A320 Line Training Summary, Air Berlin

Revision 4.1 by CMD Urs Oetiker, TRE, Station Zürich

A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY

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2 of 171

IMPORTANT
The information in this document will provide you with a collection of basic organized material gathered from official Air Berlin sources regarding the operation of the A320. This A320 Line Training Summary is a document which you may use in your training as a work of reference. It is not intended for operational use, meaning that it shall not be used in-lieu of original operational documentation during commercial operation.

Instr.GuideA320

Revision: 4

Effective Date: 25.04.08

A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY

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3 of 171

0

Introduction

The trend of modern aviation dictates that we are operating in an enviormnent that is increasing in both technical complexity and is governed and monitored closely in legal and procedural frameworks. So, as well as good stick and rudder-skills, we must also become proficient in the technical management of the aircraft and adhere rules and regulations stipulated by the company and the authorities. If we can combine these factors and provide a safe, economical and comfortable experience for the crew and passgeners – then we have attained our goal. The technical and operational information needed to operate in this environment is contained in several documents with which the pilot must be familiar. It is not necessary, nor is it advisable, to know these books “by heart”. However, the crew must know the structure of the documentation and be able to consult, understand and apply the relevant text/schematics in a timely manner. The purpose of this summary is to give the trainee an overview of the most fundamental topics that are needed to operate the Airbus A320 family. It provides condensed information as found in the Air Berlin documentation and also describes accepted methods for operating in daily work within the company. This summary provides references to the following documentation: OM(A) – The Operations Manual Part A is a document which stipulates accepted practices by which Air Berlin must adhere. It covers many areas; from the description of the organizational structure of the company all the way to weather conditions required for an approach. It covers mainly issues of operational rather than technical nature. The main Chapter of interest for the flight crew member is OM(A) Chapter 8. FCOM 3.3 (a subchapter of FCOM 3, see below) has been specially modified by Air Berlin to suit its „dark and silent“ flight-deck philosophy. It is the only part of the FCOMs that is modified by Air Berlin. FCOM – The Flight Crew Operations Manual is provided by the aircraft manufacturer. It provides technical guidelines and information that relate to the operation of the aircraft. The FCOM is separated into 4 parts. The FCOMs are delivered by Airbus and do not contain company company-specific information (except FCOM 3.3, see above). • • • • FCOM 1 – System Description FCOM 2 – Flight Preparation FCOM 3 – Flight Operations FCOM 4 – FMGS Pilot´s Guide

FCTM – The Flight Crew Training Manual is a document published by Airbus and is advisory in nature. It provides only basic information regarding practical operation of the aircraft. A320 Instuctor Support – This document provides Instructors with additional background information on the A320 operation, in procedural and technical terms. There is a strict hierarchy with which the documentation is to be used within Air Berlin. Any information in the OM(A) overrides FCOM 3.3, followed by the FCOM and finally the FCTM and A320 Instructor Support. Use this summary during your training to prepare for your next flights. By doing so, you provide yourself and the instructor more time to dedicate to areas which may need more focus. The initial training will provide you with the ability to operate the aircraft safely and economically. Remember that safety has highest priority – therfore:
Instr.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.04.08

ggaweb. Station Zürich e-mail: uoetiker@freesurf. If the reader finds any deviations from official policy or finds outdated/incorrect information.ch Mobile: +41 78 707 5661 For the latest update of the summary check following webpage: http://home. The A320 Line Training Summary is revised at irregular intervals depending on the number and significance of changes within the official documentation.04.08 . please contact: Name: Urs Oetiker Function: TRE.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.ch/uoetiker/ All that remains to be said is: good luck! Instr.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Page 4 of 171 • • • • Attain in-depth knowledge of the procedures Attain a good understanding regarding the technical apects of the aircraft Strictly adhere to Standard Operating Procedures Plan and fly in a conservative manner If you have any questions relevant to training issues do not hesitate to contact your instructor or the Department Training.

.........................................................................................................2 Definitions (weights and centre of gravity) . 26 2.......................................... 25 2...........1 2........................................3.....................................................................1 1................................................................................... 17 1....................................................................................................................... 18 1..........1 4...........2 HILDAW ................3 General Briefing ...........1 General .1 Place..................5 Fly ....................................................................................................... 43 6...................2............................................. manual calculation...............4............................. Distance.....................................................1.............6 Last minute changes procedure.......................2 Closed Loop.... 41 6................................................. 42 6.............................. 19 Pre-flight planning work distribution ........................4 Departure Briefing ...... 13 1.....................................................................................................1 5.....................1........ 40 6..................................... 12 Systematic method of operation.................................................................2..................................................................................................................................5 Conventional load sheet..............................................................1 Introduction ..................................2 Coding of NavDataBase (NDB) .......2 Self programmed waypoints.......... 36 2 3 4 5 5..................................................................................................... 23 2..............and conventional waypoints...1..........2 Alternate Planning..........08 Instr.....................................................................................................................................5....................................................................... 11 Becoming an expert in Aviation.............. 44 6...............................................................................1 Fuel index table...........2 6 Loading....... 19 Legal requirements ..............2 DOW / DOI A320 for conventional Load sheet......3 Tactical aspects ................................................................................... 25 2............... 34 Recommendations for optimum use of automation ............. 34 Exterior Inspection (Walk Around) ........... procedures and responsibility for preparation and acceptance of the weight and balance sheet........................................................ 40 6..................2 Briefings ........1 Structure....................................2.............................................. 17 1................................................... 13 1................................................................................ 20 2............................................................1 Planning minima for destination aerodromes and alternate aerodromes........................................................2.3..............................2.................... 33 3................................ 28 RNAV ........................ 20 2..................1 General .............................................................................1............................................................. 46 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25................................. 28 3.....................................................................................................3 Fuel planning .......................5.......................................4 Interpretation of given meteorological information................................A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Page 5 of 171 Table of Content 1 General Principles............................................... Bearing.5 Take off Briefing .............................. 17 1................................................................................................................................................................................GuideA320 .....................3....................................................3 Conversion of Reported Meteorological Visibility to RVR ................................1 General................................................................................................. Navigate....................... 31 3.....4 Cross-Cockpit Communication .................................................................................04....... 30 3................................................................... 20 2................2..................... 32 3...................................... 34 4........................ 11 Procedures and Techniques ........................ 44 6.................................................. 28 3.......................... 22 2......................................................... 32 3. 34 4..............................1 Use of automation .... 45 6... 40 6................................................. Communicate ...................................3 Aircraft weights........ 36 Walk Around.................................................................................2 Working with packets ....................................................................................6 Landing Briefing ...3..........................................................4.............................................................................................................................................2 Place – Bearing. 15 1..................................................................................... 32 3...................................................................1 General .................... 28 3.......2 Interfacing with automation . 30 3..................................4 LPC load sheet.2.......................................................................................2 1...................7 Standard Weight Values .................. 36 General............................................................................ Place – Bearing ........... 24 2....... methods..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................5 Profit tankering.........................................

................................................5 Take off on contaminated runways ..................................... 51 Flare .................................................................................................................................. 61 11.... 64 11................. 67 11.............................. 54 10..................... 56 10....................................... 59 11............. 54 10........1 General ......................... 55 Turbulence versus altitude ....................................................................................................................3...............................................2 Exterior inspection ............6 10 Weather radar .............................3..........................................3.................................................6 Colour gradient.....1 General .............................................................................1....................................................................................................................................1 9...................................................................................................................5..... 62 11.................................2 Performance Optimization .................... 66 11............................3 Flap setting................................... 65 11..............1 Clean aircraft concept ............ 62 11.............................................. 56 10.........................2 Stabilized approach ...................................1........................................ 67 11..................5............................................................................................................1 8....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 60 On ground operation .......................... 48 7....................................................................................................................................3......................................................................................3.................... 47 7................................................................. 54 10...................................................................................................................................................2 8..................2 Gain....................................................................3 ECAM advisories.......................................................................5...........7 Pilot behaviour with significant weather .............................. 51 Final approach................GuideA320 ..........................................................................................5... 49 7...................................1 7..................................................................................... 47 7..........................................1 Tilt ................................... 61 11...................3........................................2................................................... 68 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25......................5 Responsibility...................... 48 7..........................1 Flight planning.................... 67 11................................................................................ 52 Tail strike at landing ...................................................................................................................... 50 Definition ................ 58 11..........................3............................3 De-icing on ground..................2 In flight......2............................ 50 Landing technique ................................. 55 10...........................1 On ground ....................................................................................................................... 47 Computer reset............................................................................................3 Use of the weather radar ......3 9..............8 Severe turbulence: ................................. 51 Crosswind landing..................................................3 WX+T and TURB modes .......................2 Runway contamination................................................................................................... 54 10......................................................................................................................2 Definitions ... 58 11............................................................................................... 55 10................ 58 11............ 47 Tripped C/B reengagement in flight ...................... 61 11. 61 11.........2................................ 50 Philosophy of stabilized approach ..............04.....................4 Recommended procedure ........1 Runway contamination....................................3..........3 BSCU reset (in-flight and on ground)........................... 54 10..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 56 10...............................2 9.............3 Required landing distance ..........3...2...... 64 11.................................................................................................................................................6 Final check before aircraft dispatch .................. 53 Engine-out landing .......4 9.......4 Spotting dry hail ....................................................................................................2.... 53 8 9 9...7 Procedures.......... 58 11...........................................1.......................................3 Clear ice phenomenon.....1 Securing the aircraft for cold soak ..........................................................4 General checks ......... 52 Bouncing at touch down............................................................................................ 57 Winter operation.............................................................. 67 11.08 11 Instr....................................................................................................................................................5 9.......................................2 Engine start in cold weather ...........................................................................................................3............................................A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Page 6 of 171 7 Resetting of computers and C/B’s ..5 Turbulence above cloud tops................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 61 11................. 61 11......... 56 10................................................2 Technical background.........................4 Taxiing in icing conditions ....................

............... CAT3 DUAL automatic approach and landing....3.......................................................................................................08 13 14 Instr.............. 99 14...........................................................................................8...................................................3 Use of summaries in the QRH ..4.........................................8............................................................ 77 12.................................................................. 69 11..1 Crosswind limits for landing on contaminated runways................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 70 11......................................................8................................................... 83 12................................................................................ 92 13.... 99 14..........................................................2 Section 00E......................................................1 General .................................... 85 12... 87 Descent planning .......................... 98 14...............................3 Structure of the MEL ............ 95 13............... 95 13......................................................5 Strategies for intercepting the 3° descent path from above and below.........................8................1 General ...........................2 Engine anti-ice ........................................................................3 TCAS.................1 Types of failures.....4 EGPWS.......................................... 100 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25...........................3 A word about track miles......................4 Use of QRH...............................1 Handling of maintenance messages displayed on ECAM status page....................................................................04..........................3................ 91 13................. 74 12.................. 68 11.............................. CAT3 SINGLE.....................6.................................... 96 13.....................................................5 Loss of braking...................................... 68 11..........................................4..................................................1 General ......A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Page 7 of 171 11................................................8.......................................................................... 99 14..............8 Rejected T/O / Emergency Evacuation...............................................................................................................................................2 Contents......... 72 12.............................. 74 12.................6 Use of autopilot .................................................................................... 100 14.....................................................1 Windshear .............3....................................................................................2.......................................................3............................................................................2 Energy circle displayed on the ND..........................3 Factors affecting the descent path of the aircraft .....................................8............................................................3 Section 01 MEL..................................................................................................3.........................1 Objectives ..............................................................................7 Unreliable speed indication..................................... 78 12.....................................4 Remaining on the 3° descent path...............................................2 General application of the MEL...................................................................................................................................... 92 13...........................8..........2................................ 73 12............ 100 14.................................................................2 Planning for an economical descent..............7............. 77 12.2............. 69 11.................................................................. 81 12............................................................1 General .........................................................................................................2 CAT2............6................................................................................................. 98 14...8.........................5 Task sharing for abnormal and emergency procedures .............3 The economical descent ........8............. 92 13............................................................................8....................................................................3......6 Emergency descent ...........................3................................................................................7 Landing distance ................................................................3 Wing anti-ice ...... 91 13. 70 11........................................ 70 11..... 78 12.........4......................................2............2 Energy management................................................ 99 14.................................................................. 84 12.................................................... 76 12.........7 Landing on contaminated runways ........................... 69 11......................... 72 12..... 90 13......... 82 12.....................1 Corrections..........................................................2................5 Crosswind limits .............................2 Color code......................................................5...............................................4 Required Navigation Performance (RNP) .....................................8 Memory Items ................ 94 13..........2............ 100 14............GuideA320 ................................................................4 Conclusion ...............................3.............3 Warning / Caution classification....................... 97 Minimum Equipment List (MEL).............3 Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM) .....2 Example ..........1 Section 00 General ..........8 Low temperature effect on altimeter indication ....6..... 68 11... 90 13.... 91 13.............2............................................................... 98 14.............. 78 12.............. 72 12...............1 Scope .......... 71 12 Handling of abnormal and emergency situations................. 74 12.6 Aircraft contamination in flight...................................................................................2 Windshear ahead (PWS) ............................................. 75 12.............................................

........................................3.........7........................................................................4............. 111 RVSM ............... 116 17...................................................................4 B-RNAV in European airspace ...... 102 15............... CAT III Operations..................................8 Non Precision Approaches with engine-out.... 103 15...... 113 16....................................................5 Fail operational automatic landing system ..........2 General procedures ...........7. 113 16......................GuideA320 ...........................................................3...6................................. 113 16..................................................................................................................2..............................5 P-RNAV for terminal procedures ..................................................................................................5.....................................2................................................................... 117 17...............................................2....... 118 17.......................... 102 15..............1 General ..........................................................................................................1 Definitions ..... 101 15.............4 In-flight procedures .. 120 18..........................................................................4 FM Position ........................2 Decision height and alert height concept....................1......................................................................................1..............1........ 101 15............................................................................................................3 Required Navigation Performance (RNP).................................................................................................. 101 15.....................1 Decision height ................................................................. 101 15............................2 Procedures...6 Position Computation ...........................................1 General ................................................................6............................................................................. 114 16............................. 116 17............................................... 107 15..............6 Altitude tolerances. 103 15........................................................... 118 17.................................... 120 18................................................5 Requirements for RVSM ..................................................................1.................................... 116 17......................................................................................... 121 18...................................................................1 General ..1 Decision height concept:............................7 RNAV approaches with vertical guidance..............A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Page 8 of 171 14......................................................3 Pre-flight procedures...................................... 120 18.....................................................1..... 111 15....1 General .........3 Taxiing with one engine .................................................................. 120 18..........................................3..... 118 17......................... 106 15........................................................................................................................................................... 105 15............... 104 15...3 Radio Position.......1.............................................................1.................................................................4 Presentation of the MEL......... 113 16......................................................................................1 General ....................3 Brakes hot (ECAM warning) ................4 Section 02 Operational Procedure................................................6................................................................................................. 102 15................................................... 100 15 RNAV ......................... 120 18..............2 Dispatch requirements ......1 Mix IRS Position...................3 With GPS PRIMARY.5................................................................................................ 103 15......1 Taxiing.........................................................................3 Runway Visual Range............... 120 18.................................................................................................2 Alert Height ...................3 Approach monitoring.2 Procedures............................................6................1................................................................. 114 16.. 102 15........ 121 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25....................................1 General .....................................................................................2 Brakes ............................................................................4.....................................................................................................2 Brake temperature limitations requiring maintenance action ...... 100 14....................................................2 Flight crew Procedures ...1 General .7........1 Coding requirements... 104 15.........................04..................................................................................................5 Evaluation of position accuracy ........ 101 15........2 Without GPS PRIMARY........................................4 Fail passive automatic landing system ............. 115 Taxiing and braking .. 104 15................................ 107 15...............2 GPS Position...........................................2 180° turn on the runway...............................................................4 Taxiing in icing conditions ................... 121 18............ 118 17.............................................................................................................................................................................4 General recommendations ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 116 17......2.................................................................................................................. 118 17..1.................................................................................6................ 105 15....................08 16 17 18 Instr.............2.........3.............................................. 101 15........... 119 CAT II...................................................................................................................................................... 108 15................................

.........................................4.. 126 18....... 134 18.......................................... 149 20....A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Page 9 of 171 18...2 Alert height concept ..............10.................................... 123 18............................................................................... 133 18.......................................................................................................2 19.........6 Threshold Lights .........................................................................4................................................................................2 Crew procedures ........................1 Low Visibility Procedure for Cat II/III landing ................13 Approach Light System..10 Taxiway Edge Lights........1 Dispatch requirements ................................4.3.............................4 Landing field length requirements.............. 125 18........................................................................................................................7.........................3 Visual Segments ...........11 Taxiway Centerline Lights.............................................................................................................................................................2 Runway Width................ 144 20......................... 141 Ground Facilities Requirement for Take Off ...4.........12 Type and command experience......................... 149 20................................................................................................ 126 18............... 133 18...............5 Example ...........................................4 Visual Aids-Runway Lights ..........................4................................................................................. 124 18...............10..............8.................. 139 18....................... 131 18...... 125 18........... 126 18....................... 122 18..........................2 Commencement and Continuation of Approach (Approach Ban) ............................................................04...................1............................... 143 20.............3................. 135 18.............. 126 18...........................................................4...............................................8 Runway Centerline Lights .............................................4.......... 142 20 Performance ........2 Actual landing field length requirements (in-flight calculation) .........................................................................9 Touchdown Zone Lights ..............................................................................2 Take off performance considerations .2....................2 Abnormal Procedures ............................................12 Stop Bars ........... 138 18.....................................................1 Ground Speed Mini Function .......................... 145 20...................................................................................................................8...........7................................................................................................. 143 20.....................................................................4................................................................................ 143 20........1 Runway Length ...................... 125 18...... 126 18................................................................................................ 125 18..........................................6 Approach preparation .....................................................4......................................3 Terminology ................................................1 CAT II ............................4 Runway characteristics ........................................................................... 125 18...10................................................. 125 18................................................... 147 20..................................... 141 Take Off Minima............................3 Runway Slope.................................................................3 Summary Limitations ......................................1......... 125 18...4.......................................................................1 19..5 List of required equipment ..............................................11 Training and Qualifications ...........................................................................................................................................................1 Speed mode in approach phase..... 150 Instr.......................................3 Summary....... 139 18....5 Runway Edge Lights ..................................................................3 Wind altitude trade for constant specific range. 135 18........................... 140 19 Low 19.................... 125 18............................4............................................................................................................................................... 148 20............. 149 20....... 139 18............4.............. 141 General ....................................................................................... 123 18....................................................7 Landing .........2 Ground speed mini function principle ...........................4........1...........................................................................7 Runway End Lights .................10 Autoland in CAT I or better weather conditions ........................08 .................. 139 18............1 Airports requirements ...............1....................................4...............................................................9 Effect on Landing Minima of temporarily failed or downgraded Equipment ............................. 133 18........................................................................................................................... 139 18............ 143 20......................3 visibility Takeoff ..................8 Failures and associated actions............................................................................................ 132 18.......................2 CAT III .............................4 Speed Computation ..............3 Limitations...................................4............................... 144 20.............................................1 General ..................4....... 126 18........................ 136 18.............7..GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.............................1..............................................

................................1...........1 General .................................................3 Before Take Off..................................................10 Fuel ......................................................................................................................................................1................... 160 21................. 165 Abreviations.................................. 151 21.............................2 Taxi ..... 165 21..................1...............................................................7 Use of autopilot ......................... 151 21.. 162 21.. landing and roll out ......2...1...................................2...................................................................................... 167 22 Instr.....11 Leaving Aircraft ........................................12 Break.......................................................3 Opearting temperatures ...........2.........................................1.......................... 153 21............2....................................................................11 Hydraulic .........................................2...................................................... 158 21....6 Speeds .................................... 163 21....................9 After Landing..........................2....................................................................1.......................................................1.............. 161 21................................. 162 21......1.................................................................................................1.................1 Cockpit Preparation ................................................1.................2 Flight instrument tolerances................. 152 21...........................7 Approach..............................4 Cabin pressure...... 155 21....................................................14 Electrical .......................9 Weather........... 152 21...2.............................5 After Take Off / Climb ........................................................................................................... gear.......................... 161 21................................................. 157 21............16 Engine......... 156 21...................................... 156 21..........A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Page 10 of 171 21 Limitations ..........................................................................................................1 Technical limitations...............04..........................13 Oxygen.............. 164 21......................8 Automatic approach..........................2..................................... 164 21. 160 21...5 Structural weight limits ...........................2............................................................. 151 21............................................................ 163 21.............................................................................................................................. 151 21..................................................................................................................................................................1.....................................2..................1................................ flight controls ....1............................................................................................ 155 21.......................................... 152 21............................GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.....................................................08 .............................................................2......................1......................................................1...........................6 Cruise...............................................................1.......................................10 Parking...........................................................................15 APU............................4 Take Off ...............8 Landing ...........................2 Operational Limitations ........... 156 21.............................................................. 153 21...................... 158 21............... 153 21..............................

“ ”Good judgment comes from experience.” “Always remember you fly an aeroplane with your head. experience usually comes from bad judgment. in a very narrow field. not your hands. 1885-1962 “You start with a bag full of luck and an empty bag of experience. Unfortunately.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. The trick is to fill the bag of experience before you empty the bag of luck.” “Try to learn from the mistakes of others.1 General Principles Becoming an expert in Aviation “An expert is a man who has made all the mistakes.04. which can be made.” Instr.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY General Principles Page : 11 of 171 1 1.” Niels Bohr. You won't live long enough to make all of them yourself. Physicist.08 .

must operate according to procedures and can opt to use whichever technique he believes leads to the best outcome based on his personal preference. A crew shall not begin a flight unless the conditions are satisfied. FCOM etc.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY General Principles Page : 12 of 171 1. Instr. The required weather minima according to OM(A) must be fulfilled for departure. and then reduce the thrust to idle.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. crew shall not omit or modify any part of a checklist (except during emergencies when the commander deems it necessary).2 Procedures and Techniques During the supervision phase. A trainee on the other hand. but may only offer techniques as advice. different pilots have different techniques to accomplish this briefing and opt to put different emphasis on different parts of it. instructors will be speaking of procedures and techniques. and must be adhered to stringently. Other pilots prefer to set a lower N1 and keep it on for the duration of the taxi. Examples of procedure: • • All check-list work is procedure. destination and alternate airports. However. Obviously. Techniques are methods of operation available to the crews that can be used in areas where procedures are not defined. Procedures contained therein are not modifiable or negotiable by crews. For example: some pilots prefer to keep the thrust on during a certain portion of the flare. some pilots prefer to set a higher thrust setting to get the aircraft moving. Because the exact thrust settings are not defined in the FCOM for taxi (except for maximum N1: 40%) these two ways of taxiing are two different techniques. Because there is no procedure that defines the flare and touch-down (when to pull the side-stick exactly how much. These two terms are fundamentally different and must be understood by both instructors and trainees: Procedures are dictated by the company and the manufacturer in the form of documented material: OM(A). • • An instructor must force a trainee to operate according to procedures. Again. Examples of techniques: • When beginning to taxi..08 . while others reduce it.04. it is most useful to the trainee if the instructors also taught similar techniques. when to reduce the thrust by how much) the landing is taught to trainees as a technique. the procedures do not state how the briefing should be accomplished. The procedures state that a pre-departure and approach briefing shall be conducted by the crews and also dictate what should be covered in the briefing.

08 SOP (Normal Operation) OM(A) ECAM QRH FCOM OEB . the crew must all times: • • 1. Emergency Operations: The safety of the aircraft. the situation may deteriorate from normal to abnormal and then to an emergency scenario. The tools they have at their disposal are as follows: • • • • • • .1 Systematic method of operation Introduction Page : 13 of 171 The nature of the crew’s work on the aircraft can be subdivided into three specific areas: Normal Operations: The status of the aircraft. In another case. crew or passengers are exposed to immediate risk or danger. and passengers allow operations that do not deviate from normal check-lists or procedures.1. After the crew-action for the EGPWS warning and no further risk is obvious.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY General Principles 1. PULL UP”) immediately transfers the crew from normal operations to emergency operations. Corrective by the crew is required without delay to avert further serious degradation of the situation.1 Know in which area they are operating (normal. the health of crew or passengers are degraded and mandate heightened alert by the crew. and Work systematically with the available tools (ECAM. abnormal. the passengers. the crew may elect to assume normal operations.04. deviation from these procedures are not permitted.3. Normal Situation Abnormal Situation Emergency Situation The diagram above is a simplified representation illustrating the possible transitions from one operation to another. aircraft and crew are NOT exposed to immediate risks or dangers. emergency).3. Instr. For example. QRH etc. Abnormal Operations: The status of the aircraft. However the situation develops.) Normal operation During normal operations the crew is bound to perform their duties according to normal procedures and check-lists. crew. Reference to abnormal check-lists or procedures are required to correct the situation.3 1. During abnormal operations. an EGPWS warning (“PULL UP.

Note that during emergency operations deviations therein are possible: • • • • • • SOP (deviations possible) OM(A) (e. CMD may decide to deviate from published CB resetting procedures) OEB Instr. MAYDAY. The crew should not deviate from these procedures. MAYDAY“ will advise ATC and aircraft in the vicinity that the flight is in imminent danger and is in need of assistance. The tools the crew have at their disposal is as follows: • • • • • • SOP .08 .2 Abnormal operation Page : 14 of 171 This situation warrants the execution of abnormal check-lists and procedures as written in company documents.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY General Principles 1.g. the CMD may opt not to finish the ECAM procedure) QRH (e. PAN“ will advise ATC and aircraft in the vicinity that the crew is experiencing an abnormal situation but is not in imminent danger.3 Emergency operation During Emergency operations the Commander has authority to deviate from published procedures and check-lists ONLY if it is necessary to maintain safe conduct of flight.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.g.(Normal and Abnormal Operation) OM(A) ECAM Procedures (must be completed as stipulated in the FCOM) QRH FCOM OEB As is the case in normal operations. The ATC call “PAN. stabilized approach criteria may not be fulfilled) ECAM (e.3. CMD may elect to disregard landing distance corrections) FCOM (e. This course of action should only be considered if the published procedures are likely to lead to an unsatisfactory result. The ATC call “MAYDAY.1.1.3. 1.g.04. The tools at the disposal of the crew are lilted below.g. PAN. the crew is required to follow instructions published in this material.

to conduct a departure briefing etc. The advantage is that items are less likely to be overlooked.16 DESCENT) – the packet in this case serves us as clear reminder at FL100 to ensure that we actually performed the necessary tasks.3. some of these items are included in the Standard Operating Procedures (as listed in the FCOM 3.2 Working with packets During flight-operations.04. 1.). delayed unnecessarily or forgotten. At Air Berlin regular use of these packets are taught during training.3. Below is a suggestion of packets that have proved to be useful in our operation and helps increase the reliability of our actions in during these various phases.Take off.g.08 .g. during descent the crew must ensure that several actions are completed before commencing the approach (e.2. activate approach phase. reaching cruise altitude. passing FL100 in climb or descent.3. which is part of good airmanship. the packet also ensures that we have set an appropriate setting on the EFIS Control Panel and VHF 2. For example.3.5 MHz Check EWD Some of these items are included as part of the “AFTER TAKE-OFF / CLIMB CHECKLIST” (FCOM 3.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY General Principles Page : 15 of 171 1. switch on exterior lights. It is a useful technique to “link” these actions with a certain event or altitude and systematically perform the required actions in one flow or “packet”.).13). check navigational accuracy etc. Descent The FL100 Packet during descent is a good time to visit the following items in order to make sure that they are in a suitable state: • • • • • • Exterior Lights: EFIS Control Panel: LS Presentation: LS Identification: Nav accuracy: PERF Page: Switch on Landing lights Select Constraints Push LS PB Ident ILS VOR etc. Instr. However. Check GPS Primary Activate Approach Phase Again.& Turnoff lights Select Airports Copy active F-PLN Clear all remotely tuned Navigation aids Set to 121.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.1 FL 100 Packet Climb The FL100 Packet during climb is a suitable time to visit the following items to ensure that they are in the appropriate state: • • • • • • Exterior Lights: EFIS Control Panel: SEC F-PLN page: RAD NAV page: VHF 2: EWD: Switch off Landing. Such a packet may be used in any situation the pilot deems useful (e. and here we ensure that they are set accordingly. there are many actions that must be fulfilled by the crew by a particular point in time.

2. By simply going through the flow during the departure and approach briefing together. crosscheck with charts.3.04. During departure or approach preparation for example. Below is an example of how this camel-back can be used: Key F-PLN RAD NAV PROG PERF FUEL PRED SEC F-PLN Dep. cross-check with charts Set up manually tuned Nav Aids (mostly used for engine out departure route) Check navigational accuracy (must be HIGH so FMS can be used for navigation) Ensure all performance data has been inserted for the correct runway Review fuel data to ensure it corresponds to the planned fuel on the OFP. Set up manually tuned Nav Aids to correspond with required Nav aids for approach Check navigational accuracy (must be HIGH so FMS can be used for navigation) Ensure all performance data has been inserted for the correct runway Review data for awareness (how much holding time is possible. However. the crew will want to review the most important pages and information without visiting every page on the MCDU. what if a G/A has to be flown etc. constraints. It is usually the Pilot Flying that conducts the briefing and it is considered good airmanship if all the data is entered before the briefing is started. in case of circling) Instr. App.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. once the programming has been complete. constraints.08 . (Extra Fuel is presented on INIT-B Page) Program of emergency return runway.) Programming of another runway (e. Briefing Review arrival. MCDU programming is an essential part of the process.g. Briefing Review departure.2 Camel-back packet The MCDU allows the crew access to many pages where data can be stored and from which much information can be extracted.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY General Principles Page : 16 of 171 1. the crew will automatically visit the most pertinent pages.

2 According to Air Berlin SOP with Autopilot On. All deviations from the expected have to be called out and corrective actions.08 . shall be initiated immediately. PNF checks new altitude (this is performed silently) Be aware that Airbus clearly states that IF ANY DOUBT EXISTS that a crew-member has received information that he MUST be informed: FCOM 3. speed.1 Cross-Cockpit Communication General It is important that both pilots aim to be fully conversant with the operational status of the aeroplane at any time. speed-brake.04. The following illustration always applies: 1. PF executes an action 2. Clear and precise work distribution with clearly defined tasks: this ensures the best and most efficient use of all resources.3. thrust and FMA mode changes without physically or verbally signalling these to the PNF (e.FCOM 3. he must advise the other crew member and get an acknowledgement if it is not obvious.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. Expected automatic switching / mode changes must be checked on the FMA by both pilots. Closed Loop 1. Silent Cockpit is the means within normal operation.4. Instr. PNF checks the action Example with AP engaged: 1.1: Cross-cockpit communication is VITAL for any two-pilot crew. ACTION PERFORMED BY PF WITH AP ON . The danger of misunderstanding is reduced or eliminated. if necessary.4.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY General Principles Page : 17 of 171 1. the PF may make attitude. Each crew member can concentrate on her/his assigned tasks. but any unclear action or situation must be clarified by acknowledgement to assure all crew-members reflect the same knowledge. PF selects new altitude (this is performed silently) 2. The PNF must follow and check the changes made but is not expected to confirm the changes.90). Any time a crew member makes any adjustment or change to any relevant information or equipment on the flight-deck. that the other crew-member has received and understood the information. • • Clear and precise call outs: this ensures short and precise communication in the cockpit.4 1.g.3.

thrust.10) Fly: • • • • • • At vrot rotate to 12.04. know how to get there….Navigate.5 Fly . Communicate The successful crew will always clearly understand the priorities when it comes to flying: First: Control the aircraft’s attitude.Communicate. Please note however. during normal. that the same principle applies at all times. speed and configuration….A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Version : 1.. gear up Cancel warning Trim the aircraft Consider TOGA thrust Engage any autopilot Navigate: • Pull HDG and fly the engine failure climb out procedure Communicate: • Communicate the intentions to ATC Once the crew has clear command of the aircraft trajectory. OEB.GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 25. know where you want to go. FCOM The situation described above represents an abnormal condition.0 General Principles Page : 18 of 171 1. Second: Know where you are.2. is on a verifiable vertical and lateral path and has informed ATC.. the checklist work may begin: • • Start ECAM action Consult QRH.08 . Navigate. abnormal and emergency situation Instr. Third: Make sure you can send and receive clear and reliable information….in other words Fly.5° pitch up Positive rate. Example: Take-Off with engine failure after v1 (Source: FCOM 3. altitude.

fuel planning instructions. In order to do so he should perform the following tasks: • • • Check SWC and Upper Wind & Temperature chart. making an effort to ensure complete crosschecking.8.1 Pre-flight planning work distribution After a short analysis of the weather conditions.2.2.1.5. He shall also intervene as appropriate while considering safety and the strength of the team.2.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.4 page 23) Check NOTAMS for o departure aerodrome o destination aerodrome o destination alternate aerodrome(s) (consider to check more than one alternate aerodrome(s)) o T/O alternate aerodrome if applicable o En route alternate aerodrome Check OFP for o Check header (Date. flight number and aircraft registration) o Check calculated wind component o Check legal fuel calculation according Air Berlin OM-A 8.04.page 24) o perform the operational fuel calculation • The PNF should closely follow the pre-flight planning. METAR and particular weather information (for interpretation of meteorological information see chapter 2. o Check if profit tankering is recommended (see also chapter 2. the flight crew decides on the assignment of the sectors It is recommended that the PF leads the pre-flight planning.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Fuel planning Page : 19 of 171 2 Fuel planning 2. o check date and validity of all charts o estimate an average wind component along the route Check TAF. Instr.08 .

