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Design tables based on Ductile Iron pipe data and suggested loads are also provided. Some test data. the minimum width (b) is determined by Equation (1).3 There are some differences among published theories and data regarding the importance of axial support width for saddles. and poor installation sometimes result in beam loading on buried pipe. however. Both of these rubber-gasketed joints allow a certain amount of deflection and longitudinal displacement while maintaining their hydrostatic seal.DESIGN OF DUCTILE IRON PIPE ON SUPPORTS By Richard W. Support Location System security is maximized by positioning the supports immediately behind the pipe bells. which should follow the contour of the pipe. Bridge-crossing installations. Erosion. probably are responsible for many failures in buried pipelines. pipe on piers is utilized to cross natural or manmade objects. Specific procedures. DIPRA Research/Technical Director D ESIGN PROCEDURES FOR Ductile Iron pipe in normal underground service have been well established. and/or foundations should be adequately designed from a structural and soil-engineering standpoint to safely handle any loads transferred from the pipe. the maximum stress tends to increase rapidly with decreasing saddle angle. This cradling. individually or in combination. in turn. In fact.1 Neither Ductile Iron nor any other type of pipe is designed specifically as a beam for normal buried service. it is necessary or desirable to use supports at designated intervals along pipelines. The most accepted formulas are found to be completely independent of saddle width. This makes these pipe joints ideally suited for normal underground installation. There is little effect on the maximum stress when saddle support width is increased more than √ 2Dte. show a decrease in measured stresses with an increase in saddle width. minimizes stress concentrations at the supports. The most common joints used with Ductile Iron pipe are the push-on type joint and the mechanical joint. supported pipe is needed to transport water and other fluids within treatment plants and buildings. For pipe supported at intervals. recommended design limits. supports. see Table 1 Beam Span for Ductile Iron Pipe on Supports Ductile Iron pipe is normally manufactured in 18. Because of Ductile Iron’s great beam strength. The design presented herein is based upon one support per length of pipe.E. Supports should normally not be placed under spigots adjacent to bells. Figure 1–Saddle Angle and Width *Ductile Iron pipe may be furnished in shorter lengths per AWWA C151. This ring stiffness. reduces the effect of support loads and localized stress. 2 If exact lengths are required to fit on pre-built piers. Support Design Additionally. This article reviews the pertinent design considerations for both aboveground and underground Ductile Iron pipe-onsupports installations. Saddle Angle and Support Width Pipe supports should cradle the pipe in a saddle (see Figure 1). With angles smaller than 90°.or 20-foot nominal* lengths. expansive soils. In some situations. due to possible undesirable effects on joints. P . beam failures in buried Ductile Iron pipe are virtually unknown. Also. Various schemes have been successfully used to obtain longer spans where particular installation conditions presented the need. Bonds. piles. however. but these are special design situations and are not specifically addressed in this article. (1) b=√2Dte where: b = minimum (axial) saddle width (inches) D = actual outside diameter of pipe (inches) te = nominal pipe wall thickness (inches). flexible joints usually require that at least one support be placed under each length of pipe for stability. these conditions. excessive traffic loading. It is always assumed that the pipe will be uniformly supported along its length by the soil beneath it. The standard design considers hoop stresses in the pipe wall due to internal hydrostatic pressure as well as bending stresses and deflection in the pipe due to external loads of earth and traffic above the buried pipe. unstable soil conditions or other factors necessitate the installation of pipe on piers or pilings underground.4 Therefore. Sometimes. Little or no benefit is gained by increasing the saddle angle more than 120°. It is recommended that the saddle angle (ß) of the support be between 90° and 120°. and allowable stresses are outlined in the example problem. Aboveground. frost. The flexibility of the joints reduces the chance of excessive beam stresses occurring. require special attention to their unique situations. the bell section contributes beneficial ring stiffness where it is most needed. which are not specifically addressed. 1 . this should be specified. When the support is placed near the bell. for saddle supports. depending on the pipe manufacturer and pipe size.

