matra
250 mg. to 1 gm. (accordingto dosa,bala) and vayasdose
an
be adjusted.
Anupdna
Madhu, water.
Snuhi kqEra
EElq.n' ffiqq: HdnTrfoir$q,r
fffiPrr+ qf6frrrq: yfrq11gpq; 11
fl+q@sffiMq; lftr{f(;T: r
Ilf[l-frltfi*lt1{iFr: t t
(rsa( qx)
qGWn:rWIF,nFffic: r
$ffifu{qilSuffiqrtnqrr
ffifunqiTdTrqiffi qfiir\ r
qn'rfur{ ilqr
qfi {Fi q Et6ql tl
qGqRRnd-{uT:ffici r
ffivilqqfr6r{5({rfrrqilrrAErr
HqIquI:qilqrfr ugn ffifoc: r
qTVr+&{TaEwti rrrsrEr€ur{ ||
qfrq{R} qtltc: ffie: r
ffi qF6qrEiil qgffi*qtrfrr q tl
(rcrt' qxl
Apparatusrequired
Vessels,cloth, knife etc.
Auqadha kalpana 361

Drugs required
Snuhi A p p r o p r i a t eq u u n t i t y .
Procedure
Snuhi is collectedand it is madeinto piecesand it shouldbe
dried in sulight.When snuhi is get dried properly,then theseare
collected and burned completely. From that burned ash k.rnra is
preparedaccordingto ksara ,-idhi.
Gu4a and karma
Tlksna,agnifrpana karam,gulma,iothc, ttduraroga,visilcika,
ajlrna, iula, Swasa andyakrt roga harcrm.
Amayika Prayoga
Five types of gulma, grahani, iula.
For the treatment of severe form of v'isucik{t,snuhiksiru,
Sankhabhasma, sarjika ksara, yavaksara, all are mixed in equal
quantity and administeredin appropriatedose.Snuftiksara rrrixed
with appropriatequantity of saindhavalavano, sourcaka lava4tct,
viddlavana, yavaksara, tankanctksaro and administeredfor the
treatmentof fotha, p[rharoga, udararoga,snuhi ksara mixed with
trikatu curna, madhu and administeredfor the treatmentof severe
Swdsaroga. Snuhi ksara mixed with triphala clrrLtct,saindhuva
lavanacitrakacurna and takenalongwith waterfor the treatmentof
agnimandhya, yakrtroga, p[iharoga and udara roga.
Above mentioneddrugs should be mixed with snuhiksararn
appropriatequantity.
Khamira
Ausadhi dravya kwatha is prepared and it is mixed with
appropriate quantity of sugar in a vessel and paka is made by
heating,till it reachesto the consistencyof avalehva,thenrestof the
medicinal drug powders and swarna, roupyaetc dhatu bhasma
are added.Then total contentsare mixed well for many times, till
the colourof thecontentsbecomeswhite in colour.This is basicallv
a unanyformulation.
Lavukaandmajunarealsoothervarietiesof unaniformulations
which are similar to our avalehv-akalpana.

.v,
362 Bhaiqajya Kalpand Vijfianam

Chapter 5
SNEHA KALPANA
The nomen;lature af sneha kalpana is sum of words sneha
and kalpand, where sneha means fat or fatty material and
kalpana stands for pharmaceuticalprocess of medicarnents.
furq {fftqqr[Sg'tsfrqsi*ki sr+ r
Tovfr'trsr
( 3 T . q .q . ? \ . ? )
The substancewhich is called sneha dravya will be having
guru, fita, sara, snigdha, manda, suksma, mrdu, drava gunas.
ln Ayurveda, ghrta kalpana and taila kalpana are included
in sneha kalpana.
Sneha is obtained from two yonies (sources) i.e., stavara
and jdngama.
Tila, priyala, abhisuka, bibhltaki, danti, harltaki, eranda,
madhltka, sargapa, kusumbha, bilwa, aruka mulaka, atast,
nikocaka, aksoda, karafija and figru, these are stavara sources
of sneha.
As regards the jangama yoni, fish, quadruped animals and
birds come under this group.
Ghyta, taila, vasa and majja are the best sneha dravyas of
all. Amongst them ghrta is the sneha dravya par-excellence
becauseof its power to assimilate effectively the properties of
the substances.
The medicated ghee or oils of our pharmacopoea,which
are prepared by successivelyboiling or cooking them with drug-
decoctionsetc. we know how potent and efficacious they prove
in the hands of our vaidyas.
Ghpta
qffifti ErsT
qcn vffifun rrdr:I
Sneha kalpand 363