Type of approach CAT II / III CAT I NPA Circling Planning minimum CAT I minima (Note 1) Non-precision approach minimum (Notes 1 & 2) Non-precision approach minimum (Notes 1 & 2) plus 200 ft / 1000 m Circling minimum Note 1: RVR Note 2: The ceiling must be at or above the MDH. 3% ERA aerodrome.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.2. indicate that.1.2 Legal requirements The crew always should first check the legal requirements stated on the OFP. indicate that during a period commencing one hour before and ending one hour after the estimated time of arrival.4.08 . or any combination thereof.2. 2. 3% ERA Aerodromes. the weather conditions will be at or above the applicable planning minima as follows: • • RVR / visibility must be above the specified Minimum. the weather conditions will be at or above the planning minima in the Table below.13) 2. Two destination alternates must be selected when: • the appropriate weather reports or forecasts for the destination. 2.2 Alternate Planning (Source: Airberlin OM-A 8. when the appropriate weather reports or forecasts. during a period commencing one hour before and ending one hour after the estimated time of arrival at the aerodrome. the ceiling must be at or above MDH. Instr. indicate that. Isolated Aerodromes and Enroute Alternate Aerodromes An aerodrome as destination alternate aerodrome.2.1 Planning minima for a destination aerodrome Destination aerodromes must only be selected.04.4.2. during a period commencing one hour before and ending one hour after the estimated time of arrival at the aerodrome. For a Non-precision approach or a Circling approach.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Fuel planning Page : 20 of 171 2.2.1 Planning minima for Destination Alternate Aerodromes. the weather conditions will be below the applicable planning minima (as prescribed above) or • no meteorological information is available.1 Planning minima for destination aerodromes and alternate aerodromes (Source: Airberlin OM-A 8. isolated aerodrome or enroute alternate aerodrome must only be selected when the appropriate weather reports or forecasts. or any combination thereof.12) 2. or any combination thereof.

The destination aerodrome is isolated. For two engined aeroplanes the take-off alternate aerodrome shall be located within.2.13) A take-off alternate aerodrome must be selected if it would not be possible to return to the departure aerodrome for meteorological or performance reasons. An aerodrome must only be selected as a take-off alternate aerodrome.4.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Fuel planning Page : 21 of 171 2. when the appropriate weather reports or forecasts or any combination thereof indicate that. or if the FCOM does not contain a one engine-inoperative cruising speed.2.3 Take off alternate aerodromes (Source: Airberlin OM-A 8. • Note: All required alternate aerodrome(s) must be specified in the operational flight plan. The duration of the planned flight from take-off to landing or. during a period commencing one hour before and ending one hour after the estimated time of arrival at the aerodrome. the speed to be used for calculation must be that which is achieved with the remaining engine(s) set at maximum continuous thrust (MCT). indicate that for the period from one hour before until one hour after the expected time of arrival at the destination aerodrome.2 Destination Alternate Aerodromes (Source: Airberlin OM-A 8. the weather conditions will be at or above the applicable landing minima specified on the applicable approach charts Instr. or any combination thereof. or any combination thereof.04. the ceiling will be at least 2 000 ft or circling height + 500 ft.2. whichever is greater. indicate that during a period commencing one hour before and ending one hour after the estimated time of arrival. in the event of in-flight replanning.2. 2. or • Two destination alternate aerodromes must be selected when: • The appropriate weather reports or forecasts for the destination aerodrome.. or No meteorological information is available.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. the weather conditions will be below the applicable planning. either: • • One hour flight time at a one engine-inoperative cruising speed according to the FCOM in still air standard conditions based on the actual take-off mass.4. and the visibility will be at least 5 km.13) At least one destination alternate must be selected for each IFR flight unless: • and • Two separate runways are available and usable at the destination aerodrome and the appropriate weather reports or forecasts for the destination aerodrome.08 . the remaining flying time to destination does not exceed six hours.

0 1.5 1. Category II or III minima when a reported RVR is available.3 Conversion of Reported Meteorological Visibility to RVR (Source: Airberlin OM-A 8. 2.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.2. for CAT I and non precision approaches visibility must be converted to RVR as shown below.08 . Instr.0 NIGHT 2. Any limitation related to one engine inoperative operations must be taken into account.6) If only meteorological visibility is reported.04.0 1.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Fuel planning Page : 22 of 171 • • The ceiling must be taken into account when the only approaches available are nonprecision and/or circling approaches.5 Not applicable Note: If is not allowed to convert a meteorological visibility to RVR in following cases: • • • for calculating Take-Off minima. Lighting Element in Operation HI approach and runway lighting any type of lighting installation other than above no lighting Visibility x Factor = RVR DAY 1.

. May be disregarded May be disregarded Shall be fully applied if weather deteriorates below applicable planning minimum. Instr. The steady (mean) wind should be used and the gusts may be disregarded whenever a forecast contains meteorological conditions indicating “below minimum” at ETA ±1hr. HZ FG SS Ldg minima: Mean wind: Gusts: Improvement: Should be disregarded PROB TEMPO In any case Should be disregarded Note: whenever a forecast contains meteorological conditions indicating “below minimum” at ETA which are prefixed by BECMG or TEMPO. which are prefixed by: Kind of change Deterioration: Applicable from the time of start of the change. Improvement: Applicable from the time of end of the change Ldg minima: Shall be fully applied if weather deteriorates below applicable planning minimum.7.TL PROB 30 PROB 40 Mean wind: Gusts: Deterioration: Persistent conditions e. Must be within limits May be disregarded Application of aerodrome forecast Indicator BECMG FM Mean wind: Gusts: Ldg minima: Deterioration: Transient / showery conditions e..4) For planning purposes an aerodrome shall be considered to be below minimum if • • • • the RVR or visibility is below the applicable minimum (precision approaches) the ceiling or vertical visibility is below the applicable planning minima (non precision approaches) the steady crosswind component exceeds the prescribed limitation for the A320.04. Must be within limits May be disregarded TEMPO TEMPO FM TEMPO TL TEMPO FM.g.g.1.08 .A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Fuel planning Page : 23 of 171 2.2.4 Interpretation of given meteorological information (Source: Airberlin OM-A 8. the airport shall be considered below minimum.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. for alternate selection only PROB 40% and higher are considered in the selection. TS SH May be considered to be above minimum if weather deteriorates below applicable planning minimum.

This has the effect of agitating the fuel in the wing tanks.04. but if overnight frost or freezing conditions are anticipated consideration should be given to the likely effect that precipitation or high relative humidity would have upon cold wings.2. only part of the tankered fuel recommended on the OFP should be uplifted.5 Profit tankering (Source: Airberlin OM-A 8. The commercial decision to tanker fuel will be made automatically on the OFP.08 . melting small accumulations of ice.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. On sectors of 1 hour 15 min or more. This Information is given on the dispatch remarks section (next Leg Info) or as maximum remaining fuel. January and February in Europe. and preventing the further formation of ice during the turn round. in particular December. wing icing may form in the vicinity of the fuel tanks.8. This will require a further uplift of “warm” fuel at destination. when the temperature at the destination airport is below +10deg C with high relative humidity. Profit tankering should not be applied if: • When icing conditions at destination aerodrome is expected.1. • Instr. during the winter months. With no Information shown on the OFP is tankering not recommended even there is a low amount of profit.2) It may be commercially expedient to tanker fuel to a destination where fuel prices are high or where there are fuel shortages. Fuel may be tankered on night stopping aircraft. On short haul flights only.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Fuel planning Page : 24 of 171 2. or when the in flight fuel temperature may fall below freezing.

Often. the crew will find that it makes sense to take along more fuel to cover for eventualities. (NUE forecasts up to 30kt Wind in RWY axis) Following planning is reasonable: Since the crew does not want to land exactly with final reserve at NUE some extra fuel should be planned at arrival at NUE Landing in NUE with final reserve and 800kg extra for a Go Around: Diversion Fuel calculated by Traffic Centre Re clearance to NUE Two go arounds at ZRH Trip fuel to ZRH Total 2 t 1. If the Crew has to expect bad weather conditions which make a diversion more likely always plan with the worst case. Always select an alternate with reasonable weather conditions which gives the crew a very good chance for a landing.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Fuel planning Page : 25 of 171 2. If the alternates stated on the OFP does not have satisfactory weather conditions.GuideA320 . Example: PMI-ZRH The forecasted weather conditions in ZRH (winds up to 55kt with a remarkable x-wind component) make a diversion more likely. Make a tactical fuel planning considering two go arounds at the destination aerodrome plus the diversion fuel plus some extra fuel at the alternate aerodrome.1 Tactical aspects General The crew should verify that the legal fuel requirement stated on the OFP also makes sense from a practical standpoint. Every fuel calculation should be made carefully and in respect of conditions as expected. Always plan tactically with the worst case backwards from destination alternate aerodrome over the destination aerodrome back to the departure aerodrome.3 2. call Traffic Centre and calculate a new destination alternate. The alternate aerodromes BSL STR and GVA have the same weather forecasts. if the crew is aware that the destination traffic volume is significant.04. If the selection of the OFP does not satisfy the crew. BGY and MXP as they are south of the Alps are much better (wind calm). Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.5t 0. After a conversation with the traffic centre the decision is taken in case of diversion to fly to NUE. look for other alternates and call Traffic Centre.3. some fuel for holding could be considered.08 Instr.5 t 2 t 4 t 10 t As soon as the crew starts to plan tactically backwards with the worst case scenario the amount of extra fuel increases dramatically!! To summarise the facts stated above the following tactic should be considered in bad weather conditions: • • Always plan with a reasonable alternate. Also consider a return to the destination aerodrome.g. If the Crew has to expect bad weather conditions which make a diversion more likely (e. For example. It is discouraged to simply carry along a standard amount of extra fuel as routine. strong xwind conditions) always consider different alternate aerodromes.

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Fuel planning

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2.3.2

HILDAW

HILDAW is an acronym used to assist the crew during the pre-flight planning fuel calculation. It is used as a trip fuel correction that covers factors that are not necessarily covered in the OFP and should be added to the minimum block fuel.

H

High Speed Cruise

Used to compensate for increased fuel consumption when cruising with HSC. (Approx 5% increased fuel consumption)

I

Icing Conditions

Used to compensate for increased fuel consumption due to icing conditions when airborne. Approx 5% increased fuel consumption below FL 200 Approx 2% increased fuel consumption above FL 200

L

Low Level Cruise

Used to compensate for increased fuel consumption when cruising at a lower level than the planned FL. This will be the case, when selecting a lower level due to anticipated conditions, which might hamper the climb to the planed FL (e.g. CAT, ATC constraints, etc). For correction values refer to the OFP

D

Departure

In this regard, the departure phase begins at chocks-off and finishes at the end of the SID. Therefore, this item shall be used to correct for anticipated traffic situation, runway in use and/or ground de-icing (augmented taxi fuel), or to compensate for increased fuel burn, whenever the expected / actual SID is other than the one depicted by the OFP

A

Arrival

Used to compensate for increased fuel burn whenever additional track miles are expected during the approach, e.g. longer arrival due to a different runway or long radar vectors in PMI runway 06L Weight Any fuel that is tanked above the amount stated in the OFP (minimum take-off) will signify an increased take-off weight, as will a higher ZFW. This causes a higher fuel consumption. The increased fuel consumption should be considered, especially on long flights. Finally, after the fuel calculation, ensure that MRW, MTOW and MLW are not exceeded.

W

Instr.GuideA320

Revision: 4

Effective Date: 25.04.08

A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY

Fuel planning

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Example: The below gives a brief example regarding HILDAW and how it can be applied to fuel planning.This method is not mandatory in nature. However, it provides a speedy, practical way of determining a fuel quantity which takes into account the flight-crew´s anticipations (which the OFP does not!). After check-in, you having gone over the weather and NOTAMS, it is time to do a fuel plan with the OFP. You have observed the following during the planning: • • • • • • minimum block fuel on the OFP: 6.0t trip fuel 3.5t The aircraft (A320) Zero Fuel Weight: 60.0t It is snowing outside and it is likely that deicing is required. The potential taxi-time is therefore significantly increased – you expect to taxi 30 minutes more than planned. The SWC shows turbulence at your flight-level and your collegue suggests that you could fly lower to provide the passengers with a more comfortable ride. At the destination airport the TAF states that there is the possibility of heavy thunderstorms.

The OFP does not cover all the above factors so you you must determine a fuel quantity that covers the operational factors. This is where HILDAW comes in as a useful tool – it will determine how much fuel you should take along in addition to the block fuel stated on the OFP. H I L D A W = 0.0t 0.5t 0.2t 0.0t 0.8t 0.1t 1.6t (you decide not to fly high speed as the time gain would be insignificant) (30 minutes taxi time due to de-icing + icing during climb-out) (your decide to fly 2 FL below and consult the OFP for the required fuel). (departure on the OFP corresponds to the actual departure ) (holding fuel for 45’ minutes is necessary due to the thunderstorms) (the OFP shows burn of +0.1t more due to the extra fuel you will tank) (you will take along this in addition to the minimum block fuel on the OFP)

The total block fuel you will tank is therefore: + = 6.0t 1.6t 7.6t (minimum legal block fuel on OFP) (fuel determined by you in addition to OFP) (total actual minimum block fuel required by crew)

The last step is to ensure that none of the aircraft structural weights are exceeded: + = = 60.0t 7.6t 67.6t 0.5t 67.1t 3.5t Zefro Fuel Wieght Block Fuel Ramp Weight Taxi Fuel Take Off Weight Trip Fuel

=

63.6

Landing Weight

(does not exceed Max Ramp Weight) (approximate the taxi-fuel you expect) (does not exceed Max Take-Off Weight) (approximate to the lowest trip fuel you expect [without holding, adjustment for level etc.] because you want to know if you exceed the Maximum Landing Weight if all factors result in your favour – i.e. most fuel on-board). (does not exceed Max Landing Weight)

Finally: This planning tool is especially useful when the operation becomes complex due to the combination of several factors (maximum weights, complex weather situations, arrival delays, winter-ops etc.) as it provides the crew with a systematic approach to a potential problem.

Instr.GuideA320

Revision: 4

Effective Date: 25.04.08

A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY

Briefings

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3
3.1

Briefings
RNAV - and conventional waypoints Structure

3.1.1

To verify all waypoints in the FMGS properly against the EAG charts use following structure: The table below shows examples of waypoints FMGS DL239 LSZ03 EAG charts DL239 KLO – Radial 275 – 2.3DME

RNAV waypoint Conventional waypoint

Obviously RNAV waypoints are easy to crosscheck against the Charts. To verify a conventional waypoint is more difficult. The coding in the FMGS is not always obvious. Check track and radials directly in the MCDU. Distances can be verified on the ND in PLAN MODE. Sometimes the coding of the waypoint also allows proper verification. (See chapter 3.1.2 Coding of NavDataBase (NDB) 3.1.2 Coding of NavDataBase (NDB)

(Source: EAG, ERM, Legends, chapter 14) The NavDataBase delivered by EAG is coded according to an international convention called ARINC 424. This convention should not be confused with the charting convention on which the 3.1.2.1 • Definitions Final Approach Course Fix (FACF) A fix immediately prior to the Final Approach Fix, with an assigned altitude, usually between one to four miles before the FAF and generally in line with the final approach course. • Final Approach Fix (FAF) A published fix on the final approach with an assigned altitude, usually about four miles from the runway or Missed Approach Point, and usually indicated by a star symbol on the approach. The term FAF is used in ARINC 424, for all Final Approach Fixes, also for ILS or other precision approaches. This may be confusing, since EAG flight documentation (SID, IAL etc.) based on country AIPs, defines FAF otherwise. • Step Down Fix (SD) A published fix on the final approach with an indicated minimum crossing altitude.

Instr.GuideA320

Revision: 4

Effective Date: 25.04.08

g: 52DME. DME03 • Missed Approach Point (MAP) identifier For un-named fixes the letters “MA” are used. L or B.2. E. and finally followed by A-Z representing 1 NM to 26 NM (A=1. CDG48. CN01R • FAF identifier For un-named fixes the letter “F” is used. If duplication occours.g: FI26. THR (distance to runway threshold) or LOC.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Briefings 3. Q or U. CD38A Instr. FN01R • Step Down Fix identifier DME or other distances are coded after a three-letter code for whole miles. followed by route type identifier and runway identifier. the letter “M” is used followed by the route type identifier (see above) and finally the runway number. while an NDB approach is indicated by the route identifier N. FV22. or before the code for decimals of miles. CQ32.1. and Z=26). E. followed by mileage.08 .2 Terminal Waypoint Coding Page : 29 of 171 The following summarizes the most common terminal waypoints that have to be assigned codes by the database coder according to the Naming Conventions: • FACF identifier For un-named fixes the letter “C” is used. The route type identifier can be any of several letters.. and generally indicates the type of navaid used for the approach. Codes are DME. B=2. Otherwise the convention for navaid based fixes uses the letter “D” followed by the bearing from the navaid.g: LON28. C=3 etc. the navaid identifier is used. Duplications are identified by adding the suffix “A”. E.04.g: CI26. FD27L. an ILS is indicated by the route identifier I. For example. MD09 • Other Terminal Waypoints The published name should always be used if one exists. E. CL27L. followed by route type identifier (see explanation above) and runway identifier. E.g: D150J For distances greater than 26 NM. “B” etc. E. MN09. and shortening the navaid identifier to two characters.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.g: MA27L.

2 Self programmed waypoints Page : 30 of 171 To programme for example an EOSID in the secondary flightplan following Format is to be used: 3. Bearing. Waypoint Bearing Distance Place The Format to programme such a point is Place/Bearing/Distance. Example EOSID RWY 28 in ZRH: climb on track 275 KLO to 2.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. KLO Instr.3 Bearing = 275 PBD01 Distance = 2. Distance Often a waypoint is defined with a track and distance from a Navigation-aid.PBD02 etc.08 . In the FMS the waypoints are shown as PBD01.04. The first point is programmed as follows: KLO/275/2.3 NM In the FMS the waypoint is shown as PBD01.3 DME then turn left to intercept the Radial 255 KLO.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Briefings 3.1 Place.2.

04. Instr.1 above.2 Place – Bearing.2. Place – Bearing Page : 31 of 171 To programme an intercept point the formate Place – Bearing. PBD01 Bearing = 225 Bearing = 275 KLO Distance = 2.08 . The second point is programmed as follows: PBD01-225/KLO-255 Notes: • • PBD01 is the turning point as programmed in chapter 3. Waypoint Bearing Bearing Place Place Example EOSID RWY 28 in ZRH: climb on track 275 KLO to 2.2.3 DME then turn left to intercept the Radial 255 KLO. To intercept the Radial 255 an intercept heading of 225 (30°-Interception) is used.PBX02 etc.3 NM Bearing = 255 PBX01 In the FMS the waypoint is shown as PBX01.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Briefings 3. Place – Bearing is used.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. In the FMS the waypoints are shown as PBX01.

breaking coefficient) Known or expected technical and operational particularities of the respective departure (e. (Speeds. trim. acceleration altitudes.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Briefings Page : 32 of 171 3. before each take-off. take off alternate) Action taken in case of major malfunctions after V1 Flight path in case of abnormal and emergency conditions during take-off and initial climb.08 . especially addressing One Engine Inoperative (OEI) situations and respective FMGS and FCU settings. The PF will inform the PNF about it as follows: • • • • A general assessment of the actual meteorological and operational conditions (e. 3.3 General Briefing Before the first flight of the day and before initiating the checklists. a “general briefing” should be performed.g. before each take-off. constraints. The main purpose of the latter is to inform both pilots of the status of the aircraft and to refresh the on ground emergency procedures.) on the MCDU and on the ND in PLAN mode. The Commander informs the First Officer about: • • • Status of the aircraft and crew (e.g.04.4 Departure Briefing The Departure Briefing should.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. transition altitude. The PF will inform the PNF about it as follows: • Review the expected departure (charts. use of weather radar and TERR and any specials on the EAG chart. hold item list. LSZH14) Check GPS PRIMARY and NAV ACCURACY HIGH. CAT I/II/III capabilities) Emergency handling before V1 (task sharing.g.5 Take off Briefing The “take-off-briefing” should. runway length vs. FMGS and FCU settings) It is recommended to review the following pages in the FMGS: o F-PLN: x-check all relevant data of the SID (waypoints. flex. callouts and priorities) Emergency evacuation handling and task sharing 3. o RAD NAV: consider to manually tune Navigation aids (VOR or NDB) o PROG: consider to set a point for a quick return to the field. departure frequency. initial climb altitude. o PERF: Check all relevant data. o Brief MSA. address the procedures intended to be applied when in normal conditions. (e. Instr. etc. runway) o FUEL PRED: Check remaining fuel at destination and extra time (INIT-B) o SEC F-PLN: Consider programming an appropriate runway for a return to the departure airport or another RWY/SID. shift.g. address the procedures intended to be applied when in abnormal and emergency conditions.

minimum. MSA. wind. If required check RNP versus required accuracy in the FMGS o PERF: Check all relevant data.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. use of TERR. o PROG: consider to set a point towards the field (e. the crew qualifications and the airport facilities. x-winds. wet runway. use of AUTO BRAKE. navigation and expected taxiing FMGS and FCU settings. initial fix. the computer settings.g.) on the MCDU and on the ND in PLAN mode. Notam) • • Instr. o RAD NAV: consider to manually tune Navigation aids (VOR or NDB). missed approach. steps.04. (QNH. check ILS frequency and inbound course. configuration.) o FUEL PRED: Check remaining fuel at destination and alternate destination and check extra fuel o SEC F-PLN: Consider to program a different STAR/RWY or a runway for circling.6 Landing Briefing Page : 33 of 171 The “landing briefing” should address the necessary procedures to be followed. LSZH14) Check GPS PRYMARY and NAV ACCURACY HIGH. type of approach. It is recommended to review following pages in the FMGS: o F-PLN: x-check all relevant data of the approach (waypoints. etc. the status of the aircraft. runway etc. use of REV and GW A general assessment of the actual meteorological and operational conditions (e.g. The PF will inform the PNF about: • • Clearance limit.08 . degrading of equipment. Brief RWY length. temperature. constraints.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Briefings 3. MDA/DH.

.1. o PFD/ND data (e.1. for mode arming / selection and for guidance target entries.04. AP and A/THR should be engaged throughout the flight especially in marginal weather conditions or when operating into an unfamiliar airport. Note: Never check any setting on the FCU!!! Instr. o Confirm Crosscheck the effective arming or engagement of modes and the active guidance targets (on FMA.2 When interfacing with automation. and. Using AP and A/THR also enables flight crew to pay more attention to ATC communications and to other aircraft.1 Use of automation Recommendations for optimum use of automation General Correct use of automated systems reduces workload and significantly improves the flight crew time and resources for responding to: o An unanticipated change (e. During line operations.08 . o An abnormal or emergency condition. …). o Execute Perform action on FCU or on FMGS CDU. check that the knob or push button is the correct one for the desired function. adhere to the following rules-of-use: • Before any action on FCU. AP and A/THR should be used during a go-around and missed-approach to reduce workload. particularly in congested terminal areas and at highdensity airports. See also closed loop principle...g. • After each action on FCU.1 • • • • • • 4. if deemed necessary). be aware of modes being engaged or armed (seek concurrence of other crewmember.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Use of automation Page : 34 of 171 4 4.g. for arming or engagement of modes). A/THR and FMGS are based on the following three-step technique: o Anticipate Understand system operation and the results of any action. FMGS lateral navigation should be used to reduce workload and the risk of CFIT during go-around if : o Applicable missed-approach procedure is included in the FMGS flight plan. o By reference to the aircraft flight path and airspeed response. PFD and/or ND scales and/or FMS CDU). weather conditions. The safe and efficient use and management of AP. FMGS navigation accuracy has been confirmed. for selected targets). ATC instruction.g. Interfacing with automation 4. verify the result of this action on: o FMA (e.

Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.3 to 1.04. Reprogramming the FMGS during a critical flight phase (e. DIR TO). ensure that the aircraft is within the ILS capture envelope. Ensuring that the FMGS flight plan is sequenced correctly with a correct TO waypoint is essential. o ATC communications. a reversion to AP selected modes and raw data may be considered. a glide slope sector between 0. During final approach.. ensure that the selected altitude is not below the MEA or MSA (or be aware of the applicable minimum-vectoring-altitude). o within 8 degrees from the localizer centreline. Under radar vectors. the selected heading mode can be used with reference to navaids raw data. When changing the selected altitude on the FCU.75 time the nominal glide slope angle (e. except to activate the secondary flight plan. another runway or circling approach. o within a glide slope sector ranging from 0. as anticipated.. The MDA/H or DA/H should not be set on the FCU. in readiness for re-engaging the NAV mode. the holding exit prompt should be pressed (or the holding pattern cleared) to allow the correct sequencing of the FMGS flight plan. ensure that the correct active waypoint (e.2 degrees for a typical 3-degree glide slope). TO waypoint) is displayed on the FMS CDU and ND. when intercepting the final approach course in a selected heading or track mode (not in NAV mode). or for selecting a new approach. set the go-around altitude on the FCU. flight crew should ensure that the FMGS flight plan is sequenced normally by checking that the TO waypoint is correct (on ND and FMS CDU). the desired TO waypoint can be restored by either: o clearing an undue intermediate waypoint. Priority tasks are.g.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Use of automation Page : 35 of 171 • • • • • • • Announce all changes in accordance with the standard calls defined in the SOPs. Before arming the NAV mode.. o performing a DIR TO [desired TO waypoint].GuideA320 . In case of a late routing or runway change.g. while verifying the new route and/or requesting confirmation from ATC. In case of a routing change (e. on final approach or go-around) is not recommended. cross-check the new TO waypoint before activating the DIR TO. If cleared to exit a holding pattern on a radar vector. Before arming the APPR mode. in terminal area. If the displayed TO waypoint on the ND is not correct. During descent. if prepared.08 • • • • • • • Instr.g. cross-check the selected altitude indication on the PFD. in case of a go-around.g.. Prepare the FMGS for arrival before starting the descent. can be prepared on the secondary flight plan (SEC F-PLN). in that order: o horizontal and vertical flight path control. o altitude and traffic awareness.9 degree and 5. If necessary. The ILS capture envelope is defined by ICAO as follows: o within 10 NM from the runway. An alternative arrival routing.

5) 5. Remember that the green hydraulic system is pressurized if the yellow system is pressurized and the PTU is on auto. oil or hydraulic leaks.3.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Exterior Inspection Page : 36 of 171 5 Exterior Inspection (Walk Around) (Source: A320 FCOM 3.04.08 . contact the maintenance crew before applying hydraulic power. if any gear door is open. page 4 and perform the items listed below: 1. Complete inspection is normally performed by maintenance personnel or in the absence of maintenance personnel by a flight crew member before each originating flight. LH FWD fuselage • • • AOA probes F/O and CAPT static ports Toilet servicing door (if installed) CONDITION CLEAR CLOSED 2. If a landing gear door is open. The parking brake must be on during the exterior inspection to allow the flight crew to check brake wear indicators.1 • • • • • • • General The Exterior Inspection ensures that the overall condition of the aircraft and its visible components and equipment are safe for the flight. Do not pressurize the green hydraulic system without clearance from ground personnel. Nose landing gear • • Nose wheel chocks Wheels and tires CHECK IN PLACE CONDITION 4.3.3. A320 FCOM 3. Nose section • • • • Pitot probes STBY static ports TAT probes Radome and latches CONDITION CLEAR CONDITION CONDITION / LATCHED 3. RH FWD fuselage • • F/O-CAPT static ports AOA probe CLEAR CONDITION Instr. 5.2 Walk Around The Walk Around must be performed by a flight crew member before each flight. Check structure for impact damage Check that there is no evident fuel. Walk around the aircraft according Picture 5-1.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.

3. RH wing leading edge • • • • Slats 2. 4.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. fin and rudder Lower fuselage structure (tail impact on runway) CONDITION CONDITION Instr. elevator.08 . Landing light Slat 1 CONDITION CONDITION Page : 37 of 171 ENG 2 LH side • • • Fan cowl doors Drain mast Engine inlet and fan blades CLOSED / LATCHED CONDITION / NO LEAK CHECK 8. ENG 2 RH side none 9. RH centre wing • • 7. RH aft fuselage • Toilet service access door CLOSED 13.04.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Exterior Inspection 5. 5 Fuel ventilation overpressure disc Navigation light Wing tip CONDITION INTACT CONDITION CONDITION 10. RH wing trailing edge • • Control surfaces Flaps and fairings CONDITION CONDITION 11. Lower centre fuselage none 6. RH landing gear and fuselage • • Chocks Wheels and tires REMOVED CONDITION 12. Tail • • Stabilizer.

LH landing gear • • Chocks Wheels and tires REMOVED CONDITION 17.04. ENG 1 RH side none 21. 5 CONDITION CONDITION INTACT CONDITION 19. LH wing leading edge • • • • Wing tip Navigation light Fuel ventilation overpressure disc Slats 2.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Exterior Inspection 14. 4. LH centre wing • • Slat 1 Landing light CONDITION CONDITION Instr.08 . LH wing trailing edge • • Flaps and fairing Control surfaces CONDITION CONDITION 18.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. 3. ENG 2 LH side • • • Fan cowl doors Drain mast Engine inlet and fan blades CLOSED / LATCHED CONDITION / NO LEAK CHECK 20. fin and rudder Potable water service door CONDITION CLOSED 16. LH AFT fuselage • • Stabilizer. APU • Navigation light CONDITION Page : 38 of 171 15. elevator.

04.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Exterior Inspection Page : 39 of 171 PICTURE 5-1.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. WALK AROUND Instr.08 .

08 . Maximum allowed weights for landing – considering structure and performance Maximum allowed weights for take off – considering structural. methods.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Loading Page : 40 of 171 6 6. It must contain details of the weight and disposition of all loaded items. For economy the most aft possible CG is desired A weight and balance document must be prepared in duplicate for each commercial air transport flight. Where the use of a standard load plan has been allowed by the authority. must remain available at the departure station for at least 3 days. distribution and stowage of load will affect its structural integrity and performance and those will affect safety of flight as well as economy of flight. The maximum flex take-off weight as limited by economical reasons. performance and maximum landing weights.2 Definitions (weights and centre of gravity) Dry Operating Weights (DOW) – The total weight of the airplane ready for a specific type of operation.00. The document may be in any format (manual or computerised) approved by the Authority to establish the airplane’s weight and centre of gravity. 6.1 Loading General. Note: This is the lowest of the three weights sums: Max Zero Fuel Weight & Take-off Fuel Max Take off weight Max Landing Weight & Trip Fuel Instr.2) AB Flight Crew must be aware that the weight. He must be informed of any late changes and the details entered in the “last minute changes” spaces of both the original and duplicate documents. and must indicate whether standard or actual weight values have been used.9.1. Airberlin OM-A 8. published by the operator. The document. details must be included together with additional limitations on the permissible range of CG travel on which the standard plan is based. The weight and balance document must be acceptable to and countersigned by the airplane commander. procedures and responsibility for preparation and acceptance of the weight and balance sheet (Source: A320 FCOM 2. as accepted by the commander.excluding all usable fuel and traffic load. must contain the name of person who prepared it and the loading supervisor must confirm by signature that the load and its distribution are as stated. including fuel.04.01. One copy is to be carried on the airplane and the other. (DOW and corresponding DOI are calculated for each aeroplane and standard crew composition) Dry Operating Index (DOI) – The applicable index on the airplane index system corresponding to the specific DOW.

