A320 Line Training Summary, Air Berlin

Revision 4.1 by CMD Urs Oetiker, TRE, Station Zürich

A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY

Page

2 of 171

IMPORTANT
The information in this document will provide you with a collection of basic organized material gathered from official Air Berlin sources regarding the operation of the A320. This A320 Line Training Summary is a document which you may use in your training as a work of reference. It is not intended for operational use, meaning that it shall not be used in-lieu of original operational documentation during commercial operation.

Instr.GuideA320

Revision: 4

Effective Date: 25.04.08

A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY

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3 of 171

0

Introduction

The trend of modern aviation dictates that we are operating in an enviormnent that is increasing in both technical complexity and is governed and monitored closely in legal and procedural frameworks. So, as well as good stick and rudder-skills, we must also become proficient in the technical management of the aircraft and adhere rules and regulations stipulated by the company and the authorities. If we can combine these factors and provide a safe, economical and comfortable experience for the crew and passgeners – then we have attained our goal. The technical and operational information needed to operate in this environment is contained in several documents with which the pilot must be familiar. It is not necessary, nor is it advisable, to know these books “by heart”. However, the crew must know the structure of the documentation and be able to consult, understand and apply the relevant text/schematics in a timely manner. The purpose of this summary is to give the trainee an overview of the most fundamental topics that are needed to operate the Airbus A320 family. It provides condensed information as found in the Air Berlin documentation and also describes accepted methods for operating in daily work within the company. This summary provides references to the following documentation: OM(A) – The Operations Manual Part A is a document which stipulates accepted practices by which Air Berlin must adhere. It covers many areas; from the description of the organizational structure of the company all the way to weather conditions required for an approach. It covers mainly issues of operational rather than technical nature. The main Chapter of interest for the flight crew member is OM(A) Chapter 8. FCOM 3.3 (a subchapter of FCOM 3, see below) has been specially modified by Air Berlin to suit its „dark and silent“ flight-deck philosophy. It is the only part of the FCOMs that is modified by Air Berlin. FCOM – The Flight Crew Operations Manual is provided by the aircraft manufacturer. It provides technical guidelines and information that relate to the operation of the aircraft. The FCOM is separated into 4 parts. The FCOMs are delivered by Airbus and do not contain company company-specific information (except FCOM 3.3, see above). • • • • FCOM 1 – System Description FCOM 2 – Flight Preparation FCOM 3 – Flight Operations FCOM 4 – FMGS Pilot´s Guide

FCTM – The Flight Crew Training Manual is a document published by Airbus and is advisory in nature. It provides only basic information regarding practical operation of the aircraft. A320 Instuctor Support – This document provides Instructors with additional background information on the A320 operation, in procedural and technical terms. There is a strict hierarchy with which the documentation is to be used within Air Berlin. Any information in the OM(A) overrides FCOM 3.3, followed by the FCOM and finally the FCTM and A320 Instructor Support. Use this summary during your training to prepare for your next flights. By doing so, you provide yourself and the instructor more time to dedicate to areas which may need more focus. The initial training will provide you with the ability to operate the aircraft safely and economically. Remember that safety has highest priority – therfore:
Instr.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.04.08

ch/uoetiker/ All that remains to be said is: good luck! Instr.04.ggaweb. If the reader finds any deviations from official policy or finds outdated/incorrect information. please contact: Name: Urs Oetiker Function: TRE.ch Mobile: +41 78 707 5661 For the latest update of the summary check following webpage: http://home. The A320 Line Training Summary is revised at irregular intervals depending on the number and significance of changes within the official documentation.08 . Station Zürich e-mail: uoetiker@freesurf.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Page 4 of 171 • • • • Attain in-depth knowledge of the procedures Attain a good understanding regarding the technical apects of the aircraft Strictly adhere to Standard Operating Procedures Plan and fly in a conservative manner If you have any questions relevant to training issues do not hesitate to contact your instructor or the Department Training.

........................................................3.............1.......................................................................................... Distance.......................................3 Aircraft weights......1 General ..............................A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Page 5 of 171 Table of Content 1 General Principles............................................... 11 Becoming an expert in Aviation....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 32 3...............4 Interpretation of given meteorological information.....................................................................................................3 General Briefing ........ 26 2...................................................................................................................... manual calculation.... Communicate ...........................................................3...................................................................................................................................................................1 Fuel index table....................................................2 Interfacing with automation ....1 1...........1 4............................................................................................................................ 40 6.........2..4 LPC load sheet.....................................................................................................2 Briefings ..................................................1................................................. 28 3........................................................2 DOW / DOI A320 for conventional Load sheet......................5 Conventional load sheet.......................................... Navigate.............................................................................................................................................1 Planning minima for destination aerodromes and alternate aerodromes..............................1 Use of automation .........................................................................................................3...............................................5........................4 Cross-Cockpit Communication ............2 Self programmed waypoints. 34 4.............................. 36 Walk Around................................................................. 13 1.............................................................................................................................................1 2................ 15 1................................................................. 40 6..... 44 6.................................................... procedures and responsibility for preparation and acceptance of the weight and balance sheet.....................................2............................................................................................................................................... 22 2........................................................................................................ 46 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.............GuideA320 ...................................................................3 Tactical aspects ...........2 Working with packets ................................ 45 6......4........................... 43 6..................................... 34 Exterior Inspection (Walk Around) .......1 5...2 Alternate Planning.......................4 Departure Briefing .............................................2..........................................2 Place – Bearing............ 17 1........................................1 General................... 34 4.................6 Last minute changes procedure............................. 20 2...................1......................................................3................................................................................................................................................................................................... 31 3........ 30 3.. 33 3...................................... methods......... 40 6...............................................................................................5 Take off Briefing ................. 23 2....... 17 1....................................................................3 Fuel planning ............ 20 2........................2..........................1 Place................................. 19 Pre-flight planning work distribution .................... 17 1.............2 Definitions (weights and centre of gravity) ..................................................................6 Landing Briefing .................5..................2 6 Loading............................................. 18 1......................2 Closed Loop...2 1........................................................2....5 Fly ............................................................................................7 Standard Weight Values .....................................1 Structure..... 28 3................5 Profit tankering........................ 41 6......................... 19 Legal requirements ......................................................................................................................................................... 28 RNAV .... 20 2.....................................3 Conversion of Reported Meteorological Visibility to RVR ........................... 44 6.......................... 30 3...2..................... 25 2...04.............................08 Instr................................................................................. 13 1.... 36 2 3 4 5 5....................................... 32 3..........2..................... 25 2......................... Bearing........................................................................and conventional waypoints........................................................1................1 General .4..........................2 Coding of NavDataBase (NDB) ................ 32 3......... 11 Procedures and Techniques .......... 28 3.2 HILDAW ............................................................................1 Introduction .. 34 Recommendations for optimum use of automation .......................................... 24 2................... 42 6..............1 General ................ 36 General.................. 12 Systematic method of operation.................................. Place – Bearing ................

............. 61 11........................3 Use of the weather radar .............................................................2...................................................................... 48 7...........................................................................3 WX+T and TURB modes ............................1.......................................................................................................................A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Page 6 of 171 7 Resetting of computers and C/B’s ..........3 Required landing distance ................3 Clear ice phenomenon....................... 68 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25........1 Flight planning..........................3 9...1 Tilt ..............................................................................2 Performance Optimization .................................................6 Colour gradient................. 59 11.... 61 11..............................................................3 Flap setting.......................... 66 11....................... 48 7................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 64 11......................................................................................................1............2 9............................................................................ 67 11............................................................................................................3................ 54 10.... 65 11......................................1 Runway contamination.........4 Taxiing in icing conditions .................. 57 Winter operation....4 Spotting dry hail ...............6 10 Weather radar ... 56 10..............................................................3..............................................2 Definitions ................................................................ 51 Final approach.............5 Take off on contaminated runways ....................................... 56 10..........................................3....... 53 Engine-out landing .......................................................... 60 On ground operation .................. 47 7.............................. 67 11........................................................................... 52 Tail strike at landing ...3.........................................................................................................................................................................2..................................................................................................................................5................................................................................................................................................................2 8..................................................2........................................... 47 Computer reset.......................2 In flight.....2 Technical background......... 64 11................................................................5 Turbulence above cloud tops.................................. 61 11......2 Stabilized approach ......................................................................................................5....................................................................1 On ground .................................................................3.................................................3...........................................................7 Pilot behaviour with significant weather ...................... 49 7.................. 47 7.............08 11 Instr.................3................................................................................GuideA320 ......... 58 11............................................................................... 56 10........................................................................................................2 Gain...................................................................................................................................... 50 Landing technique ................................................... 50 Definition ............................................................. 61 11...........................................3.............................................................3 De-icing on ground........................ 47 Tripped C/B reengagement in flight ................................................5 Responsibility................................................. 55 10.................3 ECAM advisories................................................................................................................................................................................................ 67 11......................................................... 61 11...............4 9..................6 Final check before aircraft dispatch ................ 58 11............................ 55 10.................2 Engine start in cold weather ..........................................................................................................................................3................ 51 Flare ....... 58 11................................... 67 11................................ 55 Turbulence versus altitude .............5..............................1 9.................................. 56 10.............................5...1 General .................................................................................1 7.......................................................................8 Severe turbulence: ..................................................................1 Clean aircraft concept ........................ 51 Crosswind landing........................................................................1... 54 10............................................... 58 11......... 54 10................................3 BSCU reset (in-flight and on ground)................................................1 General ...........................2 Runway contamination........1 Securing the aircraft for cold soak ...............................3................. 61 11..................................................................................................................... 62 11. 53 8 9 9............................................................. 52 Bouncing at touch down.......................................2.................................................4 General checks .....5 9............................................................................................................................................ 50 Philosophy of stabilized approach ........... 54 10............ 62 11..........................................................................4 Recommended procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................7 Procedures......2............... 54 10...04................................2 Exterior inspection .......1 8.............

.........................................8....... CAT3 SINGLE...........................................................................................6.................... 74 12.......4................................2 Color code........................ 70 11............................... 99 14.......3............2...................... 72 12..............................................6 Aircraft contamination in flight....5 Strategies for intercepting the 3° descent path from above and below.................................................................... 87 Descent planning ........8.................1 Objectives .......................2......08 13 14 Instr..3....................................................... 75 12........................................................................1 General ........ 68 11........................3..........................6 Use of autopilot .3 Structure of the MEL . 92 13..................................2..................5 Crosswind limits .................... 98 14........................................................ CAT3 DUAL automatic approach and landing....................2...................................................................................... 95 13......................1 Windshear ........................ 94 13....................8.................................................................................................................................................3 Warning / Caution classification...............................................................................................................5...............................8.............................................................. 77 12.........................................4 Use of QRH.......4 Remaining on the 3° descent path....................................5 Task sharing for abnormal and emergency procedures ................5 Loss of braking.................. 99 14......A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Page 7 of 171 11............. 68 11..................2 Contents................................... 78 12.............................. 69 11................................................................................................ 84 12...................................................... 98 14......................................... 100 14..................................... 91 13.................. 72 12......................... 95 13...................................3........... 96 13................................7 Unreliable speed indication................3 The economical descent ...................................................................8.......................1 Corrections.............................................2 Energy management............8....................................................... 92 13.................................................. 100 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.............3..............................8.........................................................................................................7 Landing on contaminated runways ............2 Section 00E.................................................................................................. 78 12............3 Use of summaries in the QRH ........................3 TCAS......... 76 12.....4....4 Required Navigation Performance (RNP) ........................................ 83 12.....04................6......................................................... 71 12 Handling of abnormal and emergency situations...................................................................................................................................... 99 14..................... 99 14......................... 72 12..4 EGPWS.......... 82 12.......................1 Crosswind limits for landing on contaminated runways................2.........................................................................................7 Landing distance .............................................................................1 Section 00 General .1 Types of failures........................................6.................. 73 12..................1 General .................................. 74 12...............................................................................................3......2 CAT2.................. 91 13...........................................................................................1 Scope ...6 Emergency descent .......................................................2 Example .................................................3 Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM) .......2................1 General ................................................................. 78 12.......................................................................................................................... 98 14........................ 85 12......................................................2 Energy circle displayed on the ND........................................................................................... 81 12................................................................................................................................3 Factors affecting the descent path of the aircraft ..................2..............................................................2 Engine anti-ice ....................................8 Low temperature effect on altimeter indication ........................................ 90 13................. 100 14.................... 70 11........8................................4.................................................. 69 11......................................7............................................................................................ 90 13..........................3 Section 01 MEL. 77 12.............8............................................ 74 12..........................................3 A word about track miles....3.. 92 13.......8 Memory Items ....................... 91 13............. 97 Minimum Equipment List (MEL)........................................... 100 14.......1 Handling of maintenance messages displayed on ECAM status page........................................................GuideA320 ..............................................................................8............................................8 Rejected T/O / Emergency Evacuation.................3....4 Conclusion .. 69 11..................................................... 68 11............... 70 11......3 Wing anti-ice ............................................................................................................................2 General application of the MEL......................................................................1 General ............2 Windshear ahead (PWS) ............................................................................................................2 Planning for an economical descent.......................................................................................

.................................................................................3 Approach monitoring................................................................ 117 17... 119 CAT II..3........ 100 15 RNAV ...............2 General procedures .. 120 18...... 118 17...........4 Taxiing in icing conditions ......... 116 17............................... 101 15...............................................2 Brakes ............................................................................ 114 16...................1 Decision height concept:................................................... 107 15........4 FM Position ................................................4 Fail passive automatic landing system .... 108 15................................................................ 100 14....................................................3 Taxiing with one engine .............................1.............4.......... 121 18.........................1 General ....................2 Without GPS PRIMARY......................................... 113 16.............................................................................................................................................................1...................................................2........ 105 15................................................ 106 15.................................................................................................................6...........................3 Brakes hot (ECAM warning) ...................2 Dispatch requirements ................................................................1 General ........... 121 18.......3 Runway Visual Range......... 101 15.......................................................1 General .............. 118 17...........4 Section 02 Operational Procedure..............................2 Brake temperature limitations requiring maintenance action ............................................................ 102 15................7..7 RNAV approaches with vertical guidance....................................... 120 18....................................................2................................................................................................................ 104 15................................................1 General ...........5......................... 104 15...08 16 17 18 Instr...........................................................................................6.....................................................................................2.....................................................................................................................................7.......2 Procedures.......................................................................................................... 114 16.....................................2...................................... 120 18......... 102 15............2..............1 Decision height .............. 102 15.........2 Decision height and alert height concept...................................................................................................................................................1........................................1..........2 180° turn on the runway......................................1..... 107 15.............................................................................................................. 118 17.................................................................... 116 17...................................................................................3..................... 113 16................ 101 15......................................................................................................................................................... 102 15.............................................................................. 101 15...5 Requirements for RVSM ................................................1 Mix IRS Position..1 General .........................................8 Non Precision Approaches with engine-out...........5 Fail operational automatic landing system ......2 Flight crew Procedures ................................................. CAT III Operations................................................................................................. 118 17.. 105 15................................................................................................GuideA320 .........................................1 General ........... 116 17.................... 120 18................................................................... 116 17...........................6........................................................................................................... 120 18...... 103 15............................. 118 17..............1 General .........................1 Coding requirements.......................................................................................2 Procedures...........................................................................................6.......... 101 15....... 121 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.............................4 B-RNAV in European airspace ...........5 Evaluation of position accuracy ........................1....................................................................................................................................... 111 15.........4 General recommendations ............................ 103 15......................................................................3... 111 RVSM ....................................................................1.......3 Pre-flight procedures...6 Altitude tolerances.............................. 101 15.....................................................................................A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Page 8 of 171 14............................................................................................................................... 115 Taxiing and braking ..............................................4........................3.................6 Position Computation ........................................5...1 Definitions ..................................................1.................................................................................................2 GPS Position................6........................... 103 15....3 Radio Position...................................................................... 104 15........................................... 113 16..2 Alert Height .................................4 In-flight procedures .............................. 120 18..3 Required Navigation Performance (RNP)....................5 P-RNAV for terminal procedures ...............04........................................................ 113 16.......................1 Taxiing.......................4 Presentation of the MEL..7................................1................................................................3 With GPS PRIMARY...................................................

.......2 Crew procedures ..............................................4......4 Landing field length requirements................................................................ 139 18.......................................1 Ground Speed Mini Function ........................12 Type and command experience..............................................................................1 General ................................................................. 126 18............7.................................................................................1 Runway Length ............. 149 20........................... 132 18.....4.............. 148 20...........3..................................................5 Example .......................8 Failures and associated actions............................................................................10 Autoland in CAT I or better weather conditions ..........................3 Runway Slope................................................................. 144 20.................................A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Page 9 of 171 18....... 141 General ................................................................................................................7..................................2 Commencement and Continuation of Approach (Approach Ban) ...........................................1...1 Dispatch requirements ............... 133 18...................................1..... 143 20........ 126 18......................................................................................7........................................................................4..................................................3 Limitations.............4..................................4 Speed Computation ...................................4..2 Alert height concept ..........................................11 Training and Qualifications .......................................................................13 Approach Light System..... 125 18...................................2 CAT III .......GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.........................6 Threshold Lights ................................................................................... 123 18............................................... 139 18......................9 Touchdown Zone Lights .......................................................................08 ...............2 Take off performance considerations ................................................3 Summary............................................... 126 18......................................................................................................................................................................... 122 18..........................................................2.........3 visibility Takeoff ..............12 Stop Bars .........1 CAT II .............10 Taxiway Edge Lights..3................. 126 18..............................1 Speed mode in approach phase.......1 19.............................. 143 20........................................................................4.........................................................................1................................... 142 20 Performance .................................................. 145 20... 125 18.................................6 Approach preparation .......................................................................... 139 18........4......................................8 Runway Centerline Lights ..................... 139 18.....................................................9 Effect on Landing Minima of temporarily failed or downgraded Equipment ..........................................................4 Visual Aids-Runway Lights .................... 143 20.............................................................. 150 Instr...............................................................................................................1.......1 Airports requirements .......... 135 18..... 133 18....8..7 Runway End Lights ...........................1 Low Visibility Procedure for Cat II/III landing ........... 143 20......................2 19........................4................... 135 18.......................................................................... 141 Take Off Minima..............................1................................................................................................... 138 18............................................................................................................................... 149 20....2 Runway Width......................... 144 20.... 125 18...................................... 140 19 Low 19....................................4................................................... 124 18.............................................................. 125 18.....4............................................................8...............4............................................ 133 18.10...... 149 20... 125 18......................................................5 List of required equipment ................. 134 18................................4......................................7 Landing .. 126 18..11 Taxiway Centerline Lights..............2 Actual landing field length requirements (in-flight calculation) .... 141 Ground Facilities Requirement for Take Off .........................4........2 Ground speed mini function principle .................................................................................... 125 18..................................................................04.......................................................................................4................................................................. 147 20..........................................10...............3 Terminology .....3 Summary Limitations ..........................................................................................................................................4 Runway characteristics ......... 139 18................................................ 131 18.............................3 Wind altitude trade for constant specific range..................................5 Runway Edge Lights ..........................3 Visual Segments .....................................................2 Abnormal Procedures ......................................................................... 123 18.................10.................4......................4........ 136 18....................... 125 18.......... 125 18......................... 126 18........................