83 0.76 0.90 9.25* 0.05 11. This value is equal to the minimum yield strength in bending for Ductile Iron (72. The design engineer may elect to investigate principal stresses due to extraordinary circumstances.58 0.31 0.20 15.51 0. see Table 1 w = unit load per linear foot (lb.60 25. in most cases.49 0.38 0.46 0.61 65.37 0.10 13.03–0.5.58 0. e..80 32. Thus.50. This maximum stress may be longitudinal or circumferential in nature and is predicted by the following equation proposed by Roark:5 D wL (2) fr = K t 2 ln 2t n n Table 2 Allowances for Casting Tolerance Size in. etc. When buried pipe is installed on supports.50 21.79 0. ANSI/AWWA C150/ A21.68 0.43 0. very high internal pressure.52 0. If the designer expects greater loads to occur on aboveground or underground installations. and flexural stress and beam deflection at the center of the span.05 0. For aboveground design calculations.57 0. the total load includes the weight of the pipe and contents.45 0.) K = saddle coefficient tn = design wall thickness of pipe (inches).25* 0.56 0.36 0.34 0.56 61. 3-8 10-12 14-42 48 54-64 Casting Tolerance in.96 4. 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 64 3. it is usually because of unstable ground conditions.72 0.000 psi maximum) L = span length (feet) D = pipe outside diameter (inches).41 0. Pressure Class 150 200 250 300 350 Size in.61 0. combinations of external load and internal pressure to obtain principal stresses have not been considered.52 0.47 0./ft. 2 .26 0.38 0. hoop stress due to internal pressure.50 50. and in the interest of simplicity. these loads should be incorporated into the design and are not in the scope of this procedure.30 0. see Table 3 For aboveground applications: tn = minimum manufacturing thickness of pipe = nominal pipe wall thickness–casting tolerance For underground applications: tn = net pipe wall thickness = nominal pipe wall thickness–casting tolerance–0.80 6.33 0. the total load normally includes the prism earth load plus the weight of the pipe and contents.Table 1 Nominal Thicknesses for Standard Pressure Classes of Ductile Iron Pipe Outside Diameter in.87 Ductile Iron is well-suited for use in pipe-on-supports applications due to its tremendous beam strength. It is the same limiting value of bending stress employed in the American National Standard for the Thickness Design of Ductile Iron Pipe.63 0.42 0.54 0.30 0.08 0.1 Pipe Wall Thickness Calculations Design calculations include localized stress at supports. 0.56 – – – – – – – – – – 0.00 38. Localized Stress at Supports The supported pipe is subjected to localized stresses at the support that are a function of the total reaction at the support and the shape (saddle angle) of the support.25* 0.47 0. be no vehicle loading.32 0.34 0.80 57.51 0. These are the lowest nominal thicknesses currently available in these sizes. truck loads (per ANSI/AWWA C150) should be used in design calculations only where they are likely to occur.25* 0.38 0.000 psi.30 17.08" service allowance Recent research involving Ductile Iron pipe has established that the function (3) K = 0.64 0.00017 (ß-90°) provides excellent correlation between the ring stresses predicted by Equation (2) and the actual stress as measured when ß is between 90° and 120°.67 – – – – – – – – – – – 0. where: fr = localized stress due to support reaction (48.70 0.33 0. Nominal Thickness–in.3 The maximum calculated localized stress should be limited to 48.06 0. There should.28 0.42 0.80 0.000 psi) divided by a safety factor of 1.07 0. Due to the conservative approach of this design procedure.09 ( )( ) Loads on Pipe For underground pipe-on-supports design calculations.65 0.36 0. * Calculated thicknesses for these sizes and pressure ratings are less than those shown above.28 0.40 19.40 0.64 – – – – – – 0.72 – – – – – – 0.31 0.30 44.g.34 0.