04. that the centre of gravity was correctly computed without any errors. Note: AB allows LMC up to l000 kg Certified Centre of Gravity limits (CG) These are the CG limits with which the airplane was certified with. Basic Operating Weight (BOW) The total weight of the airplane ready for a specific type of operation excluding all useable fuel and traffic load.08 . This weight does not include items such as: Crew and crew baggage. single or double leg etc. Pantry Basic Operating Index (BOI) The applicable index on the airplane index system corresponding to the specific BASIC WEIGHT 6.3 Aircraft weights (DOW) Dry Operating Weight + traffic load = Zero Fuel Weight (ZFW).GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. cargo or mail). Making full use of the certified limits would assume. The operational centre of gravity envelope must never be exceeded unless authorised by the Flight Operations Department for special flights. Last Minute Change (LMC) A late change / amendment to the weight and balance sheet which does not require the preparation of a new WB sheet. Usually changed each season. Pantry Code (Pantry) The pantry code refers to the type of catering on board a commercial flight (codes A-Z) for example: Hot or cold meals. Fleet DOW/DOI For a group or groups of airplanes of the same type and version fleet DOWs / DOIs may be published provided the airplanes in this group meet the requirements of the permitted tolerances for the weights and centre of gravity. Operational centre of gravity envelope This is the operational centre of gravity envelope which further restricts the certified centre of gravity envelope to compensate for errors such as the differences between assumed passenger weights and actual weights. baggage and cargo including any non-revenue loads Payload (PL) The total weight of the revenue load (pax.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Loading Page : 41 of 171 Traffic load (TL) The total weight of passengers. (ZFW) Zero Fuel Weight + reserve fuel = Landing Weight (LW) (LW) Landing Weight + trip fuel = Take off Weight (TOW) (TOW) Take off Weight + taxi fuel = Ramp Weight Instr.

GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. Instr. After completion of the electronic calculation the LPC system values will be inserted in the load sheet.9.1.2) An LPC Load sheet Will be generated by LPC software.04.4 LPC load sheet Page : 42 of 171 (Source: Airberlin OM-A 8.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Loading 6.08 .

A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Loading 6. Caution : when the T. Fill in the fuel index (see chapter 6.O. Fill in all the masses & pax figures according ramp agent 5. Fill in all the masses (For DOW see chapter 6.2. Instr.5.: Make CG correction or use appropriate RTOW chart.O. calculate MAC ZFW & MAC T.5. page 6) 3.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. Fill out the header Page : 43 of 171 2.04. CG is lower than 27% MAC the basic performance must be corrected T.O.2. manual calculation 1.08 . page 6) 4. page 5) 6.5 Conventional load sheet.1.5. LDG: Make CG correction on LDG speed and distance. Fill in the corrected index (see chapter 6.

785 –3 –2 –2 –2 –2 –3 –4 –4 –5 –6 –7 –8 –8 –9 –10 0.04.7 iu 43349kg 49.0 iu Index corrections for crew version: ACM: FPC: APC: +90kg / -1.2 iu (AFT Cabin Attendant Seat) Instr.1 iu City Shuttle 4 legs 43037kg 48.1 iu (Jump Seat Cockpit) +90kg / -1. Registratio n Crew Version Catering none D-ABDA 2/0 2/4 42307kg 47.6 iu Charter 43347kg 52. WEIGHT (kg) 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 7000 7500 8000 8500 9000 9500 10000 10500 DENSITY (kg/l) 0.8 iu 43792kg 54.785 +1 +1 +0 +0 –1 –1 –2 –2 –2 –3 –3 –3 –3 –3 –3 WEIGHT (kg) 11000 11500 12000 12500 13000 13500 14000 14500 15000 15500 16000 16500 17000 17500 18000 DENSITY (kg/l) 0.1 iu City Shuttle 42892kg 48.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.1 Fuel index table Page : 44 of 171 This can be found on the reverse side of conventional load-sheet.8 iu 43252kg 49.3 iu 42667kg 47.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Loading 6.9 iu 43707kg 53.2 DOW / DOI A320 for conventional Load sheet Example for D-ABDA This can be found on the reverse side of the conventional load-sheet.08 .5.2 iu Charter long range 43432kg 53.5.800 –3 –3 –2 –2 –2 –3 –3 –4 –5 –6 –6 –7 –8 –9 –10 6.800 +1 +1 +0 +0 –1 –1 –2 –2 –2 –3 –3 –3 –3 –3 –3 0.0 iu (FWD Cabin Attendant Seat) +90kg / +1.

The flight deck crew and ground staff amend their copies accordingly. cargo.4) As explained in the definition.and trim-sheet are only permitted if the changes of the load . baggage or mail load. Note: The LMC-procedure is only to be applied in the Loadsheet. last minute changes to the load.08 .changes may be relayed to the commander via radio or the ground service interphone.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.04.if time does not permit . (Already 100kg may change T/O speeds significantly!) Instr.1.9. W&B and especially the T/O performance have to be correct and therefore to be recalculated!.6 Last minute changes procedure Page : 45 of 171 (Source: Airberlin OM-A 8. In exceptional cases .either plus or minus .A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Loading 6. The load message sent to the destination must contain the corrected figures of pax.are within the limits permitted in the OM/B. One person (LMC) is to be calculated with 90 kg including baggage.1 000 kg The changes have to be entered into the weight and balance sheet into the "LMC" column. LMC limit +/.

BGY etc. VIE.): Male 88kg All Adults 70kg Children 35kg Infants counted only Mass values for checked baggage Domestic flights 11 kg Within the European region Intercontinental flights 15 kg All other 13 kg 13 kg Instr.) use the following Passenger Weights: All Adults 84kg Children 35kg Infants counted only or male/female splitted weights for flights within Germany and flights within Spain and all city shuttle flights (e.7 Standard Weight Values (Source: Airberlin OM-A 8.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.3) Air Berlin calculates with the following Standard Passenger Weights: All Adults 76kg Children 35kg Infants counted only For flights within Germany and flights within Spain and all city shuttle flights (e.04. STN.g.08 .g.1. ZRH.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Loading Number : Page : 46 of 171 6. ZRH. BGY etc.9. VIE. STN.

2.04. do not re-engage any tank fuel pump circuit breaker.24) 7. if the flight crew coordinates the action with maintenance.2 7.32) SAC (Slat and Flap Control Computer) could lead to slats/flaps locked. Instr. This procedure should be adopted only as a last resort. 7.1 Tripped C/B reengagement in flight In flight. unless the Captain (using his/her emergency authority) judges it necessary for the safe continuation of the flight.1 Computer reset On ground On ground almost all computers can be reset except: • • • • ECU (Engine Control Unit) EIU ( Engine Interface Unit) BSCU (Brake Steering Control Unit) if the aircraft is not stopped (see also FCOM 3. they may re-engage a tripped C/B. On ground. do not re-engage a circuit breaker that has tripped by itself.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.04.08 . provided the cause of the tripped C/B is identified.04.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Resetting of computers and C/B’s Page : 47 of 171 7 Resetting of computers and C/B’s (Source: A320 FCOM 3. For all other circuit breakers. and only one re-engagement should be attempted.

the crew may perform a BSCU reset to recover correct functioning of the system.2.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.32 BSCU RESET Instr.32) In case of braking / steering problems.04.24) For the following system malfunction respectively ECAM warnings/cautions a trouble shooting procedure exists: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 7.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Resetting of computers and C/B’s 7. 3. In particular this applies in the case of any of the following ECAM warnings: WHEEL N.04.2.3 VENT AVNCS SYS FAULT AIR PACK 1(2) REGUL FAULT AUTO FLT YAW DAMPER 1 (2) FAULT WINDSHEAR DET FAULT REAC W/S DET FAULT AUTO FLT FCU 1(2) FAULT AUTO FLT FCU 1+ 2 FAULT one MCDU locked or blank both MCDU locked or blank FMGC malfunction F/CTL ELAC 1 (2) FAULT F/CTL ALTN LAW F/CTL ELAC 1 (2) FAULT F/CTL ELAC 1 (2) PITCH FAULT Braking malfunction ELAC OR SEC malfunction ANTI ICE L (R) WINDSHIELD (WINDOW) FWS FWC 1 (2) FAULT L/G LGCIU 1 (2) FAULT Failure messages on the CIDS FAP in the cabin ENG IGN A + B FAULT ENG 1 (2) FADEC A (B) FAULT COM CIDIS 1 + 2 FAULT Frozen RMP FAP freezing SMOKE LAV + CRG DET FAULT BSCU reset (in-flight and on ground) (Source: A320 FCOM 3.W.04. the crew must restrict computer resets to those listed in the table (A320 FCOM.08 .2 In flight Page : 48 of 171 In flight. STEER FAULT BRAKES AUTO BRAKE FAULT BRAKES BSCU CH 1 (2) FAULT BRAKES BSCU SYS 1 (2) FAULT For more details see FCOM 3.04.

08 .A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Resetting of computers and C/B’s 7.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.3 ECAM advisories Page : 49 of 171 (Source: A320 FCOM 3.80 ECAM ADVISORY CONDITION Instr. ELEC. See FCOM 3.80) For several advisories (CAB PRESS. FUEL & APU) recommended actions exist.04.2.02.

A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Stabilized approach Page : 50 of 171 8 8. field not in sight at DH / MDA or any other safety reason . Exception: Circling approach and VFT training patterns: wings must be level on final when aircraft reaches 500 feet AGL. 8.3. (necessary call outs by PNF: +10 KIAS / -5 KIAS of deviations) Aircraft is in the proper landing configuration. Aircraft speed is not more than Vref + 20 KIAS and not less than Vref.11. except respective approach procedure dictates otherwise. 40%-55%) All briefings and checklists have been performed ILS approach must be flown within one dot of the expanded localizer band.1 Stabilized approach Definition (Source: Airberlin OM-A .3.08 .11.2 Philosophy of stabilized approach (Source: Airberlin OM-A 2.04.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. Sink rate maximum 1000 FPM below 1000ft AGL. Instr. stabilized approach criteria are violated. Power setting appropriate for configuration and not below the minimum power for approach as defined by the aircraft operations manual (A320 & A319: N1 approx. however an explanation has to be given to the passengers.1) An approach is stabilized if all of the following conditions are met: • • • • • • • • Aircraft is on correct flight path. Any go-around accomplished needs not to be reported to DO.2) All approaches must be stabilized by 1000 feet AGL! In order to reduce the risk of "approach and landing accidents". Only small changes in heading and pitch are required to maintain path (10° heading. go-arounds should be initiated whenever a safe landing is not assured. 2. 2° pitch).

A continuous aft pressure has to be applied as usual. The A/C is stable. the system begins to reduce the pitch attitude (2° down in 8 sec).08 . The final approach with crosswind is conducted flying the aircraft track to the runway centreline. not an order. The system memorizes the attitude at 50 ft. the pitch law is modified to flare mode: indeed. However if PITCH greater than 10°. 9. SPEED mode is effective except if autoland (AP ON with LAND/FLARE). the pilot will have to move the stick rearwards to maintain a constant path.2 Flare (Source: A320 Instructor Support. But then: • don’t turn towards the runway • don’t duck under. thus in which direction to look for the runway. it is a progressive aft action on the stick. The roll is a roll rate law till the A/C is on ground.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Landing technique Page : 51 of 171 9 9. As the aircraft descends through 30 ft. release it and the A/C will stabilize. The flare technique is thus very conventional. Instr. the ATHR will add thrust during the flare to keep the A/C on target speed. applying a drift correction. Indeed with ATHR ON. • At 20 ft a call out “RETARD” reminds the pilot to retard thrust lever. look out well ahead of the A/C.1 Landing technique Final approach (Source: A320 Instructor Support.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. and that attitude becomes the initial reference for pitch attitude control. be smooth on the stick. When transitioning from IMC to VMC. If you feel that you are very active on the stick. This is a “crabbed approach” with wings level. • Start the flare at around 20 ft. watch the BIRD position versus the A/C attitude symbol in the centre of PFD. Normal Operation) Once AP is set to OFF using the Instinctive Disconnect button on the stick either on short final or in the flare. The typical pitch increment in Flare is approximately 4° which leads to a –1° flight path angle associated to a 10 kts speed decay in the manoeuvre.e. It is a reminder. Consequently as the speed reduces. Normal Operation) When reaching 50 ft RA. PNF shall announce it. • In order to assess the flare and the A/C position versus the ground. the normal pitch law which provides trajectory stability is not the best adapted for the flare manoeuvre.04. this gives a good assessment of the drift. These are “typical” figures. Feedbacks and static stability augmentation are removed on ground. Therefore if you are late to retard the thrust levers in a manual landing. i.

A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY

Landing technique 9.3 Crosswind landing

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(Source: A320 Instructor Support, Normal Operation) During the flare, the roll normal law is still effective. Thus when the pilot applies a right rudder pedal input for example, the aircraft yaws and rolls to the right; but it stabilizes with a steady bank angle. The more pedal input there is, the more induced yaw and bank there is with stick free. The aircraft will then turn gently to the right. If the A/C comes for landing with wind from the left, and if the pilot wishes the A/C to land with the fuselage aligned with runway centreline, he has to apply some rudder to the right. Thus, if he does not act laterally on the stick, the A/C will turn to the right because of the resulting bank angle and because of the effect of the wind. In order to keep the A/C on the runway centreline, the pilot will have to apply some stick to the left. Hence the recommended technique for crosswind landing is: • smoothlyapply rudder to align the A/C on runway centreline. • act on the stick (on the opposite direction) to maintain the A/C on the centreline, with possibly very slight wing down into wind. Note: In strong crosswind, a full decrab might lead to a significant into wind aileron input causing a significant bank angle. The Pilot must be aware that there are aircraft geometry limitations in pitch and in bank not only to prevent incurring a tail strike but to prevent scrapping the engine pod, the flaps or the wing tip. In such conditions, a partial decrab is preferable. Example: with 30 kts crosswind, a full decrab leads to 10° bank angle, whereas a partial decrab (5° crab angle remaining) requires only 5° bank angle.

9.4

Tail strike at landing

(Source: FCOM Bulletin N° 806/1) Industry statistics show that tail strikes are more likely to occur at landing, than at takeoff (2 to 1). Although most of them are due to deviations from normal landing techniques, some are associated with such external conditions as turbulence and wind gradient. Deviations from normal landing technique are the most common causes of tail strikes, the main reasons for this being: • • • • • Allowing speed to decrease well below Vapp before flare. Prolonged hold-off for a smooth touchdown. Too high flare Too high a sink rate, just prior reaching the flare height. Bouncing at touchdown.

Instr.GuideA320

Revision: 4

Effective Date: 25.04.08

A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY

Landing technique 9.5 Bouncing at touch down

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(Source: FCOM Bulletin N° 806/1) In case of a light bounce, maintain the pitch attitude and complete the landing, while keeping thrust at idle. Do not allow the pitch attitude to increase, particularly following a firm touchdown with a high pitch rate. In case of a high bounce, maintain the pitch attitude and initiate a go-around. Do not try to avoid a second touchdown during the go-around. Should it happen, it would be soft enough to prevent damage to the aircraft, if pitch attitude is maintained. Only when safely established in the go-around, retract flaps one step and the landing gear. A landing should not be attempted immediately after a high bounce, as thrust may be required to soften the second touchdown, and the remaining runway length may be insufficient to stop the aircraft.

9.6

Engine-out landing

(Source: FCOM 3.04.27 P5) The engine-out landing is basically a conventional landing. The pilot should trim to maintain the slip indication centred. It is yellow, as long as N1 is less than 80%. Between 100 and 50 feet, the pilot he can reset rudder trim to make the landing run easier, and to recover full rudder travel in both directions.

Instr.GuideA320

Revision: 4

Effective Date: 25.04.08

A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY

Use of weather radar

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10 Weather radar
10.1 General A weather radar is only as good as the operator’s interpretation of the echoes that are displayed on the indicator. The pilot must combine his knowledge of how radar works and its limitations with such things as the prevailing weather pattern, the geographic location, and his personal experience to make a sound interpretation of the displayed targets. 10.2 Technical background (Source: Instructor Support, Normal Operation) The weather radar detects precipitation droplets such as: • • • rain drops wet hail wet snow, etc.

The strength of the echo is a function of the drop size, composition and amount. Water particles reflect five times as much as ice particles of the same size. Consequently the following weather phenomena are not detected by radar: • • • • • clouds fog clear air turbulence lightning wind

The antenna is stabilized. The angle between the weather radar antenna and the local horizon is called ‘tilt’. 10.3 Use of the weather radar The weather radar is used to detect, analyze and avoid significant weather. 10.3.1 Tilt Effective tilt management is the key to weather avoidance. Weather scanning is achieved by varying the tilt. The basic/initial value of the antenna tilt should be such as to depict the first ground returns at the top of the ND. Consequently, the tilt is directly linked to the phases of flight and the ND range selection. Note: In most of the Airberlin A320 Family Aircrafts an AUTO TILT function is available. 10.3.1.1 Before Take off If significant weather is suspected, slowly scan up to +10° the departure path, then set the tilt to + 4°. 10.3.1.2 Climb To avoid “over scanning”, tilt downwards as the aircraft climbs and maintain ground returns at the top of the ND.
Instr.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.04.08

this Temporary Revision is issued to indicate that. the aircraft could be flying into hail.3.2 Gain Gain is mostly used in mode AUTO. then set the gain back to AUTO. from which the heavy rain droplets have not had time to fall to the flight level through the updrafts.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Use of weather radar 10.MULTISCAN FUNCTION) 10. • No ground returns beyond line of sight. 50 NM and not affected by gain setting. the GAIN should be manually set to +8 to ensure that the radar display provides an optimum reflection of the current weather condition (Source A320 TR WEATHER RADAR . Tilting the antenna up and down regularly will produce the total weather picture. As it falls into warmer air. but not in the line of flight. the reverse is sometimes true: the radar may be scanning below a rapidly developing storm cell. Note: When the MULTISCAN switch is in the AUTO position (tilt automatic mode) and the GAIN is set to CAL (automatically calibrated). At low altitude operation. the radar display may not entirely correspond to the current weather.3.4 Spotting dry hail Small dry hail may not return echoes on a radar that is designed for weather avoidance. when the MULTISCAN switch is in AUTO position. When using turbulence detection. 10. Manually vary the gain to determine the strongest area of a cell.1.3.3.5 Approach To avoid ground returns tilt upward to + 4° 10. Notes: • Over calm sea and even ground the ground return is poor. A good range to identify and observe significant weather is the 80NM range. start with the gain in AUTO mode. tilt down until ground returns are on the 80NM line and return to the 80NM range. Set the 160 NM range.04.3.1. When rain returns appear below the flight path. it begins to melt and form a thin surface layer of liquid that will give a return. Instr. Therefore.3 WX+T and TURB modes WX+T and TURB are used to locate wet turbulence areas.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. adjust the tilt to eliminate ground returns up to 90 NM.1.4 Descent During descent tilt upward to maintain the ground returns at the top of the ND 10. When closing in on significant weather decrease the ND range and tilt further down.3 Cruise Page : 55 of 171 Use a slightly negative tilt and maintain ground returns at the top of the ND. Before evaluating any weather echoes.08 .(In FL 370 the line of sight is approximately 240NM) 10. however. A slight downward tilt of the antenna (toward the warmer air at lower altitude) may show rain coming from unseen dry hail that is directly in the flight path. Turbulence is detected within approx.

Severe turbulence may be encountered up to 5’000 ft above a cell. Use turbulence detection to isolate turbulence from precipitation. Do not attempt to fly below a storm even in visual conditions (turbulence. 10.5 Turbulence above cloud tops Limited flight data shows there may be a relationship between turbulence above cloud tops and the speed of upper tropospheric winds. 10. wind shear). but the severity of the turbulence might not.08 . significant turbulence can be expected as high as 10.6 Colour gradient Echo intensity gradients should also be observed and are very important. deviate upwind rather than downwind (less chances of turbulence or hail).GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.04. Remember that ice crystals are poor reflectors. Instr.000 ft for each 10-kt reduction of tropospheric wind speed. 10. avoid all red and magenta cells by at least 20 NM.7 Pilot behaviour with significant weather It is recommended to take the following actions to avoid significant weather: • • • • • • • • • whenever suspecting weather. scan by varying radar tilt. Storms with tops above 35’000 ft must be considered hazardous. A strong echo may be received from rain water at lower altitudes. When the winds at the top of the storm exceeds 100 kt. Closely spaced or thin lines between different colours are usually associated with severe turbulence and should be avoided. Frequent and vivid lightning indicates a high probability of severe turbulence. Thus the intensity of the echo might diminish with altitude. but a weaker echo will be received as the antenna is tilted up because of frozen water at the higher altitudes. This value may decrease 1.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Use of weather radar Turbulence versus altitude Page : 56 of 171 Studies by the National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL) of Oklahoma show that thunderstorms extending to 60’000ft show little variation of turbulence intensity with altitude.000 ft above the cloud tops. do not under estimate a thunderstorm even if the echo is weak (wet parts only are detected).

4. When thrust changes become excessive : disconnect Auto Thrust. so as to provide the best protection against the effect of gust on the structural limits.4.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Use of weather radar Page : 57 of 171 10. Instr. Set the thrust to give the recommended speed (see table FCOM 3. can be used.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.91) If turbulence is unavoidable.91). or 3. the flight crew and the cabin crew must secure all loose equipment and turn on the "SEAT BELTS" and "NO SMOKING" signs. Keep the autopilot ON. A transient increase is preferable to a loss of speed. Configuration 3 provides more energy and less drag. the speed for turbulence penetration given in the graph below. • • • • • • Consider requesting a lower flight level to increase margin to buffet onset. This thrust setting attempts to obtain. Maintain attitude and allow altitude to vary. Configuration FULL. Only change thrust in case of an extreme variation in airspeed.08 . that decreases buffet margins and is difficult to recover. However. in stabilized conditions. For Approach: • • Use A/THR for managed speed.) Before entering an area of known turbulence. whilst maintaining an adequate margin above VLS. and do not chase your Mach or airspeed. aim to keep the speed in the region of the target speed given in this section. (Sufficient buffet margin exists at optimum altitude.04.8 Severe turbulence: (Source: A320 FCOM 3. but do not chase altitude. If the crew flies the aircraft manually: • • Expect large variations in altitude.

35 0.30 – 0.08 . 25R = 75.k.39 0.29 ≤ 0.26 – 0.g.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Winter operation Page : 58 of 171 11 Winter operation 11.0. 25L = 25.poor poor unreliable not reported µ (fc) ≥ 0.2 Runway contamination Code: RRDCddBB RR Runway e.1.04.25 C 1 2 5 9 / Contamination < 10% 11%-25% 26%-50% 51% .36 .100% not reported dd 00 01 02 xx 90 91 92 93 9x 98 99 // Depth < 1mm 1 mm 2 mm xx mm 90 mm not used 10 cm 15 cm 5x cm 40 cm Rwy inop not significant BB 95 94 93 92 91 99 // Remarks 88CLRD// all Rwys o.1 General For more details concerning flight planning refer also to chapter Flight Planning 11. all = 88 D 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / Deposit clear & dry damp wet or water patches rime or frost covered dry snow wet snow slush ice Compact or rolled snow Frozen ruts or ridges Deposit not reported Braking action good medium -good medium medium .40 0.1 Flight planning 11.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.1. DDSNOCLO RR//99// Rwy closed due to snow removal Rwy clearance in progress Instr.

2 Summary.3mm slush 2570 2500 2370 2240 12.3mm 12.08 .3. it is equal to the corrected required landing distance for manual landing increased by 70 meters.3.04.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.03.1.10) Page : 59 of 171 11. required landing distance.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Winter operation 11.1.7mm g mass water water 64t 1500 1970 2670 2560 62t 1440 1920 2580 2480 58t 1370 1800 2400 2320 54t 1320 1690 2240 2170 Assumptions: • Configuration FULL • Airport elevation 2000ft • 2 Reversers operative • No wind correction • No CG correction • No correction for speed increment 6.3 Required landing distance (Source: A320 FCOM 2.3. The required landing distance for automatic landing is equal to the corrected required landing distance for manual landing except in the following case: • • In case of landing in Conf 3 with landing weight equal to or less than 65000 kg.67. manual landing Required landing distance in meters Runway condition Landin dry wet 6. Instr.1.1.1 Required landing distance (pre-flight) The required landing distance for pre-flight planning is equal to the actual landing distance multiplied with 1.7mm slush 2530 2400 2270 2150 Compacted snow 2460 2410 2290 2180 ice 4320 4230 4040 3860 11.3.2 Automatic landing Determine the corrected required landing distance for manual landing from the data above. it is equal to the corrected required landing distance for manual landing increased by 125 meters.1.1.1. In case of landing in Conf FULL with landing weight equal to or less than 65000 kg.1 Manual landing 11. l req = 5 ⋅ l act 3 lreq: lact: required landing distance actual landing distance 11.

or slush. and includes those paved runways which have been specially prepared with grooves or porous pavement and maintained to retain «effectively dry» braking action. or equivalent.2 Definitions (Source A320 FCOM 2.4 kg/dm3. or loose snow.08 . but when the moisture on it does not give it a shiny appearance. Standing Water is caused by heavy rainfall and/or insufficient runway drainage with a depth of more than 3 mm.85 kg/dm3. • • • • • • • • • • • Instr. but without significant areas of standing water. Dry snow is a condition where snow can be blown if loose. Wet runway and equivalent: Equivalent of a wet runway is a runway covered with or less than o 2mm slush o 3 mm standing water o 4 mm wet snow o 15 mm dry snow Damp runway: A runway is considered damp when the surface is not dry. less than or equal to 3 mm or when there is sufficient moisture on the runway surface to cause it to appear reflective. equivalent to more than 3 mm (0. sleet. slush. ice crystals) or standing water.2).A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Winter operation 11. or o Snow which has been compressed into a solid mass which resists further compression and will hold together or break into lumps if picked up (compacted snow). ice or snow is present on the taxiways or runways. rain. Icing conditions may be expected when the OAT (on the ground and for takeoff) or when TAT (in flight) is at or below 10°C. fog with low visibility of one mile or less. Its density is approximately 0. snow will stick together and tend to form a snowball. Icy is a condition where the friction coefficient is 0. Compacted snow is a condition where snow has been compressed (a typical friction coefficient is 0. Its density is approximately 0.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.125 in) deep. or .04.2 kg/ dm3.05 or below. if compacted by hand.10) • Page : 60 of 171 Contaminated runway: A runway is considered to be contaminated when more than 25% of the runway surface area (whether in isolated areas or not) within the required length and width being used is covered by the following: o Surface water more than 3 mm (0. will fall apart again upon release. Wet snow is a condition where. and there is visible moisture in the air (such as clouds. even when moisture is present. lt is encountered at temperatures around 5°C and its density is approximately 0. including wet ice Wet runway: A runway is considered wet when the runway surface is covered with water. Dry runway: A dry runway is one which is neither wet nor contaminated. snow. or if compacted by hand. Slush is water saturated with snow which spatters when stepping firmly on it.4.Ice.125 in) of water.

Horizontal stabilizer upper and lower surface.70) If oil temperature is below – 40° C the engine has to be preheated T/O with oil temperatures below -10°C is not allowed Page : 61 of 171 11.1 Securing the aircraft for cold soak See A320 FCOM 3. Air data probes. This is known as the “Clean Aircraft Concept“ and it is ultimately the responsibility of the Commander that this rule is effectively followed on every takeoff. Landing gear and wheel bays. Fuselage. In particular. It is imperative that takeoff not be attempted unless the CDR has ascertained.5.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.2. slush or ice adhering to the wings or stabilizers or control surfaces or any frost adhering to the upper surfaces of wings or stabilizers or control surfaces. Angle-of-attack sensors.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Winter operation On ground operation 11. Instr. altimeter. snow.1 Clean aircraft concept (Source: Air Berlin OM-A 8. rate of climb or flight altitude instrument systems. snow. The “MAKE IT CLEAN AND KEEP IT CLEAN“ rule applies.3 De-icing on ground 11. Static vents. Engines. snow.08 .7) A pilot shall not take off in an airplane that has: • • frost.1.04. 11. or frost formations.3. Generally intakes and outlets. that all critical surfaces of the aircraft are free of adhering ice.3.2 Exterior inspection An inspection of the aircraft must visually cover all critical parts of the aircraft and be performed from points offering a clear view of these parts.2.2 Engine start in cold weather (Source: A320 FCOM 3.2. Vertical stabilizer and rudder.91 11.04. slush or ice adhering to any fan blade. windshield or power plant installation or to airspeed. Control surface cavities. these parts include: • • • • • • • • • • • Wing surfaces including leading edges.

especially in the wing tank area. Drizzle/rain and ambient temperatures around 0°C on the ground is very critical. Under freezing fog conditions. It is. When ground temperatures at the destination are low.08 . The areas where different wing structures are concentrated (a lot of cold metal). this is accompanied by frost on the under wing surface. • • • Instr.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.3. The following factors contribute to the formation intensity and the final thickness of the clear ice layer: • • • Low temperature of fuel that was added to the aircraft during the previous ground stop and/or the long airborne time of the previous flight.3 Clear ice phenomenon Page : 62 of 171 Under certain conditions.4 General checks • A recommended procedure to check the wing upper surface is to place high enough steps as close as possible to the leading edge and near the fuselage. and climb the steps so that you can touch a wide sector of the tank area by hand. when sub-zero fuel is in contact with the wing upper surface skin panels. when flaps are retracted. a clear ice layer or frost can form on the wing upper surfaces when the aircraft is on the ground. The clear ice accumulations are very difficult to detect from ahead of the wing or behind during walk-around. especially in poor lighting and when the wing is wet. such as a cabin heater. important that these areas are checked prior to departure and any frozen deposits removed. resulting in a situation that the remaining fuel in the wing tanks is below 0° C. Severe conditions occur with precipitation. falling snow with the possibility of re-freezing. The areas most vulnerable to freezing are: • • • The wing root area between the front and rear spars. If clear ice is detected. The leading edge may not feel particularly cold. Temperature of fuel added to the aircraft during the current ground stop. such as areas above the spars and the main landing gear doubler plate. It must always be remembered that below a snow / slush / anti-icing fluid layer there can be clear ice.04. In most cases. Any discovered deposits should be removed by directing air from a low flow hot air source. accumulations of ice may remain undetected between stationary and moveable surfaces.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Winter operation 11. Ice can build up on aircraft surfaces when descending through dense clouds or precipitation during an approach. 11. onto the affected areas. The clear ice may not be detected from the cabin either because wing surface details show through. Heavy freezing has been reported during drizzle/rain even at temperatures of 8 to 14°C. adding (relatively) warm fuel can melt dry. it is necessary for the rear side of the fan blades to be checked for ice build-up prior to start-up.3. Abnormally large amount of remaining cold fuel in wing tanks causing the fuel level to be in contact with the wing upper surface panels as well as the lower surface. it is possible that. the wing upper surface should be de-iced and then re-checked to ensure that all ice deposits have been removed. Any part of the wing that contains unused fuel after flight. therefore.