................................................1.10 Fuel .................. 156 21...............................................A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Page 10 of 171 21 Limitations .................................9 After Landing................................1................ 158 21....2 Flight instrument tolerances.............1.................................................................................. 165 Abreviations.............9 Weather...................................................................................................... 153 21..........................................................................1..5 Structural weight limits .......... 151 21...........................1 Cockpit Preparation .............. 156 21.................................................................15 APU...3 Opearting temperatures ........... 162 21.................................................... 153 21........8 Landing ................04........2...................08 ....2 Taxi ..................................... 164 21....................................................................................................................................................................................... 160 21............................................... 163 21...................1............................................................................................................. 156 21.......................1........................................ 151 21.................................................... gear...........................................1............................3 Before Take Off.......................... 167 22 Instr.............12 Break........................................................................................................................ 162 21..................4 Cabin pressure...1..................................2..............................................6 Cruise..... 152 21.................................... flight controls ............................................ 151 21................................................2...........11 Leaving Aircraft ..........1. 155 21............................... 161 21..............................................................16 Engine.........................................................................................7 Approach.............1 Technical limitations.......................................2........................................................................................................1.............................................. landing and roll out ...... 152 21... 165 21.................................................. 157 21.......................................................................................................11 Hydraulic .........1 General ................................................................14 Electrical ...................2......2....................................... 152 21...........................1.............................. 163 21.............................1........2........7 Use of autopilot ..........................................................2...5 After Take Off / Climb .................................................................................... 151 21...GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.......................................1............. 153 21....................2..................................6 Speeds ................. 155 21.......2 Operational Limitations ...............................................4 Take Off .8 Automatic approach........................................ 158 21...............1..................................................................................................................................................2..................................................................................... 161 21........................................................ 164 21.................2......10 Parking...1...................................................................................................................................................... 160 21...................1.....................................................13 Oxygen...

” “Always remember you fly an aeroplane with your head. which can be made.1 General Principles Becoming an expert in Aviation “An expert is a man who has made all the mistakes.“ ”Good judgment comes from experience. 1885-1962 “You start with a bag full of luck and an empty bag of experience.04.” Instr. You won't live long enough to make all of them yourself.08 .” Niels Bohr. The trick is to fill the bag of experience before you empty the bag of luck.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. in a very narrow field. Physicist. experience usually comes from bad judgment. not your hands.” “Try to learn from the mistakes of others.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY General Principles Page : 11 of 171 1 1. Unfortunately.

For example: some pilots prefer to keep the thrust on during a certain portion of the flare. Examples of procedure: • • All check-list work is procedure. • • An instructor must force a trainee to operate according to procedures. FCOM etc. and must be adhered to stringently.04. Because the exact thrust settings are not defined in the FCOM for taxi (except for maximum N1: 40%) these two ways of taxiing are two different techniques. Again. different pilots have different techniques to accomplish this briefing and opt to put different emphasis on different parts of it.. and then reduce the thrust to idle. However. must operate according to procedures and can opt to use whichever technique he believes leads to the best outcome based on his personal preference. while others reduce it. Instr.08 .A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY General Principles Page : 12 of 171 1. These two terms are fundamentally different and must be understood by both instructors and trainees: Procedures are dictated by the company and the manufacturer in the form of documented material: OM(A).GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. crew shall not omit or modify any part of a checklist (except during emergencies when the commander deems it necessary). it is most useful to the trainee if the instructors also taught similar techniques. The required weather minima according to OM(A) must be fulfilled for departure.2 Procedures and Techniques During the supervision phase. the procedures do not state how the briefing should be accomplished. Examples of techniques: • When beginning to taxi. destination and alternate airports. Because there is no procedure that defines the flare and touch-down (when to pull the side-stick exactly how much. A trainee on the other hand. The procedures state that a pre-departure and approach briefing shall be conducted by the crews and also dictate what should be covered in the briefing. some pilots prefer to set a higher thrust setting to get the aircraft moving. instructors will be speaking of procedures and techniques. A crew shall not begin a flight unless the conditions are satisfied. Other pilots prefer to set a lower N1 and keep it on for the duration of the taxi. but may only offer techniques as advice. Procedures contained therein are not modifiable or negotiable by crews. when to reduce the thrust by how much) the landing is taught to trainees as a technique. Obviously. Techniques are methods of operation available to the crews that can be used in areas where procedures are not defined.

the crew must all times: • • 1.1.08 SOP (Normal Operation) OM(A) ECAM QRH FCOM OEB . and Work systematically with the available tools (ECAM. emergency). the passengers.1 Know in which area they are operating (normal.3. the situation may deteriorate from normal to abnormal and then to an emergency scenario. Abnormal Operations: The status of the aircraft. Reference to abnormal check-lists or procedures are required to correct the situation.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.3. the health of crew or passengers are degraded and mandate heightened alert by the crew. the crew may elect to assume normal operations. Instr.3 1. The tools they have at their disposal are as follows: • • • • • • . and passengers allow operations that do not deviate from normal check-lists or procedures. After the crew-action for the EGPWS warning and no further risk is obvious. an EGPWS warning (“PULL UP.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY General Principles 1. In another case. However the situation develops. crew or passengers are exposed to immediate risk or danger. During abnormal operations.1 Systematic method of operation Introduction Page : 13 of 171 The nature of the crew’s work on the aircraft can be subdivided into three specific areas: Normal Operations: The status of the aircraft.) Normal operation During normal operations the crew is bound to perform their duties according to normal procedures and check-lists. crew.04. QRH etc. Emergency Operations: The safety of the aircraft. deviation from these procedures are not permitted. For example. PULL UP”) immediately transfers the crew from normal operations to emergency operations. aircraft and crew are NOT exposed to immediate risks or dangers. Normal Situation Abnormal Situation Emergency Situation The diagram above is a simplified representation illustrating the possible transitions from one operation to another. Corrective by the crew is required without delay to avert further serious degradation of the situation. abnormal.

The ATC call “PAN.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.(Normal and Abnormal Operation) OM(A) ECAM Procedures (must be completed as stipulated in the FCOM) QRH FCOM OEB As is the case in normal operations. PAN. 1. The ATC call “MAYDAY.08 .04. The tools the crew have at their disposal is as follows: • • • • • • SOP .2 Abnormal operation Page : 14 of 171 This situation warrants the execution of abnormal check-lists and procedures as written in company documents.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY General Principles 1.3. Note that during emergency operations deviations therein are possible: • • • • • • SOP (deviations possible) OM(A) (e.g.g.3 Emergency operation During Emergency operations the Commander has authority to deviate from published procedures and check-lists ONLY if it is necessary to maintain safe conduct of flight. This course of action should only be considered if the published procedures are likely to lead to an unsatisfactory result.3. CMD may decide to deviate from published CB resetting procedures) OEB Instr.1.g.g. MAYDAY“ will advise ATC and aircraft in the vicinity that the flight is in imminent danger and is in need of assistance. PAN“ will advise ATC and aircraft in the vicinity that the crew is experiencing an abnormal situation but is not in imminent danger. the crew is required to follow instructions published in this material. CMD may elect to disregard landing distance corrections) FCOM (e. The crew should not deviate from these procedures.1. the CMD may opt not to finish the ECAM procedure) QRH (e. stabilized approach criteria may not be fulfilled) ECAM (e. MAYDAY. The tools at the disposal of the crew are lilted below.

Below is a suggestion of packets that have proved to be useful in our operation and helps increase the reliability of our actions in during these various phases.3. Descent The FL100 Packet during descent is a good time to visit the following items in order to make sure that they are in a suitable state: • • • • • • Exterior Lights: EFIS Control Panel: LS Presentation: LS Identification: Nav accuracy: PERF Page: Switch on Landing lights Select Constraints Push LS PB Ident ILS VOR etc.2 Working with packets During flight-operations.5 MHz Check EWD Some of these items are included as part of the “AFTER TAKE-OFF / CLIMB CHECKLIST” (FCOM 3.g. However. Check GPS Primary Activate Approach Phase Again.).& Turnoff lights Select Airports Copy active F-PLN Clear all remotely tuned Navigation aids Set to 121. Instr.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY General Principles Page : 15 of 171 1. switch on exterior lights.08 . passing FL100 in climb or descent.). to conduct a departure briefing etc.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. The advantage is that items are less likely to be overlooked. At Air Berlin regular use of these packets are taught during training. some of these items are included in the Standard Operating Procedures (as listed in the FCOM 3. during descent the crew must ensure that several actions are completed before commencing the approach (e. activate approach phase. check navigational accuracy etc.Take off.04. 1.1 FL 100 Packet Climb The FL100 Packet during climb is a suitable time to visit the following items to ensure that they are in the appropriate state: • • • • • • Exterior Lights: EFIS Control Panel: SEC F-PLN page: RAD NAV page: VHF 2: EWD: Switch off Landing.g. there are many actions that must be fulfilled by the crew by a particular point in time.16 DESCENT) – the packet in this case serves us as clear reminder at FL100 to ensure that we actually performed the necessary tasks. and here we ensure that they are set accordingly. It is a useful technique to “link” these actions with a certain event or altitude and systematically perform the required actions in one flow or “packet”. Such a packet may be used in any situation the pilot deems useful (e. delayed unnecessarily or forgotten. which is part of good airmanship. reaching cruise altitude.13).3.2.3. the packet also ensures that we have set an appropriate setting on the EFIS Control Panel and VHF 2. For example.3.

By simply going through the flow during the departure and approach briefing together. what if a G/A has to be flown etc. App. Set up manually tuned Nav Aids to correspond with required Nav aids for approach Check navigational accuracy (must be HIGH so FMS can be used for navigation) Ensure all performance data has been inserted for the correct runway Review data for awareness (how much holding time is possible. (Extra Fuel is presented on INIT-B Page) Program of emergency return runway. crosscheck with charts.04. in case of circling) Instr.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.) Programming of another runway (e. During departure or approach preparation for example. MCDU programming is an essential part of the process. once the programming has been complete. the crew will automatically visit the most pertinent pages.2 Camel-back packet The MCDU allows the crew access to many pages where data can be stored and from which much information can be extracted. constraints. constraints. Below is an example of how this camel-back can be used: Key F-PLN RAD NAV PROG PERF FUEL PRED SEC F-PLN Dep. It is usually the Pilot Flying that conducts the briefing and it is considered good airmanship if all the data is entered before the briefing is started. Briefing Review arrival.2.3. Briefing Review departure.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY General Principles Page : 16 of 171 1.08 . However. the crew will want to review the most important pages and information without visiting every page on the MCDU.g. cross-check with charts Set up manually tuned Nav Aids (mostly used for engine out departure route) Check navigational accuracy (must be HIGH so FMS can be used for navigation) Ensure all performance data has been inserted for the correct runway Review fuel data to ensure it corresponds to the planned fuel on the OFP.

PNF checks new altitude (this is performed silently) Be aware that Airbus clearly states that IF ANY DOUBT EXISTS that a crew-member has received information that he MUST be informed: FCOM 3. thrust and FMA mode changes without physically or verbally signalling these to the PNF (e.1 Cross-Cockpit Communication General It is important that both pilots aim to be fully conversant with the operational status of the aeroplane at any time. Closed Loop 1. The PNF must follow and check the changes made but is not expected to confirm the changes. speed. Any time a crew member makes any adjustment or change to any relevant information or equipment on the flight-deck.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. The following illustration always applies: 1. Clear and precise work distribution with clearly defined tasks: this ensures the best and most efficient use of all resources.4 1. ACTION PERFORMED BY PF WITH AP ON .4. but any unclear action or situation must be clarified by acknowledgement to assure all crew-members reflect the same knowledge.90).08 . Silent Cockpit is the means within normal operation. Instr. that the other crew-member has received and understood the information. All deviations from the expected have to be called out and corrective actions. • • Clear and precise call outs: this ensures short and precise communication in the cockpit. Expected automatic switching / mode changes must be checked on the FMA by both pilots. PNF checks the action Example with AP engaged: 1.3. The danger of misunderstanding is reduced or eliminated.3.g. Each crew member can concentrate on her/his assigned tasks. the PF may make attitude.FCOM 3.2 According to Air Berlin SOP with Autopilot On. he must advise the other crew member and get an acknowledgement if it is not obvious. if necessary. PF executes an action 2. shall be initiated immediately.4. PF selects new altitude (this is performed silently) 2.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY General Principles Page : 17 of 171 1. speed-brake.04.1: Cross-cockpit communication is VITAL for any two-pilot crew.

10) Fly: • • • • • • At vrot rotate to 12. is on a verifiable vertical and lateral path and has informed ATC.5° pitch up Positive rate. during normal. Second: Know where you are.5 Fly .Navigate. abnormal and emergency situation Instr. Please note however. Third: Make sure you can send and receive clear and reliable information….08 .04. altitude.0 General Principles Page : 18 of 171 1. FCOM The situation described above represents an abnormal condition..GuideA320 Revision: 3 Effective Date: 25.in other words Fly. know where you want to go.. gear up Cancel warning Trim the aircraft Consider TOGA thrust Engage any autopilot Navigate: • Pull HDG and fly the engine failure climb out procedure Communicate: • Communicate the intentions to ATC Once the crew has clear command of the aircraft trajectory.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Version : 1. Communicate The successful crew will always clearly understand the priorities when it comes to flying: First: Control the aircraft’s attitude. that the same principle applies at all times. know how to get there…. Example: Take-Off with engine failure after v1 (Source: FCOM 3.2. OEB. speed and configuration….Communicate. the checklist work may begin: • • Start ECAM action Consult QRH. Navigate. thrust.

In order to do so he should perform the following tasks: • • • Check SWC and Upper Wind & Temperature chart.04.2.8. METAR and particular weather information (for interpretation of meteorological information see chapter 2.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.1 Pre-flight planning work distribution After a short analysis of the weather conditions. He shall also intervene as appropriate while considering safety and the strength of the team. o check date and validity of all charts o estimate an average wind component along the route Check TAF. the flight crew decides on the assignment of the sectors It is recommended that the PF leads the pre-flight planning. o Check if profit tankering is recommended (see also chapter 2.08 .4 page 23) Check NOTAMS for o departure aerodrome o destination aerodrome o destination alternate aerodrome(s) (consider to check more than one alternate aerodrome(s)) o T/O alternate aerodrome if applicable o En route alternate aerodrome Check OFP for o Check header (Date. flight number and aircraft registration) o Check calculated wind component o Check legal fuel calculation according Air Berlin OM-A 8. making an effort to ensure complete crosschecking.page 24) o perform the operational fuel calculation • The PNF should closely follow the pre-flight planning. Instr.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Fuel planning Page : 19 of 171 2 Fuel planning 2.2. fuel planning instructions.1.2.5.

2.4. when the appropriate weather reports or forecasts. For a Non-precision approach or a Circling approach. Two destination alternates must be selected when: • the appropriate weather reports or forecasts for the destination.2 Legal requirements The crew always should first check the legal requirements stated on the OFP. during a period commencing one hour before and ending one hour after the estimated time of arrival at the aerodrome.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Fuel planning Page : 20 of 171 2.1 Planning minima for Destination Alternate Aerodromes. indicate that. 3% ERA Aerodromes.2.08 . 2.4. the weather conditions will be below the applicable planning minima (as prescribed above) or • no meteorological information is available.1 Planning minima for destination aerodromes and alternate aerodromes (Source: Airberlin OM-A 8.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.1 Planning minima for a destination aerodrome Destination aerodromes must only be selected.04. isolated aerodrome or enroute alternate aerodrome must only be selected when the appropriate weather reports or forecasts.2. Type of approach CAT II / III CAT I NPA Circling Planning minimum CAT I minima (Note 1) Non-precision approach minimum (Notes 1 & 2) Non-precision approach minimum (Notes 1 & 2) plus 200 ft / 1000 m Circling minimum Note 1: RVR Note 2: The ceiling must be at or above the MDH. the ceiling must be at or above MDH. or any combination thereof.2. or any combination thereof. the weather conditions will be at or above the applicable planning minima as follows: • • RVR / visibility must be above the specified Minimum.13) 2.1. or any combination thereof.2 Alternate Planning (Source: Airberlin OM-A 8. during a period commencing one hour before and ending one hour after the estimated time of arrival at the aerodrome. 2. the weather conditions will be at or above the planning minima in the Table below. indicate that during a period commencing one hour before and ending one hour after the estimated time of arrival. Instr.12) 2.2. Isolated Aerodromes and Enroute Alternate Aerodromes An aerodrome as destination alternate aerodrome. indicate that. 3% ERA aerodrome.

. • Note: All required alternate aerodrome(s) must be specified in the operational flight plan. the speed to be used for calculation must be that which is achieved with the remaining engine(s) set at maximum continuous thrust (MCT). An aerodrome must only be selected as a take-off alternate aerodrome. the weather conditions will be at or above the applicable landing minima specified on the applicable approach charts Instr. the weather conditions will be below the applicable planning.3 Take off alternate aerodromes (Source: Airberlin OM-A 8. or No meteorological information is available. or • Two destination alternate aerodromes must be selected when: • The appropriate weather reports or forecasts for the destination aerodrome.2. either: • • One hour flight time at a one engine-inoperative cruising speed according to the FCOM in still air standard conditions based on the actual take-off mass.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. 2.13) A take-off alternate aerodrome must be selected if it would not be possible to return to the departure aerodrome for meteorological or performance reasons. indicate that during a period commencing one hour before and ending one hour after the estimated time of arrival. indicate that for the period from one hour before until one hour after the expected time of arrival at the destination aerodrome.04. the remaining flying time to destination does not exceed six hours. or any combination thereof.4.08 .2.2 Destination Alternate Aerodromes (Source: Airberlin OM-A 8.4. The duration of the planned flight from take-off to landing or. The destination aerodrome is isolated. in the event of in-flight replanning. or any combination thereof. and the visibility will be at least 5 km.13) At least one destination alternate must be selected for each IFR flight unless: • and • Two separate runways are available and usable at the destination aerodrome and the appropriate weather reports or forecasts for the destination aerodrome.2. when the appropriate weather reports or forecasts or any combination thereof indicate that.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Fuel planning Page : 21 of 171 2. or if the FCOM does not contain a one engine-inoperative cruising speed. during a period commencing one hour before and ending one hour after the estimated time of arrival at the aerodrome. For two engined aeroplanes the take-off alternate aerodrome shall be located within. whichever is greater.2. the ceiling will be at least 2 000 ft or circling height + 500 ft.