) L = length of span (feet) E = modulus of elasticity (24 x 106 psi) D = pipe outside diameter (inches) d = D-2tn (inches) Design Procedure A. 1. This makes the simple beam approach conservative. a span length of 18 or 20 feet).000 psi.. and pipe diameter. Flexural Stress at Center of Span With one support per length of pipe positioned immediately behind the bells. This is likewise conservative due to the reality of offset joints. 3 .5 x 10-6 inch/inch degree Fahrenheit Concrete: 7. D. and other special design considerations. The maximum allowable deflection at mid-span to prevent damage to the cementmortar lining is limited to: L (6) yr = –– 10 where: yr = maximum allowable deflection at center of span (inches) L = length of span (feet) Less deflection may be desired.2 x 10-6 inch/inch degree Fahrenheit Steel: 6.284 DwL –––––––––– D -d4 where: fb = allowable flexural stress (48. Such loading may include seismic. unbalanced forces may result in additional joint deflection and possible failure of the pipeline. and/or unusual or additional loads not in the scope of this article. simply supported beam can be calculated using the following formula: 458. water current. special considerations for expansion.1 No truck loads w = (Wp + Ww) + 12 D Pe 2. and supports may be necessary. saddle angle (90°-120°).Hoop Stress Due to Internal Pressure Aboveground Installations The net thickness required for internal pressure can be determined by using the equation for hoop stress: PiD t = ––– (4) 2S where: t = net pipe wall thickness (inches) Pi = design internal pressure (psi) = 2 (Pw + Ps) Pw = working pressure (psi) Ps = surge allowance (100 psi) D = outside diameter of pipe (inches) S = minimum yield strength in tension = 42. Determine the pipe pressure class required due to internal pressure.000 psi If anticipated surge pressures are greater than 100 psi. Select the length of span (18 feet or 20 feet)./ft.000 psi./ft. the maximum anticipated pressure must be used. Repeat until the resulting fr is less than or equal to 48. The following formula represents the flexural stress at the center of the span of a uniformly loaded.000 psi.e. the strength of the structure from which a pipe may be suspended. It is also necessary to assure a minimum of lateral and vertical stability at the supports for aboveground piping. For underground installations: 2. Determine if the design thickness (tn). For reference. Deflected pipe joints can result in thrust forces of hydrostatic or hydrodynamic origin. If fr exceeds 48. Occasionally. Thermal expansion of Ductile Iron pipelines supported aboveground is not usually of concern in correctly designed and installed systems because of the nature of the push-on or mechanical joint. frequency or resonance of vibrations.15 inches. where structures from which Ductile Iron pipe is to be suspended are expected to have significantly different behavior than the pipeline. corresponding to the pipe pressure class selected in Step B and found in Table 3. The joints being slightly offset from the supports causes some of the simple beam moment and stress to distribute itself from the center of the span to the support. The deflection of the beam may be significant for aesthetic reasons in aboveground installations or possibly for hydraulic reasons in gravity-flow pipelines. contraction. Other design considerations for pipes supported aboveground may include the carrying capacity of the supports themselves. simply supported beam: 2 (5) fb = 15. The beam deflection at center span for a uniformly loaded. results in an acceptable localized stress less than or equal to 48. B.2 Truck loads included w = (Wp + Ww) + 12 D (Pe + Pt) Note: For D see Table 1 For Pe and Pt see Table 4 For (Wp + Ww) see Table 3 C. Calculate the saddle coefficient (K) using Equation (3). 2. each span can conservatively be treated as a simply supported beam. wind.0 x 10-6 inch/inch degree Fahrenheit Computations for beam deflection are also based on the simply supported beam concept. the following are coefficients of thermal expansion for various materials: Ductile Iron: 6. and if not laterally and vertically restrained. 1.) L = length of span (feet) d = D-2tn (inches) Beam Deflection at Center of Span For aboveground installations with one support per length of pipe (i. This is easily accommodated by correctly installed pipe and joints. increase tn to the next greater pressure class and re-calculate starting with Step B. should be determined by the designer as appropriate to a specific installation.000 psi maximum) D = pipe outside diameter (inches) w = unit load per linear foot (lb. Calculate fr using Equation (2). A 100-degree Fahrenheit change in temperature results in expansion or contraction of a 20-foot length of Ductile Iron pipe of approximately 0. the minimum pressure class of Ductile Iron pipe manufactured in all sizes is more than adequate to support the weight of the pipe and water it contains when analyzed in accordance with the suggestions of this procedure. Limitations on the deflection. For aboveground installations: w = (Wp + Ww) 2. Determine the unit load per linear foot (w) based on the minimum pressure class pipe manufactured. if any.4 w L4 y = ––––––––– (7) E (D4-d4) where: y = deflection at center of span (inches) w = unit load per linear foot (lb.