However. these areas must be also de-iced. sleet. it is necessary to ensure that all ice and frost is removed before flight. if icing conditions are expected to occur along the taxi and takeoff path. During anti-icing and de-icing. since surface contamination and blown snow are potential causes for ice accretion equal to natural precipitation. the moveable surfaces shall be in stowed position. if necessary.2. and humid conditions not necessarily linked to winter operations. snow. the Flight Crew Operating Manual allows takeoff with a certain amount of frost on certain parts of the aircraft (a frost layer less than 3mm on the underside of the wings.2.08 . those flaps which are extended must be inspected and.6) Flaps should be set just prior take-off to prevent damage by slush. (Source Airberlin OM-A 8. deiced before retraction. in the area of fuel tanks and a thin layer of rime or a light coating of powdery (loose) snow on the upper surface of the fuselage.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. when the aircraft need to be de-iced. (Source Airberlin OM-A 8.5.6) • • • • Instr. This consideration must increase flight crew awareness to include the condition of the taxiway. If the aircraft arrives at the gate with flaps in a position other than fully retracted.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Winter operation • Page : 63 of 171 When slush is present on runways. inspect the aircraft when it arrives at the ramp for slush/ice accumulations. runway and adjacent areas.) This allowance exists to cope mainly with cold fuel.5. As mentioned above.04. ice. Therefore. It is important to note that the rate of ice formation is considerably increased by the presence of an initial depth of ice.

GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.5. As the final decision rests with the Commander. initiate de-/anti-icing. Instr. No aircraft should be dispatched for departure after a de-icing / anti-icing operation unless the flight crew has been notified of the type of de-icing / anti-icing operation performed. taxi conditions.3. holdover time and other relevant factors. his request will supersede the ground crew member’s judgement to not de-ice. based on his own judgement. Equally. As the Commander is responsible for the anti-icing condition of the aircraft during ground manoeuvring prior to takeoff.1 Maintenance responsibility Page : 64 of 171 The information report (de-icing/anti-icing code) given to the cockpit is a part of the technical airworthiness of the aircraft. frost and snow. taxi times.3. He will. indicating that the aircraft critical parts are free of ice. The responsible ground crew member should be clearly nominated.6 Final check before aircraft dispatch No aircraft should be dispatched for departure under icing conditions or after a de-icing / anti-icing operation unless the aircraft has received a final check by a responsible authorized person.08 . The inspection must visually cover all critical parts of the aircraft and be performed from points offering sufficient visibility on these parts (e.5. if required.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Winter operation 11. from the de-icer itself or another elevated piece of equipment). Therefore.5 Responsibility 11. the Commander should take into account forecasted or expected weather conditions.3.g. The responsibility of accepting the performed treatment lies. with the Commander. he can simply request a repeat application. It may be necessary to gain direct access to physically check (e. It also includes the necessary anti-icing codes to allow the flight crew to estimate the holdover time to be expected under the prevailing weather conditions.3.g. he can request another anti-icing application with a different mixture ratio to have the aircraft protected for a longer period against accumulation of precipitation. 11.2 Operational responsibility The general transfer of operational responsibility takes place at the moment the aircraft starts moving by its own power. when in doubt about the aerodynamic cleanliness of the aircraft. He should check the aircraft for the need to de-ice. The ground crew must make sure that the flight crew has been informed. by touch) to ensure that there is no clear ice on suspect areas. and he is responsible for the correct and complete de-icing and/or anti-icing of the aircraft. however. The person releasing the aircraft is responsible for the performance and verification of the results of the de/anti-icing treatment. This information includes the results of the final inspection by qualified personnel.04. The Commander must. perform (or have performed) an inspection or simply request a further de-/anti-icing. 11. The flight crew should make sure that they have the information.

11. Always have the aircraft treated symmetrically: The left and right sides must receive the same and complete treatment.3. if they are not free of ice.GuideA320 . o The mix ratio of fluid to water (for example 75/25).3. who performed the de-icing and post-applicationcheck. ENG BLEED 1 + 2 ON At least 60 seconds after APU start.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Winter operation 11. This prevents de-icing fluid from entering the aircraft. Avoid indiscriminate use of de-icing fluid and its ingestion by the engine or APU. o When the holdover time (HOT) began.7. In view of the low OAT.08 • Instr.1 Cockpit preparation • • • • • Page : 65 of 171 Before treatment. or trim surfaces.3 Upon completion of the spraying operation • • • • • • • DITCHING pushbutton OFF OUTFLOW VALVE CHECK OPEN On the ECAM PRESS page.04. and avionic ventilation inlet and extract valves close. Avionic ventilation is in closed circuit with both fans running.3. there is no time limit for this configuration. reset the AEVC circuit breaker at the end of the aircraft de-icing procedure. avoid pressurizing or testing flight control systems. must include (anti icing code): o Type of fluid used. AIR COND/AVNCS/VENT/MONG Y17 on 122 VU. pack valves. to avoid any delay between treatment and start of taxiing. o Hold over time (HOT) NORMAL PROCEDURE RESUME Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. Try to make sure that all flight support services are completed prior to treatment.3. Do not move flaps or slats. confirm that the outflow valve indication reaches the open green position to avoid any unexpected aircraft pressurization.2 Before fluid spraying: • • • • CAB PRESS MODE SEL CHECK AUTO ENG BLEED 1 + 2 OFF APU BLEED OFF DITCHING pushbutton ON Outflow valve. flight control surfaces. THRUST LEVERS CHECK IDLE • Aircraft prepared for spraying 11.7 Procedures (Source A320 FCOM 3. Note: If the "VENT AVNCS SYS FAULT" warning appears.4. AIR COND/AVNCS VENT/CTL D06 on 49VU.7.7.91) 11. or on completion of spraying operation: APU BLEED ON PITOTS and STATICS (ground crew) CHECK GROUND EQUIPMENT REMOVE DE-ICING/ANTI-ICING REPORT RECEIVED The information from ground personnel.

Make this inspection before the holdover time expires.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. There are several parameters influencing holdover time. Note: If the fuselage has been sprayed. or just before takeoff. Do not consider the information given in the holdover timetables as precise. If in doubt. perform the appropriate checks to evaluate aircraft icing. On contaminated runways and taxiways. The minimum requirement is to receive the anti-icing code in order to figure out the available protection time from the holdover timetable. Instr. 'L/G SHOCK ABSORBER FAULT' may be triggered. In freezing precipitation.08 .04. 'ANTI ICE F/O TAT FAULT'. the radio altimeters may not compute any data and the ECAM warnings 'DUAL ENG FAILURE'.10) If taxiing in icing condition with precipitation on runways and taxiways contaminated with slush or snow: • • • • Before T/O keep flaps & slats retracted until reaching the holding point on the T/O runway. on the amount of ice that has built up on the critical surfaces since the last de-icing. as revealed by a personal inspection from the inside and outside of the aircraft. Base the decision on whether to takeoff. Disregard them. During taxi on snowy runways. The timeframes given in the holdover timetables consider the very different weather situations worldwide. the radio altitude indications may fluctuate and auto call outs or GPWS warnings may be activated. medium or heavy by different people. consider APU BLEED OFF during takeoff.04. or to re-protect the aircraft.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Winter operation Page : 66 of 171 Apply appropriate normal procedures. The view of the weather is rather subjective. there is a risk of de-icing fluid ingestion by the APU air intake. experience has shown that a certain snowfall can be judged as light. Pay special attention to the flight control check. After landing do not retract flaps & slats to avoid damage of the structure After engine shut down make a visual inspection to determine that the flaps/slats mechanism is free of contamination When flaps/slats mechanism is free of contamination use following procedure: o BLUE & YELLOW PUMP ON o FLAPS RETRACT o BLUE & YELLOW PUMP OFF Note: 1. a pre-takeoff check should be considered 11.4 Taxiing in icing conditions (Source: A320 FCOM 2. 2. Thus. resulting in specific odours. 'ANTI ICE CAPT TAT FAULT'. or SMOKE warnings. Disregard these warnings.

a contaminated runway calls for higher flap setting. Conf1+F) provide good climb performance (good lift to drag ratio) while the takeoff distance is longer (in other words bad runway performance).5.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. Optimization of flap setting. 11. takeoff speeds and derated takeoff thrust are the main ways of limiting a loss in takeoff weight.08 .3 mm slush o 50.1 Runway contamination Page : 67 of 171 If the layer of contaminant on the runway is thin enough. Most of the time. resulting from lower takeoff weight.7 mm wet snow is equivalent to 6. As far as performance determination is concerned.g. the following guidelines should be considered: • Wet runway and equivalent: Equivalent of a wet runway is a runway covered with or less than o 2mm slush o 3 mm standing water o 4 mm wet snow o 15 mm dry snow Contaminated runway: A linear equivalence between depth of slush and snow has been defined: o 12.3 mm slush • Note : 1. the runway is not considered contaminated. FLEX takeoff is not allowed from a contaminated runway.04. The influence of the flap setting on the takeoff performance is well-known. and the accelerate-stop distance is increased due to the reduction in the friction forces.g. can be minimized by different means.3 Flap setting Three different flap settings are proposed for takeoff. the presence of an obstacle may still require a minimum climb gradient calling for a lower flap setting.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Winter operation 11. Yet. It is not recommended to take off from a runway covered with more than 50.5 Take off on contaminated runways 11.4mm of wet snow. The choice of the optimum flap setting is usually done manually. 11. The accelerate-go and the accelerate-stop distances are then reduced.8mm of dry snow or 25. A higher flap setting (e. The right balance must be found.2 Performance Optimization A contaminated runway impacts runway-related performance. The accelerate-go distance is increased due to the precipitation drag. Low flap settings (e. Conf 3) helps reduce the takeoff distance (improvement of the runway performance) at the expense of the climb performance (degradation of the lift to drag ratio). 2. 3. On a damp runway no performance degradation should be considered.5. A quick comparison of the performance for the three different flap settings reveals which one is best. The natural loss of payload.8 mm dry snow is equivalent to 6. but only wet. Instr.5.

Icing conditions do not systematically lead to ice accretion. following procedure is recommended: • • • • Select TOGA Do not abort takeoff for minor deficiencies even at low speeds If you have to abort takeoff maintain directional control with the rudder and small inputs to the nose wheel.35 0.) Page : 68 of 171 When taking off on contaminated runways. 4. lift off and retract gear and flaps in the normal manner. Icing conditions are far most frequent than effective ice accretion.39 0.08 • • • • Instr.25 and below unreliable reported braking action good medium-good medium medium-poor poor max. slightly positive OATs do not protect from icing and that icing conditions can be potentially met at any FL. dry. 5.GuideA320 . Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.5. o When rapid icing is encountered in a stratiform cloud. a moderate change of altitude will significantly reduce the rate.6. High accretion rates are not systematically associated with Cumulonimbus.26 – 0. crosswind component 29kt 29kt 25kt 20kt 15kt 5kt equivalent runway condition 1 1 2/3 2/3 3/4 4/5 equivalent runway condition (only valid for maximum crosswind determination) 1.36 – 0.5 Crosswind limits (Source: Airbus FCOM 2. type of cloud.6 Aircraft contamination in flight 11. 2.10.10) Reported runway friction coefficient 0. use differential braking Rotate not before VR . some recommendations are: In addition to using EAI and WAI according to procedures.1 General • Atmospheric physics and meteorology tell us that icing conditions generally occur from slightly positive °C down to -40 °C and are most likely around FL100. it should be understood that if severe icing rarely occurs below -12 °C. 11. stratiform clouds can accumulate lots of ice.04.4 Recommended procedure (Source: A320 FCOM 2. If necessary.5.04.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Winter operation 11.40 and above 0. the pilot should keep an eye on the icing process: Accretion rate.30 – 0. Should the pilot encounter icing conditions in flight. 3. Nevertheless. damp or wet runway (less than 3mm water depth) runway covered with slush runway covered with dry snow runway covered with standing water with risk of hydroplaning or wet snow icy runway or high risk of hydroplaning 11.04.29 0.

and do not retract flaps after landing.6. even if the SAT is below .40° C.1. following procedure is recommended: • • • • • • Avoid landing on contaminated runways if antiskid is not functioning. keep speed as high as permitted.10) (Source: A320 FCOM 3. ENGINE ANTI ICE must be ON before and during a descent in icing conditions.7 Landing on contaminated runways (Source: A320 FCOM 2.3 Wing anti-ice (Source: A320 FCOM 3. Instr.08 .A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Winter operation o Page : 69 of 171 If icing conditions prevail on the approach.40° C.30) WING ANTI ICE may either be used to prevent ice formation. 11. o In configuration lower than FULL. VLS + 10 knots.15. whenever there is an indication that airframe icing exists.2 Engine anti-ice (Source A320 FCOM 3. 11. This can be evidenced by ice accumulation on the visual ice indicator (located between the two cockpit windshields).30) When landing on contaminated runways. and the landing distance must be multiplied by 1. should be avoided. Use auto brake Approach at the normal speed Make a positive touchdown If needed use max reverse thrust until the aircraft is fully stopped Use nose wheel steering with care Caution: • • Extended flight. in icing conditions with the slats extended.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. when icing conditions exist.4.04. and the landing distance in CONF 3 must be multiplied by 1. WING ANTI ICE should be selected ON. or are anticipated. or to remove ice accumulation from the wing leading edges. If there is evidence of significant ice accretion and to take into account ice formation on non heated structure.04. except during climb and cruise when the SAT is below . or on the windshield wipers. the minimum speed should be : o In configuration full.4.4.6. 11.30) ENGINE ANTI ICE must be ON during all ground and flight operations. delay flap extension as much as possible. VLS + 5 knots.

A low temperature may decrease terrain clearance and may create a potential terrain clearance hazard. crosswind component 33kt 29kt 25kt 20kt 15kt 5kt equivalent runway condition 1 1 2/3 2/3 3/4 4/5 equivalent runway condition (only valid for maximum crosswind determination) 1.25 and below unreliable reported braking action good medium-good medium medium-poor poor Page : 70 of 171 max.8. damp or wet runway (less than 3mm water depth) runway covered with slush runway covered with dry snow runway covered with standing water with risk of hydroplaning or wet snow icy runway or high risk of hydroplaning 11. The altimeter setting source is generally the atmosphere pressure at an airport. therefore.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Winter operation 11. where the temperature may be considerably lower than the temperature of the standard atmosphere and may lead to a significant altimeter error.36 – 0.29 0. The same correction value is applied when flying at either QFE or at QNH. This means that the pressure altimeter indicates the elevation above the pressure reference by following the standard atmospheric profile.04.1 Crosswind limits for landing on contaminated runways (Source: Airbus FCOM 2.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. 11.7.39 0. dry.04.35 0. Temperature greatly influences the isobaric surface spacing which affects altimeter indications. In all cases. the true altitude of the aircraft will be lower than the figure indicated by the altimeter. result in an incorrect reading. the correction has to be applied on the height above the elevation of the altimeter setting source.30 – 0.26 – 0. 4. when the temperature is lower than ISA. Specifically. When the temperature is lower than ISA.40 and above 0. getting to grips with cold weather operations) The pressure (barometric) altimeters installed on the aircraft are calibrated to indicate true altitude under International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) conditions.08 .1 Corrections Various methods are available to correct indicated altitude.10) Reported runway friction coefficient 0. whereby the indicated altitude differs from the true altitude. 2. It may also be the origin of an altitude/position error. 3. Instr. Any deviation from ISA will. this occurs in cold weather conditions. and the correction on the height above the airport has to be applied on the indicated altitude. 5.8 Low temperature effect on altimeter indication (Source: Airbus.

A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Winter operation Page : 71 of 171 Increase obstacle elevation by 4% per 10°C below ISA of the height above the elevation of the altimeter setting source. The ISA deviation is then. The altitude error is: ∆A = 2500ft ⋅ 0.04.8. The Intermediate altitude on the VOR 28 approach is 4000ft or 2500ft above GND. The airport elevation is the same as altimeter setting source altitudes elevation = 1500 ft. equal to 22°C. Let’s now assume that the actual Outside Air Temperature (OAT) is -10°C.2 Example Let’s assume ZRH with an airport elevation of 1500 ft.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. The ISA temperature at 1500 ft is 12°C.08 . or. This method is generally used to adjust minimum safe altitudes and may be applied for all altimeters setting source altitudes for temperatures above -15°C. 11.04 ⋅ 22 10 = 220ft Instr. decrease aircraft indicated altitude by 4% per 10°C below ISA of the height above the elevation of the altimeter setting source.

04. as they execute various procedures. but need not take immediate action. The item is operating normally.08 . a failure of a system or an item of equipment that costs the aircraft the use of other systems or items of equipment. These are particular messages that apply to particular pieces of equipment or situations (inhibition messages.2 Color code The ECAM display uses a color code that indicates the importance of the failure or the indication.1 Types of failures • • • Independent: Primary: Secondary: a failure that affects an isolated system or item of equipment without degrading the performance of others in the aircraft. 12. or limitations. These titles and remarks guide the flight crew.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations Page : 72 of 171 12 Handling of abnormal and emergency situations 12. • • • • • • RED: AMBER: GREEN: WHITE: BLUE: MAGENTA: The configuration or failure requires immediate action. Instr. These are actions to be carried out.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. for example). The flight crew should be aware of the configuration or failure. the loss of a system or an item of equipment resulting from a primary failure.

10) Page : 73 of 171 Level 3 Signification Red warning: The configuration. time and situation permitting. these cautions should be considered without delay to prevent any further degradation of the affected system: • System failure without any direct consequence on the flight safety (eg: HYD G SYS LO PR) Amber caution: Requires crew monitoring : • Failures leading to a loss of redundancy or system degradation (eg : FCDC fault) System parameters monitoring Aural Continuous Repetitive Chime (CRC) or specific sound or synthetic voice Single Chime (SC) Visual MASTER WARN light red flashing or specific red light.31. or limit flight conditions (eg: stall. Amber. Green. or failure requires immediate action: • Aircraft in dangerous configuration.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations 12. or Magenta message on E/WD NONE Advisory Information Memo Information : Recalls normal or automatic selection of functions which are temporarily used NONE Instr.08 . overspeed) • System failure altering flight safety (eg : Eng fire. excess cab alt) Amber caution: The flight crew should be aware of the configuration or failure. The affected parameter pulses green.3 Warning / Caution classification (Source A320 FCOM. 1.04. but does not need to take any immediate action. However. Warning message (red) on E/WD Automatic call of the relevant system page on the S/D MASTER CAUT light amber steady Caution message (amber) on E/WD Automatic call of the relevant system page on the S/D Failure Mode 2 NONE 1 Caution message (amber) on E/WD generally without procedure. Automatic call of the relevant system page on the S/D.

3.00. a black square indicates the precondition A sequential precondition or a phase of flight is indicated by a black dot TITLE TITLE Abnormal procedure displayed on ECAM Abnormal procedure not displayed on ECAM TITLE TITLE Emergency procedure displayed on ECAM Emergency procedure not displayed on ECAM 12.08 .4 Use of QRH (Source QRH 0. g n If actions depend on a precondition.4.4.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations Page : 74 of 171 12.04. A320 FCOM. As a general rule.1 Scope The QRH contains some specific procedures which are NOT displayed on the ECAM. the procedures displayed on the ECAM are not provided in the QRH.01) 12.02.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.2 Contents The QRH is divided in following sections • • • • • • Emergency Procedures Abnormal Procedures Normal Procedures In FLT Performance Ops Data OEB’s Instr.

it is not necessary to refer to the "LANDING WITH FLAPS (SLATS) JAMMED" paper procedure.1 General The summaries consist of QRH procedures.04. and use the VREF given on the MCDU (the destination having been previously updated). and after performing the ECAM actions. Page : 75 of 171 Instr.3. As the recommendations provided in this portion of the summary are deemed sufficient.3 Approach The APPR PROC actions should be performed by reading the approach portion of the summary.4.4. In any case.02. in order to determine the landing distance coefficient.08 . Since normal landing distances are also given on this page.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.3.3. which is not fully addressed on the ECAM. and compute the VAPP. and check that all APPR PROC actions have been completed. This portion has primarily been added due to the flap extension procedure. The pilot is presumed to know the computation method. This includes both the procedure and the STATUS review.4. 12. 3. approach preparation includes a review of the ECAM STATUS.01) 12. the PNF should then review the ECAM STATUS.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations 12. the PNF should refer to the "cruise" portion of the summary to determine the VREF correction. for failure cases leading to the loss of the MCDU. in order for the pilot to decide whether to divert or not. After reviewing the STATUS. 12.3 Use of summaries in the QRH (Source A320 FCOM. the ECAM should be applied first.4. the PNF should refer to the "cruise" portion of the summary. the PNF will be able to compute the landing distance taking failure(s) into account. should the PNF refer to the corresponding QRH summary. in the event of an electrical emergency configuration or dual hydraulic failure. Only after announcing "ECAM ACTIONS COMPLETED". A VREF table is provided in the summary. The landing and go-around portions of the summary should be used for the approach briefing. They have been created to help the crew handle the actions to be carried out.2 Approach preparation As always. When the failure occurs. After referring to the approach portion of the summary.

because it is a good compromise between the necessary time for stabilization. IRS. fire pushbutton) must be confirmed by the PF Executes configurations changes required by the PF After a checklist is finished the PNF informs the PF: PNF: PF: “TITLE. approach or go-around.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. CLEAR?” PF confirms with “CLEAR” and normal task sharing is resumed. provided that the appropriate flight path is established.5 Task sharing for abnormal and emergency procedures (Source: A320 FCOM.00) Procedures are initiated on the Pilot Flying's command. 3. A height of 400 feet is recommended. CLEAR ?” “CLEAR” After completion of the whole checklist the Status page appears. the Pilot Flying may initiate actions before this height. COMPLETED. through the MASTER WARN light) until : • • The appropriate flight path is established The aircraft is at least 400 feet above the runway.02. Irreversible items (engine master switch. “I HAVE CONTROL.02 abnormal and emergency procedures) PNF reads the Status and confirms the completion of the ECAM procedure with “ECAM COMPLETED.08 .A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations 12. No action is taken (apart from canceling audio warnings. if a failure occurs during takeoff. and excessive delay in procedure initiation. ECAM ACTIONS” Page : 76 of 171 PF initiates ECAM: Task sharing: PF: • • • • PNF: • • • Controls the Aircraft Communicates with ATC Is responsible for the thrust levers Requests configuration changes Reads titles and checklists and executes required actions.04. In some emergency cases. Instr. Before studying the Status consider following: • • • Does an OEB (Operations Engineering Bulletin) for the actual problem exist? Is a restart or reset of an affected System possible? Are all checklists completed? (Checklists for normal ops as well as checklists in FCOM 3.01 & QRH 0.

GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. and its performance cannot be guaranteed. However. down to 500 ft AGL in all modes. If the pilot chooses to use the AP in such circumstances. the Pilot Flying should land at the nearest suitable airport. ECAM procedures and STATUS information.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations Notes: • • • If an emergency causes LAND ASAP to appear in red on the ECAM. the fault should be confirmed on the system display. when available : • • • In case of engine failure. and the AP must be disconnected. the crew should consider the seriousness of the situation. When ECAM actions have been performed. must be based on the actual landing distance in Conf FULL (Refer to FCOM 3. If an abnormal procedure causes LAND ASAP to appear in amber on the ECAM.80). the crew may refer to FCOM procedure (FCOM 3. When performing an engine-out non precision approach. Page : 77 of 171 12. the use of the AP is not permitted in the following modes : FINAL APP. supplemented by a PFD/ND check suffice for handling the fault. resulting from an emergency or abnormality. Instr.7 Landing distance Any increase in landing distance. the AP has not been certified in all configurations. if the aircraft deviates from the desired or safe flight path. and the ECAM STATUS has been reviewed. and select a suitable airport. extra vigilance is required.04. NAV FPA. In case of other failures. 12. before applying the ECAM procedures.08 . NAV V/S. However. if time permits. including CAT II/CAT III ILS approaches and fail-passive automatic landing.02.02) for supplementary information.6 Use of autopilot The autopilot (AP) may be used in most failure cases.

02. slats gear) closely monitor flight path and speed If AP engaged the AP disengages when α is greater then α prot If FD is not available use an initial pitch attitude up to 17.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations 12. If necessary to minimize the loss of height. 12.02. 3.04.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.02.80) Before V1: • The takeoff should be rejected only if significant airspeed variations occur below indicated V1 and the pilot decides that there is sufficient runway remaining to stop the airplane.8.80) The "W/S AHEAD" message is displayed on each PFD.8 Memory Items (Source: A320 FCOM. 12.8. The color of the message depends on the severity and location of the winds hear. 3.08 .01) The following procedures are to be applied without referring to paper: • • • • • • • Windshear Windshear ahead TCAS EGPWS Loss of braking Beginning of emergency descent Beginning of unreliable speed indication Page : 78 of 171 12.5°.8.1 W/S AHEAD red Instr.1 Windshear (Source: A320 FCOM.2. if demanded) Note: • • • • do not change configuration (flaps. 3. increase this pitch attitude. TOGA ROTATE FOLLOW After V1: • THR LEVERS • REACHING VR • SRS ORDERS In flight: • THR LEVERS TOGA • AP (if engaged) KEEP • SRS ORDERS FOLLOW (This includes full back stick.2 Windshear ahead (PWS) (Source: A320 FCOM.

or select the most favorable runway. WINDSHEAR AHEAD". the slat/flap configuration can be changed. • SRS ORDERS FOLLOW Note: If AP engaged the AP disengages when α is greater then α prot Landing The W/S AHEAD warning is associated with an aural synthetic voice "GO AROUND. • • • • THR LEVERS ANNOUNCE FLAPS L/G UP TOGA "GO AROUND-FLAPS" RETRACT ONE STEP SELECT Note: • This includes the use of full back stick.5°. if demanded.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations Page : 79 of 171 The W/S AHEAD warning is associated with an aural synthetic voice "WINDSHEAR AHEAD. Note: Predictive windshear alerts are inhibited above 100 knots until 50 feet. WINDSHEAR AHEAD". • If AP engaged the AP disengages when α is greater then α prot • If FD is not available use an initial pitch attitude up to 17. the warning may be considered cautionary. increase this pitch attitude. If necessary to minimize the loss of height.04.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. Instr.08 . During the takeoff run • Reject takeoff. When airborne • THR LEVERS TOGA As usual. Before takeoff • Delay takeoff. provided the windshear is not entered. Note : If a positive verification is made that no hazard exists.

as indicated in the SUPPLEMENTARY TECHNIQUES 3. Select FLAPS 3. increase Vapp displayed on the MCDU up to a maximum of VLS + 15 knots. considering also which has the most appropriate approach aid.80 & FCOM 3. FPA or V/S. Monitor closely airspeed and airspeed trend during the takeoff run for early signs of windshear. If downburst is expected.2. for a more accurate approach and earlier recognition of deviation from the beam.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.2 W/S AHEAD amber (Source: A320 FCOM. Select TOGA thrust.8. Page : 80 of 171 During approach • • • • • • • • Note : • • When it is using the GS mini-function. associated with managed speed.08 . the system will carry extra speed in strong wind conditions. Use the weather radar.02. Use managed speed in the approach phase. Evaluate takeoff conditions using observations. 3.91) Apply precautionary measures. when ILS is available.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations 12. experience and checking weather conditions. experience and checking weather conditions. Select the most favorable runway.04. Before takeoff • • • • • • Delay takeoff until conditions improve. Select the most favorable runway (considering location of the likely windshear).04.4. Check both FDs engaged in ILS.91. Evaluate condition for a safe landing by Using observations. Use the weather radar or the predictive windshear system before commencing takeoff to ensure that the flight path clears any potential problem areas. Engage the autopilot. Delay landing or divert to another airport until conditions are more favorable. Instr.

Respect all GPWS or wind shear warnings Attempt to see the traffic Notify ATC When “clear of conflict” is announced.15) Traffic advisory. resume normal navigation in accordance with ATCclearance.04.2.3 TCAS (Source: A320 FCOM.08 . while keeping the vertical speed outside the red area of the VSI and within the green area. use the full speed range between Vmax and Vmax. • GO AROUND procedure must be performed when a RA "CLIMB" or "INCREASE CLIMB" is triggered on final approach. maintain“ or “adjust vertical speed“ ): • • • • • • • AP (if engaged) OFF BOTH FD OFF Adjust the vertical speed. QRH 1.34. (Resolution Advisories (RA) are inhibited below 900 feet. as required. to that indicated on the green area of the vertical speed scale.) Instr. RA (“climb” or “descent” or “monitor vertical speed” or “maintain vertical speed.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations 12. If necessary. 3. TA (“traffic”) • Attempt to see the traffic Page : 81 of 171 Corrective resolution advisory. Note : • Avoid excessive maneuvers.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.8.

34.2.8.04.1 Hard warnings MWL and synthetic voice “PULL UP“ or “TERRAIN.08 . decrease pitch and accelerate.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.) • Take positive corrections. clean up aircraft as required.4 EGPWS (Source:A320 FCOM. 3.2 Soft warnings MCL and synthetic voice “TERRAIN TERRAIN” or “TERRAIN AHEAD” or “ TOO LOW TERRAIN” or “SINK RATE” or “GLIDE SLOPE” etc.8. Do not delay reaction for diagnosis.8. Reaction: • • • • • • • AP PITCH Pull up to full back stick and maintain. TERRAIN PULL UP“ or “TERRAIN AHEAD PULL UP” or “AVOID TERRAIN” • • During night or in IMC apply the procedure immediately.4.14) Page : 82 of 171 12. QRH 1. with terrain and obstacles clearly in sight.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations 12. the alert may be considered cautionary. Instr. Take positive corrections. During daylight and VMC conditions.4. 12. THRUST LEVERS SPEED BRAKE BANK OFF PULL UP TOGA CHECK RETRACTED WINGS LEVEL or ADJUST When flight path is safe and EGPWS warning ceases. When speed is above VLS and V/S is positive.

• • • If still no braking : • PARKING BRAKE USE Use short successive parking brake applications to stop the aircraft.since the pedal force or displacement produces more braking action in alternate mode than in normal mode.8. MAX BRK PR 1000 PSI Monitor brake pressure or BRAKES PRESS indicator. adjust brake pressure as required. at low ground speed.32.5 Loss of braking (Source: A320 FCOM. to reduce the risk of tire burst and lateral control difficulties.04. If possible.08 . Limit brake pressure to approximately 1000 psi and.13) If autobrake selected: • BREAK PEDALS PRESS Page : 83 of 171 If no braking available: • • REV MAX BRAKE PEDALS RELEASE Brake pedals should be released when the A/SKID & N/W STRG selector is switched OFF. 3. since initial pedal force or displacement produces more braking action in alternate mode than in normal mode. BRAKE PEDALS PRESS Apply brake with care. delay the use of the parking brake until low speed.2. Brake onset asymmetry may be felt at each parking brake application. A/SKID & N/W STRG OFF Braking system reverts to alternate mode.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations 12.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. QRH 1. Instr.

12. When selecting a new HDG ensure that it makes sense.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.04. For example. due to possible activation of the angle of attack protection.6 Emergency descent 12.08 . To avoid autopilot disconnection and automatic retraction of the speed brakes. TCAS may also be used to choose a HDG that doesn´t pose a risk to other traffic.2 Points of considerations • • • When the oxygen masks are on.80. allow the speed to increase before starting to use the speed brakes. it should be above MORA/MOCA. • Instr. A quick way to determine the MORA is to select CSTR and check the lower left of the ND for the value (remember that it is the Grid MORA).8. flights to and from LEPA from Germany pass over mountainous regions – don´t turn towards high terrain. Another example. QRH 1.8.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations Page : 84 of 171 12. refer to the QRH for further actions.02.6.8. After the beginning actions executed by memory.6.25) Immediate Actions: • OXY MASK ON • Descend with autopilot engaged • ALT selector knob turn and pull • HDG selector knob turn and pull • Target SPD/MACH adjust • THR LEVERS (if A/THR not engaged) IDLE • SPEED BRAKES FULL Extension of the speed brakes will significantly increase VLS. establish communication When selecting an altitude. 3.1 Beginning of Emergency descent (Source: A320 FCOM.