Lighting Element in Operation HI approach and runway lighting any type of lighting installation other than above no lighting Visibility x Factor = RVR DAY 1.6) If only meteorological visibility is reported.0 1.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.08 . for CAT I and non precision approaches visibility must be converted to RVR as shown below. Instr. Category II or III minima when a reported RVR is available. 2.0 1.0 NIGHT 2. Any limitation related to one engine inoperative operations must be taken into account.04.2.3 Conversion of Reported Meteorological Visibility to RVR (Source: Airberlin OM-A 8.5 Not applicable Note: If is not allowed to convert a meteorological visibility to RVR in following cases: • • • for calculating Take-Off minima.5 1.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Fuel planning Page : 22 of 171 • • The ceiling must be taken into account when the only approaches available are nonprecision and/or circling approaches.

g.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Fuel planning Page : 23 of 171 2. for alternate selection only PROB 40% and higher are considered in the selection.2.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.08 ..4 Interpretation of given meteorological information (Source: Airberlin OM-A 8.. May be disregarded May be disregarded Shall be fully applied if weather deteriorates below applicable planning minimum. the airport shall be considered below minimum.04.4) For planning purposes an aerodrome shall be considered to be below minimum if • • • • the RVR or visibility is below the applicable minimum (precision approaches) the ceiling or vertical visibility is below the applicable planning minima (non precision approaches) the steady crosswind component exceeds the prescribed limitation for the A320. Must be within limits May be disregarded Application of aerodrome forecast Indicator BECMG FM Mean wind: Gusts: Ldg minima: Deterioration: Transient / showery conditions e. The steady (mean) wind should be used and the gusts may be disregarded whenever a forecast contains meteorological conditions indicating “below minimum” at ETA ±1hr. TS SH May be considered to be above minimum if weather deteriorates below applicable planning minimum.g. Instr.TL PROB 30 PROB 40 Mean wind: Gusts: Deterioration: Persistent conditions e. HZ FG SS Ldg minima: Mean wind: Gusts: Improvement: Should be disregarded PROB TEMPO In any case Should be disregarded Note: whenever a forecast contains meteorological conditions indicating “below minimum” at ETA which are prefixed by BECMG or TEMPO. Must be within limits May be disregarded TEMPO TEMPO FM TEMPO TL TEMPO FM. which are prefixed by: Kind of change Deterioration: Applicable from the time of start of the change.1.7. Improvement: Applicable from the time of end of the change Ldg minima: Shall be fully applied if weather deteriorates below applicable planning minimum.

5 Profit tankering (Source: Airberlin OM-A 8. This Information is given on the dispatch remarks section (next Leg Info) or as maximum remaining fuel. wing icing may form in the vicinity of the fuel tanks.2) It may be commercially expedient to tanker fuel to a destination where fuel prices are high or where there are fuel shortages. With no Information shown on the OFP is tankering not recommended even there is a low amount of profit. when the temperature at the destination airport is below +10deg C with high relative humidity. melting small accumulations of ice. Profit tankering should not be applied if: • When icing conditions at destination aerodrome is expected. On sectors of 1 hour 15 min or more.04. but if overnight frost or freezing conditions are anticipated consideration should be given to the likely effect that precipitation or high relative humidity would have upon cold wings.08 .1. January and February in Europe.8. or when the in flight fuel temperature may fall below freezing. in particular December. Fuel may be tankered on night stopping aircraft.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Fuel planning Page : 24 of 171 2. • Instr. On short haul flights only. This will require a further uplift of “warm” fuel at destination. during the winter months. This has the effect of agitating the fuel in the wing tanks. The commercial decision to tanker fuel will be made automatically on the OFP.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.2. only part of the tankered fuel recommended on the OFP should be uplifted. and preventing the further formation of ice during the turn round.

3. If the Crew has to expect bad weather conditions which make a diversion more likely always plan with the worst case. If the selection of the OFP does not satisfy the crew. It is discouraged to simply carry along a standard amount of extra fuel as routine. the crew will find that it makes sense to take along more fuel to cover for eventualities. After a conversation with the traffic centre the decision is taken in case of diversion to fly to NUE.5t 0.08 Instr.GuideA320 . If the Crew has to expect bad weather conditions which make a diversion more likely (e. some fuel for holding could be considered.3 2. Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. BGY and MXP as they are south of the Alps are much better (wind calm). call Traffic Centre and calculate a new destination alternate. strong xwind conditions) always consider different alternate aerodromes. Often. If the alternates stated on the OFP does not have satisfactory weather conditions. Also consider a return to the destination aerodrome.04. Always plan tactically with the worst case backwards from destination alternate aerodrome over the destination aerodrome back to the departure aerodrome.5 t 2 t 4 t 10 t As soon as the crew starts to plan tactically backwards with the worst case scenario the amount of extra fuel increases dramatically!! To summarise the facts stated above the following tactic should be considered in bad weather conditions: • • Always plan with a reasonable alternate. For example. The alternate aerodromes BSL STR and GVA have the same weather forecasts. Make a tactical fuel planning considering two go arounds at the destination aerodrome plus the diversion fuel plus some extra fuel at the alternate aerodrome.g.1 Tactical aspects General The crew should verify that the legal fuel requirement stated on the OFP also makes sense from a practical standpoint. if the crew is aware that the destination traffic volume is significant. Always select an alternate with reasonable weather conditions which gives the crew a very good chance for a landing. Every fuel calculation should be made carefully and in respect of conditions as expected. look for other alternates and call Traffic Centre. (NUE forecasts up to 30kt Wind in RWY axis) Following planning is reasonable: Since the crew does not want to land exactly with final reserve at NUE some extra fuel should be planned at arrival at NUE Landing in NUE with final reserve and 800kg extra for a Go Around: Diversion Fuel calculated by Traffic Centre Re clearance to NUE Two go arounds at ZRH Trip fuel to ZRH Total 2 t 1. Example: PMI-ZRH The forecasted weather conditions in ZRH (winds up to 55kt with a remarkable x-wind component) make a diversion more likely.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Fuel planning Page : 25 of 171 2.

A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY

Fuel planning

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2.3.2

HILDAW

HILDAW is an acronym used to assist the crew during the pre-flight planning fuel calculation. It is used as a trip fuel correction that covers factors that are not necessarily covered in the OFP and should be added to the minimum block fuel.

H

High Speed Cruise

Used to compensate for increased fuel consumption when cruising with HSC. (Approx 5% increased fuel consumption)

I

Icing Conditions

Used to compensate for increased fuel consumption due to icing conditions when airborne. Approx 5% increased fuel consumption below FL 200 Approx 2% increased fuel consumption above FL 200

L

Low Level Cruise

Used to compensate for increased fuel consumption when cruising at a lower level than the planned FL. This will be the case, when selecting a lower level due to anticipated conditions, which might hamper the climb to the planed FL (e.g. CAT, ATC constraints, etc). For correction values refer to the OFP

D

Departure

In this regard, the departure phase begins at chocks-off and finishes at the end of the SID. Therefore, this item shall be used to correct for anticipated traffic situation, runway in use and/or ground de-icing (augmented taxi fuel), or to compensate for increased fuel burn, whenever the expected / actual SID is other than the one depicted by the OFP

A

Arrival

Used to compensate for increased fuel burn whenever additional track miles are expected during the approach, e.g. longer arrival due to a different runway or long radar vectors in PMI runway 06L Weight Any fuel that is tanked above the amount stated in the OFP (minimum take-off) will signify an increased take-off weight, as will a higher ZFW. This causes a higher fuel consumption. The increased fuel consumption should be considered, especially on long flights. Finally, after the fuel calculation, ensure that MRW, MTOW and MLW are not exceeded.

W

Instr.GuideA320

Revision: 4

Effective Date: 25.04.08

A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY

Fuel planning

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Example: The below gives a brief example regarding HILDAW and how it can be applied to fuel planning.This method is not mandatory in nature. However, it provides a speedy, practical way of determining a fuel quantity which takes into account the flight-crew´s anticipations (which the OFP does not!). After check-in, you having gone over the weather and NOTAMS, it is time to do a fuel plan with the OFP. You have observed the following during the planning: • • • • • • minimum block fuel on the OFP: 6.0t trip fuel 3.5t The aircraft (A320) Zero Fuel Weight: 60.0t It is snowing outside and it is likely that deicing is required. The potential taxi-time is therefore significantly increased – you expect to taxi 30 minutes more than planned. The SWC shows turbulence at your flight-level and your collegue suggests that you could fly lower to provide the passengers with a more comfortable ride. At the destination airport the TAF states that there is the possibility of heavy thunderstorms.

The OFP does not cover all the above factors so you you must determine a fuel quantity that covers the operational factors. This is where HILDAW comes in as a useful tool – it will determine how much fuel you should take along in addition to the block fuel stated on the OFP. H I L D A W = 0.0t 0.5t 0.2t 0.0t 0.8t 0.1t 1.6t (you decide not to fly high speed as the time gain would be insignificant) (30 minutes taxi time due to de-icing + icing during climb-out) (your decide to fly 2 FL below and consult the OFP for the required fuel). (departure on the OFP corresponds to the actual departure ) (holding fuel for 45’ minutes is necessary due to the thunderstorms) (the OFP shows burn of +0.1t more due to the extra fuel you will tank) (you will take along this in addition to the minimum block fuel on the OFP)

The total block fuel you will tank is therefore: + = 6.0t 1.6t 7.6t (minimum legal block fuel on OFP) (fuel determined by you in addition to OFP) (total actual minimum block fuel required by crew)

The last step is to ensure that none of the aircraft structural weights are exceeded: + = = 60.0t 7.6t 67.6t 0.5t 67.1t 3.5t Zefro Fuel Wieght Block Fuel Ramp Weight Taxi Fuel Take Off Weight Trip Fuel

=

63.6

Landing Weight

(does not exceed Max Ramp Weight) (approximate the taxi-fuel you expect) (does not exceed Max Take-Off Weight) (approximate to the lowest trip fuel you expect [without holding, adjustment for level etc.] because you want to know if you exceed the Maximum Landing Weight if all factors result in your favour – i.e. most fuel on-board). (does not exceed Max Landing Weight)

Finally: This planning tool is especially useful when the operation becomes complex due to the combination of several factors (maximum weights, complex weather situations, arrival delays, winter-ops etc.) as it provides the crew with a systematic approach to a potential problem.

Instr.GuideA320

Revision: 4

Effective Date: 25.04.08

A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY

Briefings

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3
3.1

Briefings
RNAV - and conventional waypoints Structure

3.1.1

To verify all waypoints in the FMGS properly against the EAG charts use following structure: The table below shows examples of waypoints FMGS DL239 LSZ03 EAG charts DL239 KLO – Radial 275 – 2.3DME

RNAV waypoint Conventional waypoint

Obviously RNAV waypoints are easy to crosscheck against the Charts. To verify a conventional waypoint is more difficult. The coding in the FMGS is not always obvious. Check track and radials directly in the MCDU. Distances can be verified on the ND in PLAN MODE. Sometimes the coding of the waypoint also allows proper verification. (See chapter 3.1.2 Coding of NavDataBase (NDB) 3.1.2 Coding of NavDataBase (NDB)

(Source: EAG, ERM, Legends, chapter 14) The NavDataBase delivered by EAG is coded according to an international convention called ARINC 424. This convention should not be confused with the charting convention on which the 3.1.2.1 • Definitions Final Approach Course Fix (FACF) A fix immediately prior to the Final Approach Fix, with an assigned altitude, usually between one to four miles before the FAF and generally in line with the final approach course. • Final Approach Fix (FAF) A published fix on the final approach with an assigned altitude, usually about four miles from the runway or Missed Approach Point, and usually indicated by a star symbol on the approach. The term FAF is used in ARINC 424, for all Final Approach Fixes, also for ILS or other precision approaches. This may be confusing, since EAG flight documentation (SID, IAL etc.) based on country AIPs, defines FAF otherwise. • Step Down Fix (SD) A published fix on the final approach with an indicated minimum crossing altitude.

Instr.GuideA320

Revision: 4

Effective Date: 25.04.08

CD38A Instr. while an NDB approach is indicated by the route identifier N.g: FI26. the letter “M” is used followed by the route type identifier (see above) and finally the runway number. E. an ILS is indicated by the route identifier I. and finally followed by A-Z representing 1 NM to 26 NM (A=1. “B” etc. C=3 etc.g: LON28. FV22. E.04.g: D150J For distances greater than 26 NM. followed by mileage. E. CN01R • FAF identifier For un-named fixes the letter “F” is used. the navaid identifier is used.1.2. Duplications are identified by adding the suffix “A”. FD27L. followed by route type identifier (see explanation above) and runway identifier. Otherwise the convention for navaid based fixes uses the letter “D” followed by the bearing from the navaid. DME03 • Missed Approach Point (MAP) identifier For un-named fixes the letters “MA” are used. L or B.. CDG48.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Briefings 3. MD09 • Other Terminal Waypoints The published name should always be used if one exists. CL27L. E. and Z=26).2 Terminal Waypoint Coding Page : 29 of 171 The following summarizes the most common terminal waypoints that have to be assigned codes by the database coder according to the Naming Conventions: • FACF identifier For un-named fixes the letter “C” is used. E. Q or U. and shortening the navaid identifier to two characters. E.g: MA27L. or before the code for decimals of miles. THR (distance to runway threshold) or LOC. and generally indicates the type of navaid used for the approach. Codes are DME. B=2.g: 52DME. MN09. For example. followed by route type identifier and runway identifier.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.g: CI26. If duplication occours. FN01R • Step Down Fix identifier DME or other distances are coded after a three-letter code for whole miles.08 . The route type identifier can be any of several letters. CQ32.

08 .3 DME then turn left to intercept the Radial 255 KLO. Bearing.04.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Briefings 3.2.3 Bearing = 275 PBD01 Distance = 2.3 NM In the FMS the waypoint is shown as PBD01. Example EOSID RWY 28 in ZRH: climb on track 275 KLO to 2. In the FMS the waypoints are shown as PBD01.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.PBD02 etc.2 Self programmed waypoints Page : 30 of 171 To programme for example an EOSID in the secondary flightplan following Format is to be used: 3. Waypoint Bearing Distance Place The Format to programme such a point is Place/Bearing/Distance. The first point is programmed as follows: KLO/275/2. Distance Often a waypoint is defined with a track and distance from a Navigation-aid.1 Place. KLO Instr.

Waypoint Bearing Bearing Place Place Example EOSID RWY 28 in ZRH: climb on track 275 KLO to 2.1 above. Instr.08 . To intercept the Radial 255 an intercept heading of 225 (30°-Interception) is used.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Briefings 3.3 NM Bearing = 255 PBX01 In the FMS the waypoint is shown as PBX01. Place – Bearing is used.04. Place – Bearing Page : 31 of 171 To programme an intercept point the formate Place – Bearing.2.3 DME then turn left to intercept the Radial 255 KLO.2 Place – Bearing.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. In the FMS the waypoints are shown as PBX01. The second point is programmed as follows: PBD01-225/KLO-255 Notes: • • PBD01 is the turning point as programmed in chapter 3.PBX02 etc.2. PBD01 Bearing = 225 Bearing = 275 KLO Distance = 2.

hold item list.g. runway) o FUEL PRED: Check remaining fuel at destination and extra time (INIT-B) o SEC F-PLN: Consider programming an appropriate runway for a return to the departure airport or another RWY/SID. o Brief MSA. breaking coefficient) Known or expected technical and operational particularities of the respective departure (e.g. address the procedures intended to be applied when in abnormal and emergency conditions.08 .3 General Briefing Before the first flight of the day and before initiating the checklists.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Briefings Page : 32 of 171 3. 3. initial climb altitude. trim. LSZH14) Check GPS PRIMARY and NAV ACCURACY HIGH. departure frequency. address the procedures intended to be applied when in normal conditions. (e. The main purpose of the latter is to inform both pilots of the status of the aircraft and to refresh the on ground emergency procedures.) on the MCDU and on the ND in PLAN mode.4 Departure Briefing The Departure Briefing should. a “general briefing” should be performed. shift. The Commander informs the First Officer about: • • • Status of the aircraft and crew (e. FMGS and FCU settings) It is recommended to review the following pages in the FMGS: o F-PLN: x-check all relevant data of the SID (waypoints. before each take-off. transition altitude. constraints.g. CAT I/II/III capabilities) Emergency handling before V1 (task sharing. before each take-off. callouts and priorities) Emergency evacuation handling and task sharing 3. runway length vs. take off alternate) Action taken in case of major malfunctions after V1 Flight path in case of abnormal and emergency conditions during take-off and initial climb. flex.04. Instr. etc. especially addressing One Engine Inoperative (OEI) situations and respective FMGS and FCU settings. acceleration altitudes. use of weather radar and TERR and any specials on the EAG chart.g. The PF will inform the PNF about it as follows: • Review the expected departure (charts.5 Take off Briefing The “take-off-briefing” should. o RAD NAV: consider to manually tune Navigation aids (VOR or NDB) o PROG: consider to set a point for a quick return to the field.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. (Speeds. The PF will inform the PNF about it as follows: • • • • A general assessment of the actual meteorological and operational conditions (e. o PERF: Check all relevant data.

degrading of equipment. (QNH. initial fix. temperature. missed approach.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Briefings 3. etc. steps.g. minimum. wind. the status of the aircraft. MSA. LSZH14) Check GPS PRYMARY and NAV ACCURACY HIGH. wet runway. o PROG: consider to set a point towards the field (e.6 Landing Briefing Page : 33 of 171 The “landing briefing” should address the necessary procedures to be followed. The PF will inform the PNF about: • • Clearance limit.) on the MCDU and on the ND in PLAN mode. MDA/DH. type of approach.) o FUEL PRED: Check remaining fuel at destination and alternate destination and check extra fuel o SEC F-PLN: Consider to program a different STAR/RWY or a runway for circling. use of REV and GW A general assessment of the actual meteorological and operational conditions (e. Brief RWY length. Notam) • • Instr. configuration.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. It is recommended to review following pages in the FMGS: o F-PLN: x-check all relevant data of the approach (waypoints. constraints.04. If required check RNP versus required accuracy in the FMGS o PERF: Check all relevant data. navigation and expected taxiing FMGS and FCU settings. use of AUTO BRAKE. x-winds. o RAD NAV: consider to manually tune Navigation aids (VOR or NDB).08 . the computer settings. check ILS frequency and inbound course. use of TERR. runway etc.g. the crew qualifications and the airport facilities.