Choose the greater pressure class corresponding to the largest tn required in Step C..5) = 1080 lb...36)4 5. E. increase tn to the next class and re-calculate fb using the new pressure class thickness and corresponding tn and w values.. Assume no truck load.000 psi.761 psi (0.08 Casting tolerance = 0. F.ft. (1088) (20) 25. OK Step G.761 psi < 48.4 w L4 y = –––––––––– E (D4 . the standard pressure class selected from Table 1 may be less than the design working pressure due to the 0..d4 d = D ./ft.8" (Table 1) Pe = 2.824 psi < 48. OK Step F.000 psi . Calculate the flexural stress (fb) at mid-span using Equation (5) and the greater pressure class pipe required in Step C or D along with its corresponding tn and w values. OK System security is maximized by positioning the supports immediately behind the pipe bells.11" (24 x 106) (25. Repeat until the resulting fb is less than or equal to 48. Using Pressure Class 250 determined in Step C: 458. ( ) ( ) Step D. Step E.36" 15.08 = 0.8 .00017 (120-90°) = 0. try next thickest pressure class (Pressure Class 250) For Pressure Class 250: (From Table 3) tn = 0.025 –––––––––– ln ––––––– = 71.8)4 . or E along with its corresponding tn and w values.. 20-foot span (L) 120° saddle angle (ß) 24-inch diameter Ductile Iron pipe 4 ..4 (1088) (20)4 y = ––––––––––––––––––––– = 0. Using Pressure Class 250 determined in Step C: 15. Step C. E. Calculate the net thickness (t) required for hoop stress due to internal pressure using Equation (4).000 psi .2 (0.84-25.28 (25. If fb exceeds 48. (Note: Less deflection may be desired.8 fr = 0.22" w = 314 + 12 (25.18)2 71. Design Example Find the required pipe pressure class for 24-inch Ductile Iron pipe installed on 20-foot-spaced piers under 3 feet of earth cover with 120° saddles and an operating pressure of 150 psi. Determine the total calculated thickness (T) due to internal pressure.8) t = –––––––––– = 0. Using Table 1.200 psi > 48.07 + 0.d4) 458. Pressure Class 200 is adequate for internal pressure design.28 DwL2 fb = –––––––––– D4 .200 psi 2 (0. or F and calculate the minimum saddle width using Equation (1).15" 2 (42.364) L yr = –– = 20 = 2" –– 10 10 0.000 psi .18 (Table 3) 25. D. w = (Wp + Ww) + 12 D Pe (Wp + Ww) = 306 lb.025 –––––––––– ln ––––––– = 45.37”.8) (2. (Table 3) D = 25.8) (1088) (20)2 fb = ––––––––––––––––––––– = 5.37" Therefore. Repeat until the resulting y is less than or equal to yr. K = 0.08 service allowance not being required.22)2 2 (0. select a standard pressure class thickness.8) (2. increase tn to the next greater pressure class and recalculate y using the new pressure class thickness and corresponding tn and w values. Calculate the maximum allowable deflection at mid-span (yr) using Equation (6).11" < 2" .30" From Table 1.18) (0.2tn = 25. G.22) = 25.15 + 0.000) Total calculated thickness (T) = t + casting tolerance + 0. PiD t = ––– 2S Pi = 2(Pw + Ps) = 2 (150 + 100) = 500 psi 500 (25.08 3. When the total calculated thickness is between two standard thicknesses./ft. 2. ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1.824 psi (25.025 wL D fr = K ––– ln ––– tn2 2tn tn = 0. Calculate the deflection at mid-span (y) using Equation (7) and the greater pressure class pipe required in Step C.03-0. 1. Step A.37) = 4.00017 (ß-90°) K = 0.5) = 1088 lb. D.22) 45.8 (1080) (20) fr = 0.07 (Table 2) T = 0. For aboveground applications: T = t + casting tolerance For underground applications: T = t + casting tolerance + 0.5 psi (Table 4) w = 306 + 12 (25.Step B. Check deflection at mid-span. 2.) If the deflection y is greater than the deflection yr.03-0.(25.. Using Pressure Class 250 determined in Step C: b = √2 D te = √2 (25.000 psi. Note:For aboveground applications. use Pressure Class 250 pipe with minimum saddle width of 4.8) (0. select the larger of the two.