It is not affected by unreliable speeds. climb rate). or severe turbulence table (if in cruise). refer to the QRH in order to determine the pitch and thrust settings required by the current flight phase. once stabilized. The indicated altitude may also be affected. they will not be able to reject two erroneous speeds or altitudes that synchronously and similarly drift away. Then. and standby instruments). the pilots must identify the faulty ADR(s) and then switch it (them) OFF. Reduction in aerodynamic noise with increasing speed. Abnormal AP/FD/ATHR behavior. first apply the ADR CHECK procedure to identify the faulty ADR(s) and switch it (them) OFF.1 General Unreliable speed indication may be due to radome damage. Fluctuating or unexpected increase/decrease/permanent indicated speed.08 • • • • Instr.7 Unreliable speed indication (Source: A320 FCOM. Therefore. Stall warning. Depending on the failure. or pressure altitude. Rely on the stall warning that could be triggered in alternate or direct law. Page : 85 of 171 How to apply the procedure • If the wrong speed or altitude information does not affect the safe conduct of the flight. the overspend warning may be false or justified. 2. Unreliable speed indications may be suspected. by comparing all of the indicated speeds/altitudes (from ADR 1. to set the pitch and thrust corresponding to the current flight phase. If necessary. Determine the faulty ADR(s) once the aircraft is stabilized. During this failure identification time. Check the resulting speed indicated on the table with all the indicated speeds/altitudes (from ADR 1. or due to air probe failure or obstruction. If the safe conduct of the flight is affected (all the speed indications are unreliable. it is recommended to maneuver the aircraft with care until the ADR(s) is (are) switched OFF. the flight control and flight guidance computers will use the remaining two wrong ADRs for their computation. 3 and standby instruments) with the expected Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.2. that contradicts with at least one of the indicated speeds. pitch attitude. the aircraft systems will consider the remaining correct source as being faulty and will reject it. or the wrong speed indication cannot not be positively identified) Immediately apply the memory items : AP/FD/ATHR OFF. However. is a symptom of a real overspend condition. Unreliable speed cannot be detected by the ADIRU. if static probes are affected. enter the unreliable speed procedure.8. 2. Buffet. The flight control and flight guidance computers normally reject erroneous speed/altitude source(s). either by • • • • • • • • • • Speed discrepancies (between ADR 1. and fly the memory pitch – thrust settings. thrust. In this remote case. 3 and standby instruments) to positively identify the faulty ADR(s). associated with the overspend VFE warning.34) 12. 2. because it is based on angle of attack. or overspend warnings.04.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations 12. provided a significant difference is detected. Impossibility of extending the landing gear by the normal landing gear control. Consequently.8. in all cases of unreliable speed situation. 3. Abnormal correlation of the basic flight parameters (speed. Inconsistency between radio altitude and pressure altitude. or increase in aerodynamic noise with decreasing speed. 3.7.GuideA320 . since the flight control laws may be affected.

A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations Page : 86 of 171 • speed. use ground speed and GPS speed/altitude variations for reasonableness considerations. THRUST LEVER PITCH ATTITUDE below FL100 PITCH ATTITUDE above FL100 CLB 10° 5° After the beginning actions executed by memory. Ground speed variations can provide valuable short-term information at low altitude.08 .2. it is a valuable aid in establishing a safe flight path. Instr.8.34) • • • • • AP / FD A/THR FLAPS SPEED BRAKES L/G OFF OFF MAINTAIN CURRENT CONFIG CHECK RETRACTED UP Below thrust reduction altitude • • THRUST LEVER PITCH ATTITUDE TOGA 15° Above thrust reduction altitude • • • Note: • • • Respect the stall warning. In the extreme case where the faulty ADR(s) cannot be identified and all speed indications remain unreliable. 3. if altitude information is affected. 12.2 Beginning of Unreliable Speed Indication (Source: A320 FCOM. if in alternate law. apply the proper pitch-thrust settings for each flight phase until landing and refer to ground speed and GPS speed/altitude variations for assistance.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.04.7. In other cases. refer to the QRH for further actions. as per the table . The FPV is unreliable.

02. Page : 87 of 171 The aircraft is certificated according to FAR amendment 25-42.8. and performs the stop actions. if any ECAM warning is activated.02. As soon as he decides to abort.08 . rejecting the takeoff becomes a serious action that may lead to a hazardous situation. based on flight tests.2 Decision management Below 100 knots : • • The decision to reject the takeoff may be taken at the captain's discretion. takes over.8.04. and to avoid unnecessary stops from high speed. initial temperature higher than normal Brakes not fully applied Runway friction coefficient lower than expected Error in gross weight determination Runway line-up not considered. Instr.10 & 3.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations 12.8. he calls "stop". which allows 2 seconds between decision and action.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. Therefore the captain should keep his hand on the thrust levers until V1 is reached whether he is PF or PNF. 3. thus improving the safety margin. but in order to help in the decision process. whichever occurs first). Therefore.8 Rejected T/O / Emergency Evacuation (Source: A320 FCOM.80) 12.8. Rejected takeoffs have sometimes been hazardous even though the performance was correctly calculated. Above 100 knots. This may be due to the following : • • • • • • • Delay in initiating the stopping procedure Tires damaged Brakes worn or not working correctly. the ECAM inhibits the warnings that are not paramount from 80 knots to 1500 feet (or 2 minutes after lift-off.8. 12.1 General The decision to reject the takeoff and the stop action is made by the captain. It is impossible to list all the factors that could lead to the decision to abort the takeoff. as speed approaches V1. Note: The speed of 100 knots is not critical: It was chosen in order to help the captain make his decision. depending on the circumstances Although we cannot list all the causes. the pilot should be "go-minded" if none of the main failures cited below ("Above 100 knots and below V1") has occurred. the captain should seriously consider discontinuing the takeoff.

it is preferable to reduce reverse thrust when passing 70 knots.1 Phase 1 CMD: • • “stop” CALL THRUST LEVERS MAX REVERSE Full reverse may be used until coming to a complete stop. But. The V1 call has precedence over any other call. and land with a full runway length available. It could lead to a hazardous situation.3 Procedure during a rejected takeoff 12. reduce the fuel load. Very few situations should lead to the decision to reject the takeoff.8.8. ECAM warnings such as: ENG or APU FIRE ENG FAIL CONFIG. The main ones are: o o o Fire warning or severe damage. In case of tire failure between V1 minus 20 knots and V1: Unless debris from the tires has caused serious engine anomalies.08 Instr.GuideA320 . Above V1: Takeoff must be continued. FO: • • • • • • BREAK RESPONSE REVERSE “70 kt” ANY WARNING ATC ON GND EVAC C/L MONITOR CONFIRM CALL OUT CANCEL INFORM LOCATE Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. Sudden loss of engine thrust.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations Above 100 knots and below V1 : • Rejecting the takeoff at these speeds is a more serious matter. if the speed is approaching V1. (MAIN WARNINGS ONLY) ENG OIL LO PR ENG REV UNLOCKED L + R ELEV FAULT Page : 88 of 171 • • • Nose gear vibration should not lead to an RTO above 100 knots. 12. because it may not be possible to stop the aircraft on the remaining runway.8.04. Malfunctions or conditions that give unambiguous indications that the aircraft will not fly safely.3. it is far better to get airborne. if there is enough runway available at the end of the deceleration. particularly on slippery runways.8.

until it is absolutely clear that an evacuation is not necessary and that it is safe to do so. refer to the ON GROUND EMER/EVACUATION Checklist for evacuation. the Captain simultaneously reduces thrust and applies maximum pressure on both pedals.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.8. If normal braking is inoperative.8. if the aircraft comes to a complete stop using autobrake MAX. immediately switch the A/SKID & NOSE WHEEL switch OFF and modulate brake pressure.2 Phase 2 CMD: • • • FO: • ECAM ACTIONS INITIATE PARKING BRAKE PA “cabin crew at stations” “ECAM actions” ON CALL CALL 12. After a rejected takeoff. at or below 1000 PSI.04. If the autobrake is unserviceable.3 Evacuation Phase • • If required.8. full manual braking should be applied and maintained. Instr.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations Page : 89 of 171 Note: • If the brake response does not seem appropriate for the runway condition. as required. If the brake pedals were fully pressed when switching the A/SKID & NOSE WHEEL switch OFF.08 .8. only if the brake pedals are maintained fully pressed until the aircraft comes to a stop. full pressure would be applied to the brakes. If in doubt. The aircraft will stop in the minimum distance. Do not attempt to clear the runway. • • • • • 12.3. take over manually. Inform ATC of intention and required assistance.3. release brakes prior to taxi by disarming spoilers.

visual approaches). Flight-crews lose awareness of factors that lead to the most economically viable descent (fuel savings).04. During emergency or abnormal operations the FMS may not be available for the planning. execution and monitoring of the descent. This topic will concern the pilots awareness of the aircraft’s vertical and lateral position and energy in relation to the descent path – using the FMS data as back-up rather than the primary source of information.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. In dynamic and fast-paced ATC environments it is difficult to use the FMS for effective descent planning (e.g. However. EFIS) to aid the pilot in planning and executing a descent from cruising level all the way down to the landing. Can you fly directly for a straight in approach to an airport 30 miles ahead? After working through this section you will appreciate what factors must be considered in finding a reasonable course of action for the above examples and actual situations during daily operations. Instr. These tools have distinct advantages which include: • Economic descent (fuel savings) • FMS can be programmed to consider constraints • MCDU. indicating deviations to +. By using the FMS.10ft on the PERF Page on the MCDU.1 General The Airbus A320 is equipped with numerous electronic tools (FMS. PFD and ND can be used to monitor vertical and lateral progress of descent.08 . the flight-crew risks to become less situationally aware regarding the lateral and vertical position and energy of the aircraft in relation to the descent path independently from the FMS. Some practical examples that would require an approximate rapid calculation by the pilots independent of the FMS (no time available to program the FMS): • • • You are at 9000ft AGL during the approach. • It is very accurate. there are also disadvantages to consider: • • • • The FMS is most useful for long-term predictable paths.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Descent planning Page : 90 of 171 13 Descent planning 13. Remember – a controlled safe descent will provide you with the time to devote your attention to other matters. is this sufficient?” You are cruising 37’000 feet. It is not uncommon for pilots to misjudge the descent ending up “high and fast” – an uncomfortable situation that will require much attention and capacity to rectify. fire and smoke develops in the cabin. ATC asks you “AB7221 you have 25 Track Miles to land. radar vectors. ATC asks “AB9748 how many track miles do you need for landing?” You are being vectored downwind at an altitude of 6000ft AGL.

(The total energy at destination is zero) Instr. and the aircraft is within 180 NM of the destination.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Descent planning 13.20 PERFORMANCE FUNCTION) In the ND a green dashed arc is presented if the lateral guidance mode is heading or track. and the current FMS flight phase is in cruise.81m/s2) Height of the aircraft above the field Speed of the aircraft Etot = E pot + Ekin The primary concern of the flight-crew during the descent is therefore to control the aircraft’s descent path by managing the total energy so as to be at the desired speed at the required altitude – if possible in an economic manner.2. The total energy is always the sum of the potential energy (potential energy = altitude) and its kinetic energy (kinetic energy = speed). 13. It represents the required distance to land by comparing the actual total energy of the aircraft and the required total energy at the destination airport. E pot = mgh Ekin = 1 mv 2 2 Epot: Ekin: m: g: h: v: So the total energy of the Aircraft is Potential energy Kinetic energy Mass of aircraft Acceleration due to gravity (g=9.2 Energy circle displayed on the ND (Source: A320 FCOM 4. descent or approach.2.1 General Page : 91 of 171 A descent constitutes the management of the aircraft´s energy.08 . The energy circle is centered on the aircraft position and oriented to the current track line.04.2.2 Energy management 13.

he can initiate a descent at the highest possible speed and drag so as to complete the descent in the shortest possible time. slats. slats and gear will increase the drag of the aircraft and thus increase the descent gradient.3 Factors affecting the descent path of the aircraft Page : 92 of 171 The primary factors affecting the descent path of an aircraft can be subdivided into two main groups: • Factors that can be influenced by the Pilot o Configuration – Deploying devices such as spoilers. The descent path is not as steep as the second option and so the descent must begin earlier. Since the total drag increases exponentially with speed.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Descent planning 13. flaps. he can choose to continue at the cruising altitude as long as possible in order to have low fuel consumption at high altitude.3. o Speed – The descent speed (IAS) can have a significant effect on the descent path. At the appropriate point.3 The economical descent 13. Consumers such as anti-Ice increase the idle thrust parameters and can also have an influence on the descent path.. Considering that the thrust should be reduced to idle at the top of descent to save fuel. at idle thrust. Factors that cannot be influenced by the Pilot o Mass – A higher mass constitutes higher inertia. o Thrust – The lower thrust setting will translate into a steeper descent path. 13. On the other hand a tailwind will reduce the air distance available to land.04. this speed is the most cost-effective for the given flight. gear extended. Instr. The consequence is that the aircraft has a higher total energy and it takes more effort to change vectors such as speed.2. o Wind – The wind has an influence on the air distance the aircraft has available to reduce the altitude.”it can drop like rock”. it can be seen that the steepest descent path is achieved when the pilot flies with spoilers. • Reading the above. the steepest descent path can be attained flying at the highest possible speeds.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. he can maintain the speed as dictated by the entered Cost Index (Econ Speed) and commence the descent at the relevant point. consumers such as engine anti-ice off. the pilot has two strategies for approach: • • As a first option (1 in the figure below). with maximum IAS – and if he is lucky enough to be flying into a head-wind with a comparatively light aircraft…. flaps.1 General As seen above. Per definition. As a second option (2 in figure below).08 . the Pilot has various tools at his disposal to increase the drag of the aircraft. An increase in headwind increases air distance in which the altitude can be defeated.

the consumed fuel from A to B defeats the economic purpose of the descent.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Descent planning Page : 93 of 171 A B 1 – Econ speed 2 – Max speed The most economic descent is option 1. Whereas option 2 allows the engines to operate at the cruising level for longer and has a shorter descent phase.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.04. Instr. In addition the time gain of option 2 is practically insignificant.08 . the most fuel efficient descent for the applicable flight is the one that is conducted at the ECON SPEED at idle thrust in clean configuration. Consequently.

Instr.08 .GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. req: Aacft: Aairport: tm: tmreq: Required aircraft Altitude Aircraft Altitude Airport elevation Track miles Required track miles [FL] [FL] [FL] [Nm] [Nm] 13. FL 20.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Descent planning 13. (1500ft at this distance is a reasonable deviation – you will get a “feel” for this tolerance during practical flying). aircraft altitude 10’0000ft = approx FL100. airport elevation 2000ft = approx.2.req = 3 ⋅ tm + Aairport Consequently: tmreq = Aacft − Aairport 3 Aacft. Are you on the 3° descent path (do not consider effects of wind in this example)? Required aircraft altitude: Aacft . have a lift/drag curve in clean configuration that lends itself well to a conduct of a 3° descent gradient.g.2 Planning for an economical descent Page : 94 of 171 As far as fuel efficiency is concerned. Therefore the most cost-effective descent is attained when flying at the company specified Cost Index speed without the aid of devices such as spoilers.1 Example 1 During a descent you are at 11’000ft AMSL and are descending to a runway 35 NM away that is at 2000ft AMSL. The aerodynamics of most commercial aircraft such as the A320. The pilot can always check what the aircraft altitude should be is in relation to this gradient with the following formula: Note: For simplification use FL equivalents for altitude and elevation e.04.3.req = 3 ⋅ 35 + 20 = FL125 The required aircraft altitude is FL125 or approximately 12’500ft AMSL In the above example you are 1500ft below the 3° descent path and so are in a comfortable position to continue the descent.3. Aacft . anytime a high drag device is deployed it means that lift energy is being destroyed – lift that was provided by engine thrust (and fuel!) at some point.

4 Remaining on the 3° descent path As discussed earlier. a.3. Required aircraft altitude: tmreq = (Aacft . the air distance available would decrease and the rate of descent would have to be increased to remain on the descent path. When should you start your descent (do not consider effects of wind in this example)? b.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Descent planning Page : 95 of 171 13. Instr. The airport is at 2000ft. this ND is an ideal tool since the distance markings give a good view in which to visualize the possible ground distance.08 . Are you too high? If so by how much? Answer: a. Because the method by which the pilot monitors the descent rate is primarily the vertical speed indicator it would be helpful if there was a simple way to calculate the required vertical speed to maintain a 3° descent gradient. It may contain additional miles such as procedure turns that you will end up not flying – considerably reducing your actual track miles.req = 3 ⋅ 90 + 20 = FL290 So you should start your descent immediately since you are 6000ft too high! 13.04. 13. However.3. Required track miles: b. However if the aircraft would fly into an increasing tailwind. If flying into an increasing headwind the aircraft has more air distance available to complete the descent – the pilot would have to reduce the vertical speed to remain on the descent path.3 A word about track miles The key to successful descent planning is that the pilot is aware of the distance which the aircraft has left to fly over ground. be cautious about simply reading the distance on the MCDU F-PLN page. the Ground speed (as seen on the ND on the A320) must be monitored and the V/S adjusted since the wind can vary significantly at various altitudes.2 Example 2 You see that you are 90 NM from the airport at which you intend to land and are still cruising at FL350. In order to do this. there is a simple formula: VSreq = 5 ⋅ GS VSreq: GS: Required vertical speed Ground speed [ft/min] [kt] This formula already takes into account any existing tail or headwind component.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. When calculating the track miles. Fortunately.3.Aaiport) ) / 3 = (350 – 20) / 3 = 110 track miles Aacft .2. the wind has a distinct effect on how many air miles the aircraft has available for completing the descent.

5. he will later be able to lose the excess altitude effectively by increasing the speed in OP DES mode.3. Obviously the deployments of any high-drag devices are undesired during this stage. to speed (kinetic energy). In this case we must act accordingly and intercept the desired gradient using several tools at our disposal. there are cases when further descent is restricted by ATC but the aircraft is already significantly above the desired 3° descent gradient. o If the pilot reduces the speed at this stage.1 Intercepting from above • When above the glide-slope. maximum speed for configuration already attained). If the speed energy required is insufficient to regain the desired descent path.1 Example If you see on your ND that your GS is 300 Knots and you are on the 3° descent gradient.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.3. However. ATC) or possible (e. the same basic energy management principles apply: Excess speed can be traded for altitude. when in OP DES mode (engines at idle thrust) a selection of a higher IAS would result in an increase in airspeed and therefore an increase is descent rate.g.g. VSreq = 5 ⋅ GS = 5 ⋅ 300 = 1500 ft min 13.5 Strategies for intercepting the 3° descent path from above and below Because the environment in which we fly is so dynamic. 13. the pilot can convert the excess altitude (potential energy). Instr.3. he may have to resort to the spoilers later to defeat the excess altitude. Once established on the descent path. the speed can be reduced to attain a descent rate that is appropriate for the descent path.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Descent planning Page : 96 of 171 13. the only option left to the pilot is to add thrust. For example.2 Intercepting from below Intercepting the descent-path from below allows the pilot fewer strategies.5. As a result. For example. In this case high-drag devices allow an increase in descent rate without an increase in airspeed.04. the fuel spent cruising at the original speed will have been wasted. Using this notion. • • 13.4. the pilot has great flexibility in applying them. the pilot reduces the thrust and fuel flow and may be able to attain the descent path without unnecessary additional drag such as spoilers. it often occurs that we find ourselves above the desired descent gradient or even below. o If the pilot chooses to continue at this speed.08 .3. By reducing the speed. what would be your required vertical speed? Required vertical speed. Devices such as spoilers are especially useful for increasing descent rate when the speed increase is no longer desired (e.

even minor fuel savings per aircraft can add up to vast sums for the entire fleet over the course of a year. So remember.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. Although safety remains the top priority – economic flying is becoming ever more important.04.08 .A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Descent planning 13. the descent must be safe and economic! Instr. fuel cost is a major factor in determining the future of any company. great emphasis was put above on the economics of the descent. In today’s industry. As Airberlin has a considerable fleet size.4 Conclusion Page : 97 of 171 As you have read.

when the remaining instruments and equipment provide an acceptable level of safety. It is important that rectifications be accomplished at the earliest opportunity. The MEL makes no distinction between what is required for the flight between origin and destination (including the intermediate stops) and what is required for a flight beyond the scheduled arrival point. engines.1 Objectives An airplane is being type certificated with all required equipments in operating conditions. etc… or items which do not affect the air worthiness of the aircraft such as galley equipment. For the sake of brevity. entertainment systems. MEL conditions and limitations do not relieve the pilot in command from determining that the aircraft is in a fit condition for safe operation with MEL specified unserviceabilities. Therefore. • • • • • For dispatch with secondary airframe or engine parts missing refer to Configuration Deviation List (CDL). in specific conditions and during limited period. The failure of instruments or items of equipment in excess of those allowed to be inoperative by the MEL causes the aircraft to be unairworthy.04.08 .2 General application of the MEL • • MEL provisions are applicable until the airplane commences the flight and therefore have to be considered during taxiing prior take off. His decision to have allowable inoperative items corrected prior flight will have priority over the provisions contained in the MEL.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Minimum Eqipment List Page : 98 of 171 14 Minimum Equipment List (MEL) (Source: A320 Airberlin MEL) 14. In order to maintain an acceptable level of safety and reliability the MEL establishes limitations on the duration of and conditions for operation with inoperative equipment. the aircraft could not be flown in revenue service unless such equipment was operable. certain conditional deviations from the original requirement are authorized to permit continued or uninterrupted operation of the aircraft in revenue flight: they are published in the MINIMUM EQUIPMENT LIST (MEL) related to applicable regulations. landing gear. passenger convenience items. The MEL is intended to permit operation with inoperative items of equipment for a period of time until rectifications can be accomplished. If deviations from this type certificated configuration and equipment required by the operating rules were not permitted. • • Instr. control surfaces. the MEL does not include obviously required items such as wings. specific operations or airlines particular definitions. Experience has proven that the operation of every system or component installed on the aircraft is not necessary. 14. etc… All items which are related to the airworthiness of the aircraft and not included in the list are automatically required to be operative for each flight.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.

CAT3 SINGLE. The exposure to additional failures during operation with failed inoperative systems or components must also be considered to determine that an acceptable level of safety is being maintained. emergency procedures.3 Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM) • • Minimum equipment/functions required to begin RVSM operations are listed in Flight Manual 4. The MEL does not include these requirements. This MEL may not deviate from requirements of the flight manual limitations section. FM and FCOM.03.2.00 and FCOM 2. refer to Flight Manual and FCOM.04. CAT3 SINGLE.2.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.51.03.1 Handling of maintenance messages displayed on ECAM status page At the head of each ATA chapter of this MEL.00 page 8.00 and FCOM 2.04. Dispatch with a MAINTENANCE message displayed on ECAM STATUS page is allowed without specific conditions except for the following message: • AIR BLEED: Refer to MEL 36–00–01 14. 14.2.2 CAT2. refer to QRH. CAT3 DUAL automatic approach and landing • • Equipment to be operative to get CAT2.4 Required Navigation Performance (RNP) • • Minimum equipment/functions required to begin RNP operations are listed in FM 4.2. the related MAINTENANCE messages which may be displayed on ECAM STATUS page are listed with the indication of the associated dispatch status. The MEL does not include these requirements. The MEL does not include these requirements.08 . unless the flight manual or airworthiness directive provides otherwise. • • 14.04. refer to Flight Manual and FCOM.03.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Minimum Eqipment List Page : 99 of 171 • Air carriers are responsible for exercising the necessary operational control to assure that no aircraft is dispatched or flown with one or more MEL item inoperative for an indefinite period and without first determining that any interface or interrelationship between inoperative systems or components will not result in a degradation in the level of safety and/or an undue increase in crew workload.50. A MAINTENANCE message indicates the presence of a category of failure which can only be identified by the interrogation of CFDS. or CAT3 DUAL capability displayed on FMA are listed in QRH and in the Flight Manual 4. or airworthiness directives. Instr. 14.

A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Minimum Eqipment List Page : 100 of 171 14. 14. 14.3..3 Structure of the MEL The content of the MEL is divided into four parts: 14. The relevant procedure can be found in the AM (Aircraft Maintenance Manual) and has to be carried out by a certified mechanic.00 Page 1-5 Instr.3. is described in section 02 Operational Procedures When a MEL item calls for a maintenance procedure.3..1 Section 00 General Section 00 contains general information about the manual.04. 14.3 Section 01 MEL The Minimum Equipment List contains the LBA approved list of equipment which may be inoperative for aircraft dispatch and/or clearly specified NO GO items if necessary • • When a MEL item requests a flight crew action. this is labelled by an (m).4 Section 02 Operational Procedure Section 02 contains operational procedures.2 Section 00E Section 00E contains ECAM warnings/MEL entry.08 ..4 Presentation of the MEL For a detailed description of the presentation of the MEL refer to MEL 01. 14.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.3. a so called operational procedure (labelled by an (o) ) a procedure.

double EFIS. The equipment code for the A320 is E (double FMS.1.3.STARs 15.1 en route and in terminal area provided a required accuracy of 1. According Jeppesen air traffic control 7. which permits aircraft operation on any desired flight path within the limits of the capability of self-contained aids or a combination of these.3.3 in approach provided a required accuracy of 0. triple IRS) Note: The filing on ATC-FPL is mandatory for use of FMS/RNAV .transitions to final approach (clearance limit to intermediate fix) are an integral part of the standard arrival procedures and should not be filed separately in the ATC FPL.4.10) (Source: A320 FCOM 2. the value X is the navigation accuracy expressed in NM which has to be met with a probability of 95%.2 Without GPS PRIMARY RNP requirements are met.04.2. which has to be incorporated in field 10 of the ATC flight plan.3 15.2Nm is manually entered in MCDU PROG page RNP.2) The appropriate FMS/RNAV . The Required Navigation Performance (RNP. provided the radio navaid coverage supports it for: • • RNP.1 General (Source: Air Berlin OM-A.0.51 P-RNAV FOR EUROPEAN TERMINAL PROCEDURES) 15. 8.3.2.08 .3 Required Navigation Performance (RNP) (Source: A320 FCOM 2. • • RNP 5 (Basic RNAV) RNP 1 (Precision RNAV) 15. 8. The indication for air traffic control is the appropriate equipment code.1 General When referring to RNP-X.2 Dispatch requirements (Source: Air Berlin OM-A.04.2 ) Area Navigation (RNAV) is a method of navigation.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. see chapter 15.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY RNAV Page : 101 of 171 15 RNAV 15.3.3.36Nm is manually entered in MCDU PROG page Instr.2.8 the required RNP is as follows: • • • en-route navigation: terminal navigation: approach: RNP-5 RNP-1 RNP-0. page101) is a parameter describing lateral deviations from an assigned or selected track as well as along track position fixing accuracy on the basis of an appropriate containment level.

B-RNAV capability is maintained for 2 hours.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. check navigation accuracy with the navaid raw data. If one of the following MCDU or ECAM messages is displayed. The minimum required equipment to enter B-RNAV airspace is: One RNAV system. or enter the appropriate value on the MCDU.1 en route RNP. periodically crosscheck the FM position with navaid raw data. which is 6.1 General In this airspace. which means: • • • • • • One FMGC One MCDU One VOR for FM navigation update One DME for FM navigation update One IRS Flight Plan Data on two NDs.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY RNAV Page : 102 of 171 15. revert to the default required accuracy.0. If manual entry of a required accuracy is desired.08 .3 With GPS PRIMARY RNP requirements are met. Manual selection of a required accuracy on the MCDU is optional. enter 5NM or use the radial equivalent to 5NM XTK accuracy. or when entering the terminal area. and revert to conventional navigation.4 B-RNAV in European airspace (Source: A320 FCOM 2. or if both FMGCs have failed: Inform the ATC. Instr. 15.51 BRNAV IN EUROPEAN AIRSPACE) 15.4. radio navaid coverage is assumed to support RNP-5 accuracy.0. independently of the estimated accuracy displayed on the MCDU. If the accuracy check confirms that only one FMGC position is incorrect. When leaving RNP-5 airspace.04. resume navigation with the other FMGC. or with the GPS MONITOR page (if GPS installed): o o o o NAV ACCUR DOWNGRAD FMS1/FMS2 POS DIFF CHECK IRS 1(2)(3)/FM POSITION ECAM : FM/GPS POS DISAGREE (if GPS installed) • • • If the accuracy check confirms that RNP-5 capability is lost.2 Procedures • • • • • When GPS PRIMARY is not available.3 in approach provided AP or FD in NAV mode is used 15.1NM. for: • • • RNP.4. provided GPS PRIMARY is available.3.5 in terminal area provided AP or FD in NAV mode is used RNP. In inertial navigation.4.

A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY RNAV 15. For terminal procedures with legs below the MSA. HDG to intercept the F-PLN. radio navaid coverage can be assumed to support RNP-1 accuracy. and checked for reasonableness by comparing the F-PLN page waypoint sequencing. RNAV TRANSITION. or enter the appropriate value on the MCDU.08 . The procedure. RNAV STAR. If the accuracy check confirms that only one FMGC position is incorrect. If one of the following messages is displayed. . which means : One FMGC One MCDU One VOR or GPS receiver for FM navigation update One DME or GPS receiver for FM navigation update One IRS One FD Flight Plan data for two NDs. The minimum required equipment to fly a P-RNAV procedure is: • • • • • • • • One RNAV system. check or enter RNP-1 in the MCDU and check HIGH accuracy.5.2 Procedures • • When GPS PRIMARY is not available.5. revert to the default. crosscheck the FM position with the navaid raw data. check navigation accuracy with navaid raw data or the GPS monitor page (if GPS is installed) : o o o o o • • • • NAV ACCUR DOWNGRAD FMS1/FMS2 POS DIFF CHECK IRS 1(2)(3)/FM POSITION ECAM : FM/GPS DISAGREE (if GPS installed) ECAM : FM/IR POS DISAGREE • • If the accuracy check confirms that RNP-1 is lost.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.04. or if both FMGCs are failed: Inform the ATC and revert to conventional navigation. distances and altitude constraints with the procedure chart. tracks.4. The terminal procedure (RNAV SID. When leaving the terminal procedures.. resume navigation with the other system. unless instructed to do so by the ATC (DIR TO. two RNAV systems may be mandated by the procedure chart. prior to starting the procedure. or without appropriate radar coverage.1 General For terminal procedures requiring P-RNAV capability within European airspace. If GPS PRIMARY is not available. 15. Instr.) must be loaded from the FM navigation database. insertion of waypoints loaded from the navigation database). as loaded from the navigation database should not be modified..51 P-RNAV FOR EUROPEAN TERMINAL PROCEDURES) 15.5 P-RNAV for terminal procedures Page : 103 of 171 (Source: A320 FCOM 2...

each IRS can independently select their GPS source in order to maximize GPS data availability. navaids plus inertial or inertial only are used.22. Navigation) Each FMGC computes its own aircraft position (called the "FM position") from a MIX IRS position and a computed radio position or GPS position.6. If the test fails. When the CHECK IRS (1. For this.08 . all usual navigation performance requirements are met. Otherwise. the "GPS PRIMARY LOST" message is displayed on the ND and on the MCDU scratchpad. Among these 3 GPIRS positions received by each FMGC. The FMGS selects the most accurate position. 15. Each IRS position and inertial speed are continuously tested.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY RNAV Page : 104 of 171 15. the loss of the GPS primary function triggers a triple click aural warning.6 Position Computation (Source: A320 FCOM 1. considering the estimated accuracy and integrity of each positioning equipment. The crew can deselect/select the GPS on the SELECTED NAVAIDS page. 2 or 3)/FM POSITION message appears on the MCDU. It means that GPIRS data again complies with the required integrity criteria. refer to FCOM 4.1 Mix IRS Position Each FMGC receives a position from each of the three IRSs. each FMGC uses only one IRS (onside IRS or IRS3). When the GPS primary function is recovered. the MIX IRS position uses an algorithm that decreases the influence of the drifting IRS within the MIX IRS position.20. GPS/INERTIAL is the basic navigation mode provided GPS data is valid and successfully tested.6. and computes a mean-weighted average called the "MIX IRS" position. the corresponding IRS is rejected. As long as GPS primary is in use. (Refer to Navigation modes). the GPS mode is rejected. 15.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. If one of the IRSs drifts abnormally. one is selected according to a figure of merit and priority. During non ILS approach. The selection is performed using the following hierarchy : • • • Onside GPIRS position GPIRS 3 Opposite GPIRS position If the GPIRS data does not comply with an integrity criteria.04. If one of the IRSs fails. the "GPS PRIMARY" message comes up on the ND and on the MCDU scratchpad. if necessary. Instr.03.2 GPS Position Each IRS computes a hybrid position that is a mixed IRS/GPS position called GPIRS. and radio position updating is used.

using LOC beam during ILS approach.04.6. when in GPS/IRS mode.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. If one or more navaids fail.4 FM Position At flight initialization.08 . the FM position is updated to the runway threshold position.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY RNAV Page : 105 of 171 15. The radio navaid selection is displayed on the DATA "SELECTED NAVAIDS" page. or the GPS position.6. 15. The FMGS updates the FM position using GPS or radio navaids if the GPS function in inoperative. as stored in the database. It can use 4 main different FM navigation modes to make this update. or the DME/DME radio position. each FMGC can use offside navaids to compute the VOR/DME. LOC is also used for quick update. at a rate that depends upon the aircraft altitude. Note : The FM position update at takeoff is inhibited when GPS PRIMARY is active.3 Radio Position Each FMGC uses onside navaids to compute its own radio position. These navaids are displayed on the SELECTED NAVAIDS page. each FMGC displays an FM position that is a mixed IRS/GPS position (GPIRS). The decreasing priority order is: • • • • IRS-GPS IRS-DME/DME IRS-VOR/DME IRS only During ILS approaches the system performs. The available navaids are : • • • • • DME/DME VOR/DME LOC DME/DME-LOC VOR/DME-LOC It uses LOC to update the lateral position. possibly corrected by the takeoff shift entered on the PERF TO page. In flight. a lateral temporary updating using one of the following modes : • • • • IRS-GPS/LOC IRS-DME/DME-LOC IRS-VOR/DME-LOC IRS-LOC Instr. At takeoff. the FM position approaches the radio position.