2 When interfacing with automation. …). Interfacing with automation 4. for selected targets). See also closed loop principle. A/THR and FMGS are based on the following three-step technique: o Anticipate Understand system operation and the results of any action. During line operations. Note: Never check any setting on the FCU!!! Instr. o Execute Perform action on FCU or on FMGS CDU. for arming or engagement of modes). and.1.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Use of automation Page : 34 of 171 4 4. AP and A/THR should be used during a go-around and missed-approach to reduce workload. The safe and efficient use and management of AP. AP and A/THR should be engaged throughout the flight especially in marginal weather conditions or when operating into an unfamiliar airport. for mode arming / selection and for guidance target entries. ATC instruction.1 • • • • • • 4. PFD and/or ND scales and/or FMS CDU). particularly in congested terminal areas and at highdensity airports.. o An abnormal or emergency condition. Using AP and A/THR also enables flight crew to pay more attention to ATC communications and to other aircraft. • After each action on FCU. adhere to the following rules-of-use: • Before any action on FCU.04. check that the knob or push button is the correct one for the desired function. be aware of modes being engaged or armed (seek concurrence of other crewmember. o PFD/ND data (e. weather conditions..1 Use of automation Recommendations for optimum use of automation General Correct use of automated systems reduces workload and significantly improves the flight crew time and resources for responding to: o An unanticipated change (e. FMGS navigation accuracy has been confirmed. o Confirm Crosscheck the effective arming or engagement of modes and the active guidance targets (on FMA.08 .g..1. FMGS lateral navigation should be used to reduce workload and the risk of CFIT during go-around if : o Applicable missed-approach procedure is included in the FMGS flight plan.g.g. if deemed necessary).GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. o By reference to the aircraft flight path and airspeed response. verify the result of this action on: o FMA (e.

can be prepared on the secondary flight plan (SEC F-PLN).g. while verifying the new route and/or requesting confirmation from ATC. Before arming the NAV mode.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Use of automation Page : 35 of 171 • • • • • • • Announce all changes in accordance with the standard calls defined in the SOPs. In case of a routing change (e. TO waypoint) is displayed on the FMS CDU and ND. Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. in case of a go-around. Under radar vectors. Priority tasks are. in readiness for re-engaging the NAV mode.g. ensure that the aircraft is within the ILS capture envelope. another runway or circling approach. in terminal area.GuideA320 . If the displayed TO waypoint on the ND is not correct. when intercepting the final approach course in a selected heading or track mode (not in NAV mode). on final approach or go-around) is not recommended. o performing a DIR TO [desired TO waypoint]. flight crew should ensure that the FMGS flight plan is sequenced normally by checking that the TO waypoint is correct (on ND and FMS CDU). o within a glide slope sector ranging from 0. cross-check the selected altitude indication on the PFD. if prepared. o altitude and traffic awareness.. In case of a late routing or runway change. The ILS capture envelope is defined by ICAO as follows: o within 10 NM from the runway. Prepare the FMGS for arrival before starting the descent. as anticipated. set the go-around altitude on the FCU. During descent. o ATC communications. Ensuring that the FMGS flight plan is sequenced correctly with a correct TO waypoint is essential. ensure that the correct active waypoint (e. the holding exit prompt should be pressed (or the holding pattern cleared) to allow the correct sequencing of the FMGS flight plan.2 degrees for a typical 3-degree glide slope).. ensure that the selected altitude is not below the MEA or MSA (or be aware of the applicable minimum-vectoring-altitude). a reversion to AP selected modes and raw data may be considered. or for selecting a new approach. the selected heading mode can be used with reference to navaids raw data. cross-check the new TO waypoint before activating the DIR TO. except to activate the secondary flight plan.08 • • • • • • • Instr.04. If necessary. If cleared to exit a holding pattern on a radar vector. DIR TO). a glide slope sector between 0.g.. o within 8 degrees from the localizer centreline..9 degree and 5. the desired TO waypoint can be restored by either: o clearing an undue intermediate waypoint. An alternative arrival routing. The MDA/H or DA/H should not be set on the FCU.3 to 1.75 time the nominal glide slope angle (e. When changing the selected altitude on the FCU.g. Reprogramming the FMGS during a critical flight phase (e. Before arming the APPR mode. During final approach. in that order: o horizontal and vertical flight path control.

page 4 and perform the items listed below: 1.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. Do not pressurize the green hydraulic system without clearance from ground personnel. LH FWD fuselage • • • AOA probes F/O and CAPT static ports Toilet servicing door (if installed) CONDITION CLEAR CLOSED 2. The parking brake must be on during the exterior inspection to allow the flight crew to check brake wear indicators.3.2 Walk Around The Walk Around must be performed by a flight crew member before each flight.04.08 .3.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Exterior Inspection Page : 36 of 171 5 Exterior Inspection (Walk Around) (Source: A320 FCOM 3. A320 FCOM 3. RH FWD fuselage • • F/O-CAPT static ports AOA probe CLEAR CONDITION Instr. Remember that the green hydraulic system is pressurized if the yellow system is pressurized and the PTU is on auto.5) 5. oil or hydraulic leaks. If a landing gear door is open. Complete inspection is normally performed by maintenance personnel or in the absence of maintenance personnel by a flight crew member before each originating flight. if any gear door is open.3. Nose section • • • • Pitot probes STBY static ports TAT probes Radome and latches CONDITION CLEAR CONDITION CONDITION / LATCHED 3. Check structure for impact damage Check that there is no evident fuel.1 • • • • • • • General The Exterior Inspection ensures that the overall condition of the aircraft and its visible components and equipment are safe for the flight. Walk around the aircraft according Picture 5-1. Nose landing gear • • Nose wheel chocks Wheels and tires CHECK IN PLACE CONDITION 4. contact the maintenance crew before applying hydraulic power. 5.

fin and rudder Lower fuselage structure (tail impact on runway) CONDITION CONDITION Instr. 5 Fuel ventilation overpressure disc Navigation light Wing tip CONDITION INTACT CONDITION CONDITION 10.04. Tail • • Stabilizer.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Exterior Inspection 5. RH wing leading edge • • • • Slats 2. RH landing gear and fuselage • • Chocks Wheels and tires REMOVED CONDITION 12. ENG 2 RH side none 9. 3. Lower centre fuselage none 6.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. Landing light Slat 1 CONDITION CONDITION Page : 37 of 171 ENG 2 LH side • • • Fan cowl doors Drain mast Engine inlet and fan blades CLOSED / LATCHED CONDITION / NO LEAK CHECK 8.08 . RH aft fuselage • Toilet service access door CLOSED 13. elevator. RH centre wing • • 7. RH wing trailing edge • • Control surfaces Flaps and fairings CONDITION CONDITION 11. 4.

LH AFT fuselage • • Stabilizer. 4. 5 CONDITION CONDITION INTACT CONDITION 19. fin and rudder Potable water service door CONDITION CLOSED 16. APU • Navigation light CONDITION Page : 38 of 171 15.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. 3. LH landing gear • • Chocks Wheels and tires REMOVED CONDITION 17.04. LH centre wing • • Slat 1 Landing light CONDITION CONDITION Instr. LH wing trailing edge • • Flaps and fairing Control surfaces CONDITION CONDITION 18. LH wing leading edge • • • • Wing tip Navigation light Fuel ventilation overpressure disc Slats 2. ENG 2 LH side • • • Fan cowl doors Drain mast Engine inlet and fan blades CLOSED / LATCHED CONDITION / NO LEAK CHECK 20. ENG 1 RH side none 21.08 . elevator.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Exterior Inspection 14.

08 .04.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Exterior Inspection Page : 39 of 171 PICTURE 5-1. WALK AROUND Instr.

1. published by the operator. must contain the name of person who prepared it and the loading supervisor must confirm by signature that the load and its distribution are as stated. The weight and balance document must be acceptable to and countersigned by the airplane commander. The document.excluding all usable fuel and traffic load.2) AB Flight Crew must be aware that the weight. He must be informed of any late changes and the details entered in the “last minute changes” spaces of both the original and duplicate documents.08 . as accepted by the commander. distribution and stowage of load will affect its structural integrity and performance and those will affect safety of flight as well as economy of flight. (DOW and corresponding DOI are calculated for each aeroplane and standard crew composition) Dry Operating Index (DOI) – The applicable index on the airplane index system corresponding to the specific DOW. One copy is to be carried on the airplane and the other. The document may be in any format (manual or computerised) approved by the Authority to establish the airplane’s weight and centre of gravity. 6.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Loading Page : 40 of 171 6 6. Note: This is the lowest of the three weights sums: Max Zero Fuel Weight & Take-off Fuel Max Take off weight Max Landing Weight & Trip Fuel Instr.04. performance and maximum landing weights.2 Definitions (weights and centre of gravity) Dry Operating Weights (DOW) – The total weight of the airplane ready for a specific type of operation.1 Loading General. details must be included together with additional limitations on the permissible range of CG travel on which the standard plan is based.00. procedures and responsibility for preparation and acceptance of the weight and balance sheet (Source: A320 FCOM 2. methods. The maximum flex take-off weight as limited by economical reasons. must remain available at the departure station for at least 3 days.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. Where the use of a standard load plan has been allowed by the authority. Airberlin OM-A 8.01. and must indicate whether standard or actual weight values have been used. including fuel. It must contain details of the weight and disposition of all loaded items. Maximum allowed weights for landing – considering structure and performance Maximum allowed weights for take off – considering structural.9. For economy the most aft possible CG is desired A weight and balance document must be prepared in duplicate for each commercial air transport flight.

GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. Pantry Basic Operating Index (BOI) The applicable index on the airplane index system corresponding to the specific BASIC WEIGHT 6. Pantry Code (Pantry) The pantry code refers to the type of catering on board a commercial flight (codes A-Z) for example: Hot or cold meals. Operational centre of gravity envelope This is the operational centre of gravity envelope which further restricts the certified centre of gravity envelope to compensate for errors such as the differences between assumed passenger weights and actual weights. single or double leg etc.04. baggage and cargo including any non-revenue loads Payload (PL) The total weight of the revenue load (pax. Last Minute Change (LMC) A late change / amendment to the weight and balance sheet which does not require the preparation of a new WB sheet.3 Aircraft weights (DOW) Dry Operating Weight + traffic load = Zero Fuel Weight (ZFW).A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Loading Page : 41 of 171 Traffic load (TL) The total weight of passengers. Fleet DOW/DOI For a group or groups of airplanes of the same type and version fleet DOWs / DOIs may be published provided the airplanes in this group meet the requirements of the permitted tolerances for the weights and centre of gravity. This weight does not include items such as: Crew and crew baggage. (ZFW) Zero Fuel Weight + reserve fuel = Landing Weight (LW) (LW) Landing Weight + trip fuel = Take off Weight (TOW) (TOW) Take off Weight + taxi fuel = Ramp Weight Instr.08 . The operational centre of gravity envelope must never be exceeded unless authorised by the Flight Operations Department for special flights. cargo or mail). that the centre of gravity was correctly computed without any errors. Making full use of the certified limits would assume. Usually changed each season. Note: AB allows LMC up to l000 kg Certified Centre of Gravity limits (CG) These are the CG limits with which the airplane was certified with. Basic Operating Weight (BOW) The total weight of the airplane ready for a specific type of operation excluding all useable fuel and traffic load.

1.9.4 LPC load sheet Page : 42 of 171 (Source: Airberlin OM-A 8. Instr.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. After completion of the electronic calculation the LPC system values will be inserted in the load sheet.2) An LPC Load sheet Will be generated by LPC software.04.08 .A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Loading 6.

5.5.2.2.04. calculate MAC ZFW & MAC T. Fill out the header Page : 43 of 171 2.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. Fill in the fuel index (see chapter 6.5.08 .O. CG is lower than 27% MAC the basic performance must be corrected T.: Make CG correction or use appropriate RTOW chart. page 6) 3.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Loading 6. Fill in all the masses (For DOW see chapter 6.O. Fill in all the masses & pax figures according ramp agent 5. Instr. Caution : when the T.5 Conventional load sheet. page 6) 4.1. LDG: Make CG correction on LDG speed and distance.O. manual calculation 1. Fill in the corrected index (see chapter 6. page 5) 6.

0 iu Index corrections for crew version: ACM: FPC: APC: +90kg / -1.08 .1 iu (Jump Seat Cockpit) +90kg / -1.1 iu City Shuttle 42892kg 48.800 +1 +1 +0 +0 –1 –1 –2 –2 –2 –3 –3 –3 –3 –3 –3 0.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Loading 6.1 Fuel index table Page : 44 of 171 This can be found on the reverse side of conventional load-sheet.2 iu (AFT Cabin Attendant Seat) Instr.9 iu 43707kg 53.7 iu 43349kg 49.6 iu Charter 43347kg 52.8 iu 43792kg 54.5.785 +1 +1 +0 +0 –1 –1 –2 –2 –2 –3 –3 –3 –3 –3 –3 WEIGHT (kg) 11000 11500 12000 12500 13000 13500 14000 14500 15000 15500 16000 16500 17000 17500 18000 DENSITY (kg/l) 0.8 iu 43252kg 49. WEIGHT (kg) 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 7000 7500 8000 8500 9000 9500 10000 10500 DENSITY (kg/l) 0.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.0 iu (FWD Cabin Attendant Seat) +90kg / +1.800 –3 –3 –2 –2 –2 –3 –3 –4 –5 –6 –6 –7 –8 –9 –10 6.04.2 iu Charter long range 43432kg 53.5.1 iu City Shuttle 4 legs 43037kg 48. Registratio n Crew Version Catering none D-ABDA 2/0 2/4 42307kg 47.2 DOW / DOI A320 for conventional Load sheet Example for D-ABDA This can be found on the reverse side of the conventional load-sheet.785 –3 –2 –2 –2 –2 –3 –4 –4 –5 –6 –7 –8 –8 –9 –10 0.3 iu 42667kg 47.

The flight deck crew and ground staff amend their copies accordingly.1 000 kg The changes have to be entered into the weight and balance sheet into the "LMC" column. cargo. The load message sent to the destination must contain the corrected figures of pax. In exceptional cases .08 . LMC limit +/. Note: The LMC-procedure is only to be applied in the Loadsheet.04.either plus or minus .6 Last minute changes procedure Page : 45 of 171 (Source: Airberlin OM-A 8.are within the limits permitted in the OM/B.9.1. baggage or mail load. (Already 100kg may change T/O speeds significantly!) Instr. W&B and especially the T/O performance have to be correct and therefore to be recalculated!.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Loading 6.4) As explained in the definition. One person (LMC) is to be calculated with 90 kg including baggage. last minute changes to the load.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.changes may be relayed to the commander via radio or the ground service interphone.and trim-sheet are only permitted if the changes of the load .if time does not permit .

g. VIE. ZRH.3) Air Berlin calculates with the following Standard Passenger Weights: All Adults 76kg Children 35kg Infants counted only For flights within Germany and flights within Spain and all city shuttle flights (e.g. STN. VIE. BGY etc.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.1. STN. ZRH.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Loading Number : Page : 46 of 171 6.9.7 Standard Weight Values (Source: Airberlin OM-A 8.08 .): Male 88kg All Adults 70kg Children 35kg Infants counted only Mass values for checked baggage Domestic flights 11 kg Within the European region Intercontinental flights 15 kg All other 13 kg 13 kg Instr.) use the following Passenger Weights: All Adults 84kg Children 35kg Infants counted only or male/female splitted weights for flights within Germany and flights within Spain and all city shuttle flights (e.04. BGY etc.

GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. provided the cause of the tripped C/B is identified. and only one re-engagement should be attempted.32) SAC (Slat and Flap Control Computer) could lead to slats/flaps locked.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Resetting of computers and C/B’s Page : 47 of 171 7 Resetting of computers and C/B’s (Source: A320 FCOM 3. This procedure should be adopted only as a last resort.04.04.04. if the flight crew coordinates the action with maintenance. For all other circuit breakers.2 7. do not re-engage any tank fuel pump circuit breaker. they may re-engage a tripped C/B.24) 7. unless the Captain (using his/her emergency authority) judges it necessary for the safe continuation of the flight. do not re-engage a circuit breaker that has tripped by itself.1 Computer reset On ground On ground almost all computers can be reset except: • • • • ECU (Engine Control Unit) EIU ( Engine Interface Unit) BSCU (Brake Steering Control Unit) if the aircraft is not stopped (see also FCOM 3.2.08 . 7. Instr.1 Tripped C/B reengagement in flight In flight. On ground.

04.32) In case of braking / steering problems.32 BSCU RESET Instr. the crew may perform a BSCU reset to recover correct functioning of the system. In particular this applies in the case of any of the following ECAM warnings: WHEEL N.2. the crew must restrict computer resets to those listed in the table (A320 FCOM.08 .24) For the following system malfunction respectively ECAM warnings/cautions a trouble shooting procedure exists: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 7. STEER FAULT BRAKES AUTO BRAKE FAULT BRAKES BSCU CH 1 (2) FAULT BRAKES BSCU SYS 1 (2) FAULT For more details see FCOM 3.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Resetting of computers and C/B’s 7.3 VENT AVNCS SYS FAULT AIR PACK 1(2) REGUL FAULT AUTO FLT YAW DAMPER 1 (2) FAULT WINDSHEAR DET FAULT REAC W/S DET FAULT AUTO FLT FCU 1(2) FAULT AUTO FLT FCU 1+ 2 FAULT one MCDU locked or blank both MCDU locked or blank FMGC malfunction F/CTL ELAC 1 (2) FAULT F/CTL ALTN LAW F/CTL ELAC 1 (2) FAULT F/CTL ELAC 1 (2) PITCH FAULT Braking malfunction ELAC OR SEC malfunction ANTI ICE L (R) WINDSHIELD (WINDOW) FWS FWC 1 (2) FAULT L/G LGCIU 1 (2) FAULT Failure messages on the CIDS FAP in the cabin ENG IGN A + B FAULT ENG 1 (2) FADEC A (B) FAULT COM CIDIS 1 + 2 FAULT Frozen RMP FAP freezing SMOKE LAV + CRG DET FAULT BSCU reset (in-flight and on ground) (Source: A320 FCOM 3. 3.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.04.04.04.2 In flight Page : 48 of 171 In flight.W.2.