19 . 637 650 665 677 693 848 869 887 905 927 1099 1124 1148 1173 1197 1403 1436 1468 1501 1533 1608 1643 1678 1717 1752 1817 1860 1902 1945 1982 Aboveground Applications Underground Applications .30 .78 .20 . 14 18 31 48 68 92 119 122 123 151 154 157 185 190 193 225 230 233 306 314 320 326 453 462 473 481 491 Aboveground Applications Size Inch 36 Pressure Class 150 200 250 300 350 150 200 250 300 350 150 200 250 300 350 150 200 250 300 350 150 200 250 300 350 150 200 250 300 350 Wp + Ww Lb.42 .27 .42 .41 .51 .62 .25 .44 .29 .20 .16 .37 .21 .12 ./Linear Ft.49 .15 .63 .36 .49 .23 .27 .D.27 .40 .24 .50 .18 .63 .27 .40 .38 .31 . Weight of water based on actual I.54 .20 .70 .28 .20 .48 .50 .18 .56 .27 .33 .56 .35 .35 .12 .26 .25 .74 .21 .66 .15 .48 .52 .24 .36 .23 .42 .17 .59 .26 .36 .23 .23 .55 .32 . 5 .23 .45 .56 .22 .19 ./Linear Ft.48 .12 .29 .34 .26 .47 .12 .30 .59 .14 .44 .63 .21 .71 .12 .39 .31 .Table 3 Size Inch 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 Pipe Plus Water Weight (Wp + Ww) and Design Wall Thickness (tn) tn (inch) tn (inch) Underground Applications Pressure Class 350 350 350 350 350 350 250 300 350 Wp + Ww Lb.55 .20 .47 .45 .30 .13 .38 .62 .41 .44 .34 .22 .16 .37 .34 .67 .42 .70 42 48 16 250 300 350 18 250 300 350 54 20 250 300 350 60 24 200 250 300 350 64 30 150 200 250 300 350 Notes: Approximate pipe weight based on push-on joint cement-mortar-lined pipe.55 .19 .31 .32 .

J. 3.3 1.8 0.0 0.5 0.1 14-Inch Pipe Pt 8.7 1.3 4.4 1.5 0. For Water.5 0.6 3.2 0.2 1.1 0. 6 .M.6 1.3 26.1 54-Inch Pipe Pt 5.0 0.9 7.1 1.5 8.1 1.2 4.8 0.2 1.2 3. Evces.7 0.2 1.0 0. 1975.6 1.1 0.7 1.1 2. “Stresses in SaddleSupported Ductile Iron Pipe.7 0.2 1.7 Pe 2.4 3.000 psi) — Localized stress due to support reaction (48.4 0.51.1 Pe 2.1 18-Inch Pipe Pt 7.6 1.4 3.2 1.7 0.2 1.3 0.8 0.2 0.2 0. W.6 1.1 0.4 0.1 0.3 0.3 1.2 0.0 11.1 0.0 1.4 0.0 2.1 2.1 0.8 2.9 2.2 0.4 4.1 8-Inch Pipe Pt 9.4 0.1 0. C.6 1.3 0.1 0.0 2.4 0. J. American National Standard For Ductile Iron Pipe.5 3.5 0.4 0.1 30-Inch Pipe Pt 6.1 0.0 0.2 5.3 0.1 2.1 64-Inch Pipe Pt 4.0 0.0 2.03-0.1 0.3 0.6 1.7 Nomenclature — Minimum saddle width (inches) — Pipe outside diameter (inches) — Pipe design inside diameter (inches) — Modulus of elasticity for Ductile Iron (24 x 106 psi) — Allowable flexural stress (48.8 0.9 2.8 0.1 0.7 0.8 0.1 0.0 0.3 4.1 20-Inch Pipe Pt 7.1 1.4 0.3 4. 5.1 0.4 3.0 0.1 0.0 5.3 0.8 6.3 10.3 1.2 0. R. ANSI/AWWA C151/A21. E.1 0.8 0.0 4.9 2.4 0.4 0.0 0.7 13.3 2.7 20.7 1.9 2.0 0.1 0.1 16-Inch Pipe Pt 8. Roark.8 6. 1941. November 1984.3 0.3 0.4 4.8 2.4 0.2 0.1 0.6 1.1 1.2 1.3 26.9 7.6 4. McGrawHill.1 1.5 0.9 2.5 0.8 0.5 0.5 3.1 0.7 20.0 0.1 0.5 0.5 2./ft.8 0.1 2.3 0.2 0./ft.7 3.3 16. Centrifugally Cast.8 2.9 2.Table 4 Earth Loads Pe and Truck Loads Pt–psi Depth of Cover ft. 331.6 0.2 0.0 0.2 1.1 1.7 0.1 0.1 0.4 0.8 0. and O’Brien.2 1..) b D d E fb fr Ww — Unit load of water in pipe per linear foot (lb.2 4. Fifth Edition.0 2.1 0.1 3.5 0..2 4.1 0.1 48-Inch Pipe Pt 5.D.1 0.6 0.7 7.1 0.5 