The number displayed in the Required Navigation Performance (RNP) field is (in decreasing order of priority): • • • The pilot-entered value the database procedure value The system's default value.04. and is a function of the navigation mode the system is using. Navigation) The FMGS computes an Estimated Position Error (EPE) continually. EPE increases continuously IRS/DME/DME Tends towards 0.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. This message is also displayed upon a flight area change.05 X DME DIST minimum : 0.5 in meters REMARK FOM = Figure of Merit of GPS If above 0.XX". When a pilot enters a RNP that is larger than the published value. The RNP value shall be in accordance with the specified RNP values of the navigation/approach charts (if a RNP is specified). and modify it. The system displays the EPE to the crew.28 NM 0. if the new required criteria (default value) are smaller than the displayed manually-entered value.28 Nm. • If the EPE exceeds the appropriate criteria. or "AREA RNP IS XX.08 . • If the EPE does not exceed the appropriate criteria. When this occurs.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY RNAV Page : 106 of 171 15. accuracy is LOW. EPE decreases from initial value to 0. + 2 NM/h after IRS/VOR/DME IRS ONLY Note: After an IRS alignment or at takeoff the EPE is set at 0.0 NM 1. CURRENT NAV MODE IRS/GPS EPE (RATE or THRESHOLD) (FOM² + 100²)^0.28 NM + 8 NM/h for the first 21 min.1 NM + 0.5 NM Instr.5 Evaluation of position accuracy (Source: A320 FCOM 1.XX".2 NM.22. accuracy is HIGH.3 NM 0. It is an estimate of how much the FM position has drifted. one of the following messages is displayed: "PROCEDURE RNP is XX.20. Default area RNP values: • • • en route: terminal: approach o GPS: o other cases: 2.0 NM 0.6. the crew should check the entered value. if necessary. and compares it with the required navigation performance (RNP). EPE increases or decreases as the distance between the a/c and the VOR/DME.28 NM the GPS position is rejected.

15. then the lower ECAM display unit displays the NAV FMS/GPS POS DISAGREE amber message and A/C POS. but only when the EPE exceeds the required criteria.7 RNAV approaches with vertical guidance (Source: A320 FCOM. NAV accuracy does not immediately downgrade. GPS/FMS POSITION DISAGREEMENT: When GPS primary is active.08 . When the GPS is lost.19 & OEB 826/1 ) 15.. Caution: • • • "HIGH" or "LOW" indicates FM position accuracy. based upon estimated drift. 80 NM before T/D or at approach phase transition.5 minutes of latitude or longitude. When the GPS is manually deselected.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. the EPE is always smaller than any airworthiness required value. and the associated MCDU display.3. and the single chime sounds. and temporarily on the ND. the "GPS IS DESELECTED" message is displayed on the MCDU. when the GPS function is lost. FACF = Final Approach Course Fix MAP = Missed Approach Point FAF = Final Approach Fix Instr. and must be considered. a "GPS PRIMARY LOST" message is displayed on the ND and MCDU scratchpads.1 Coding requirements A number of FMGC coding guidance requirements have been identified. the following drawings show the coding of an VOR DME IAP (with the MAP before the runway).. 3. When the GPS function is lost. and either of the FMGC positions deviates from the GPS positions 1 or 2 by more than 0. The master caution light comes on. This is why the flight crew must periodically check position accuracy. As an example. As a result. CHECK in blue. accuracy is HIGH and GPS is the primary mean of navigation.04. a triple click aural warning is also triggered. The MCDU message can be cleared but the ND message cannot.7. "GPS PRIMARY" is displayed on the PROG page. when performing navigation database validation for the use of managed guidance in approach.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY RNAV Page : 107 of 171 When the position computation uses IRS/GPS mode. During a non ILS approach.

and the MAP. the runway threshold. The identification of the waypoints shown an the MCDU often differs from the identification shown on the approach chart. Instr. The following recommendations are provided to highlight specific vertical navigation aspects when FINAL APP mode is used. or before. with the MAP after the runway threshold. it more often consists of 3. an FPA = 0° must be coded at the MAP For these "old style IAP". between the MAP and the FAF. the 3 waypoints are the FACF. and the final descent would start before the FAF. When the MAP is located at. the FAF. Combining altitude constraint may lead to erroneous vertical flight path guidance. • The MAP of an RNAV IAP must be located at the runway threshold. Sometimes. FMGC guidance may start the final approach descent slightly before the FAF.1 The lateral F-PLN coding requirements • • The FACF and the FAF must be aligned with the approach course. However. a Step Down Fix (SDF) is added an the approach final descent between the FAF and the MAP The SDF is not necessarily identical to the waypoints published an the approach chart. In most cases.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY RNAV Page : 108 of 171 The final approach consists of a sequence of at least two waypoints.7. an FPA (# 0°) must be coded at the MAP. the crossing altitude difference at the FAF is not significant (less than 50 feet). waypoints.19) for Non Precision and RNAV approaches are applicable. An AT or ABOVE constraint can be used for an SDF.7. But sometimes this difference may be higher. A sharp turn would prevent the aircraft from overflying the FAF.2 The vertical F-PLN coding requirements • • • • • An altitude constraint must be coded at each approach waypoint. without the aircraft being established an the final approach course. and depending an the position of the approach axis relative to the runway. or after the runway threshold. the course change at the FAF should be small. 15.08 . This FPA will appear an the MCDU.04. lf the FACF and the FAF are collocated. Any waypoint of the approach should not be common to a STAR or a VIA waypoint with different altitude constraints. When the MAP is located after the runway threshold.1.1. or any previous SDF in the final approach. or at the runway threshold (RW).03. 15. the MAP is located at.2 Flight crew Procedures The SOP (FCOM 3. or 4. Sometimes. It is important for the crew to identify the MAP position. In the above example. 15.7.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.

extracted from the navigation database can be modified provided the following limitations are observed : 1.04.1 Approach F-PLN verification Before starting the approach. for RNAV approaches the minimum OAT will be published an the approach chart itself. No altitude constraint modification from FACF to MAP Even in case of a very low OAT. In the future.GuideA320 . A modification is permitted before FACF. GPS 1+2 on GPS MONITOR page CHECK BOTH IN NAV GPS PRIMARY on PROG page CHECK AVAILABLE If GPS PRIMARY is not available • • RNP for approach CHECK/ENTER HIGH accuracy CHECK 15. This may require that a minimum OAT be defined.2 Limitations to approach F-PLN modifications When performing an IAP. using NAV and FINAL APP modes. the active F-PLN. no altitude correction can be entered in this way. and verify the profile against the published IAP chart.08 Instr. This minimum OAT should be given to the crew when appropriate.2. or FAF to MAP Approach angle (shown an the MCDU line above the related waypoints) If MAP.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY RNAV Page : 109 of 171 15. so that the vertical flight path will clear obstacles with the required margin. starting from the beginning of the STAR down to the runway and the missed approach procedure.7. and on the ND in PLAN mode with the CSTR displayed). For the final approach procedure the crew should check the following: • • • • • • • • • • • • Approach course Waypoints and associated altitude constraints IAP must not include a Procedure Turn (PROC T indicated an the MCDU) Distance from the FAF to RW. an FPA # 0° must be defined MAP of an RNAV IAP must be located at the runway threshold. Altitude at the MAP or at the runway threshold: lf the crossing altitude at MAP is not shown on the approach chart. Note : The MAP of a GPS IAP can be located before the runway threshold.2. Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. provided the resulting change in the flight path course is not so large that it prevents the aircraft from being laterally-stabilized on the final approach course before reaching the FAF. the crew must check the FMS F-PLN (on the MCDU.7. crosscheck consistency with the distance to the runway and the approach angle. F-PLN modifications : • • • No lateral modification of the F-PLN from FACF (inclusive) to RW or to MAP. after the runway threshold : FPA = 0° at MAP If MAP before or at runway threshold : FPA # 0° at MAP For each Step Down Fix.

. the FROM waypoint must not be cleared in an attempt to perform a DIR TO/INTERCEPT. The FAF should be sequenced in NAV mode.04. CAUTION • Before arming NAV. DIR TO FAF is permitted. 2. and the VDEV scale is on the PFD.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY RNAV Page : 110 of 171 • • When the FAF is the TO waypoint. Check correct TO waypoint on the ND.7. at the latest. it is recommended to enter Vapp as a SPD CSTR at FAF. Use altitude indication versus distance to the runway to monitor the vertical navigation. at the latest. The intercept path in HDG/TRK must not cause premature sequencing of the FAF. provided the resulting change in flight path course at FACF is not so large that it prevents the aircraft from being laterally-stabilized on the final approach course before reaching the FAF. Note : In managed guidance (FINAL APP mode engaged). provided the RADIAL IN corresponding to the final approach course (approach course + 180°) is selected.7. FINAL is armed. revert to NAV/FPA or consider the go-around. the autopilot automatically disengages. provided the interception angle is small. Instr.50 or 400 feet (if no MDA/MDH entered).08 . provided the resulting change in flight path course at FAF is small. or Before FAF.4 Vertical F-PLN interception : • The crew should manage the descent.3 Lateral F-PLN interception in HDG/TRK : • • F-PLN must be intercepted before the FACF. Monitor VDEV and FPV (on the PFD) and XTK error (on the ND). and have a correct location of the DECEL point. Once cleared for the approach. press the pushbutton when flying towards the FAF or the FACF. DIR TO. If the vertical guidance is unsatisfactory. 15.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.2. If the lateral guidance is unsatisfactory. 15. when the aircraft reaches MDA (MDH) . check that the correct "TO" waypoint is displayed an the ND. so that the vertical F-PLN is intercepted before the FAF. • • • DIR TO FACF is permitted. To benefit from managed speed.2. perform a go-around. and the interception angle should not be so large that it prevents the aircraft from being laterally-stabilized an the final approach course before reaching the FAF. • • • Check that APPR NAV is engaged.. For aircraft with FMS2 : DIR TO/INTERCEPT TO FAF is permitted. and that the interception angle is not so large that it prevents the aircraft from being laterallystabilized on the final approach course at the FAF. when established an the final approach course.

08 Instr. or to the MAP displayed an the ND. during an RNAV approach. and that the FPV is consistent with the approach angle. and if no navaid raw data is available to revert to selected modes. FM1/FM2 POS DIFF.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY RNAV Page : 111 of 171 15.04. NAV ACCUR DOWNGRAD. Generally the following applies: XTE: EPE: RNP: XTE + EPE ≤ RNP X-TRK Error (displayed on the ND) Estimated Position Error (displayed on the PROG Page) Required Navigation Performance for Aprroach (normally 0.GuideA320 .7. the crew must verify • • • • • Correct altitude indication Correct FMA display (FINAL APP green) Correct TO waypoint an the ND Correct blue track an the ND. FM/GPS POS DISAGREE. the crew must verify the • • • • Correct FMA display (APP NAV green. 15. when stabilized an the final descent.8 Non Precision Approaches with engine-out (Source: A320 FCOM.3 Approach monitoring For RNAV IAP. if GPS is installed and is not deselected. if GPS accuracy is required.22.1. the crew should check that the X-TRK and V-DEV are correct. The IAP must be discontinued. vertical navigation can be monitored by using the distance to the RW. General) If one engine is inoperative. unless navaid raw data is available to revert to selected modes.3NM) If the sum of the X-TRK Error and the EPE is greater than the RNP perform a go around! When APPR is selected an the FCU. when one of the following warnings occurs • • • • GPS PRIMARY LOST. it is not permitted to use the autopilot to perform NPAs in the following modes: • • FINAL APP NAV V/S Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. After passing the FAF. and the altimeter reading. 3. armed for Missed Approach That the aircraft starts the descent and follows the correct lateral and vertical flight path. FINAL blue) Correct TO waypoint on the ND Blue descent arrow at FAF and the correct F-PLN Correct Vertical Flight Path deviation indication When passing the FAF.

Only FD use is permitted. Instr.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY RNAV Page : 112 of 171 • NAV/FPA.04.08 .

page 34. that there is not any damage in the pitot-static probes and adjacent area The altimeter accuracy by setting the QNH or the QFE. regarding the RVSM status of the aircraft. Effectively.34. procedures) (Source: A320 FCOM.2. Change of RVSM aircraft status shall be reported to Traffic Centre TXL immediately. RVSM compliance is the normal aircraft status. the introduction of RVSM will permit the application of a 1’000 ft vertical separation minimum (VSM) between suitable equipped aircraft in the level band FL 290 – FL 410 inclusive. aircraft nonRVSM compliant) and notify as HlL item.g. A copy of the WO shall be faxed to MOC and Traffic Centre TXL.3.4.3 Pre-flight procedures (Source: Air Berlin OM-A 8. Check letter W in field 10 of ATC flight plan. Ensure that maintenance actions have been taken to correct any defects of required equipment. flight instrument tolerances) (Source: A320 FCOM. on ground. 2. 3. therefore will not be documented.08 Instr.2.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY RVSM Page 113 of 171 16 RVSM 16.04. The reading should then agree with the altitude of the apron or the zero height indication within a 75 ft (23m) tolerance. RVSM Implementation.GuideA320 . Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.3. ADR1/ADR3 respectively ADR2/ADR3 is 20ft).04.4. Check.50. page 115) (max difference between ADR1/ADR2. before. Review of maintenance logs and forms to determine the condition of equipment required for flight in RVSM airspace. during or after a flight shall be notified by an entry into the WO with reference to the RVSM status of the aircraft [e. The European Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM) reduces the separation minimum between FL290 and FL410 to 1’000 ft between suitable equipped aircraft. whenever possible. RVSM Implementation) The implementation of a reduced vertical separation minimum represents a major capacity enhancing objective of European Air Traffic Harmonisation and Integration Programme (EATCHIP) work programme.6. see also chapter 16.5.3. thereby making available six additional usable flight levels. 16. Check reported and forecasted weather on the flight route.34.2 General procedures (Source: Air Berlin OM-A 8. RVSM Implementation. Check. page 34. The purpose of these six additional flight levels is to reduce controller workload and to provide the airspace user community with an improved operating environment and to optimise flight profiles. Additionally MOC and Traffic Centre TXL have to be informed as soon as possible by using any means of communication available. procedures) Any deviation.5. page 114) for RVSM operations and that maintenance actions have been taken to correct defects. that the two primary altitude indications are within tolerances (FCOM 3.5 page 30. procedures) The flight crew shall verify: • • • • • • • The condition of the equipment required (refers to chapter 0.1 General (Source: Air Berlin OM-A 8. 16.2.

A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY

RVSM 16.4 In-flight procedures

Page

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(Source: Air Berlin OM-A 8.3.2.5, page 34, RVSM Implementation, procedures) (Source: A320 FCOM, 3.4.34, flight instrument tolerances) (Source: A320 FCOM, 2.4.50, procedures)

• • • •

• •

All the required equipment shall be monitored and checked to ensure satisfactory operation before (transition airspace/ transition altitude) and within RVSM airspace. In RVSM airspace and transition areas restrict the rate of climb/descend during step climb/descent to 1000ft/min when operating 2000ft of other aircraft to minimize the generation of TCAS TA´s and RA´s. The aircraft should not overshoot or undershoot the cleared flight level by more than 150 ft The automatic altitude control system shall be engaged during level cruise by reference to one of the two altimeters. The altitude capture feature shall be used whenever possible for the level off. Always select new altitude first on the altitude-select-panel before starting climb or descend. The autopilot should be engaged within RVSM airspace for cruise and flight level changes. At intervals of approximately one hour, check that PFD altimeter indications agrees in accordance with the instrument tolerances (FCOM 3.04.34, see also chapter 16.6, page115). The usual scan of flight deck instruments should be sufficient. The altimeter system being used to control the aircraft should be the same that is used by the transponder transmitting information to ATC. Select ATC 1 for Autopilot 1 and select ATC 2, when Autopilot 2 is in use.

16.5 Requirements for RVSM

(Source: A320 FCOM 2.4.50) Aircraft requirements: RVSM regulations require the following equipment/functions in order to be operative: • • • • • • 2 ADR + 2 DMC 1 transponder 1 Autopilot function 1 FCU channel (for altitude target selection and OP CLB/OP DES mode engagement) 2 PFD 1 FWC (for altitude alert function)

Instr.GuideA320

Revision: 4

Effective Date: 25.04.08

A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY

RVSM 16.6 Altitude tolerances

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(Source: A320 FCOM, 3.4.34, flight instrument tolerances) The values below apply to aircraft in symmetrical flight (no sideslip), in clean configuration and in straight and level flight. • PFD 1 or 2 at ground check : plus or minus 25 feet

Maximum differences between altitude indications
FL/speed Altitude (ft) comparison between

ADR 1 and ADR 2 (on PFD) Gnd check FL50/250 kt FL100/250 kt FL200/300 kt FL300/.78 FL390/.78 20 50 55 90 130 130

ADR 3 and ADR 1, or ADR 3 and ADR 2 (on PFD) 20 65 80 135 195 195

ISIS and any ADR 1, or 2, or 3 100 130 185 295 390 445

Instr.GuideA320

Revision: 4

Effective Date: 25.04.08

A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY

Taxiing and braking

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17 Taxiing and braking

17.1

Taxiing

17.1.1 General (Source: A320 FCOM 3.3.10, Taxi) • Little, if any, power above idle thrust will be needed to get the aircraft moving (40 % N1 maximum). Thrust should normally be used symmetrically. Once the aircraft starts to move, little thrust is required. Use of the engine anti-ice increases ground idle thrust, thus the pilot must be carefully on slippery surfaces. The engines are close to the ground. Avoid positioning them over unconsolidated or unprepared ground (beyond the edge of the taxiways, for example). Avoid high thrust settings at low ground speeds, which increase the risk of ingestion (FOD), and the risk of projection of debris towards the trimmable horizontal stabilizer and towards the elevator. The normal maximum taxi speed is 30 knots in a straight line and 10 knots for a sharp turn. As the ground speed is difficult to assess, monitor ground speed on the ND. Do not "ride" the brakes. As 30 knots is exceeded with idle thrust, apply the brakes smoothly and decelerate to 10 knots. Release the brakes, and allow the aircraft to accelerate again.

• • •

17.1.2 180° turn on the runway (Source: A320 FCOM 3.3.10, Taxi) A standard runway is 45 meters wide. However, this aircraft only needs a pavement of 30 meters wide for a 180° turn. The following procedure is recommended for making such a turn in the most efficient way.

17.1.2.1 For the CM1 Taxi on the right-hand side of the runway and turn left, maintaining 25° divergence from the runway axis. Maximum ground speed is 10 knots. When the CM1 is physically over the runway edge, he turns the nose wheel full right and sets 50 % to 55 % N1. Note: To avoid skidding the nose wheel on a wet runway, perform the turn at very low speed, using asymmetric thrust and differential braking as necessary.

Instr.GuideA320

Revision: 4

Effective Date: 25.04.08

The pilot must exercise caution when taxiing on one engine to avoid generating excessive jet blast.1.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. For the whole procedure (taxiing with one engine (departure.08 . Instr.04.4.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Taxiing and braking Page 117 of 171 180° turn on runway 180° Turn 17. slippery taxiways. or high gross weight.3 Taxiing with one engine (Source: A320 FCOM 3. arrival)) refer to FCOM 3.1.4.2 For the CM2 The procedure is symmetrical. one engine taxi. 17. it may be advisable to taxi on one engine.2. (Taxi on the left-hand side of the runway).90) When the aircraft is not in such unusual operational environments as an uphill slope.90.

2 Brakes 17. If the BRAKES HOT message is still on when the aircraft is parked. page 66 or A320 FCOM 2.4.32.30 For operational details refer also to section resetting of computers & CB’s .10) If the caution BREAKS HOT is displayed during taxi in. avoid applying the parking brake.02. chapter 7.04. and 150°C with the brake fans ON. until the brake temperature is below 300° C with the brake fans OFF.2.10 17. 3. and thus avoid oxidation of brake surface hot spots.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. If an arc is displayed on the ECAM WHEEL page above the brake temperature. the flight crew should not set the PARKING BRK ON.1.2. The temperature difference between 2 brakes on the same gear is greater than 150°C and the temperature of one of the brakes is lower than 60°C.08 .3.2 Brake temperature limitations requiring maintenance action (Source: A320 FCOM 3.4 Taxiing in icing conditions For this topic refer to section winter operation chapter 11.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Taxiing and braking Page 118 of 171 17. or done just before stopping at the gate (whichever occurs first). The difference between the LH and RH brakes average temperature is higher than 200°. When one brake temperature is above 500°C (or 350°C with brake fans ON).2. select the brake fans on prior brake temperature reaches 260° C. brake fan selection should be delayed for a minimum of about 5 minutes. 17.1 General For technical details refer to A320 FCOM 1. page 47 17.03.04.32.25 & 3. unless operationally necessary. • • • • Delay takeoff. A fuse plug has melted.3 Brakes hot (ECAM warning) (Source: A320 FCOM 3. to allow thermal equalization and stabilization.32 P2) Maintenance action is required in following cases: • • • • • The temperature difference between 2 brakes on the same gear is greater than 150°C and the temperature of one of the brakes is higher than 600°C. One brake’s temperature exceeds 900°C. Instr.04.

2.08 . Facts & Figures.2.2 Landing • Use of Auto Brake is recommended when need of brake application is foreseen: o On short or evenly contaminated runways: LO (or MED) o On long and dry runways: LO (Autobrake usage reduces BRAKE DIFF TEMP) Reduce the number of brake applications to one! • 17.4. As soon the chocks are in place. brake applications should be reduced to a minimum.4. Optimum Technique. To minimize brake wear.2.04.com -> Library ) The following aspects have to be taken into account: • • • • To minimize brake wear.3 Taxi in (Arrival) • • • • • • Release the parking barke at the parking position as soon as possible Let the brakes thermally stabilize (Wait at least 5-10 Minutes before using the brake fan unless the temperature reaches 450° or more) Use the brake fan to reduce the brake temperature below 100°C Reduce applications during taxi Do not ”ride” the brakes Alternate left and right braking when taxiing slowly (reduces number of applications by 50 %!!) Instr.4 General recommendations (Source: CARBON BRAKE DRIVING Background. http://fb-airbus.1 Taxi out (Departure) • • • • • Brake temperature should not exceed 100°C If brake temperature is above 100°C use the brake fan Reduce applications during taxi Do not ”ride” the brakes Alternate left and right braking when taxiing slowly (reduces number of applications by 50 %!!) 17.airberlin.4. brake temperatures of between 100° and 250° should be avoided during taxi Brake temperatures of 450° and above should be avoided (oxidation!) Regular use of Parking Brake requires additional maintenance action and may lead to dragging brakes. set parking brake to off 17.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Taxiing and braking Page : 119 of 171 17.2.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.

2 Alert Height ICAO: An Alert Height is a height above the runway.1. The Alert height for the A320 Family of Airberlin is 100ft 18.4 Fail passive automatic landing system An automatic landing system is fail-passive if.1 Definitions (Source: Airbus getting to grips with CAT II / CAT III operations) 18.1. For a fail-passive automatic landing system the pilot assumes control of the aircraft after a failure (JAA). there is no significant out-of-trim condition or deviation of flight path or attitude but the landing is not completed automatically. if such a failure occurs. Instr. fail-passive capability is announced by the display of CAT 3 SINGLE on the PFD. a pilot may not continue the approach below DH unless a visual reference containing not less than a 3 light segment of the centerline of the approach lights or runway centerline or touchdown zone lights or runway edge lights is obtained. For CAT III B the visual reference must contain at least one centerline light.04. or in the relevant ground equipment. 18.1 Decision height Decision height is the wheel height above the runway elevation by which a go-around must be initiated unless adequate visual reference has been established and the aircraft position and approach path have been assessed as satisfactory to continue the approach and landing in safety (JAA). CAT III Operations 18.1.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Low Visibility Operations Page : 120 of 171 18 CAT II. in the event of a failure. touchdown and roll out may be accomplished using the remaining automatic system. the flare.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.3 Runway Visual Range Runway Visual Range (RVR) is the range over which a pilot of an aircraft on the centreline of the runway can see the runway surface markings or the lights delineating the runway or identifying its centreline (ICAO). if a failure occured in either the airplane systems or the relevant ground equipments. above which a CAT3 autoland would be discontinued and a missed approach executed. On Airbus aircraft since the A320. based on the characteristics of the aeroplane and its fail-operational automatic landing system.1. For CAT II and CAT III A. 18. Airbus: The alert height is the height above touch down. above which a Category III approach would be discontinued and a missed approach initiated if a failure occurred in one of the redundant parts of the automatic landing system. Below the alert height.08 .

5 Fail operational automatic landing system An automatic landing system is fail-operational if.2 Decision height and alert height concept (Source: Airbus getting to grips with CAT II / CAT III operations) 18.1. However. On Airbus aircraft since the A320. DH is always limited to 100ft or Obstacle Clearance Height (OCH). 18. • • If the visual references have not been established.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Low Visibility Operations Page : 121 of 171 18. If the visual references have been established. the flare and landing can be completed by the remaining part of the automatic system. the approach can be continued. In the event of failure.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. Instr.04. The DH is measured by means of radio-altimeter. When necessary. In Category III operations with DH. the DH is lower than 100ft (typically equal to 50ft for a fail-passive automatic landing system and 20ft for a fail-operational automatic landing system). whichever is higher.2. the automatic landing system will operate as a fail-passive system (JAA). the pilot may always decide to execute a go-around if sudden degradations in the visual references or a sudden flight path deviation occur.08 . fail operational capability is announced by the display of CAT 3 DUAL on the PFD. in the event of a failure below alert height. The pilot must decide if the visual references adequate to safely continue the approach have been established. the approach. In Category II operations.1 Decision height concept: Decision height is a specified point in space at which a pilot must make an operational decision. the published DH takes into account the terrain profile before runway threshold. a go-around must be executed.

a go-around must be initiated if a failure affects the fail-operational landing system.5. the radio altitude goes below 200 feet and o the aircraft gets too far off the beam (LOC or GLIDE) o or both autopilots fail o or both localizer transmitters or receivers fail above 15ft o or both glide slope transmitters or receivers fail above 100ft o or the difference between both radio altimeter indications is greater than 15 feet.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Low Visibility Operations Page : 122 of 171 18.04.08 .70.70) o When in LAND mode. The AH is only linked to the probability of failure(s) of the automatic landing system. the approach will be continued except if AUTOLAND warning is triggered The AUTOLAND warning is triggered in following cases: (Source A320 FCOM 1. Airbus getting to grips with CAT II / CAT III operations) Alert height is a height defined for Category III operations with a fail-operational landing system. • • Above AH (100ft AGL).2.2 Alert height concept (Source A320 FCOM 1.22.5.22.30 & 4. Below AH.30 & 4. Instr.

3.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Low Visibility Operations 18.04.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.08 .3 Visual Segments Page : 123 of 171 18.1 CAT II With RVR 350m at DH = 100ft (typical CAT II) Instr.

GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.3.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Low Visibility Operations Page 124 of 171 18.04.2 CAT III With RVR 200m at DH = 50ft (typical CAT IIIa) Instr.08 .

18. 18. ICAO also recommends that slope changes must be avoided or. Instr.4. kept to a maximum of 2% per 30m (i. These lights are uniformly spaced at intervals of no more than 60m and may be omitted at the intersections.5 Runway Edge Lights Runway edge lights are placed along the full length of the runway in two parallel rows equidistant from the centerline. uniformly spaced at intervals of no more than 3m. with a distance of no more than 3m to the runway edge. it is recommended that for the first and the last quarter of the length of the runway the slope does not exceed 0.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. To permit the use of the automatic landing system. with a minimum number of 6 lights. 18. The lights are fixed unidirectional lights showing green. 18.7 Runway End Lights Runway end lights are placed in a row at right angles to the runway axis.4. runway edge lights. The lights are fixed lights showing variable white. 200m long). The basic pattern of runway lights is shown in the figure below.1 Runway Length There is no specific requirement concerning runway length for an aerodrome to be CAT II or III approved.4 Runway characteristics 18.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Low Visibility Operations Page 125 of 171 18.3 Runway Slope For CAT II or CAT III. This limitation is due to the fact that automatic landing systems use radio altimeter and a rapid slope change could disturb the landing.4.6 Threshold Lights Threshold lights are placed in a row at right angles to the runway axis. ICAO also recommends a spacing between the lights of no more than 6m for runways intended for use by CAT III approaches. runway touchdown zone lights. The lights are fixed unidirectional lights showing red.08 . disregarding normal standards.4. The runway length is only an operational limitation.4. outside the runway with a distance of no more than 3m to the runway end.8%. and runway centerline lights.2 Runway Width The runway width should be normally not less than 45m. runway end lights.4.4 Visual Aids-Runway Lights Runway lights on runways intended for use by CAT II or CAT III operations consist of high intensity threshold lights. outside the runway with a distance of no more than 3m to the threshold. when it is not possible.04.e. a minimum radius of curvature of 1500m) in the area located just before the threshold (60m wide. 18. 18.4.