See FCOM 3. FUEL & APU) recommended actions exist.3 ECAM advisories Page : 49 of 171 (Source: A320 FCOM 3.80 ECAM ADVISORY CONDITION Instr.08 .02.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Resetting of computers and C/B’s 7. ELEC.80) For several advisories (CAB PRESS.2.04.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.

Exception: Circling approach and VFT training patterns: wings must be level on final when aircraft reaches 500 feet AGL.1 Stabilized approach Definition (Source: Airberlin OM-A .2 Philosophy of stabilized approach (Source: Airberlin OM-A 2.3.1) An approach is stabilized if all of the following conditions are met: • • • • • • • • Aircraft is on correct flight path.11. 2.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Stabilized approach Page : 50 of 171 8 8. Sink rate maximum 1000 FPM below 1000ft AGL. 8. however an explanation has to be given to the passengers. Instr. Aircraft speed is not more than Vref + 20 KIAS and not less than Vref. 2° pitch). Any go-around accomplished needs not to be reported to DO. (necessary call outs by PNF: +10 KIAS / -5 KIAS of deviations) Aircraft is in the proper landing configuration. Only small changes in heading and pitch are required to maintain path (10° heading. Power setting appropriate for configuration and not below the minimum power for approach as defined by the aircraft operations manual (A320 & A319: N1 approx. stabilized approach criteria are violated.08 . 40%-55%) All briefings and checklists have been performed ILS approach must be flown within one dot of the expanded localizer band.11.2) All approaches must be stabilized by 1000 feet AGL! In order to reduce the risk of "approach and landing accidents".GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. except respective approach procedure dictates otherwise.3. go-arounds should be initiated whenever a safe landing is not assured. field not in sight at DH / MDA or any other safety reason .04.

thus in which direction to look for the runway. The typical pitch increment in Flare is approximately 4° which leads to a –1° flight path angle associated to a 10 kts speed decay in the manoeuvre.1 Landing technique Final approach (Source: A320 Instructor Support. look out well ahead of the A/C. • In order to assess the flare and the A/C position versus the ground. It is a reminder. • At 20 ft a call out “RETARD” reminds the pilot to retard thrust lever. Indeed with ATHR ON. 9. When transitioning from IMC to VMC. Instr. release it and the A/C will stabilize. The flare technique is thus very conventional. i. Normal Operation) Once AP is set to OFF using the Instinctive Disconnect button on the stick either on short final or in the flare.04. Feedbacks and static stability augmentation are removed on ground. This is a “crabbed approach” with wings level. However if PITCH greater than 10°. the system begins to reduce the pitch attitude (2° down in 8 sec). Consequently as the speed reduces. As the aircraft descends through 30 ft. the ATHR will add thrust during the flare to keep the A/C on target speed. be smooth on the stick.2 Flare (Source: A320 Instructor Support. it is a progressive aft action on the stick. The A/C is stable.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. the normal pitch law which provides trajectory stability is not the best adapted for the flare manoeuvre. the pitch law is modified to flare mode: indeed. These are “typical” figures.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Landing technique Page : 51 of 171 9 9. applying a drift correction. Normal Operation) When reaching 50 ft RA. The final approach with crosswind is conducted flying the aircraft track to the runway centreline. Therefore if you are late to retard the thrust levers in a manual landing. The system memorizes the attitude at 50 ft. But then: • don’t turn towards the runway • don’t duck under. If you feel that you are very active on the stick. SPEED mode is effective except if autoland (AP ON with LAND/FLARE). not an order.e. watch the BIRD position versus the A/C attitude symbol in the centre of PFD. the pilot will have to move the stick rearwards to maintain a constant path. A continuous aft pressure has to be applied as usual. The roll is a roll rate law till the A/C is on ground. PNF shall announce it.08 . this gives a good assessment of the drift. • Start the flare at around 20 ft. and that attitude becomes the initial reference for pitch attitude control.

A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY

Landing technique 9.3 Crosswind landing

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(Source: A320 Instructor Support, Normal Operation) During the flare, the roll normal law is still effective. Thus when the pilot applies a right rudder pedal input for example, the aircraft yaws and rolls to the right; but it stabilizes with a steady bank angle. The more pedal input there is, the more induced yaw and bank there is with stick free. The aircraft will then turn gently to the right. If the A/C comes for landing with wind from the left, and if the pilot wishes the A/C to land with the fuselage aligned with runway centreline, he has to apply some rudder to the right. Thus, if he does not act laterally on the stick, the A/C will turn to the right because of the resulting bank angle and because of the effect of the wind. In order to keep the A/C on the runway centreline, the pilot will have to apply some stick to the left. Hence the recommended technique for crosswind landing is: • smoothlyapply rudder to align the A/C on runway centreline. • act on the stick (on the opposite direction) to maintain the A/C on the centreline, with possibly very slight wing down into wind. Note: In strong crosswind, a full decrab might lead to a significant into wind aileron input causing a significant bank angle. The Pilot must be aware that there are aircraft geometry limitations in pitch and in bank not only to prevent incurring a tail strike but to prevent scrapping the engine pod, the flaps or the wing tip. In such conditions, a partial decrab is preferable. Example: with 30 kts crosswind, a full decrab leads to 10° bank angle, whereas a partial decrab (5° crab angle remaining) requires only 5° bank angle.

9.4

Tail strike at landing

(Source: FCOM Bulletin N° 806/1) Industry statistics show that tail strikes are more likely to occur at landing, than at takeoff (2 to 1). Although most of them are due to deviations from normal landing techniques, some are associated with such external conditions as turbulence and wind gradient. Deviations from normal landing technique are the most common causes of tail strikes, the main reasons for this being: • • • • • Allowing speed to decrease well below Vapp before flare. Prolonged hold-off for a smooth touchdown. Too high flare Too high a sink rate, just prior reaching the flare height. Bouncing at touchdown.

Instr.GuideA320

Revision: 4

Effective Date: 25.04.08

A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY

Landing technique 9.5 Bouncing at touch down

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(Source: FCOM Bulletin N° 806/1) In case of a light bounce, maintain the pitch attitude and complete the landing, while keeping thrust at idle. Do not allow the pitch attitude to increase, particularly following a firm touchdown with a high pitch rate. In case of a high bounce, maintain the pitch attitude and initiate a go-around. Do not try to avoid a second touchdown during the go-around. Should it happen, it would be soft enough to prevent damage to the aircraft, if pitch attitude is maintained. Only when safely established in the go-around, retract flaps one step and the landing gear. A landing should not be attempted immediately after a high bounce, as thrust may be required to soften the second touchdown, and the remaining runway length may be insufficient to stop the aircraft.

9.6

Engine-out landing

(Source: FCOM 3.04.27 P5) The engine-out landing is basically a conventional landing. The pilot should trim to maintain the slip indication centred. It is yellow, as long as N1 is less than 80%. Between 100 and 50 feet, the pilot he can reset rudder trim to make the landing run easier, and to recover full rudder travel in both directions.

Instr.GuideA320

Revision: 4

Effective Date: 25.04.08

A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY

Use of weather radar

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10 Weather radar
10.1 General A weather radar is only as good as the operator’s interpretation of the echoes that are displayed on the indicator. The pilot must combine his knowledge of how radar works and its limitations with such things as the prevailing weather pattern, the geographic location, and his personal experience to make a sound interpretation of the displayed targets. 10.2 Technical background (Source: Instructor Support, Normal Operation) The weather radar detects precipitation droplets such as: • • • rain drops wet hail wet snow, etc.

The strength of the echo is a function of the drop size, composition and amount. Water particles reflect five times as much as ice particles of the same size. Consequently the following weather phenomena are not detected by radar: • • • • • clouds fog clear air turbulence lightning wind

The antenna is stabilized. The angle between the weather radar antenna and the local horizon is called ‘tilt’. 10.3 Use of the weather radar The weather radar is used to detect, analyze and avoid significant weather. 10.3.1 Tilt Effective tilt management is the key to weather avoidance. Weather scanning is achieved by varying the tilt. The basic/initial value of the antenna tilt should be such as to depict the first ground returns at the top of the ND. Consequently, the tilt is directly linked to the phases of flight and the ND range selection. Note: In most of the Airberlin A320 Family Aircrafts an AUTO TILT function is available. 10.3.1.1 Before Take off If significant weather is suspected, slowly scan up to +10° the departure path, then set the tilt to + 4°. 10.3.1.2 Climb To avoid “over scanning”, tilt downwards as the aircraft climbs and maintain ground returns at the top of the ND.
Instr.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.04.08

3.3. A slight downward tilt of the antenna (toward the warmer air at lower altitude) may show rain coming from unseen dry hail that is directly in the flight path. When using turbulence detection.3 Cruise Page : 55 of 171 Use a slightly negative tilt and maintain ground returns at the top of the ND.3 WX+T and TURB modes WX+T and TURB are used to locate wet turbulence areas.1. A good range to identify and observe significant weather is the 80NM range.04. Before evaluating any weather echoes. the aircraft could be flying into hail.3.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Use of weather radar 10. the reverse is sometimes true: the radar may be scanning below a rapidly developing storm cell.1. however. Turbulence is detected within approx.1.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. • No ground returns beyond line of sight. When rain returns appear below the flight path. At low altitude operation. tilt down until ground returns are on the 80NM line and return to the 80NM range.08 . but not in the line of flight. Manually vary the gain to determine the strongest area of a cell. 10. when the MULTISCAN switch is in AUTO position.(In FL 370 the line of sight is approximately 240NM) 10. Instr. As it falls into warmer air.3.5 Approach To avoid ground returns tilt upward to + 4° 10. Tilting the antenna up and down regularly will produce the total weather picture. then set the gain back to AUTO. Set the 160 NM range.4 Spotting dry hail Small dry hail may not return echoes on a radar that is designed for weather avoidance. it begins to melt and form a thin surface layer of liquid that will give a return. this Temporary Revision is issued to indicate that.MULTISCAN FUNCTION) 10. adjust the tilt to eliminate ground returns up to 90 NM. the GAIN should be manually set to +8 to ensure that the radar display provides an optimum reflection of the current weather condition (Source A320 TR WEATHER RADAR . from which the heavy rain droplets have not had time to fall to the flight level through the updrafts. the radar display may not entirely correspond to the current weather.2 Gain Gain is mostly used in mode AUTO. Note: When the MULTISCAN switch is in the AUTO position (tilt automatic mode) and the GAIN is set to CAL (automatically calibrated). Notes: • Over calm sea and even ground the ground return is poor. When closing in on significant weather decrease the ND range and tilt further down. 50 NM and not affected by gain setting. Therefore. start with the gain in AUTO mode.4 Descent During descent tilt upward to maintain the ground returns at the top of the ND 10.3.

but a weaker echo will be received as the antenna is tilted up because of frozen water at the higher altitudes. scan by varying radar tilt. This value may decrease 1. When the winds at the top of the storm exceeds 100 kt. wind shear). but the severity of the turbulence might not. do not under estimate a thunderstorm even if the echo is weak (wet parts only are detected).5 Turbulence above cloud tops Limited flight data shows there may be a relationship between turbulence above cloud tops and the speed of upper tropospheric winds. significant turbulence can be expected as high as 10.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Use of weather radar Turbulence versus altitude Page : 56 of 171 Studies by the National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL) of Oklahoma show that thunderstorms extending to 60’000ft show little variation of turbulence intensity with altitude.000 ft above the cloud tops. Instr. Do not attempt to fly below a storm even in visual conditions (turbulence.7 Pilot behaviour with significant weather It is recommended to take the following actions to avoid significant weather: • • • • • • • • • whenever suspecting weather. Closely spaced or thin lines between different colours are usually associated with severe turbulence and should be avoided. 10. 10. 10. A strong echo may be received from rain water at lower altitudes.04.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. Thus the intensity of the echo might diminish with altitude. Storms with tops above 35’000 ft must be considered hazardous. Severe turbulence may be encountered up to 5’000 ft above a cell. Remember that ice crystals are poor reflectors. Use turbulence detection to isolate turbulence from precipitation.6 Colour gradient Echo intensity gradients should also be observed and are very important.08 .000 ft for each 10-kt reduction of tropospheric wind speed. deviate upwind rather than downwind (less chances of turbulence or hail). avoid all red and magenta cells by at least 20 NM. Frequent and vivid lightning indicates a high probability of severe turbulence.

4. aim to keep the speed in the region of the target speed given in this section.08 . (Sufficient buffet margin exists at optimum altitude. and do not chase your Mach or airspeed.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.91). Configuration 3 provides more energy and less drag.91) If turbulence is unavoidable. Set the thrust to give the recommended speed (see table FCOM 3. Maintain attitude and allow altitude to vary. can be used. whilst maintaining an adequate margin above VLS. If the crew flies the aircraft manually: • • Expect large variations in altitude.) Before entering an area of known turbulence. A transient increase is preferable to a loss of speed. • • • • • • Consider requesting a lower flight level to increase margin to buffet onset. Only change thrust in case of an extreme variation in airspeed. so as to provide the best protection against the effect of gust on the structural limits. However. Instr. When thrust changes become excessive : disconnect Auto Thrust. in stabilized conditions.8 Severe turbulence: (Source: A320 FCOM 3. but do not chase altitude. Keep the autopilot ON. For Approach: • • Use A/THR for managed speed.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Use of weather radar Page : 57 of 171 10. Configuration FULL. This thrust setting attempts to obtain.4. that decreases buffet margins and is difficult to recover. or 3. the flight crew and the cabin crew must secure all loose equipment and turn on the "SEAT BELTS" and "NO SMOKING" signs.04. the speed for turbulence penetration given in the graph below.

0.35 0.poor poor unreliable not reported µ (fc) ≥ 0. 25L = 25.1.29 ≤ 0. 25R = 75.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Winter operation Page : 58 of 171 11 Winter operation 11.100% not reported dd 00 01 02 xx 90 91 92 93 9x 98 99 // Depth < 1mm 1 mm 2 mm xx mm 90 mm not used 10 cm 15 cm 5x cm 40 cm Rwy inop not significant BB 95 94 93 92 91 99 // Remarks 88CLRD// all Rwys o.1 Flight planning 11.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.30 – 0.40 0.39 0. DDSNOCLO RR//99// Rwy closed due to snow removal Rwy clearance in progress Instr.25 C 1 2 5 9 / Contamination < 10% 11%-25% 26%-50% 51% .g.1. all = 88 D 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / Deposit clear & dry damp wet or water patches rime or frost covered dry snow wet snow slush ice Compact or rolled snow Frozen ruts or ridges Deposit not reported Braking action good medium -good medium medium .08 .2 Runway contamination Code: RRDCddBB RR Runway e.26 – 0.04.36 .k.1 General For more details concerning flight planning refer also to chapter Flight Planning 11.

3. Instr.3.1.7mm g mass water water 64t 1500 1970 2670 2560 62t 1440 1920 2580 2480 58t 1370 1800 2400 2320 54t 1320 1690 2240 2170 Assumptions: • Configuration FULL • Airport elevation 2000ft • 2 Reversers operative • No wind correction • No CG correction • No correction for speed increment 6. l req = 5 ⋅ l act 3 lreq: lact: required landing distance actual landing distance 11.3 Required landing distance (Source: A320 FCOM 2.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Winter operation 11. required landing distance. In case of landing in Conf FULL with landing weight equal to or less than 65000 kg.3mm slush 2570 2500 2370 2240 12. manual landing Required landing distance in meters Runway condition Landin dry wet 6. it is equal to the corrected required landing distance for manual landing increased by 70 meters.3mm 12.2 Automatic landing Determine the corrected required landing distance for manual landing from the data above.04.08 .2 Summary. it is equal to the corrected required landing distance for manual landing increased by 125 meters.3.1 Required landing distance (pre-flight) The required landing distance for pre-flight planning is equal to the actual landing distance multiplied with 1.03. The required landing distance for automatic landing is equal to the corrected required landing distance for manual landing except in the following case: • • In case of landing in Conf 3 with landing weight equal to or less than 65000 kg.67.7mm slush 2530 2400 2270 2150 Compacted snow 2460 2410 2290 2180 ice 4320 4230 4040 3860 11.1.1.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.1.1 Manual landing 11.3.1.1.10) Page : 59 of 171 11.1.

or o Snow which has been compressed into a solid mass which resists further compression and will hold together or break into lumps if picked up (compacted snow). lt is encountered at temperatures around 5°C and its density is approximately 0. but without significant areas of standing water. Its density is approximately 0. Icy is a condition where the friction coefficient is 0. Compacted snow is a condition where snow has been compressed (a typical friction coefficient is 0. snow. or .Ice. but when the moisture on it does not give it a shiny appearance. Wet snow is a condition where. Wet runway and equivalent: Equivalent of a wet runway is a runway covered with or less than o 2mm slush o 3 mm standing water o 4 mm wet snow o 15 mm dry snow Damp runway: A runway is considered damp when the surface is not dry.05 or below.4. or if compacted by hand. ice crystals) or standing water.4 kg/dm3. less than or equal to 3 mm or when there is sufficient moisture on the runway surface to cause it to appear reflective. ice or snow is present on the taxiways or runways.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Winter operation 11.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.08 . and includes those paved runways which have been specially prepared with grooves or porous pavement and maintained to retain «effectively dry» braking action. or slush.2 kg/ dm3. slush. including wet ice Wet runway: A runway is considered wet when the runway surface is covered with water. fog with low visibility of one mile or less.2). will fall apart again upon release. Its density is approximately 0.04.85 kg/dm3. or equivalent. or loose snow. sleet. rain.10) • Page : 60 of 171 Contaminated runway: A runway is considered to be contaminated when more than 25% of the runway surface area (whether in isolated areas or not) within the required length and width being used is covered by the following: o Surface water more than 3 mm (0. even when moisture is present.2 Definitions (Source A320 FCOM 2. Dry runway: A dry runway is one which is neither wet nor contaminated. equivalent to more than 3 mm (0. if compacted by hand. Slush is water saturated with snow which spatters when stepping firmly on it. Icing conditions may be expected when the OAT (on the ground and for takeoff) or when TAT (in flight) is at or below 10°C. • • • • • • • • • • • Instr. snow will stick together and tend to form a snowball. Dry snow is a condition where snow can be blown if loose.125 in) deep. Standing Water is caused by heavy rainfall and/or insufficient runway drainage with a depth of more than 3 mm. and there is visible moisture in the air (such as clouds.125 in) of water.