qS #tri Hfif: ri*sn sqq*{q rl


(q. q. 3{. q,t.lt )
Ghrta is obtained from the class Mammalia of the Animal
kingdom (jangama) especially cow, she-buffalo, goat, sheep,
she-cammel,and mare. Out of theseexcept the last two, the rest
are the main sourcesof milk and milk products in the areas of
their habitat. Though the ghrtas of these animals posses many
common features,Ayurveda discriminates their particular features
also and recommends the Goghrla (cows-ghee) as best and the
ghrta of_choice for both, food and medicinal purposes. So that
in the Ayurvedic classics and tradition, if not specified, the
epithet ghrta always applies to Goghrta (cows-ghee)'
In Bhava Prakaia it is mentioned that ghrta (ghee) is a
rasayanatasty, good for the eye, stimulant for digestion,supports
glow and beauty, enhances memory and stamina, promotes
longevity and protects body from various diseases.
Clarified milk fat or butter fat is known as ghyta (ghee). It
is prepared by heating butter or cream to just over 1000C to
remove water content by evaporation. The residue is filtered out
as pure ghee.
The composition of ghee residue obtained from Indian cow
is as follows
Moisture 14.4Vo
Fat 32.4Vo
Protein 36.OVo
Lactose t2.Ovo
Ash 5.2Vo
The colour of ghee is yellow to white depending upon the
carotene content. Ghee contains approximately 87o lower
saturated fatty acids which makes it easily digestible. These
lower'saturated fatty acids are the most edible fat and which are
not found in any other edible oil or fat.
Ghee also contains Vitamin A. D, E and K. Vitamins A &
364 Bhaiqajya Kalpana Vijfidnam

E are 'nti-oxid(tnr and are helpful in preventing oxidative injury


to the body. No other edible fat or oil containsvitamin A except
fish oil. vitamin A keeps epitherialtissue of the body intact,
keepsthe outer lining of the eyeball moist and preventsbiindness.
Ghee also contains 4-5vo linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid,
which promores proper growth of human body.
During preparation of ghee, protein casein is removed.
Animal studies have shown that casein elevates cholesterol.
Ghee resists spoilage by micro organisms or chemicar action.
The melting point of ghee is 350c which is less than the
normal human temperatureof the body. Its digestibility
coefficient or rate of absorption is 96vo, which is highest of all
oils and fats.
Most Ayan,edic preparationsare made with ghee.Digestion,
absorption and delivery to a target organ system is crucial in
obtaining the maximum benefit from any formulation. This is
facilitated by ghee. Since active ingredients are mixed with
ghee, they are easily digestedand absorbed.Lipophilic action
of
-eheefacilitatestransportationto a target organ and final delivery,
inside the cell, becausecell membranealso contains lipid. This
lipophilic nature of ghee facilitates entery of the formulation
into the cell and its delivery to the mitochondria,microsome and
nuclear membrane.
Composition of Cow Milk Ghee.-
Constituents percent
Triglycerides 9 7_ 9 g
Diglycerides 0.25_0.4
Monoglycerides 0.016_0.039
Keto Acid Glyceride 0.015_0.01g
Glycerylesters 0.011_0.015
Free Farty Acids 0.1-0.44
Phospholipids 0.2-L0