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 20 24 28 32 3-Inch Pipe Pt 9.4 3.6 7.6 1.5 0.2 0.6 1.9 3.9 7.9 0.2 0.000 psi) T — Total calculated pipe wall thickness (inches) t — Net pipe wall thickness (inches) te — Nominal pipe wall thickness (inches) tn — Design pipe wall thickness (inches) w — Unit load per linear foot (lb.00017 (ß-90°)] L — Span length (feet) Pe — Earth load (psi) Pi — Design internal pressure (psi) Ps — Surge allowance (psi) Pt — Truck load (psi) Pw — Working pressure (psi) S — Minimum yield strength in tension for Ductile Iron (42.2 1.6 1.1 60-Inch Pipe Pt 4.0 0.7 0.1 0.9 0.4 0.0 5.9 3.0 23.R.0 0.000 psi maximum) K — Saddle coefficient [0.6 2.1 1.4 0.8 4.5 1.5 5.4 0.1 1.4 0.4 0.8 0.1 0.4 2.9 1.5 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 20 24 28 32 Depth of Cover ft.7 5.1 0.4 1. “Tests on Cylindrical Shells. 2.4 2.1 42-Inch Pipe Pt 5.3 0.4 4.3 0.2 5.1 6-Inch Pipe Pt 9.1 10-Inch Pipe Pt 9.2 6.4 3.4 0.7 6.7 13.1 0. 2.2 4.1 0.) y — Deflection at center of span (inches) yr — Maximum recommended deflection at center of span (inches) ß — Saddle angle (degrees.1 5. Wilson.3 0.) Wp — Unit load of pipe per linear foot (lb.1 0.3 1.1 36-Inch Pipe Pt 6.7 0.5 0..9 1.8 5.1 24-Inch Pipe Pt 7.4 2./ft.M.3 1. and Olson.8 7.3 0.3 0.2 0.8 0. 90° to 120° is recommended) References 1.4 2.” Engineering Experiment Station.9 2.1 0. 4.7 7.3 16.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 1.3 1.5 8.5 1.1 1.2 0.2 1.2 0.” Journal AWWA.6 0.8 3.8 0.0 11.0 23.2 1.5 0.1 4-Inch Pipe Pt 9. Formulas For Stress and Strain.1 0.1 0.3 0.8 0.6 1.9 0.7 7. University of Illinois Bulletin.2 0.1 0. New York.50.1 0.4 1.1 0.0 0.1 12-Inch Pipe Pt 9.5 0.6 1.1 0. 2.3 10.5 0.7 0.4 0.5 3.3 4.7 0. ANSI/AWWA C150/A21.0 2.2 0.1 1.2 1.8 0.4 1.5 3.7 1.3 0.2 0.6 0. American National Standard For The Design of Ductile Iron Pipe.3 0.1 0.

1995 by Ductile Iron Pipe Research Association This publication. . Box 10406 Birmingham.O. 245 Riverchase Parkway East. Box 6001 Coshocton. Ontario L8N 3R5 Canada Clow Water Systems Company P. Alabama 35234 Pacific States Cast Iron Pipe Company P.DIPRA MEMBER COMPANIES American Cast Iron Pipe Company P.5M Published 11-95 Copyright © 2001.dipra. New Jersey 08865-3000 Canada Pipe Company.O. or parts thereof. Suite O Birmingham. Utah 84603-1219 United States Pipe and Foundry Company P. 1757 Burlington Street East Hamilton. Box 2727 Birmingham. Box 1219 Provo. Alabama 35202-2727 Atlantic States Cast Iron Pipe Company 183 Sitgreaves Street Phillipsburg.O. Ltd.O. Alabama 35202-0406 An association of quality producers dedicated to highest pipe standards through a program of continuing research. POS/7-03/2. may not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publishers. Alabama 35244-1856 Telephone 205 402-8700 FAX 205 402-8730 http://www.org Manufactured from recycled materials. Ohio 43812-6001 McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company 1201 Vanderbilt Road Birmingham.

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