3.2 Exterior inspection An inspection of the aircraft must visually cover all critical parts of the aircraft and be performed from points offering a clear view of these parts. Control surface cavities.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Winter operation On ground operation 11.2 Engine start in cold weather (Source: A320 FCOM 3.7) A pilot shall not take off in an airplane that has: • • frost. Engines. Horizontal stabilizer upper and lower surface. that all critical surfaces of the aircraft are free of adhering ice. Air data probes. 11. slush or ice adhering to any fan blade. Fuselage. Instr. snow. snow. rate of climb or flight altitude instrument systems.3 De-icing on ground 11. It is imperative that takeoff not be attempted unless the CDR has ascertained.1 Securing the aircraft for cold soak See A320 FCOM 3.70) If oil temperature is below – 40° C the engine has to be preheated T/O with oil temperatures below -10°C is not allowed Page : 61 of 171 11.2. snow.3.2. This is known as the “Clean Aircraft Concept“ and it is ultimately the responsibility of the Commander that this rule is effectively followed on every takeoff. or frost formations.08 .1.91 11. slush or ice adhering to the wings or stabilizers or control surfaces or any frost adhering to the upper surfaces of wings or stabilizers or control surfaces.04. Static vents. these parts include: • • • • • • • • • • • Wing surfaces including leading edges. altimeter. The “MAKE IT CLEAN AND KEEP IT CLEAN“ rule applies. windshield or power plant installation or to airspeed.5. In particular.04. Angle-of-attack sensors. Vertical stabilizer and rudder.1 Clean aircraft concept (Source: Air Berlin OM-A 8. Generally intakes and outlets.2. Landing gear and wheel bays.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.

when flaps are retracted. The areas most vulnerable to freezing are: • • • The wing root area between the front and rear spars. Severe conditions occur with precipitation.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Winter operation 11. it is necessary for the rear side of the fan blades to be checked for ice build-up prior to start-up. when sub-zero fuel is in contact with the wing upper surface skin panels.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. Any part of the wing that contains unused fuel after flight. Abnormally large amount of remaining cold fuel in wing tanks causing the fuel level to be in contact with the wing upper surface panels as well as the lower surface. Heavy freezing has been reported during drizzle/rain even at temperatures of 8 to 14°C. this is accompanied by frost on the under wing surface. Any discovered deposits should be removed by directing air from a low flow hot air source. When ground temperatures at the destination are low.4 General checks • A recommended procedure to check the wing upper surface is to place high enough steps as close as possible to the leading edge and near the fuselage. especially in poor lighting and when the wing is wet. accumulations of ice may remain undetected between stationary and moveable surfaces. The clear ice may not be detected from the cabin either because wing surface details show through. falling snow with the possibility of re-freezing.3. resulting in a situation that the remaining fuel in the wing tanks is below 0° C. If clear ice is detected. important that these areas are checked prior to departure and any frozen deposits removed. Temperature of fuel added to the aircraft during the current ground stop. Ice can build up on aircraft surfaces when descending through dense clouds or precipitation during an approach. • • • Instr. The following factors contribute to the formation intensity and the final thickness of the clear ice layer: • • • Low temperature of fuel that was added to the aircraft during the previous ground stop and/or the long airborne time of the previous flight.3. The clear ice accumulations are very difficult to detect from ahead of the wing or behind during walk-around. especially in the wing tank area. In most cases. therefore. The areas where different wing structures are concentrated (a lot of cold metal).04.3 Clear ice phenomenon Page : 62 of 171 Under certain conditions. a clear ice layer or frost can form on the wing upper surfaces when the aircraft is on the ground. such as a cabin heater.08 . it is possible that. Under freezing fog conditions. such as areas above the spars and the main landing gear doubler plate. onto the affected areas. adding (relatively) warm fuel can melt dry. Drizzle/rain and ambient temperatures around 0°C on the ground is very critical. the wing upper surface should be de-iced and then re-checked to ensure that all ice deposits have been removed. The leading edge may not feel particularly cold. and climb the steps so that you can touch a wide sector of the tank area by hand. It is. It must always be remembered that below a snow / slush / anti-icing fluid layer there can be clear ice. 11.

A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Winter operation • Page : 63 of 171 When slush is present on runways. those flaps which are extended must be inspected and. This consideration must increase flight crew awareness to include the condition of the taxiway. As mentioned above. the Flight Crew Operating Manual allows takeoff with a certain amount of frost on certain parts of the aircraft (a frost layer less than 3mm on the underside of the wings. in the area of fuel tanks and a thin layer of rime or a light coating of powdery (loose) snow on the upper surface of the fuselage. snow. However. (Source Airberlin OM-A 8.5. and humid conditions not necessarily linked to winter operations. runway and adjacent areas.6) Flaps should be set just prior take-off to prevent damage by slush.08 . Therefore. ice. these areas must be also de-iced. the moveable surfaces shall be in stowed position.5.2. inspect the aircraft when it arrives at the ramp for slush/ice accumulations. it is necessary to ensure that all ice and frost is removed before flight. if icing conditions are expected to occur along the taxi and takeoff path. if necessary.2. deiced before retraction. sleet.6) • • • • Instr. During anti-icing and de-icing. when the aircraft need to be de-iced.04.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. It is important to note that the rate of ice formation is considerably increased by the presence of an initial depth of ice.) This allowance exists to cope mainly with cold fuel. (Source Airberlin OM-A 8. If the aircraft arrives at the gate with flaps in a position other than fully retracted. since surface contamination and blown snow are potential causes for ice accretion equal to natural precipitation.

when in doubt about the aerodynamic cleanliness of the aircraft.5. however.08 . Equally. he can request another anti-icing application with a different mixture ratio to have the aircraft protected for a longer period against accumulation of precipitation. with the Commander.g.3. holdover time and other relevant factors. The inspection must visually cover all critical parts of the aircraft and be performed from points offering sufficient visibility on these parts (e. No aircraft should be dispatched for departure after a de-icing / anti-icing operation unless the flight crew has been notified of the type of de-icing / anti-icing operation performed. indicating that the aircraft critical parts are free of ice. It may be necessary to gain direct access to physically check (e. 11.3. The ground crew must make sure that the flight crew has been informed. 11.3.04. The person releasing the aircraft is responsible for the performance and verification of the results of the de/anti-icing treatment. based on his own judgement. perform (or have performed) an inspection or simply request a further de-/anti-icing.1 Maintenance responsibility Page : 64 of 171 The information report (de-icing/anti-icing code) given to the cockpit is a part of the technical airworthiness of the aircraft. The responsible ground crew member should be clearly nominated. The Commander must.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. He should check the aircraft for the need to de-ice.6 Final check before aircraft dispatch No aircraft should be dispatched for departure under icing conditions or after a de-icing / anti-icing operation unless the aircraft has received a final check by a responsible authorized person.g. if required. his request will supersede the ground crew member’s judgement to not de-ice.5. This information includes the results of the final inspection by qualified personnel. The flight crew should make sure that they have the information. As the Commander is responsible for the anti-icing condition of the aircraft during ground manoeuvring prior to takeoff. he can simply request a repeat application. As the final decision rests with the Commander. Therefore. by touch) to ensure that there is no clear ice on suspect areas.3. The responsibility of accepting the performed treatment lies. He will. from the de-icer itself or another elevated piece of equipment).2 Operational responsibility The general transfer of operational responsibility takes place at the moment the aircraft starts moving by its own power. taxi times. the Commander should take into account forecasted or expected weather conditions. initiate de-/anti-icing.5 Responsibility 11. frost and snow. It also includes the necessary anti-icing codes to allow the flight crew to estimate the holdover time to be expected under the prevailing weather conditions. Instr.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Winter operation 11. taxi conditions. and he is responsible for the correct and complete de-icing and/or anti-icing of the aircraft.

Try to make sure that all flight support services are completed prior to treatment. must include (anti icing code): o Type of fluid used. reset the AEVC circuit breaker at the end of the aircraft de-icing procedure.3.7.91) 11.08 • Instr. AIR COND/AVNCS/VENT/MONG Y17 on 122 VU. o When the holdover time (HOT) began.3 Upon completion of the spraying operation • • • • • • • DITCHING pushbutton OFF OUTFLOW VALVE CHECK OPEN On the ECAM PRESS page. who performed the de-icing and post-applicationcheck. avoid pressurizing or testing flight control systems. or on completion of spraying operation: APU BLEED ON PITOTS and STATICS (ground crew) CHECK GROUND EQUIPMENT REMOVE DE-ICING/ANTI-ICING REPORT RECEIVED The information from ground personnel.2 Before fluid spraying: • • • • CAB PRESS MODE SEL CHECK AUTO ENG BLEED 1 + 2 OFF APU BLEED OFF DITCHING pushbutton ON Outflow valve.3. if they are not free of ice. pack valves.7. Note: If the "VENT AVNCS SYS FAULT" warning appears.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Winter operation 11. AIR COND/AVNCS VENT/CTL D06 on 49VU. confirm that the outflow valve indication reaches the open green position to avoid any unexpected aircraft pressurization. o Hold over time (HOT) NORMAL PROCEDURE RESUME Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.GuideA320 .3.3. or trim surfaces. and avionic ventilation inlet and extract valves close.4. o The mix ratio of fluid to water (for example 75/25). there is no time limit for this configuration.7 Procedures (Source A320 FCOM 3. In view of the low OAT. This prevents de-icing fluid from entering the aircraft. Do not move flaps or slats.1 Cockpit preparation • • • • • Page : 65 of 171 Before treatment. Avoid indiscriminate use of de-icing fluid and its ingestion by the engine or APU. Avionic ventilation is in closed circuit with both fans running. Always have the aircraft treated symmetrically: The left and right sides must receive the same and complete treatment. THRUST LEVERS CHECK IDLE • Aircraft prepared for spraying 11. ENG BLEED 1 + 2 ON At least 60 seconds after APU start.04. flight control surfaces. to avoid any delay between treatment and start of taxiing.7. 11.

the radio altimeters may not compute any data and the ECAM warnings 'DUAL ENG FAILURE'. or just before takeoff. Pay special attention to the flight control check.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Winter operation Page : 66 of 171 Apply appropriate normal procedures. 'ANTI ICE CAPT TAT FAULT'. perform the appropriate checks to evaluate aircraft icing. On contaminated runways and taxiways. experience has shown that a certain snowfall can be judged as light. Instr. Base the decision on whether to takeoff. During taxi on snowy runways. resulting in specific odours. Disregard these warnings.04. on the amount of ice that has built up on the critical surfaces since the last de-icing. Note: If the fuselage has been sprayed. there is a risk of de-icing fluid ingestion by the APU air intake. After landing do not retract flaps & slats to avoid damage of the structure After engine shut down make a visual inspection to determine that the flaps/slats mechanism is free of contamination When flaps/slats mechanism is free of contamination use following procedure: o BLUE & YELLOW PUMP ON o FLAPS RETRACT o BLUE & YELLOW PUMP OFF Note: 1. 2.10) If taxiing in icing condition with precipitation on runways and taxiways contaminated with slush or snow: • • • • Before T/O keep flaps & slats retracted until reaching the holding point on the T/O runway. The view of the weather is rather subjective.4 Taxiing in icing conditions (Source: A320 FCOM 2. The minimum requirement is to receive the anti-icing code in order to figure out the available protection time from the holdover timetable. or to re-protect the aircraft. 'L/G SHOCK ABSORBER FAULT' may be triggered.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. There are several parameters influencing holdover time. a pre-takeoff check should be considered 11. medium or heavy by different people. as revealed by a personal inspection from the inside and outside of the aircraft. Disregard them. In freezing precipitation. The timeframes given in the holdover timetables consider the very different weather situations worldwide.08 . Do not consider the information given in the holdover timetables as precise. Make this inspection before the holdover time expires. Thus.04. the radio altitude indications may fluctuate and auto call outs or GPWS warnings may be activated. consider APU BLEED OFF during takeoff. or SMOKE warnings. 'ANTI ICE F/O TAT FAULT'. If in doubt.

The influence of the flap setting on the takeoff performance is well-known. and the accelerate-stop distance is increased due to the reduction in the friction forces. A higher flap setting (e.8mm of dry snow or 25. Yet. 2. the runway is not considered contaminated. 3. 11. A quick comparison of the performance for the three different flap settings reveals which one is best. Conf 3) helps reduce the takeoff distance (improvement of the runway performance) at the expense of the climb performance (degradation of the lift to drag ratio). On a damp runway no performance degradation should be considered.5.5.g.4mm of wet snow. takeoff speeds and derated takeoff thrust are the main ways of limiting a loss in takeoff weight.5.3 Flap setting Three different flap settings are proposed for takeoff. a contaminated runway calls for higher flap setting.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Winter operation 11. The accelerate-go and the accelerate-stop distances are then reduced. the presence of an obstacle may still require a minimum climb gradient calling for a lower flap setting.1 Runway contamination Page : 67 of 171 If the layer of contaminant on the runway is thin enough.5 Take off on contaminated runways 11. 11.2 Performance Optimization A contaminated runway impacts runway-related performance.04. Low flap settings (e.8 mm dry snow is equivalent to 6. The choice of the optimum flap setting is usually done manually.3 mm slush • Note : 1.08 .3 mm slush o 50. Conf1+F) provide good climb performance (good lift to drag ratio) while the takeoff distance is longer (in other words bad runway performance). resulting from lower takeoff weight.7 mm wet snow is equivalent to 6.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. As far as performance determination is concerned. Instr. The accelerate-go distance is increased due to the precipitation drag. can be minimized by different means. The natural loss of payload. Most of the time. It is not recommended to take off from a runway covered with more than 50. but only wet. The right balance must be found. the following guidelines should be considered: • Wet runway and equivalent: Equivalent of a wet runway is a runway covered with or less than o 2mm slush o 3 mm standing water o 4 mm wet snow o 15 mm dry snow Contaminated runway: A linear equivalence between depth of slush and snow has been defined: o 12. Optimization of flap setting. FLEX takeoff is not allowed from a contaminated runway.g.

6 Aircraft contamination in flight 11.04. o When rapid icing is encountered in a stratiform cloud.08 • • • • Instr. the pilot should keep an eye on the icing process: Accretion rate.29 0.GuideA320 .26 – 0. use differential braking Rotate not before VR .1 General • Atmospheric physics and meteorology tell us that icing conditions generally occur from slightly positive °C down to -40 °C and are most likely around FL100.10) Reported runway friction coefficient 0. High accretion rates are not systematically associated with Cumulonimbus. Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.30 – 0. Icing conditions are far most frequent than effective ice accretion.25 and below unreliable reported braking action good medium-good medium medium-poor poor max.) Page : 68 of 171 When taking off on contaminated runways.6. Should the pilot encounter icing conditions in flight.5. 4. following procedure is recommended: • • • • Select TOGA Do not abort takeoff for minor deficiencies even at low speeds If you have to abort takeoff maintain directional control with the rudder and small inputs to the nose wheel.04. it should be understood that if severe icing rarely occurs below -12 °C. damp or wet runway (less than 3mm water depth) runway covered with slush runway covered with dry snow runway covered with standing water with risk of hydroplaning or wet snow icy runway or high risk of hydroplaning 11.4 Recommended procedure (Source: A320 FCOM 2. If necessary.5 Crosswind limits (Source: Airbus FCOM 2. some recommendations are: In addition to using EAI and WAI according to procedures.39 0. 2. 5. dry. slightly positive OATs do not protect from icing and that icing conditions can be potentially met at any FL. Icing conditions do not systematically lead to ice accretion. stratiform clouds can accumulate lots of ice. 3.5. 11.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Winter operation 11.10. type of cloud.40 and above 0. crosswind component 29kt 29kt 25kt 20kt 15kt 5kt equivalent runway condition 1 1 2/3 2/3 3/4 4/5 equivalent runway condition (only valid for maximum crosswind determination) 1.04.36 – 0.35 0. lift off and retract gear and flaps in the normal manner. Nevertheless. a moderate change of altitude will significantly reduce the rate.

when icing conditions exist.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Winter operation o Page : 69 of 171 If icing conditions prevail on the approach. Use auto brake Approach at the normal speed Make a positive touchdown If needed use max reverse thrust until the aircraft is fully stopped Use nose wheel steering with care Caution: • • Extended flight.40° C. VLS + 5 knots. ENGINE ANTI ICE must be ON before and during a descent in icing conditions. or are anticipated. This can be evidenced by ice accumulation on the visual ice indicator (located between the two cockpit windshields). the minimum speed should be : o In configuration full.08 . except during climb and cruise when the SAT is below .30) WING ANTI ICE may either be used to prevent ice formation. in icing conditions with the slats extended.1.40° C.15. 11. should be avoided. 11. 11. or to remove ice accumulation from the wing leading edges.04. and do not retract flaps after landing.3 Wing anti-ice (Source: A320 FCOM 3.4.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. whenever there is an indication that airframe icing exists.6.2 Engine anti-ice (Source A320 FCOM 3.6. delay flap extension as much as possible.7 Landing on contaminated runways (Source: A320 FCOM 2. keep speed as high as permitted. If there is evidence of significant ice accretion and to take into account ice formation on non heated structure. or on the windshield wipers. VLS + 10 knots. even if the SAT is below . WING ANTI ICE should be selected ON.10) (Source: A320 FCOM 3.30) When landing on contaminated runways.04. Instr. and the landing distance in CONF 3 must be multiplied by 1.30) ENGINE ANTI ICE must be ON during all ground and flight operations. following procedure is recommended: • • • • • • Avoid landing on contaminated runways if antiskid is not functioning. o In configuration lower than FULL.4. and the landing distance must be multiplied by 1.4.

this occurs in cold weather conditions.7. 4.8. 11.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Winter operation 11. When the temperature is lower than ISA. the correction has to be applied on the height above the elevation of the altimeter setting source.30 – 0.36 – 0. This means that the pressure altimeter indicates the elevation above the pressure reference by following the standard atmospheric profile. and the correction on the height above the airport has to be applied on the indicated altitude.10) Reported runway friction coefficient 0. crosswind component 33kt 29kt 25kt 20kt 15kt 5kt equivalent runway condition 1 1 2/3 2/3 3/4 4/5 equivalent runway condition (only valid for maximum crosswind determination) 1. 3. 2. the true altitude of the aircraft will be lower than the figure indicated by the altimeter.1 Crosswind limits for landing on contaminated runways (Source: Airbus FCOM 2.25 and below unreliable reported braking action good medium-good medium medium-poor poor Page : 70 of 171 max.8 Low temperature effect on altimeter indication (Source: Airbus. whereby the indicated altitude differs from the true altitude. where the temperature may be considerably lower than the temperature of the standard atmosphere and may lead to a significant altimeter error.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.1 Corrections Various methods are available to correct indicated altitude. Specifically.26 – 0. getting to grips with cold weather operations) The pressure (barometric) altimeters installed on the aircraft are calibrated to indicate true altitude under International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) conditions. A low temperature may decrease terrain clearance and may create a potential terrain clearance hazard. Any deviation from ISA will. In all cases. The same correction value is applied when flying at either QFE or at QNH. when the temperature is lower than ISA. 5. damp or wet runway (less than 3mm water depth) runway covered with slush runway covered with dry snow runway covered with standing water with risk of hydroplaning or wet snow icy runway or high risk of hydroplaning 11.35 0.40 and above 0. It may also be the origin of an altitude/position error. Temperature greatly influences the isobaric surface spacing which affects altimeter indications.39 0.04. Instr.04. dry.29 0. therefore.08 . The altimeter setting source is generally the atmosphere pressure at an airport. result in an incorrect reading.