4. The lateral spacing between lights must not exceed 15m but the proximity of a curve must be indicated by a spacing equal to. The lights inside each barrette are fixed unidirectional lights showing variable white. The lights of the stop bars show red and are spaced at intervals of 3m.5m) • Red from the point 300m to the runway end. The pattern is formed by pairs of barrettes containing at least three lights. 18. 18. It consists of a row of lights on the extended centreline of the runway. When installed for other operation.5m with a preference of 18m. with a longitudinal spacing of approximately 7. it should be switched off when CAT II or CAT III approaches are in progress.4.5m or 15m for CAT Ill.11 Taxiway Centerline Lights Taxiway centerline lights have to be installed on airfields intended for use by operations with an RVR 400m or less (400m is the mean value for CAT II approach).5m.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Low Visibility Operations Page 126 of 171 18. and only optional for CAT III operations. They are located along the centerline of the runway.10 Taxiway Edge Lights Taxiway edge lights are not a specific CAT II or CAT III requirement. Each barrette must be not less than 3m and no more than 4.5m.4. 15m or 30m for CAT II and only 7. the lights are alternately showing green and yellow. but provide efficient visual aid during low-visibility operations. These stop bars are an efficient means to avoid aircraft intrusion into the obstacle-free zone (OFZ) or into the critical/sensitive area during approaches in very low visibility conditions.4. 18. extending over a distance of 300m from the threshold (over 900m for CAT I).9 Touchdown Zone Lights Runway touchdown zone lights are a specific requirement for CAT II or CAT III approaches.08 . 18. spaced at an interval of no more than 1. These lights are fixed lights showing: • Variable white from the threshold to the point 900m from the runway end. Instr. The lights are fixed lights showing green. 7. 18.5m in length. The longitudinal spacing between pairs of barrettes is 60m or 30m.04. The lights are fixed lights showing blue.5m.12 Stop Bars Stop bars are placed at each taxi-holding position when the runway is intended for use at an RVR less than 400m and are specially required for all CAT III approaches.4. or less than. but it is recommended to have a spacing of 30m for low minima. The lateral spacing (or gauge) between the lights is not less than 18m and no more than 22.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.8 Runway Centerline Lights Runway centerline lights are a specific requirement for CAT II or CAT III approaches.4. They extend from the threshold for a longitudinal distance of 900m (full touchdown zone) but do not extend beyond the mid-point if runway length is less than 1800m. but from the beginning of the taxiway to the perimeter of the ILS critical area/sensitive area or the lower edge of the inner transitional surface.13 Approach Light System The approach light system is mandatory for CAT II operations. • Alternate red and variable white from the point 900m to the point 300m from the runway end (pairs of red lights followed by pairs of variable white lights if the spacing is only 7.It is specified by the ECAC that sequenced strobe lighting is considered to be incompatible with CAT II and III operations.

04.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.08 .A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Low Visibility Operations Page 127 of 171 Runways lights Instr.

GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.04.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Low Visibility Operations Page 128 of 171 CAT IIIA / CAT IIIB approach light system Instr.08 .

GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.08 .04.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Low Visibility Operations Page 129 of 171 TWY Lights Typical RWY taxi-holding position signs and associated TWY markings. Instr.

04. LAND mode engages. to ensure stabilized speed guidance. does not affect the receiver. selected landing configuration. the system does not accept any modifications the flight crew may enter on the PERF APPR page (surface wind.30 . the speed target is computed by the FMGS and may be modified by the crew through the MCDU.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. when at least one AP/FD is engaged. If the speed is managed. 4.08 . The flight crew can only disengage this mode by engaging the GO AROUND mode Instr. When the aircraft reaches 400 feet RA. Below 700 feet. or VAPP) for speed guidance purposes below this altitude. This function (ILS tune inhibit) is available. the current speed target value is memorized by the autothrust. even if Flight Management fails. At 700 feet RA.22.5.70) 700ft FMGS frozen 400ft FCU frozen 350ft LAND GREEN 200ft AUTO LAND WARNING becomes active 100ft ALERT HEIGHT When managed.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Low Visibility Operations Page 130 of 171 Technical aspects (Source: FCOM 1. via the MCDU or RMP. any new VAPP or WIND entry in the MCDU has no effect on the speed target. When the aircraft reaches 700 feet RA with APPR mode (LOC and G/S) armed or engaged. the ILS freq and course are frozen in the receiver. Any attempt to change the ILS frequency or CRS.

Note : Flight crews are not expected to check the equipment list before approach. provided that the DH value has been entered an the MCDU. Instr. the crew should use the list to confirm the landing capability. one is required.5 List of required equipment Page 131 of 171 The table in the QRH 5. FMA CAPABILITY EQUIPMENT CAT 2 1 AP ENGAGED 0 1 0 0 1 1 1/1 2 2 1 1* 1* 1* 1 (displayed on both sides) 2 1 for PNF 1&2 2/2 2 1 1 CAT 3 SINGLE 1 AP ENGAGED 1 2 1 0 1 1 1/1 2 2 1 1* 1* 1* 2 2 2 1&2 2/2 2 1 1 CAT 3 DUAL 2 AP ENGAGED 1 2 1 1 2 2 2/2 3 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 1&2 3/3 2 2 1 AP/FD AUTOTHRUST FMA A/THR CAUTION ELECTRICAL SUPPLY SPLIT FMGS MONITORED FOR FMA LANDING CAPABILITY FAC ELAC YAW DAMPER/RUDDER TRIM HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT PFD DUs FLIGHT WARNING COMPUTER BSCU CHANNEL ANTISKID NOSEWHEEL STEERING RADIO ALTIMETER ILS RECEIVER BEAM EXCESSIVE DEVIATION WARNING ATTITUDE INDICATION (PFD1/PFD2) ADR/IR AP DISCONNECT PB NOT FMGS MONITORED FOR FMA LANDING CAPABILITY "AP OFF" ECAM WARNING "AUTOLAND" LIGHT RUDDER TRAVEL LIMIT SYSTEM WINDSHIELD HEAT (L or R windshield) WINDSHIELD WIPERS OR RAIN REPELLENT (if activated) ND DUs AUTO CALLOUT FUNCTION ATTITUDE INDICATION (STBY) DH INDICATION 1 required for auto land with crosswind higher than 12 kt 1 for PF 1 for PF 1 one is required for auto land 1 2 1 1 1 for PNF 2 1 1 *For automatic rollout. the equipment list determines which approach category the aircraft will Abe able to perform at the hext landing.04 gives the reference of the tests. and the "Hundred Above" and "Minimum" auto callouts will Abe announced. which verify the CAT III availability in each system.08 . Fallure of antiskid and/or nosewheel steering mechanical parts are not monitored for landing capability.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Low Visibility Operations 18.04. The DH will Abe displayed an the FMA. When an ECAM or local caution occurs. Electrical power supply split : This ensures that each FMGC is powered by an independent electrical source (AC and DC). none is required. On ground.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. For autoland without automatic rollout.

ATC calls. o review approach procedure (stabilized or decelerated). Seat position The correct seat adjustment is essential in order to take full advantage of the visibility over the nose. go-around procedure. Usually the final approach segment may not be continued beyond the OM or equivalent DME distance if the reported RVR is below the published minima for the required transmissometers. o aircraft systems status and capacity and downgrading possibilities o brief review of task sharing. Weather Check weather conditions at destination and at alternates. After OM or equivalent.04. Before the outer marker. Approach ban Policy regarding an approach ban may differ from country to country. o Although it is not required to check equipment that is not monitored by the system. Use of landing lights At night in low visibility conditions. o brief review of procedure in case of malfunction below 1000ft. who will check the status of the ILS and lighting and protect the sensitive areas from incursion by aircraft or vehicles. Reflected light from water droplets or snow may actually reduce visibility. Landing lights would therefore not normally be used in CAT ll or CAT III weather conditions. ATC calls Unless LVP are reported active by ATIS. the approach may be continued. o optimum seat position and reminder to set cockpit lights when appropriate • • • • • • Instr.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. landing lights can be detrimental to the acquisition of visual references.6 Approach preparation Page 132 of 171 • Aircraft Status o Check on ECAM STATUS page that the required landing capability is available. the landing capability will be reduced.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Low Visibility Operations 18. Such an approach may not be undertaken until the clearance has been received. o review applicable minima (performance page). the required RVR values should be transmitted. clearance to carry out a CAT II or CAT III approach must be requested from ATC. o On the A320 Family it is not necessary to check AUTOLAND WARNING light.08 . if RVR becomes lower than the minima. The selected alternate must have weather conditions equal to or better than CAT I. if any of this equipment is seen inoperative (flag). CAT II or CAT III crew briefing The briefing should include the normal items as for any IFR arrival and in addition the following subjects should be covered prior to the first approach: o destination and alternate weather. etc. o airfield and runway operational status CAT II / CAT III. The seat is correctly adjusted when the pilots eyes are in line with the red and white balls located above the glareshield. Required RVR values must be available for CAT II/III approaches.

If the touch down zone RVR is not available.The approach may be continued below DA/H or MDA/H and the landing may be completed provided that the required visual reference is established at the DA/H or MDA/H and is maintained. For aeroplanes equipped with a roll-out guidance or control system. the approach can be continued down to the applicable minimum. If. if the reported RVR/visibility is less than the applicable minima. the approach may be continued to DA/H or MDA/H. The minimum RVR value for the mid-point is 125 m or the RVR required for the touchdown zone if less. the midpoint RVR may substitute the touch down zone RVR. the mid point and stop end RVR are also controlling.EAG Route Manual).10) • The commander may commence an instrument approach regardless of the reported RVR/Visibility but the approach shallnot be continued beyond the outer marker. after passing the outer marker or equivalent position the reported RVR/visibility falls below the applicable minimum. Note 2: Where a State Approach Ban is more restrictive. the commander shall make the decision to continue or abandon the approach before descending below 1 000 ft above the aerodrome on the final approach segment.7. or no decision height.3. Where no outer marker or equivalent position exists. if published on the instrument approach chart. asuitably located NDB or VOR.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Low Visibility Operations 18.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.2) Cat II or III landings shall not be conducted unless: • • • • • • • The airplane concerned is certificated for operations with decision heights below 200 ft. Instr. means that part of the runway used during the high speed phase of the landing down to a speed of approximately 60 knots. 18. “Relevant”. in this context.4. the published State Approach Ban applies (refer to OM Part C . If the MDA/H is at or above 1 000 ft above the aerodrome.08 . In this case the midpoint RVR must be at or above the applicable minimum value for the approach. • • • • Note 1: The equivalent position referred to above can be established by means of a DME distance.04. The touch-down zone RVR is always controlling.7.1 Low Visibility Procedure for Cat II/III landing (Source: Airberlin OM-A 8. and 75 m for the stop-end. the minimum RVR value for the mid-point is 75 m.7 Landing Page 133 of 171 18. If reported and relevant. SRE or PAR fix or any other fix that independently establishes the position of the airplane. Specific approval/authorisation for Cat II and III operations is granted by the authority The Flight Crew consists of at least 2 licensed pilots Landing is carried out by the Commander LVP are in force.2 Commencement and Continuation of Approach (Approach Ban) (Source: Airberlin OM-A 8.4. or equivalent position. and equipped with the systems required for operations as certified by the Authority DH must be determined by means of a radio altimeter To maintain the safety of operation it is required to report any failure of approaches by using an adequate reporting form.

according EAG chart minimum) MID: 125m*END: 75m*.3 CAT II (manual landing) • • • • • DH: RVR: AP OFF: Crosswind: Tailwind: 100ft (resp. latest at 80 ft no limitation (33kt demonstrated) max. The maximum allowable tailwind for automatic landing and roll out is 10 knots. Landings at a friction coefficient below 0.15° Airport Altitude below 2500ft Automatic rollout has not been demonstrated on snow covered or icy runways. 20 kt max. max.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Low Visibility Operations Page 134 of 171 18.1 General limitations • • • • • • • • • • • CONF3 or CONF FULL Slope angle within -2. according EAG chart minimum) TDZ: 300m (resp. The touch-down zone RVR is always controlling.26 are prohibited.04.10. Aprroach CAT II CAT III A CAT III B RVR TDZ 300m 200m 75m RVR MID ZONE 75m 75m 75m RVR END ZONE 75m 75m 75m 18. It is not allowed to convert a meteorological visibility to RVR for calculating Category II or III minima or when a reported RVR is available.3.7.3. Displayed wind on the ND may be disregarded. and 75 m for the stop-end.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.5° & -3. For aeroplanes equipped with a roll-out guidance or control system. If reported and relevant. Landing distance: 15% or 300 m . 30 kt max.3.2 CAT II (auto land) • • • • • DH: RVR: Headwind: Crosswind: Tailwind: 100ft (resp. the minimum RVR value for the mid-point is 75 m. 10 kt * if relevant Instr.3 Summary Limitations (Source: Airberlin OM-A 8. according EAG chart minimum) TDZ: 300m (resp. Wind limitation is based on surface wind report by the tower. 10 kt * if relevant 18.whichever is greater .4. Landing minima will be the higher of the basic minima as tabulated below or those published by the state of jurisdiction as reflected in the EAG chart or special minima published by Air Berlin. The minimum RVR value for the mid-point is 125 m or the RVR required for the touchdown zone if less. FCOM) 18.7. the mid point and stop end RVR are also controlling.7.runway shall be available in addition to the landing distance requirement for dry runways. according EAG chart minimum) MID: 125m* END: 75m*.08 .7.

according EAG chart minimum) RVR: TDZ: 200m (resp. 20 kt Tailwind: max.6 CAT IIIB (CAT 3 Dual) • • • • • • • DH: NO RVR: 75m (resp.8. according EAG chart minimum) RVR: 300m / 200m (resp. 10 kt * if relevant 18. according EAG chart minimum) MID: 125m* END: 75m*. according EAG chart minimum) MID: 125m* END: 75m* Config: FULL Engine out procedure completed latest at 1000 ft AGL A/THR must be used in selected or managed mode Headwind: max. 10 kt * if relevant 18. according EAG chart minimum) MID: 75m* END: 75m* Alert Height: 100ft A/THR must be used in selected or managed mode Headwind: max.3.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Low Visibility Operations Page 135 of 171 18.7.7 Engine out (CAT II or CAT 3 Single) • • • • • • • • DH: 100ft / 50 ft (resp. according EAG chart minimum) MID: 125m* END: 75m*.8 Failures and associated actions 18.7. 30 kt Crosswind: max.04. A/THR must be used in selected or managed mode Headwind: max. 20 kt Tailwind: max.7.3.3. A/THR must be used in selected or managed mode Headwind: max. 30 kt Crosswind: max. 10 kt * if relevant 18. 30 kt Crosswind: max. 20 kt Tailwind: max. 10 kt * if relevant 18. according EAG chart minimum) RVR: TDZ: 200m (resp. 30 kt Crosswind: max.4 CAT IIIA (CAT 3 Single) • • • • • • DH: 50ft (resp.5 CAT IIIA (CAT 3 Dual) • • • • • • DH: 50ft (resp.1 General Instr.3. 20 kt Tailwind: max.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.7.08 .

if a failure occurs above 1000ft AGL the approach may be continued reverting to a higher DH.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. But a go-around is required if the autoland warning is triggered. REVERT to higher minima and proceed to a new DH (above 1000ft). Another approach may then be undertaken to the appropriate minima for the given aircraft status.2 Abnormal Procedures 18. a single failure (for example one AP failure or one engine failure) below AH does not necessitate a go-around. to check system configuration and limitations and brief for minima.8. cautions and a downgrading of capability. • 18. providing the appropriate conditions are met Below 1000ft (and down to AH when in CAT III DUAL) the occurrence of any failure implies a go-around. in general. • • As a general rule.1 General The abnormal procedures can be classified into two groups • • Failures leading to a downgrading of capability as displayed on FMA and ECAM with an associated specific audio warning (triple click). • • • CONTINUE the approach to the planned minima.04. GO AROUND and reassess the capability. In CAT III DUAL.08 . ECAM warning. Failures that do not trigger a downgrading of capability but are signaled by other effects (Flag. It should be noted that some failures might trigger ECAM warnings. not enough time is available for the crew to perform the necessary switching. amber caution and associated audio warnings).A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Low Visibility Operations Page 136 of 171 In general there are three possible responses to the failure of any system.8. The nature of the failure and the point of its occurrence will determine which response is appropriate. The FCOM describes what should be the crew responses to failures in function to the height. instrument or element during the approach. and a reassessment of the system capability. Above 1000ft: Instr.2. It has been considered that below 1000ft.

This can be acceptable provided it has been demonstrated that automatic landing is satisfactory.2.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Low Visibility Operations Page 137 of 171 18. Downgrading from CAT 2 to CAT 1 permitted only if • • • • • ECAM actions are completed. At 200ft RA and below Any AUTOLAND warning requires an immediate go-around.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. downgrading of capability (triple click). At flare height If FLARE does not come up on FMA. briefing is amended to include CAT 1 procedure and DH.04. amber caution (single chime). disconnect the AP immediately. • Decision to downgrade is completed above 1000ft AGL. a CAT ll approach with AP disconnection no later than 80ft may be performed. RVR is at least equal to CAT I minima. disconnect AP and take manual control. If automatic rollout control is not satisfactory. the PF may decide to land manually. a go-around must be performed or if conditions permit.8. Note: switching from one AP to another before 1000ft AGL is permitted. If visual references are sufficient and a manual landing is possible. These conditions need to be obtained no later than 350ft AGL to allow a satisfactory automatic landing. After touchdown In case of anti-skid or nose wheel steering failure. If runway course is incorrect or LAND does not appear. the PF may decide to complete the landing. a go-around must be performed. the decision to downgrade is completed above 1000ft AGL. If visual references are sufficient and a manual landing is possible. engine failure. • Briefing is amended to include CAT II procedure and DH.08 . Depending on terrain profile before the runway LAND mode may appear at lower height. • RVR is at least equal to CAT II minima. loss of AP (cavalry charge). at least one FD is available. Instr.2 Downgrading conditions Downgrading from CAT 3 to CAT 2 is permitted only if • ECAM actions are completed. Below 1000ft and above DH (for CAT 2 or CAT 3 SINGLE) or above AH (for CAT 3 DUAL) a go-around must be performed in case of: • • • • • ALPHA FLOOR activation. LAND is displayed if LOC and GS track modes are active and at least one RA is available. At 350ft RA LAND must be displayed on FMA and runway course must be checked.

550m by night Not allowed No effect except delays due to reduced movment rate Instr.04.9 Effect on Landing Minima of temporarily failed or downgraded Equipment (Source: Airberlin OM-A 8.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. RVR may be reported by human observation No effect Not allowed for DH > 50ft Not allowed No effect Not allowed ILS Standby transmitter Outer marker Middle marker TDZ RVR assessment system Midpoint or Stopend RVR Approach Lights Approach Lights except the last 210m Approach Lights except the last 420 Stanbypower for approachlights Whole RWY light system Edge lights Centerline lights TDZ lights Stanbypower for RWY lights Taxiway light system No effect No effect Not allowed Day only RVR 300m.08 .11) Failed or downgraded equipment Effect on Landingminima CAT III CAT II Not allowed No effect No effect if replaced by published equivalent position No effect May be temporarily replaced with midpoint RVR if approved ba the state of Aerodrome. day only RVR as for CAT I basic facilities RVR 300m by day.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Low Visibility Operations Page 138 of 171 18.4. 550m by night RVR 300m by day.

Being in visual contact with the runway. Instr. For CAT III operations at least once every 6 months a missed appr.11 Training and Qualifications (Source: Airberlin OM-A 8. 18. 18. AFM limitations must be observed including: o Glide slope angle o Airport elevation o Flap configuration o Wind limits o Required equipment for CAT II must be operative.2 Crew procedures • • • • Visual cues must be obtained at the applicable DA (baro) (CAT I) or a go-around must be performed.7) • • All CAT II/III licenced pilots must conduct at least 3 approaches with an automatic landing within 6 months (all mandatory approaches may be conducted in an approved simulator). The flight crew is reminded to be vigilant for ILS disturbances when conducting automatic landing on any ILS quality beam in CAT I or better weather conditions when the critical area protection is not assured by ATC. Flare. must be conducted in an approved simulator as a result of an autopilot failure at or below decision height with a RVR of less than 300m. nevertheless automatic landing on CAT I ILS quality beam is possible provided the Airline has checked that the guidance below 200ft is satisfactory. At least CAT 2 capability must be displayed on FMA.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.08 .A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Low Visibility Operations 18.10 Autoland in CAT I or better weather conditions Page 139 of 171 18. landing and roll-out must be closely monitored as the crew must be ready to take over in these flight phases as well.04.10.10.1 Airports requirements The Automatic Landing System performance has been demonstrated during type certification with CAT II or CAT III ILS qualify beam.4.3 Limitations • • • Automatic landing must be approved in the AFM. the crew will decide to continue the automatic landing or to take over manually or to go around. The crew should be warned that fluctuations of the LOC or GS may occur and that the PF should be prepared to immediately disconnect the AP and take the appropriate action should unsatisfactory automatic landing performance occur. 18.10.

4. the following additional requirements are applicable to commanders. Instr. has been achieved on the type.04. including line flying under supervision. until a total of 100 hours or 40 sectors. or pilots to whom conduct of the flight may be delegated.08 .A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Low Visibility Operations 18. and 100 m must be added to the applicable Category II or Category III RVR minima unless he has previously qualified for Category II or III operations with a JAA operator.3) Before commencing Category II/III operations.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. including line flying under supervision. who are new to the aeroplane type: • • 50 hours or 20 sectors on the type.12 Type and command experience Page 140 of 171 (Source: Airberlin OM-A 8.3.

. When no visibility is reported or the reported visibility is below that required for Take-Off and or RVR is not reported.08 .4) Takeoff with RVR less than 400m is considered as LVTO by JAR OPS 1.26 are prohibited. a takeoff alternate is required within one hour. It is not allowed to convert a meteorological visibility to RVR for calculating Take-Off minima.1 General (Source: Airbus getting to grips with CAT 2/3 operations.4. The maximum RVR at Takeoff is quite independent of the aircraft type and aircraft equipment except for very low RVR.2 Take Off Minima (Source: Airberlin OM-A 8..GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.4.1) • Take-Off minima must selected to ensure sufficient guidance to control the aircraft in case of: o discontinued take -Off in adverse circumstances or o continued take-Off after failure of the critical engine The commander shall not commence Take-Off unless the weather conditions at the aerodrome f departure are equal to or better than applicable minima for landing at that aerodrome unless a suitable Take-Off alternate aerodrome is available. • • • • • • Instr. The pilot in command has to perform the T/O if the RVR is less than 400 m. Take-Off with minima less than 400 m requires that LVP's are in force. the RVR is reported and the flight crew members have satisfactorily completed training in a simulator.). Above time is determined at the one engine inoperative speed and equals 370NM Before commencing take-off. RVR measurement system. The Takeoff minima is mainly determined by the airport installation (runway lighting system. a commander must ensure that the RVR or visibility in the takeoff direction of the aeroplane is equal to or better than the applicable minimum and that the condition of the runway intended to be used should not prevent a safe take-off and departure. When weather conditions are more severe than the landing minima. Take-offs at a friction coefficient below 0. Airberlin OM-A 8. a Take-Off may only be commenced if the pilot in command can determine that the RVR visibility along the Take-Off run required (JAR take-off field length) is at or above minimum required. 19.04.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Low Visibility Operations Page 141 of 171 19 Low visibility Takeoff 19. Category II or III minima or when a reported RVR is available. .4.

A 90 m visual segment is available from the cockpit at the start of the take-off run.3 Ground Facilities Requirement for Take Off Page 142 of 171 Ground facilities RVR / VIS (Note 3) Nil (day only) Runway edge lighting and/or centerline marking (for night.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.08 . For night operations at least runway edge and runway end lights are required. edge and runway end lights are required) 500m 250m / 300m (Note 1 & 2) Runway edge and centerline lighting 200m 250m (Note 1) Runway edge and centerline lighting and multiple RVR information 150m /200m (Note 1 & 4) Note 1: Note 2: Note 3: Note 4: The higher values apply to Category D aeroplanes. High intensity runway centreline lights spaced 15 m or less and high intensity edge lights spaced 60 m or less are in operation. Flight crew members have satisfactorily completed training in a Flight Simulator. Instr. and The required RVR value has been achieved for all of the RVR reporting points throughout the Accelerate Stop Distance (ASD). The takeoff minima may be reduced to 125 m RVR (Category C aeroplanes) or 150 m RVR (Category D aeroplanes) when: • • • • • Low Visibility Procedures are in force. The required RVR value must be achieved for all of the RVR reporting points throughout the Accelerate Stop Distance (ASD). The reported RVR/Visibility value representative of the initial part of the take-off run can be replaced by pilot assessment. with the exception given in Note 3 above.04.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Low Visibility Operations 19.

During the approach. The lowest speed target is limited to VAPP and its upper limit is VFE of next configuration in CONF 1. A320 Instructor Support. Instr. It is independent of the AP/FD and/or ATHR engagements. it will automatically follow the IAS target.30. the FMGS continuously computes the speed target. in order to keep the ground speed at or above the "Ground Speed Mini". If the A/THR is active in SPEED mode.1. The minimum energy level is the energy level the aircraft will have at touchdown.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. The speed target is displayed on the PFD speed scale in magenta. This Ground Speed is called "GROUND SPD MINI".08 . using the "ground speed mini function". the speed target displayed on the PFD in magenta.2 Ground speed mini function principle The purpose of the ground speed mini function is to take advantage of the aircraft inertia. 2. Wind is a key factor in the ground speed mini function. is variable during the approach. When the aircraft flies this indicated speed target.1. ensuring an efficient thrust management during the approach.04. The minimum energy level is represented by the Ground Speed the aircraft will have at touchdown. It does so by providing the crew with an adequate indicated speed target. when the wind conditions vary during the approach. the energy of the aircraft is maintained above a minimum level ensuring standard aerodynamic margins versus stall. This managed speed target is computed in the FMGS.1 Ground Speed Mini Function (Source: A320 FCOM 1. 3 and VFE .22. when approach phase and managed speed are active. if it lands at VAPP speed with the tower reported wind as inserted in the PERF APPR page.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Performance Page 143 of 171 20 Performance 20. using the wind experienced by the aircraft. chapter 13) 20.1 Speed mode in approach phase When the aircraft flies an approach in managed speed.5 in CONF FULL. 20.

1. It is the average wind.04.1.3. as provided by the ATIS or the tower. The CURRENT HEADWIND COMPONENT is used to compute the variable speed target during final (IAS target).4.08 . It is always positive (or equal to zero for no wind or tailwind). that is the MCDU VAPP value plus an additional variable gust. they are included in the ground speed mini computation. 2 or 3 as the maximum value. Gusts must not be inserted.1 VAPP computation VAPP.2 Tower headwind component The TWR HEADWIND COMPONENT is the component of the MAG WIND projected on the runway axis (landing runway entered in the flight plan).1. It is used to compute VAPP and GS mini. 20.2 Speed target computation The FMGS continuously computes a speed target (IAS target). is computed as follows : VAPP = Vls + ∆ maximum of • • • 5kts for ATHR 5kts for severe icing 1/3 of steady headwind (max.1. or VFE of the next configuration in CONF 1. The IAS target is displayed on the PFD as a magenta triangle moving with the gust variation. 20.4.3.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. automatically displayed on the MCDU PERF APPR page. The IAS targets have two limits : • • VAPP as the minimum value VFE – 5 kts in CONF FULL. Instr.3 Current headwind component The actual wind measured by ADIRS is projected on the aircraft axis to define the CURRENT HEADWIND COMPONENT (instantaneous headwind). 20.1. 15 kts) The crew can manually modify the VAPP and TWR wind values on the PERF APPR page.1.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Performance Page 144 of 171 20.1 Tower wind It is the MAG WIND entered in the PERF approach page.1. 20.3. The gust is the instantaneous difference between the CURRENT HEADWIND COMPONENT and the tower headwind component.3 Terminology 20.4 Speed Computation 20.

gusts are considered if in the past 10 mn the peak wind value exceeds by typically 10 kts or more the two minute average wind. Note: • • • The ATIS and tower wind is a two minute average wind.tower headwind)] Instr.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Performance Page 145 of 171 20.3 Ground speed mini (GS mini) computation Ground speed mini concept has been defined to prevent the aircraft energy from dropping below a minimum level during final approach. The METAR is a ten minute average wind. 20. 2. It is always referenced to True North. The GS mini value is not displayed to the crew.08 . with 10 minute gusts. 3.5 Example Approach on runway 09 The tower wind direction is on the runway axis 090 with 30kt VAPP = VLS + 10kt (1/3 of 30kt) VAPP = 140kt IAS target values If we turn the previously explained speed target definition into formulae.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.04.4. It provides additional but rational safety margins in shears. Thrust varies in the right sense but in a smaller range (± 15% N1) in gusty situations which explains why it is recommended in such situations. The GS mini guidance has 3 major benefits: 1. The wind information used by the FMGS for the Managed Speed target control during the approach (GS mini guidance) is provided by the onside IRS (update rate typically 10 times/sec). It allows an efficient management of the thrust in gusts or longitudinal shears.1. thus it is an instantaneous wind information.1. It allows pilots "to understand what is going on" in perturbed approaches by monitoring the target speed magenta bugs: when it goes up = head wind gust. (VAPP + current headwind . we obtain the following result : IASTARGET = Max [VAPP.

30) = 140 kt Instr.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.08 .30) = 160 kt Max [VAPP.30) = 140 kt Max [VAPP.04. (140 + 30 . (140 + 0 .A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Performance Page 146 of 171 Current wind in approach IAS target Current wind in approach (a) 090/50 (b) 090/10 (c) 270/10 (d) 090/30 IAS target Max [VAPP. (140 + 10 . (140 + 50 .30) = 140 kt Max [VAPP.

procedure according OMA does NOT allow making an LMC without recalculating the T/O Performance even if the change is only 100kg! (See example below) Don’t just reduce Flex temperature perform a complete recalculation If the wind is different at T/O position perform a complete recalculation Already 100kg difference can make a huge difference in Speed! Example: ZRH RWY 28 Wind Temperature QNH Conf Wing. VR = 142 .08 .04. VR = 133 . V2 = 135 . limiting factor: OBS V1 = 133 .& Engine anti ice RWY CG GW 61450kg: GW 61500kg: 240/5 17°C 1019 1 off dry > 27% Flex 56° Flex 54° V1 = 142 .A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Performance 20. V2 = 143 . limiting factor: VMU A 50kg HIGHER GW REDUCES V1 by 9kt!! Instr.2 Take off performance considerations Page 147 of 171 • • • • Always calculate the T/O performance with the most accurate GW! LMC.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.

10) = 26 kt.04. Example: Given: • • Weight : 65000kg Wind at FL350 : 10 kt head Find: Minimum wind difference to descend to FL310 : (40 – 4)= 36 kt Results: Descent to FL310 may be considered provided the tail wind at this altitude is more than (36 .A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Performance 20. Instr.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.08 .5.3 Wind altitude trade for constant specific range Page 148 of 171 (Source: A320 FCOM 3.15) Following diagram shows if a lower level would be more economically when winds are less in lower altitudes.

if any = corrected un-factored distance • + an operational factor of at least 1.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Performance 20. Instr.4. never be lass than the distance calculated for dispatch purposes (including the 1.67 operational factor).4) 20.1. 20.04.2.2 Actual landing field length requirements (in-flight calculation) the following calculation therefore needs to be carried out: • • • Un-factored landing distance (dry) + correction for the wet/contaminated runway + correction for system failures .67 for jets.4 Landing field length requirements Page 149 of 171 (Source: Airberlin OM-A 8.1 Dispatch requirements The un-factored landing distance (= the distance from 50 ft to stop) shall be factored with 1.20 = required distance to land This required distance for the (actual) landing shall.4. In case of a runway forecasted or reported to be wet/contaminated an additional 15% shall be added.08 .GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. however.

08 . Or +300m whichever is more. configuration FULL Instr.04.03 landing distance without autobrake.32) Factor for wet RWY (fwet = 1.67 ⎧LDreq = ULD ⋅ 1. See QRH 4.15) (Note 1) Factor for CAT III Approach (fCAT III = 1.2) Factor for system failures (see QRH 2.4.67 Normal Operations: In flight: Abnormal Operations: the greater of LDreq = LDunfactored ⋅ 1.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.15) ( Note 2) Notes: 1: 2: 3: Alternatively the table unfactored landing distance wet can be used.3 Summary Dispatch: LDreq = LDunfactored ⋅ 1.67 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ LDreq = ULD ⋅ foperational ⋅ fsystem failure ⋅ fwet ⋅ fCAT III ⎭ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ LDreq LDunfactored foperational fsystem failure fwet fCAT III Required Landing Distance Unfactored Landing Distance (Note 3) Operational factor (foperational = 1.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Performance Page 150 of 171 20.

difference between ADR1 and ADR2: 20 ft (on ground) 55ft (FL100) 130 ft (FL390) 20 ft (on ground) 350 ft (FL390) Effective Date: 25.2% min.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Limitations Page 151 of 171 21 Limitations The limitations in this summary are divided in two groups: • Technical limitations Limitations out of the FCOM which are most of them nice to know since the FWC is monitoring them or they have no direct consequence in normal operation. + 2. operating altitude: Max.5m (A321) 34. Operational limitations Limitations which have direct consequences in normal operation and should be known by heart.4. 18° / 22.34): 21.1m 12m 12.6m (A321) 9. The operational limitations are ordered according a normal flight in flight phases. difference between ADR1 / 2 and ADR3: Instr.2 Flight instrument tolerances (Source: FCOM 3.0 g to 0. pavement width for 180° turn Main Gear track (outside face of tire) Max.GuideA320 Revision: 4 .0 g to 0.01. + 2.04.5 g to .34) Altimeter: max.6m (A320) 44.1 Technical limitations 21. A320) 27.0 g.1 General (Source: FCOM 3.01.08 33.5° in windshear between 73°N and 60°S max. • 21.0 g.20) Length Wingspan Tail height Tail width Fuselage width Min.0 g. -1000ft – 9200ft PA max.1.5m 4m 23m (A319.8 (A319) 37. Most of the operational limitations can also be found in the section technical limitations.2m FL 390 (39’800ft PA) -70 C OAT +/.1. 45m + 2.1. operating temperature Runway slope limits: Runway width: Manoeuvring load limits: clean: slats extended / flaps retracted slats & flaps extended Maximum take-off and landing altitude: Pitch in T/O: Range of ADIRS (FCOM 3.