The altitude error is: ∆A = 2500ft ⋅ 0.04 ⋅ 22 10 = 220ft Instr. The ISA deviation is then. decrease aircraft indicated altitude by 4% per 10°C below ISA of the height above the elevation of the altimeter setting source.08 .GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.8. The airport elevation is the same as altimeter setting source altitudes elevation = 1500 ft. 11. The Intermediate altitude on the VOR 28 approach is 4000ft or 2500ft above GND. Let’s now assume that the actual Outside Air Temperature (OAT) is -10°C.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Winter operation Page : 71 of 171 Increase obstacle elevation by 4% per 10°C below ISA of the height above the elevation of the altimeter setting source. or. equal to 22°C. The ISA temperature at 1500 ft is 12°C.2 Example Let’s assume ZRH with an airport elevation of 1500 ft. This method is generally used to adjust minimum safe altitudes and may be applied for all altimeters setting source altitudes for temperatures above -15°C.04.

but need not take immediate action. a failure of a system or an item of equipment that costs the aircraft the use of other systems or items of equipment. as they execute various procedures. • • • • • • RED: AMBER: GREEN: WHITE: BLUE: MAGENTA: The configuration or failure requires immediate action. the loss of a system or an item of equipment resulting from a primary failure. The item is operating normally. Instr. These are particular messages that apply to particular pieces of equipment or situations (inhibition messages. 12.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.1 Types of failures • • • Independent: Primary: Secondary: a failure that affects an isolated system or item of equipment without degrading the performance of others in the aircraft.2 Color code The ECAM display uses a color code that indicates the importance of the failure or the indication. These are actions to be carried out. or limitations.08 . These titles and remarks guide the flight crew.04.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations Page : 72 of 171 12 Handling of abnormal and emergency situations 12. for example). The flight crew should be aware of the configuration or failure.

Warning message (red) on E/WD Automatic call of the relevant system page on the S/D MASTER CAUT light amber steady Caution message (amber) on E/WD Automatic call of the relevant system page on the S/D Failure Mode 2 NONE 1 Caution message (amber) on E/WD generally without procedure.04. or Magenta message on E/WD NONE Advisory Information Memo Information : Recalls normal or automatic selection of functions which are temporarily used NONE Instr. However. or failure requires immediate action: • Aircraft in dangerous configuration. 1. but does not need to take any immediate action. The affected parameter pulses green. these cautions should be considered without delay to prevent any further degradation of the affected system: • System failure without any direct consequence on the flight safety (eg: HYD G SYS LO PR) Amber caution: Requires crew monitoring : • Failures leading to a loss of redundancy or system degradation (eg : FCDC fault) System parameters monitoring Aural Continuous Repetitive Chime (CRC) or specific sound or synthetic voice Single Chime (SC) Visual MASTER WARN light red flashing or specific red light.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. or limit flight conditions (eg: stall. time and situation permitting. excess cab alt) Amber caution: The flight crew should be aware of the configuration or failure.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations 12.31.3 Warning / Caution classification (Source A320 FCOM.08 . Amber.10) Page : 73 of 171 Level 3 Signification Red warning: The configuration. Green. overspeed) • System failure altering flight safety (eg : Eng fire. Automatic call of the relevant system page on the S/D.

02.04. g n If actions depend on a precondition.2 Contents The QRH is divided in following sections • • • • • • Emergency Procedures Abnormal Procedures Normal Procedures In FLT Performance Ops Data OEB’s Instr.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations Page : 74 of 171 12.4.00. As a general rule.01) 12.08 .4 Use of QRH (Source QRH 0.4.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. a black square indicates the precondition A sequential precondition or a phase of flight is indicated by a black dot TITLE TITLE Abnormal procedure displayed on ECAM Abnormal procedure not displayed on ECAM TITLE TITLE Emergency procedure displayed on ECAM Emergency procedure not displayed on ECAM 12. A320 FCOM. 3.1 Scope The QRH contains some specific procedures which are NOT displayed on the ECAM. the procedures displayed on the ECAM are not provided in the QRH.

02.2 Approach preparation As always. the PNF should refer to the "cruise" portion of the summary.3 Use of summaries in the QRH (Source A320 FCOM.4. the PNF will be able to compute the landing distance taking failure(s) into account. for failure cases leading to the loss of the MCDU.08 . and compute the VAPP. 12. Only after announcing "ECAM ACTIONS COMPLETED". In any case. in order for the pilot to decide whether to divert or not.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations 12. in the event of an electrical emergency configuration or dual hydraulic failure. in order to determine the landing distance coefficient. 12. and after performing the ECAM actions.3. This includes both the procedure and the STATUS review. When the failure occurs. the PNF should refer to the "cruise" portion of the summary to determine the VREF correction. 3. Page : 75 of 171 Instr. and use the VREF given on the MCDU (the destination having been previously updated). the PNF should then review the ECAM STATUS.4.4. which is not fully addressed on the ECAM. the ECAM should be applied first. After referring to the approach portion of the summary. should the PNF refer to the corresponding QRH summary. The landing and go-around portions of the summary should be used for the approach briefing. and check that all APPR PROC actions have been completed.01) 12.3 Approach The APPR PROC actions should be performed by reading the approach portion of the summary. They have been created to help the crew handle the actions to be carried out.3. it is not necessary to refer to the "LANDING WITH FLAPS (SLATS) JAMMED" paper procedure.4. After reviewing the STATUS. As the recommendations provided in this portion of the summary are deemed sufficient. The pilot is presumed to know the computation method. A VREF table is provided in the summary. Since normal landing distances are also given on this page. approach preparation includes a review of the ECAM STATUS.3. This portion has primarily been added due to the flap extension procedure.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.1 General The summaries consist of QRH procedures.04.

02 abnormal and emergency procedures) PNF reads the Status and confirms the completion of the ECAM procedure with “ECAM COMPLETED. IRS. provided that the appropriate flight path is established. Irreversible items (engine master switch. through the MASTER WARN light) until : • • The appropriate flight path is established The aircraft is at least 400 feet above the runway. “I HAVE CONTROL.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations 12. approach or go-around. CLEAR ?” “CLEAR” After completion of the whole checklist the Status page appears. fire pushbutton) must be confirmed by the PF Executes configurations changes required by the PF After a checklist is finished the PNF informs the PF: PNF: PF: “TITLE. if a failure occurs during takeoff.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.04. COMPLETED. 3. No action is taken (apart from canceling audio warnings. Instr.08 .5 Task sharing for abnormal and emergency procedures (Source: A320 FCOM. ECAM ACTIONS” Page : 76 of 171 PF initiates ECAM: Task sharing: PF: • • • • PNF: • • • Controls the Aircraft Communicates with ATC Is responsible for the thrust levers Requests configuration changes Reads titles and checklists and executes required actions. Before studying the Status consider following: • • • Does an OEB (Operations Engineering Bulletin) for the actual problem exist? Is a restart or reset of an affected System possible? Are all checklists completed? (Checklists for normal ops as well as checklists in FCOM 3. and excessive delay in procedure initiation. CLEAR?” PF confirms with “CLEAR” and normal task sharing is resumed.00) Procedures are initiated on the Pilot Flying's command. because it is a good compromise between the necessary time for stabilization.01 & QRH 0. the Pilot Flying may initiate actions before this height. In some emergency cases. A height of 400 feet is recommended.02.

the AP has not been certified in all configurations. if the aircraft deviates from the desired or safe flight path. and the AP must be disconnected. NAV FPA. When ECAM actions have been performed. However. the crew should consider the seriousness of the situation. If an abnormal procedure causes LAND ASAP to appear in amber on the ECAM. and select a suitable airport. In case of other failures.80). Instr. extra vigilance is required. However. and its performance cannot be guaranteed.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations Notes: • • • If an emergency causes LAND ASAP to appear in red on the ECAM.02) for supplementary information. If the pilot chooses to use the AP in such circumstances. including CAT II/CAT III ILS approaches and fail-passive automatic landing. the Pilot Flying should land at the nearest suitable airport. Page : 77 of 171 12. ECAM procedures and STATUS information.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.7 Landing distance Any increase in landing distance. 12. and the ECAM STATUS has been reviewed. supplemented by a PFD/ND check suffice for handling the fault. the fault should be confirmed on the system display.04. NAV V/S. must be based on the actual landing distance in Conf FULL (Refer to FCOM 3. when available : • • • In case of engine failure.6 Use of autopilot The autopilot (AP) may be used in most failure cases.02. resulting from an emergency or abnormality. When performing an engine-out non precision approach. before applying the ECAM procedures. if time permits. the use of the AP is not permitted in the following modes : FINAL APP.08 . down to 500 ft AGL in all modes. the crew may refer to FCOM procedure (FCOM 3.

increase this pitch attitude.8.8.02.80) The "W/S AHEAD" message is displayed on each PFD.04.02. 12.5°. The color of the message depends on the severity and location of the winds hear.01) The following procedures are to be applied without referring to paper: • • • • • • • Windshear Windshear ahead TCAS EGPWS Loss of braking Beginning of emergency descent Beginning of unreliable speed indication Page : 78 of 171 12.2. 12.08 . TOGA ROTATE FOLLOW After V1: • THR LEVERS • REACHING VR • SRS ORDERS In flight: • THR LEVERS TOGA • AP (if engaged) KEEP • SRS ORDERS FOLLOW (This includes full back stick.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations 12.02. 3. 3.1 W/S AHEAD red Instr. If necessary to minimize the loss of height.8 Memory Items (Source: A320 FCOM. if demanded) Note: • • • • do not change configuration (flaps. 3.1 Windshear (Source: A320 FCOM.8.2 Windshear ahead (PWS) (Source: A320 FCOM.80) Before V1: • The takeoff should be rejected only if significant airspeed variations occur below indicated V1 and the pilot decides that there is sufficient runway remaining to stop the airplane.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. slats gear) closely monitor flight path and speed If AP engaged the AP disengages when α is greater then α prot If FD is not available use an initial pitch attitude up to 17.

GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. the slat/flap configuration can be changed. WINDSHEAR AHEAD". WINDSHEAR AHEAD". When airborne • THR LEVERS TOGA As usual. • SRS ORDERS FOLLOW Note: If AP engaged the AP disengages when α is greater then α prot Landing The W/S AHEAD warning is associated with an aural synthetic voice "GO AROUND. During the takeoff run • Reject takeoff. Note : If a positive verification is made that no hazard exists. • If AP engaged the AP disengages when α is greater then α prot • If FD is not available use an initial pitch attitude up to 17.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations Page : 79 of 171 The W/S AHEAD warning is associated with an aural synthetic voice "WINDSHEAR AHEAD.08 . • • • • THR LEVERS ANNOUNCE FLAPS L/G UP TOGA "GO AROUND-FLAPS" RETRACT ONE STEP SELECT Note: • This includes the use of full back stick. increase this pitch attitude.04. the warning may be considered cautionary. if demanded. Note: Predictive windshear alerts are inhibited above 100 knots until 50 feet. Before takeoff • Delay takeoff. Instr. If necessary to minimize the loss of height. provided the windshear is not entered. or select the most favorable runway.5°.

80 & FCOM 3. when ILS is available. Select the most favorable runway. Instr. Evaluate condition for a safe landing by Using observations. Check both FDs engaged in ILS. Before takeoff • • • • • • Delay takeoff until conditions improve. Use the weather radar. Use managed speed in the approach phase. the system will carry extra speed in strong wind conditions. associated with managed speed. Select FLAPS 3.91) Apply precautionary measures.08 .GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.2. Monitor closely airspeed and airspeed trend during the takeoff run for early signs of windshear. Engage the autopilot. increase Vapp displayed on the MCDU up to a maximum of VLS + 15 knots. as indicated in the SUPPLEMENTARY TECHNIQUES 3.02. Evaluate takeoff conditions using observations.2 W/S AHEAD amber (Source: A320 FCOM. Use the weather radar or the predictive windshear system before commencing takeoff to ensure that the flight path clears any potential problem areas.04. Select TOGA thrust.4. FPA or V/S.91.04. 3.8. Select the most favorable runway (considering location of the likely windshear). If downburst is expected. experience and checking weather conditions. experience and checking weather conditions. Delay landing or divert to another airport until conditions are more favorable.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations 12. considering also which has the most appropriate approach aid. Page : 80 of 171 During approach • • • • • • • • Note : • • When it is using the GS mini-function. for a more accurate approach and earlier recognition of deviation from the beam.

34.3 TCAS (Source: A320 FCOM. If necessary. while keeping the vertical speed outside the red area of the VSI and within the green area. as required.15) Traffic advisory.04.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations 12.2. use the full speed range between Vmax and Vmax. maintain“ or “adjust vertical speed“ ): • • • • • • • AP (if engaged) OFF BOTH FD OFF Adjust the vertical speed.8. Note : • Avoid excessive maneuvers.) Instr. TA (“traffic”) • Attempt to see the traffic Page : 81 of 171 Corrective resolution advisory. RA (“climb” or “descent” or “monitor vertical speed” or “maintain vertical speed. resume normal navigation in accordance with ATCclearance.08 .GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. to that indicated on the green area of the vertical speed scale. 3. QRH 1. Respect all GPWS or wind shear warnings Attempt to see the traffic Notify ATC When “clear of conflict” is announced. • GO AROUND procedure must be performed when a RA "CLIMB" or "INCREASE CLIMB" is triggered on final approach. (Resolution Advisories (RA) are inhibited below 900 feet.

08 . 3.4 EGPWS (Source:A320 FCOM.1 Hard warnings MWL and synthetic voice “PULL UP“ or “TERRAIN. clean up aircraft as required. When speed is above VLS and V/S is positive.4. TERRAIN PULL UP“ or “TERRAIN AHEAD PULL UP” or “AVOID TERRAIN” • • During night or in IMC apply the procedure immediately.4. Do not delay reaction for diagnosis. Reaction: • • • • • • • AP PITCH Pull up to full back stick and maintain. During daylight and VMC conditions. Instr.34.14) Page : 82 of 171 12.8. the alert may be considered cautionary.04.2 Soft warnings MCL and synthetic voice “TERRAIN TERRAIN” or “TERRAIN AHEAD” or “ TOO LOW TERRAIN” or “SINK RATE” or “GLIDE SLOPE” etc. THRUST LEVERS SPEED BRAKE BANK OFF PULL UP TOGA CHECK RETRACTED WINGS LEVEL or ADJUST When flight path is safe and EGPWS warning ceases.2. with terrain and obstacles clearly in sight.8.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations 12. decrease pitch and accelerate. Take positive corrections. 12.) • Take positive corrections. QRH 1.8.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.

at low ground speed. since initial pedal force or displacement produces more braking action in alternate mode than in normal mode.2. Instr. to reduce the risk of tire burst and lateral control difficulties.32. QRH 1.08 . adjust brake pressure as required. BRAKE PEDALS PRESS Apply brake with care. delay the use of the parking brake until low speed.8.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations 12. MAX BRK PR 1000 PSI Monitor brake pressure or BRAKES PRESS indicator. • • • If still no braking : • PARKING BRAKE USE Use short successive parking brake applications to stop the aircraft.since the pedal force or displacement produces more braking action in alternate mode than in normal mode. Limit brake pressure to approximately 1000 psi and.5 Loss of braking (Source: A320 FCOM.04.13) If autobrake selected: • BREAK PEDALS PRESS Page : 83 of 171 If no braking available: • • REV MAX BRAKE PEDALS RELEASE Brake pedals should be released when the A/SKID & N/W STRG selector is switched OFF. A/SKID & N/W STRG OFF Braking system reverts to alternate mode. If possible. 3. Brake onset asymmetry may be felt at each parking brake application.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.

A quick way to determine the MORA is to select CSTR and check the lower left of the ND for the value (remember that it is the Grid MORA).6. For example.6.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations Page : 84 of 171 12. To avoid autopilot disconnection and automatic retraction of the speed brakes.6 Emergency descent 12.25) Immediate Actions: • OXY MASK ON • Descend with autopilot engaged • ALT selector knob turn and pull • HDG selector knob turn and pull • Target SPD/MACH adjust • THR LEVERS (if A/THR not engaged) IDLE • SPEED BRAKES FULL Extension of the speed brakes will significantly increase VLS.08 .8. After the beginning actions executed by memory. When selecting a new HDG ensure that it makes sense. 3.2 Points of considerations • • • When the oxygen masks are on. 12. refer to the QRH for further actions.1 Beginning of Emergency descent (Source: A320 FCOM. QRH 1.8. • Instr. it should be above MORA/MOCA. establish communication When selecting an altitude.8. TCAS may also be used to choose a HDG that doesn´t pose a risk to other traffic.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.02.80. flights to and from LEPA from Germany pass over mountainous regions – don´t turn towards high terrain. allow the speed to increase before starting to use the speed brakes. due to possible activation of the angle of attack protection. Another example.04.