01 (FL390) 6 kt / m0.008 (FL390) 6 kt (on ground) 8 kt (FL390) max. difference 4° Heading: 21.1.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.1. .01.4 Cabin pressure (Source: FCOM 3.1.04. difference between ADR1 / 2 / 3 and stby ASI: 100 ft (on ground) 185 ft (FL 100) 445 ft (FL390) 6 kt / m0.6 psi -1 psi 1 psi Instr.70° / max. . -25°C (39’000 ft PA) min.66° / max.5 Structural weight limits (Source: FCOM 3.21) Maximum positive differential pressure Maximum negative differential pressure Ram air inlet opens only if differential pressure is lower 21. . 55°C (0 ft PA) min.20) Take-off & Landing: In flight: min.08 . -20°C (35’000 ft PA) min.3 Opearting temperatures (Source: FCOM 3.008 (ground) 3 kt / m0. .1. .40° / max. 37°C (9000ft PA) min. difference between ADR1 / 2 and ADR3: max. -10°C (30’000 ft PA) 21.01.20) Maximum take-off weight (brake release): Maximum landing weight: Maximum zero fuel weight: A319: A320: A321: A319: A320: A321: A319: A320: A321: 75’500kg 77’000kg 93’000kg 62’500kg 64’500kg 77’800kg 58’500kg 61’000kg 73’800kg 8.008 (ground) 4 kt / m0.45° / max.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Limitations Page 152 of 171 max. difference between ADR1 / 2 / 3 and ISIS: Airspeed: max.63° / max. difference between ADR1 and ADR2: max.

67 max. 280 kts / M 0. 220 kts max.8 Automatic approach. but the tower reports a surface wind within the limitations.82 250 kts / M 0. If the tower reports a surface wind beyond limitations.22) Headwind: Tailwind: Crosswind: max. Instr. 250 kts max.22) Height for engagement after Take-off (with SRS mode) Straight in non precision approach Circling approach: ILS approach with CAT 1 displayed on FMA: All other cases 21. selectable speed: T/O: Other modes: 350 kts / M 0. 200 kts VMCA VMCG (config 1 +F) Gear retraction VMLO retraction: Gear extension VLO extension: Gear extended VLE: Windshield wipers: Tire speed: Speed for opening cockpit Window: 21. A320) 190 kts (A321) VLS 103kt (8000ft)= 1. 30kt max.1.13 VS1g VLS = 1. slats / flaps extended speed: 1: 1 + F: 2: 3: 4: VLS: min.20) (all speeds IAS) VMO / MMO VRA / MRA VFE / MFE max.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.01.01.6 Speeds (Source: A320 FCOM 3. then the autopilot can remain engaged.08 .23 VS1g 110 kts ( 0ft) / 110 kts ( 0ft) / 103kt (8000ft) max. landing and roll out (Source: FCOM 3. A320) 215 kts (A321) 185 kts 177 kts (A319 . only CAT I automatic approach without autoland can be performed. If the wind displayed on ND exceeds the above–noted autoland limitations. 195 kts max. 10kt max. operating speed rough air speed: max.7 Use of autopilot (Source: FCOM 3.1.1.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Limitations Page 153 of 171 21.01. 230 kts max.04. 20kt 100 ft MDA MDA-100ft 160ft 500ft Note: Wind limitation is based on the surface wind reported by the tower.65 230 kts 215 kts 200 kts (A319 .

When the crew does not intend to perform an autoland.2 Automatic landing CAT II and CAT III autoland are approved in CONF 3 and CONF FULL. but performance on snow-covered or icy runways has not been demonstrated.1.1. Instr. Automatic landing in CAT I or better weather conditions The automatic landing system's performance has been demonstrated on runways equipped with CAT II or CAT III ILS approaches. should unsatisfactory guidance occur. In particular the effect of terrain discontinuities within 300 meters before the runway threshold must be evaluated. the AP may be disconnected at anytime. otherwise go–around is initiated.08 .1 Engine out CAT II and CAT III fail passive autoland are only approved in configuration FULL. Maximum wind conditions for CAT II or CAT III automatic approach landing and roll out. Nevertheless. independent of the aircraft systems. Minimum wind correction 5 knots .A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Limitations Page 154 of 171 21. At least CAT2 capability is displayed on the FMA and CAT II/CAT III procedures are used. they should disconnect the AP at or above 80 feet: this altitude being the minimum to take over and feel comfortable.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.04. Visual references are obtained at an altitude appropriate to the performed CAT I approach. With slope angle within (– 2. 21.5°.8. for safety purposes. Automatic rollout performance has been approved on dry and wet runways. may occur and the PF is prepared to immediately disconnect the AP and take appropriate action. and if engine-out procedures are completed before reaching 1000 feet in approach. if the following precautions are taken: • • • • • • The airline has checked that the ILS beam quality and the effect of terrain profile before the runway have no adverse effect on AP/FD guidance. The crew is aware that LOC or GS beam fluctuations. For airport altitude at or below 2500 feet. At or below the maximum landing weight.15°) range. At approach speed (VAPP) = VLS + wind correction. – 3. Automatic landing is demonstrated: • • • • With CAT II and CAT III ILS beam.8. However automatic landing in CAT I or better weather conditions is possible on CAT I ground installations or when ILS sensitive areas are not protected. maximum 15 knots.

28.10) A319 .A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Limitations Page 155 of 171 21. 33kts gusts up to 38 kts* * Values are demonstrated values and not operational limitations Tail wind (T/O & Ldg.1. 1. at or below 5300 ft): 15 kts (>5300 ft: 10 kts) (A320) 10 kts (A319) Note: The maximum tailwind for automatic landings and rollout remains 10 kts ! Maximum wind for passenger door operation : Maximum wind for cargo door operation : 65 knots 40 knots (or 50 knots.08 .10 Fuel (Source: FCOM 3.01. 29kts gusts up to 38 kts* max. or the cargo door is on the leeward side).20) Following: Cross wind for T/O: Cross wind for LDG: max.1. A320 Max usable wing tanks: Max usable center tanks: Total usable Fuel: A321 Max usable wing tanks: Max usable center tanks: Total usable Fuel: Maximum allowed wing fuel imbalance • Inner tanks Tank Fuel Quantity (Heavier tank) Full (5’350 kg) 4’300 kg 2’250 kg Note: Instr.785) (ρ=0.28 . 40 kts Keep parking brake on with wind speeds above: 21.GuideA320 2 x 6126kg 6476 kg 18’728 kg (ρ=0.785) (ρ=0.1. if the aircraft nose is oriented into the wind.04.785) 2 x 7250kg 8200 kg 23’700 kg Maximum allowed imbalance.9 Weather (Source: A320 3. 1’500 kg 1’600 kg 2’250 kg The variation is linear between these values (No limitation below 2 250 kg) Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.

1300 psi (+2 observer / 40°C) during emergency descent ->10min.12 Break. -43°C (Jet A1) 21. A320) FLAPS 3 and FULL (A321) min.29) Normal operating pressure 3000 psi +/-200 21.11 .GuideA320 .13 Oxygen (Source: FCOM 3.10) Altitude for LG extension: Altitude for flap extension: Min. flight controls (Source: FCOM 3. 800 psi (2 Crew / 40°C) min. 1000 psi (+1 observer / 40°C) min.1.1.11 Hydraulic (Source: FCOM 3.32.3. 3.1.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Limitations Page 156 of 171 • Outer tanks: Maximum allowed imbalance: 530 kg Fuel management • • • Tanks must be emptied in the following order: center tank then wing tanks Takeoff on center tank is prohibited.1. FL 200 260kt 40 kt Keep Parking brake on with wind speeds above: Do not set N1 above 75% on both engines with the parking brake on Steering angle: Rudder: Tiller: Towing: Break temperature for T/O: Altitude for flap extension: Speedbrakes NOT usable for configuration: 21.1. gear.08 Protection time Instr.04.35) Oxygen pressure: 6° (40kt) / 0° (130kt) 75° (0kt) / 0° (70kt) 95° max. 150°C with break fan on. max. 1.27 . Fuel temperature: min. cruise at FL 100 -> 110min Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. 300°C with break fan off. max. FL 250 max. FL 200 FULL (A319. Speed to cut off green hydraulic pressure: max.1.

14 Electrical (Source: FCOM 3.04. 15min LOW 1h.1.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. Cabin: Smoke hood: Bottle in cabin: 21.08 .A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Limitations Page 157 of 171 against smoke with 100% oxygen at FL 80 -> 15min. HI 30min Instr.2e) Max continuous load per generator Max continuous load per TR (continuous) 100 % (90 kVA) 200 A 4 + 4 Masks -> 12min approx.01.

5 qts + estimated consumption (0.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. min. 9. cooling maximum reverse should not be used below 70 kts Idle reverse is allowed down to acft stop Instr. Maximum for start (below 25000 feet) Maximum for start (above 25000 feet) APU start: 900°C 982°C max.-10° C max. / 10min.70) Time limit for T/O & GA: EGT limit for starting: EGT limit MCT: EGT limit T/O & GA: Oil temperature: engine start T/O power Oil quantity: Engine start: Reverse thrust: 5 min.) with 20 sec. trans. that appears on the ECAM. 3 start cycles thereafter wait 60 min before attempting 3 more cycles APU bleed air extraction for wing anti ice is not permitted 1.This corresponds to an actual N speed of 106 %.6) Pack flow selector: LO if number of PAX < 115 LO if number of PAX < 85 (A320) (A319) HI for abnormally hot and humid conditions NORM for all other operating cases 21. delay After 4 starts 15 Min.3.-40° C min. OEI 725°C 915°C 950°C min.1. 140° C max.12 Pressurization/ ventilation (Source: FCOM 3. 155° C for 15 Min.1.04. 2 Min.08 .16 Engine (Source: FCOM 3.49) Maximum N (ECAM display) 107 % Note : The APU automatically shuts down at 107 % N speed.5 qts/h) 4 Starts (max.1.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Limitations Page 158 of 171 21.1.15 APU (Source: FCOM 3.

with the operating engines at the thrust available for the flex temperature. Takeoff at reduced thrust is permitted with any inoperative item affecting the performance.08 .GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.04. Takeoff at reduced thrust is not permitted on contaminated runways. if the airplane meets all applicable performance requirements at the planned takeoff weight. only if the associated performance shortfall has been applied to meet all performance requirements at the takeoff weight. with the operating engines at the thrust available for the assumed temperature.01.70) • • • • Takeoff at reduced thrust is only permitted. The assumed temperature must not be lower than the flat rating temperature. or the actual OAT.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Limitations Page 159 of 171 Reduced Thrust Takeoff (Source: FCOM 3. Instr.

difference between ADR1 and ADR2: 20 ft (on ground) max. 3. 25.4.3.1 Cockpit Preparation (Source: FCOM 3.5 V (ensures charge 50%) charging cycle about 20 minutes do not use APU Bleed with external Airconditioning connected -> valve damage between 2000 and 2700 PSI (full pedal deflection). 800 psi (2 Crew / 40°C) * min.2.5 qts + estimated consumption (0. 10 minutes if one IRS has a residual ground speed greater than 5 knots complete a fast alignment on all 3 IRS.34 FLIGHT INSTRUMENT TOLERANCES Engine oil quantity: Battery: A320: min.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Limitations Page 160 of 171 21.4 . 1300 psi (+2 observer / 40°C) * * If below check FCOM 3.3 qts/h) (off – on -> check) battery charge currents are below 60 A and decreasing min.08 .GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. difference between ADR1 / 2 / 3 and ISIS: 100 ft (on ground) Instr. if no 1000 PSI limiter installed APU: Brake pressure check: IRS: full alignment ca.34) Oxygen pressure: min.4.6 .04. LO if number of PAX < 115 LO if number of PAX < 85 (A320) (A319) Pack flow selector: HI for abnormally hot and humid conditions NORM for all other operating cases Altimeters max. 3.2 Operational Limitations 21. 11 qts + estimated consumption (0. 9. 1000 psi (+1 observer / 40°C) * min.3.5 qts/h) A319: min.

A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY

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21.2.2 Taxi (Source: FCOM 03.03.10) N1 Taxispeed Brake fan: max 40% max 30 kt straight ahead max 10 kt in turns If an arc is displayed on the ECAM WHEEL page above the brake temperature, select the brake fans on prior brake temperature reaches 260° C max. 300°C with brake fan off. max. 150°C with brake fan on.

Break temperature for T/O:

Icing (Sorce: FCOM 3.3.9) Note: Icing conditions may be expected when the OAT (on the ground and for take-off), or when TAT (in flight) is 10° C or below with visible moisture in the air or standing water, slush, ice or snow is present on the taxiways or runways. During ground operation when engine anti ice is required and OAT is plus 3 deg C or less, periodic engine run-up to as high a thrust setting as practical (70 % N1 recommended) may be performed at the pilot's discretion to centrifuge any ice from the spinner, fan blades and low compressor stators. There is no requirement to sustain the high thrust setting. The run-ups should be performed at intervals not greater than 15 minutes. Subsequent takeoff under these conditions should be preceded by a static run-up to as high a thrust as practical (70 % N1 recommended) with observation of all primary parameters to ensure normal engine operation. 21.2.3 Before Take Off (Source: FCOM 03.03.07) Start IGN START if heavy rain or severe turbulence is expected after takeoff.

Instr.GuideA320

Revision: 4

Effective Date: 25.04.08

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21.2.4 Take Off (Source: FCOM 3.3.12; 3.5.6 ;3.1.28; 3.1.70 ; FCTM 020.50) max demonstrated crosswind T/O max demonstrated crosswind LDG max tailwind A320 A319 Max Pitch at Rotation without Tailstrike Max Pitch after T/O Separation due to wake turbulence: (Source: EAG ERM, ICAO RAR 12.28.2) behind heavy aircraft (>136’000kg) same position intermediate position 2 min 3 min 29kt, gusts 38 kt 33kt, gusts 38 kt 15 kt 10 kt 11.7° (A320) 13.5° (A319) 18°

Time limit for T/O & GA: Fuel:

5 min. / 10min. OEI Takeoff on center tank is prohibited. Max. Imbalance of outer Tank is 590kg

Icing (Source: FCOM 3.4.30) Icing conditions may be expected when the OAT (on ground and for takeoff), or when the TAT (in flight) is at or below 10°C, and there is visible moisture in the air (such as clouds, fog with low visibility of one mile or less, rain, snow, sleet, ice crystals) or standing water, slush, ice or snow is present on the taxiways or runways 21.2.5 After Take Off / Climb (Source: FCOM 3.3.12) Packs: Note: Select PACK 1 ON after CLB thrust reduction Select PACK 2 ON after a min. 10 seconds waiting period but not later than Flaps are set to zero. Selecting pack ON before reducing take off thrust would result in an EGT increase. Selecting both packs ON simultaneously may affect passenger comfort.

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Revision: 4

Effective Date: 25.04.08

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Flight instrument tolerances (Source: FCOM 3.4.34) Altimeter: max. difference between ADR1 and ADR2: max. difference between ADR1 / 2 / 3 and stby altimeter: 55ft (FL100) 130 ft (FL390) 185 ft (FL 100)

21.2.6 Cruise Turbulence (Source: FCOM 3.4.91) Above FL200 Below FL 200 275 kt or Mach 0.76 (which ever is less) 250 kt

Icing Conditions (Source: FCOM 3.4.30 OPERATIONS IN ICING CONDITIONS) ENGINE ANTI ICE must be ON during all ground and flight operations, when icing conditions exist, or are anticipated, except during climb and cruise when the SAT is below - 40° C. ENGINE ANTI ICE must be ON before and during a descent in icing conditions, even if the SAT is below - 40° C.

21.2.7 Approach

max demonstrated crosswind T/O max demonstrated crosswind LDG max tailwind A320 A319 auto LDG max tailwind auto LDG max crosswind auto LDG max headwind Speedbrakes NOT usable for configuration:

29kt, gusts 38 kt 33kt, gusts 38 kt 15 kt 10 kt 10 kt 20 kt 30 kt FULL (A319, A320) FLAPS 3 and FULL (A321)

Instr.GuideA320

Revision: 4

Effective Date: 25.04.08

to allow thermal equalization and stabilization and thus avoid oxidation of brake surface hot spots.03.2.08 .23) • • if above 30° C OAT consider Conf 1 Brake fans selection should be delayed for a minimum of about 5 minutes.21) Pitch Bank Full reverse max 10° max 7° min. or done at the gate (whichever occurs first).A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Limitations Page 164 of 171 Wake turbulence radar separation minima (Sorce: ICAO RAR 12.3. if full reverse used • Instr.3) Behind a heavy acft: All other cases 5Nm 3Nm 21.28.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.9 After Landing (FCOM 03.04.2.8 Landing (Source: FCOM 3. 70kt 21. Engine shut down minimum 3 minutes after LDG.

40 kts Keep parking brake on with wind speeds above: 21. Drift 5nm or below (in all other cases consult FCOM 3. Instr. or the cargo door is on the leeward side).25) After having switched off the ADIRS.24) Above 21 kt Maximum wind for passenger door operation : 65 knots Maximum wind for cargo door operation : 40 knots (or 50 knots. and the temperature of one brake is lower than or equal to 60°C.4. or brake temperatures are likely to exceed 500°C.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Limitations Page 165 of 171 21. 3.3. if the excessive deviation occurs after two consecutive flights). Maintenance action is due in the following cases : • The temperature difference between the 2 brakes on the same gear is greater than 150°C.2.2. wait at least 10 seconds before switching off the electrical supply to ensure that the ADIRS memorize the latest data.08 . or • The difference between the LH and RH brakes' average temperature is higher than or equal to 200°C or • A fuse plug has melted or • One brake's temperature exceeds 900°C IRU Performance On POSITION MONITOR page Residual ground speed check: Below 5kt 6-14 kt 15-20kt ok perform a fast alignment Report (The IR part of the ADIRU must be considered as failed.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. and the temperature of either one of the brakes is higher than or equal to 600°C or • The temperature difference between the 2 brakes on the same gear is greater than 150°C. use the brake fans.3.3.11 Leaving Aircraft (Source: FCOM 3. Report (The IR part of the ADIRU must be considered as failed). parking brake application should be avoided unless operationally necessary When turnaround times are short. disregarding possible oxidation phenomenon. if the aircraft nose is oriented into the wind.10 Parking (Source: FCOM 3.24 .32) Brakes • above 500°C.04.

08 .A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Limitations Page 166 of 171 Wait until the APU flap is fully closed (about 2 minutes afte the APU AVAIL light goes out). before switching off the batteries Instr.04.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.

Capture CAS Calibrated Airspeed C / B Circuit Breaker CBMS Circuit Breaker Monitoring System CDL Configuration Deviation List CDU Control Display Unit CFDIU Centralized Fault Data Interface CFDS Centralized Fault Display System CG Center of Gravity CHG Change CIDS Cabin Intercommunication Data System C / L Check List CLB Climb CLR Clear CMD Command CMPTR Computer CO Company CONT Continuous CO RTE Company Route CPCU Cabin Pressure Controller Und CRC Continuous Repetitive Chime CRG Cargo CRS Course CRT Cathode Ray Tube CRZ Cruise CSCU Cargo Smoke Control Unit CSD Constant Speed Drive CSM / G Constant Speed Motor / Generator CSTR Constraint CTR Center CTL PNL Control Panel CVR Cockpit Voice Recorder D DA Drift Angle DAR Digital AIDS Recorder DC Direct Current DDRMI Digital Distance and Radio Magnetic Indicator DES Descent DEST Destination DEU Decoder / Encoder Unit DFA Delayed Flap Approach DFDR Digital Flight Data Recorder DH Decision Height DIR Direction DIR TO Direct To DISC Disconnect DIST Distance Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.08 B BARO BAT BCL BCDS BITE BIU BFE BMC BNR BRG BRK BRT BSCU Barometric Battery Battery Charge Limiter Bite Centralized Data System Built-in Test Equipment Bite Interface Unit Buyer Furnished Equiptment Bleed Air Monitoring Computer Binary Bearing Brake Bright Braking Steering Control Unit Instr.GuideA320 .A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Abreviations Page 167 of 171 22 Abreviations A ABN Abnormal AC Alternating Current A / C Aircraft ACARS ARINC Communication Addressing and Reporting System ACP Audio Control Panel ADF Automatic Direction Finder ADIRS Air Data Inertial Reference System ADIRU Air Data Inertial Reference Unit ADM Air Data Module ADR Air Data Reference ADV Advisory AEVC Avionics Equipment Ventilation Computer AFS Auto Flight System AIDS Aircraft Integrated Data System AIL Aileron AIU Audio Interface Unit AMU Audio Management Unit ANT Antenna ALS Approach Light System ALT Altitude ALTN Alternate A / P Auto-Pilot APPR Approach APPU Asymmetry Position Pick off Unit APU Auxiliary Power Und ARPT Airport AS Airspeed ASAP As Soon As Possible ASI Air Speed Indicator A / SKID Anti Skid ATC Air Traffic Control ATE Automatic Test Equipment A/THR Auto Thrust Function ATS Auto Thrust System ATT Attitude AWY Airway BTC BTL Bus Tie Contactor Bottle C C Centigrade CAPT Captain.04.

Feet FT/MN Feet per Minute FU Fuel Used FWD Forward FWC Flight Waming Computer FWS Flight Waming System G GA Go Around GCU Generator Control Unit GEN Generator GLC Generator Line Contactor GMT Greenwich Mean time GND Ground GPCU Ground Power Control Unit GPS Global Positioning System GPWS Ground Proximity Waming System GRND Ground GRP Geographic Reference Point GRVTY Gravity GS Ground Speed G/S Glide Slope GW Gross Weight F FAC Flight Augmentation Computer FADEC Full Authority Digital Engine Control System FAF Final Approach Fix FAP Forward Attendants Panel FAR Federal Aviation Regulations FAV Fan Air Valve F / C Flight Crew FCDC Flight Control Data Concentrator FCU Flight Control Unit FD Flight Director FDIU Flight Data Interface Unit FDU Fire Detection Unit Instr.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Abreviations Page 168 of 171 DITS DMC DME DMU DSDL DSPL DTG DU Digital Information Transfer System Display Management Computer Distance Measuring Equipment Data Management Und (Aids) Dedicated Serial Data Link Display Distance To Go Display Unit E E East ECAM Electronic Centralized Aircraft Monitoring ECB Electronic Control Box (APU) ECM Engine Condition Monitoring ECON Economic ECP ECAM Control Panel ECS Environmental Control System ECU Engine Control Unit EDP Engine Driven Pump EFCS Electronic Flight Control System EFIS Electronic Flight Instrument System EFOB Estimated Fuel On Board EIU Engine Interface Unit EIS Electronic Instruments System ELAC Elevator Aileron Computer ELV Elevation ELEC Electrics EMER Emergency EMER GEN Emergency Generator ENG Engine EO Engine Out EPR Engine Pressure Ratio ESS Essential EST Estimated ETA Estimated Time of Arrival ETE Estimated Time en Route ETP Equal Time Point EVMU Engine Vibration Monitoring Unis E / WD Engine / Waming Display EXT PWR External Power EXTN Extension FF Fuel Flow FGC Flight Guidance Computer FIDS Fault Isolation and Detection System FL Flight Level FLSCU Fuel Level Sensing Control Unit FLT Flight FLT CLT Flight Control FMA Flight Mode Annunciator FMGC Flight Management Guidance Computer FMGS Flight Management Guidance System FMS Flight Management System F/0 First Officer FOB Fuel on Board F-PLN Flight Plan FPA Flight Path Angle FPPU Feed Back Position Pick-Off Unit FPV Flight Path Vector FQI / FQU Fuel Quantity Indication / Unit FREQ Frequency FRT Front FRV Fuel Retum Valve FT Foot.04.08 .GuideA320 H H HCU HDG HDG/S HDL HI HI Revision: 4 Hour. Hot Hydraulic Control Unit Heading Heading Selected Handle High High Intensity Effective Date: 25.

04. Meter MAC Mean Aerodynamic Chord MAG Magnetic MAG DEC Magnetic Declination MAG VAR Magnetic Variation MAINT Maintenance MAN Manual MAX CLB Maximum Climb MAX DES Maximum Descent MAX END Maximum Endurance MB Millibar MCT Maximum Continuous Thrust MCDU Multifunction Control and Display Unit MCU Modular Concept Unit MDA Minimum Descent Altitude MECH Mechanic MEL Minimum Equipment List MFA Memorized Fault Annunciator MI Medium Intensity MIN Minimum MKR Marker MLS Microwave Landing System MLW Maximum Landing Weight MMEL Master Minimum Equipment List MMO Maximum Operating Mach MN Mach Number MRIU Maintenance and Recording Interface Unit MSA Minimum Safe Altitude MSG Message MSL Mean Sea Level MSU Mode Selector Unit (IRS) MTBF Mean Time Between Failure MTOW Maximum Take-Off Weight MZFW Maximum Zero Fuel Weight K KG KT Kilogram Knot L L Left LAF Load Alleviation Function LAT Latitude LAT REV Lateral Revision LAV Lavatory LCN Load Classification Number LDG Landing L / G Landing Gear LGCIU Landing Gear Control Interface Unit LGPIU L/ G Position Indicator Unit LH Left Hand LIM Limitation LS Localizer Inertial Smoothing LK Lock LL Latitude / Longitude Instr.GuideA320 N N Normal.08 . Mach.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Abreviations Page 169 of 171 HLD Hold HMU Hydraulic-Mechanical Unft HP High Pressure HPTCC HP Turbine Clearance Control HPV High Pressure Valve HUD Head Up Display HYD Hydraulics HZ Hertz I IAF Initial Approach Fix IAS Indicated Airspeed IDENT Identification IDG Integrated Drive Generator IFR Instrument Flight Rules IGN Ignition IGV Inlet Guide Vane ILS Instrument Landing System IMM Immediate INB Inbound INBO Inboard INCREM Increment INIT Initialization INOP Inoperative INR Inner INST Instrument INTCP Intercept I/O Inputs / Outputs I/P Input or Intercept Profile IP Intermediate Pressure IPC Intermediate Pressure Check-valve IPPU Instrumentation Position Pick-off Unit IRS Inertial Reference System ISA International Standard Atmosphere ISOL Isolation LLS Left Line Select Key LOC Localizer LONG Longitude LP Low Pressure LPTCC LP Turbine Clearance Control LRRA Low Range Radio Altimeter LRU Line Replaceable Unit LSK Line Select Key LT Light LVL Level LVL/CH Level Change LW Landing Weight M M Magenta. North NACA National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics NAV Navigation Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.

A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Abreviations Page 170 of 171 NAVAID Navigation Aid (VOR / DME) ND Navigation Display NDB Non Directional Beacon NM Nautical Miles NW Nose Wheel QAR Quick Access Recorder QFE Field Elevation Atmosphere Pressure QFU Runway Heading QNE Sea Level Standard Atmosphere Pressure (1013 MB) QNH Sea level Atmosphere Pressure QT Quart (US) QTY Quantity O OAT Outside Air Temperature OBRM On Board Replacable Module OFF / R Off Reset OFST Offset O/P Output OPP Opposite OPT Optimum OUTB Outbound OUTR Outer OVBD Overboard OVHD Overhead OVHT Overheat OVRD Override OVSPD Overspeed R R RA RACC RAT RCDR RCL RCL RCLM RCVR REL REL REV RH R /1 RL RLSK RMI RMP RNG RPM RPTG RQRD RSV RTE RTOW RWY RWYM Right.04. Red Radio Altitude Rotor Active Clearance Control Ram Air Turbine Recorder Recall Runway Centerline Lights Runway Centerline Markings Receiver Release Runway End Lights Reverse Right Hand Radio / Inertial Runway (Edge) Lights Right Line Select Key Radio Magnetic Indicator Radio Management Panel Range Revolution per Minute Repeating Required Reserves Route Regulatory Takeoff Weight Runway Runway Markings P P-ALT Profile Altitude P/B Push-Button P-CLB Profile Climb PCU Power Control Unit P-DES Profile Descent PDU Pilot Display Unit PERF Performance PFD Primary Flight Display PHC Probes Heat Computer P-MACH Profile Mach POB Pressure Off Brake P-SPEED Profile Speed POS Position PPOS Present Position PPU Position Pick-off Unit PR Pressure PRED Prediction PROC Procedure PROC T Procedure Turn PROF Profile PROG Progress PROTEC Protection PSU Passenger Service Unit PT Point PTP Purser Test Panel PTR Printer PTU Power Transfer Unit (Hydraulic) PVI Paravisual Indicator PWR Power Instr.08 .GuideA320 S S South SC Single Chime S / C Step Climb SD System Display STAT INV Static Inverter S / D Step Descent SDAC System Data Acquisition Concentrator SDCU Smoke Detection Control Unit SEC Spoiler Elevator Computer SEL Selector SFCC Slat / Flap Control Computer SFCS Slat / Flap Control System SFE Seiler Furnished Equipment Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.

Total Tactical True Air Speed Total Air Temperature To Be Determined Top of Climb Traffic Collision Alert System or Threat Analysis / Collision Avoidance System T / D Top of Descent TDZ Touchdown Zone Lights TEMP Temperature TGT Target THR Thrust THRL Threshold Lights THS Trimmable Horizontal Stabilizer TK Tank TK Track Angle TKE Track Angle Error TMR Timer TLA Throttle Lever Angle TO. Take Off TOGA Take-Off .04.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. Weight Window Heat Computer Waypoint Wing Tip Brake Weather Radar X XCVR XFR XMTR XPDR XTK Transceiver Transfer Transmitter Transponder Cross Track Error Y Y Yellow Z ZFCG Zero Fuel Center of Gravity ZFW Zero Fuel Weight U Instr.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Abreviations Page 171 of 171 SID Standard Instrument Departure SIM Simulation SLT Slat SOV Shutoff valve SPD Speed SPD LIM Speed Limit SPLR Spoiler SRS Speed Reference System STAR Standard Terminal Arrival Route STEER Steering STRG Steering STS Status SW Switch SWTG Switching SYNC Synchronize SYS System UFD ULB UNLK UTC Unit Fault Data Underwater Locator Beacon Unlock Universal Coordinated Time V V V1 V2 VBV Vc VEL VFE VFEN VFTO VHF VHV VIB VM VMIN VMO VOR VOR-D VR VREF V/S VSI VSV Volt Critical Engine Failure Speed Take Off Safety Speed Variable by pass valve Calibrated airspeed Velocity Maxi Velocity Flaps Extended VFE Next Vetocity Final Take-Off Very High Frequency Very High Voltage Vibration Maneuvering Speed Minimum Operating Speed Maximum Operating Speed VHF Omnidirectional Range VOR-DME Rotation Speed Landing Reference Speed Vertical Speed Vertical Speed Indicator Variable Stator Vane T T TACT TAS TAT TBD T/C TCAS True. Turn. West.08 .Go-Around TOGW Take-Off Gross Weight TOW Take-Off Weight T-P Turn Point T-R Transmitter-Receiver TRANS Transition TROPOTropopause TRK Track TRU Transformer Rectifier Unit TTG Time to Go W W WHC WPT WTB WXR White.

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