2. or severe turbulence table (if in cruise). Check the resulting speed indicated on the table with all the indicated speeds/altitudes (from ADR 1. either by • • • • • • • • • • Speed discrepancies (between ADR 1. if static probes are affected. Unreliable speed cannot be detected by the ADIRU. Then. However.2. Inconsistency between radio altitude and pressure altitude. the flight control and flight guidance computers will use the remaining two wrong ADRs for their computation. pitch attitude. the overspend warning may be false or justified.8. In this remote case. Depending on the failure. or pressure altitude. the pilots must identify the faulty ADR(s) and then switch it (them) OFF. The flight control and flight guidance computers normally reject erroneous speed/altitude source(s). The indicated altitude may also be affected.7 Unreliable speed indication (Source: A320 FCOM. first apply the ADR CHECK procedure to identify the faulty ADR(s) and switch it (them) OFF. or due to air probe failure or obstruction. because it is based on angle of attack. or the wrong speed indication cannot not be positively identified) Immediately apply the memory items : AP/FD/ATHR OFF. Reduction in aerodynamic noise with increasing speed. Unreliable speed indications may be suspected. 3. provided a significant difference is detected. since the flight control laws may be affected. Consequently. Determine the faulty ADR(s) once the aircraft is stabilized. It is not affected by unreliable speeds. Fluctuating or unexpected increase/decrease/permanent indicated speed. Abnormal correlation of the basic flight parameters (speed. that contradicts with at least one of the indicated speeds. If necessary. enter the unreliable speed procedure. or overspend warnings.34) 12. During this failure identification time.7.GuideA320 . thrust. Therefore. once stabilized. Abnormal AP/FD/ATHR behavior. Page : 85 of 171 How to apply the procedure • If the wrong speed or altitude information does not affect the safe conduct of the flight. they will not be able to reject two erroneous speeds or altitudes that synchronously and similarly drift away. in all cases of unreliable speed situation. and fly the memory pitch – thrust settings.08 • • • • Instr. 3. 2. it is recommended to maneuver the aircraft with care until the ADR(s) is (are) switched OFF. Buffet. and standby instruments). 3 and standby instruments) with the expected Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. If the safe conduct of the flight is affected (all the speed indications are unreliable. the aircraft systems will consider the remaining correct source as being faulty and will reject it.8. climb rate). Rely on the stall warning that could be triggered in alternate or direct law. by comparing all of the indicated speeds/altitudes (from ADR 1. Impossibility of extending the landing gear by the normal landing gear control. 2. associated with the overspend VFE warning. or increase in aerodynamic noise with decreasing speed.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations 12. is a symptom of a real overspend condition. to set the pitch and thrust corresponding to the current flight phase.1 General Unreliable speed indication may be due to radome damage.04. 3 and standby instruments) to positively identify the faulty ADR(s). refer to the QRH in order to determine the pitch and thrust settings required by the current flight phase. Stall warning.

04. In the extreme case where the faulty ADR(s) cannot be identified and all speed indications remain unreliable.08 . Ground speed variations can provide valuable short-term information at low altitude. refer to the QRH for further actions. if altitude information is affected.7. apply the proper pitch-thrust settings for each flight phase until landing and refer to ground speed and GPS speed/altitude variations for assistance.34) • • • • • AP / FD A/THR FLAPS SPEED BRAKES L/G OFF OFF MAINTAIN CURRENT CONFIG CHECK RETRACTED UP Below thrust reduction altitude • • THRUST LEVER PITCH ATTITUDE TOGA 15° Above thrust reduction altitude • • • Note: • • • Respect the stall warning. as per the table . The FPV is unreliable. THRUST LEVER PITCH ATTITUDE below FL100 PITCH ATTITUDE above FL100 CLB 10° 5° After the beginning actions executed by memory.2 Beginning of Unreliable Speed Indication (Source: A320 FCOM. use ground speed and GPS speed/altitude variations for reasonableness considerations.2.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. Instr.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations Page : 86 of 171 • speed. 12.8. if in alternate law. it is a valuable aid in establishing a safe flight path. In other cases. 3.

the ECAM inhibits the warnings that are not paramount from 80 knots to 1500 feet (or 2 minutes after lift-off. Therefore the captain should keep his hand on the thrust levers until V1 is reached whether he is PF or PNF. It is impossible to list all the factors that could lead to the decision to abort the takeoff. Rejected takeoffs have sometimes been hazardous even though the performance was correctly calculated. and to avoid unnecessary stops from high speed.80) 12. but in order to help in the decision process. Note: The speed of 100 knots is not critical: It was chosen in order to help the captain make his decision. as speed approaches V1. rejecting the takeoff becomes a serious action that may lead to a hazardous situation. Above 100 knots. 12. As soon as he decides to abort. and performs the stop actions. initial temperature higher than normal Brakes not fully applied Runway friction coefficient lower than expected Error in gross weight determination Runway line-up not considered.8.02.04.8. Therefore. thus improving the safety margin.08 . which allows 2 seconds between decision and action.2 Decision management Below 100 knots : • • The decision to reject the takeoff may be taken at the captain's discretion.1 General The decision to reject the takeoff and the stop action is made by the captain. depending on the circumstances Although we cannot list all the causes.10 & 3. This may be due to the following : • • • • • • • Delay in initiating the stopping procedure Tires damaged Brakes worn or not working correctly. takes over. Instr.8.8 Rejected T/O / Emergency Evacuation (Source: A320 FCOM. 3. whichever occurs first). Page : 87 of 171 The aircraft is certificated according to FAR amendment 25-42. based on flight tests. he calls "stop".8. the pilot should be "go-minded" if none of the main failures cited below ("Above 100 knots and below V1") has occurred.02. the captain should seriously consider discontinuing the takeoff. if any ECAM warning is activated.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations 12.8.

and land with a full runway length available. (MAIN WARNINGS ONLY) ENG OIL LO PR ENG REV UNLOCKED L + R ELEV FAULT Page : 88 of 171 • • • Nose gear vibration should not lead to an RTO above 100 knots. it is far better to get airborne.8. Malfunctions or conditions that give unambiguous indications that the aircraft will not fly safely. Sudden loss of engine thrust. Very few situations should lead to the decision to reject the takeoff.04.08 Instr. because it may not be possible to stop the aircraft on the remaining runway.3 Procedure during a rejected takeoff 12. The V1 call has precedence over any other call.1 Phase 1 CMD: • • “stop” CALL THRUST LEVERS MAX REVERSE Full reverse may be used until coming to a complete stop.8.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations Above 100 knots and below V1 : • Rejecting the takeoff at these speeds is a more serious matter. But. particularly on slippery runways.8.GuideA320 . if there is enough runway available at the end of the deceleration. 12. if the speed is approaching V1. The main ones are: o o o Fire warning or severe damage. FO: • • • • • • BREAK RESPONSE REVERSE “70 kt” ANY WARNING ATC ON GND EVAC C/L MONITOR CONFIRM CALL OUT CANCEL INFORM LOCATE Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. it is preferable to reduce reverse thrust when passing 70 knots. In case of tire failure between V1 minus 20 knots and V1: Unless debris from the tires has caused serious engine anomalies.8. ECAM warnings such as: ENG or APU FIRE ENG FAIL CONFIG. It could lead to a hazardous situation. reduce the fuel load. Above V1: Takeoff must be continued.3.

Do not attempt to clear the runway. release brakes prior to taxi by disarming spoilers. If in doubt. After a rejected takeoff. refer to the ON GROUND EMER/EVACUATION Checklist for evacuation. the Captain simultaneously reduces thrust and applies maximum pressure on both pedals.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.8. until it is absolutely clear that an evacuation is not necessary and that it is safe to do so. If the autobrake is unserviceable. Instr.3. The aircraft will stop in the minimum distance. Inform ATC of intention and required assistance. If the brake pedals were fully pressed when switching the A/SKID & NOSE WHEEL switch OFF. full pressure would be applied to the brakes. full manual braking should be applied and maintained. as required. at or below 1000 PSI. • • • • • 12.8. If normal braking is inoperative.08 .8.2 Phase 2 CMD: • • • FO: • ECAM ACTIONS INITIATE PARKING BRAKE PA “cabin crew at stations” “ECAM actions” ON CALL CALL 12. take over manually.3 Evacuation Phase • • If required.04. only if the brake pedals are maintained fully pressed until the aircraft comes to a stop.8. immediately switch the A/SKID & NOSE WHEEL switch OFF and modulate brake pressure. if the aircraft comes to a complete stop using autobrake MAX.3.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Handling of abnormal and emergency situations Page : 89 of 171 Note: • If the brake response does not seem appropriate for the runway condition.

ATC asks “AB9748 how many track miles do you need for landing?” You are being vectored downwind at an altitude of 6000ft AGL. However. PFD and ND can be used to monitor vertical and lateral progress of descent. the flight-crew risks to become less situationally aware regarding the lateral and vertical position and energy of the aircraft in relation to the descent path independently from the FMS. execution and monitoring of the descent.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.04. By using the FMS. is this sufficient?” You are cruising 37’000 feet. Some practical examples that would require an approximate rapid calculation by the pilots independent of the FMS (no time available to program the FMS): • • • You are at 9000ft AGL during the approach. During emergency or abnormal operations the FMS may not be available for the planning. These tools have distinct advantages which include: • Economic descent (fuel savings) • FMS can be programmed to consider constraints • MCDU. This topic will concern the pilots awareness of the aircraft’s vertical and lateral position and energy in relation to the descent path – using the FMS data as back-up rather than the primary source of information. Can you fly directly for a straight in approach to an airport 30 miles ahead? After working through this section you will appreciate what factors must be considered in finding a reasonable course of action for the above examples and actual situations during daily operations. Remember – a controlled safe descent will provide you with the time to devote your attention to other matters. Instr. radar vectors. EFIS) to aid the pilot in planning and executing a descent from cruising level all the way down to the landing.1 General The Airbus A320 is equipped with numerous electronic tools (FMS. ATC asks you “AB7221 you have 25 Track Miles to land.08 . indicating deviations to +.10ft on the PERF Page on the MCDU. Flight-crews lose awareness of factors that lead to the most economically viable descent (fuel savings).A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Descent planning Page : 90 of 171 13 Descent planning 13. In dynamic and fast-paced ATC environments it is difficult to use the FMS for effective descent planning (e. visual approaches). there are also disadvantages to consider: • • • • The FMS is most useful for long-term predictable paths. • It is very accurate. fire and smoke develops in the cabin. It is not uncommon for pilots to misjudge the descent ending up “high and fast” – an uncomfortable situation that will require much attention and capacity to rectify.g.

08 . descent or approach.2. and the current FMS flight phase is in cruise.2. It represents the required distance to land by comparing the actual total energy of the aircraft and the required total energy at the destination airport. (The total energy at destination is zero) Instr. E pot = mgh Ekin = 1 mv 2 2 Epot: Ekin: m: g: h: v: So the total energy of the Aircraft is Potential energy Kinetic energy Mass of aircraft Acceleration due to gravity (g=9. The total energy is always the sum of the potential energy (potential energy = altitude) and its kinetic energy (kinetic energy = speed). The energy circle is centered on the aircraft position and oriented to the current track line.81m/s2) Height of the aircraft above the field Speed of the aircraft Etot = E pot + Ekin The primary concern of the flight-crew during the descent is therefore to control the aircraft’s descent path by managing the total energy so as to be at the desired speed at the required altitude – if possible in an economic manner.2 Energy circle displayed on the ND (Source: A320 FCOM 4. 13.20 PERFORMANCE FUNCTION) In the ND a green dashed arc is presented if the lateral guidance mode is heading or track.2. and the aircraft is within 180 NM of the destination.2 Energy management 13.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Descent planning 13.1 General Page : 91 of 171 A descent constitutes the management of the aircraft´s energy.04.

consumers such as engine anti-ice off.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. he can initiate a descent at the highest possible speed and drag so as to complete the descent in the shortest possible time. flaps. The consequence is that the aircraft has a higher total energy and it takes more effort to change vectors such as speed. Instr.3 Factors affecting the descent path of the aircraft Page : 92 of 171 The primary factors affecting the descent path of an aircraft can be subdivided into two main groups: • Factors that can be influenced by the Pilot o Configuration – Deploying devices such as spoilers. At the appropriate point. he can maintain the speed as dictated by the entered Cost Index (Econ Speed) and commence the descent at the relevant point.3. On the other hand a tailwind will reduce the air distance available to land. Factors that cannot be influenced by the Pilot o Mass – A higher mass constitutes higher inertia.1 General As seen above. Since the total drag increases exponentially with speed. with maximum IAS – and if he is lucky enough to be flying into a head-wind with a comparatively light aircraft…. slats and gear will increase the drag of the aircraft and thus increase the descent gradient. slats. The descent path is not as steep as the second option and so the descent must begin earlier. he can choose to continue at the cruising altitude as long as possible in order to have low fuel consumption at high altitude. o Thrust – The lower thrust setting will translate into a steeper descent path. Consumers such as anti-Ice increase the idle thrust parameters and can also have an influence on the descent path.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Descent planning 13.”it can drop like rock”. it can be seen that the steepest descent path is achieved when the pilot flies with spoilers. 13.04. Considering that the thrust should be reduced to idle at the top of descent to save fuel.2.3 The economical descent 13.08 . the pilot has two strategies for approach: • • As a first option (1 in the figure below). the Pilot has various tools at his disposal to increase the drag of the aircraft. As a second option (2 in figure below). o Wind – The wind has an influence on the air distance the aircraft has available to reduce the altitude. flaps. An increase in headwind increases air distance in which the altitude can be defeated. gear extended. this speed is the most cost-effective for the given flight. o Speed – The descent speed (IAS) can have a significant effect on the descent path. Per definition. • Reading the above. the steepest descent path can be attained flying at the highest possible speeds.. at idle thrust.

Instr. In addition the time gain of option 2 is practically insignificant. the most fuel efficient descent for the applicable flight is the one that is conducted at the ECON SPEED at idle thrust in clean configuration.08 . the consumed fuel from A to B defeats the economic purpose of the descent.04. Whereas option 2 allows the engines to operate at the cruising level for longer and has a shorter descent phase.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Descent planning Page : 93 of 171 A B 1 – Econ speed 2 – Max speed The most economic descent is option 1.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. Consequently.

Therefore the most cost-effective descent is attained when flying at the company specified Cost Index speed without the aid of devices such as spoilers. Are you on the 3° descent path (do not consider effects of wind in this example)? Required aircraft altitude: Aacft .3.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. FL 20. have a lift/drag curve in clean configuration that lends itself well to a conduct of a 3° descent gradient. Instr.3.2. req: Aacft: Aairport: tm: tmreq: Required aircraft Altitude Aircraft Altitude Airport elevation Track miles Required track miles [FL] [FL] [FL] [Nm] [Nm] 13.req = 3 ⋅ 35 + 20 = FL125 The required aircraft altitude is FL125 or approximately 12’500ft AMSL In the above example you are 1500ft below the 3° descent path and so are in a comfortable position to continue the descent. airport elevation 2000ft = approx.req = 3 ⋅ tm + Aairport Consequently: tmreq = Aacft − Aairport 3 Aacft. The aerodynamics of most commercial aircraft such as the A320.2 Planning for an economical descent Page : 94 of 171 As far as fuel efficiency is concerned.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Descent planning 13.04. aircraft altitude 10’0000ft = approx FL100.1 Example 1 During a descent you are at 11’000ft AMSL and are descending to a runway 35 NM away that is at 2000ft AMSL.g.08 . The pilot can always check what the aircraft altitude should be is in relation to this gradient with the following formula: Note: For simplification use FL equivalents for altitude and elevation e. (1500ft at this distance is a reasonable deviation – you will get a “feel” for this tolerance during practical flying). Aacft . anytime a high drag device is deployed it means that lift energy is being destroyed – lift that was provided by engine thrust (and fuel!) at some point.

3. However if the aircraft would fly into an increasing tailwind. Required track miles: b. When calculating the track miles. this ND is an ideal tool since the distance markings give a good view in which to visualize the possible ground distance.04. Instr. When should you start your descent (do not consider effects of wind in this example)? b.2. the Ground speed (as seen on the ND on the A320) must be monitored and the V/S adjusted since the wind can vary significantly at various altitudes. The airport is at 2000ft.4 Remaining on the 3° descent path As discussed earlier. However. In order to do this. be cautious about simply reading the distance on the MCDU F-PLN page. Because the method by which the pilot monitors the descent rate is primarily the vertical speed indicator it would be helpful if there was a simple way to calculate the required vertical speed to maintain a 3° descent gradient. the air distance available would decrease and the rate of descent would have to be increased to remain on the descent path. 13.2 Example 2 You see that you are 90 NM from the airport at which you intend to land and are still cruising at FL350. Are you too high? If so by how much? Answer: a. a.3 A word about track miles The key to successful descent planning is that the pilot is aware of the distance which the aircraft has left to fly over ground.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Descent planning Page : 95 of 171 13. If flying into an increasing headwind the aircraft has more air distance available to complete the descent – the pilot would have to reduce the vertical speed to remain on the descent path. there is a simple formula: VSreq = 5 ⋅ GS VSreq: GS: Required vertical speed Ground speed [ft/min] [kt] This formula already takes into account any existing tail or headwind component. Required aircraft altitude: tmreq = (Aacft .Aaiport) ) / 3 = (350 – 20) / 3 = 110 track miles Aacft . Fortunately.req = 3 ⋅ 90 + 20 = FL290 So you should start your descent immediately since you are 6000ft too high! 13.3.08 . the wind has a distinct effect on how many air miles the aircraft has available for completing the descent.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. It may contain additional miles such as procedure turns that you will end up not flying – considerably reducing your actual track miles.3.

If the speed energy required is insufficient to regain the desired descent path. In this case high-drag devices allow an increase in descent rate without an increase in airspeed.1 Example If you see on your ND that your GS is 300 Knots and you are on the 3° descent gradient. • • 13. the speed can be reduced to attain a descent rate that is appropriate for the descent path.08 .2 Intercepting from below Intercepting the descent-path from below allows the pilot fewer strategies. he may have to resort to the spoilers later to defeat the excess altitude. As a result.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. it often occurs that we find ourselves above the desired descent gradient or even below. For example. the same basic energy management principles apply: Excess speed can be traded for altitude. the pilot reduces the thrust and fuel flow and may be able to attain the descent path without unnecessary additional drag such as spoilers.3. ATC) or possible (e.g. Once established on the descent path.3. what would be your required vertical speed? Required vertical speed. there are cases when further descent is restricted by ATC but the aircraft is already significantly above the desired 3° descent gradient.5. the pilot can convert the excess altitude (potential energy). For example. the only option left to the pilot is to add thrust.1 Intercepting from above • When above the glide-slope.5 Strategies for intercepting the 3° descent path from above and below Because the environment in which we fly is so dynamic. In this case we must act accordingly and intercept the desired gradient using several tools at our disposal.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Descent planning Page : 96 of 171 13. Instr.5.4.g. However. the fuel spent cruising at the original speed will have been wasted.3. Using this notion. Devices such as spoilers are especially useful for increasing descent rate when the speed increase is no longer desired (e. he will later be able to lose the excess altitude effectively by increasing the speed in OP DES mode. maximum speed for configuration already attained).3. o If the pilot reduces the speed at this stage. to speed (kinetic energy). when in OP DES mode (engines at idle thrust) a selection of a higher IAS would result in an increase in airspeed and therefore an increase is descent rate. By reducing the speed. Obviously the deployments of any high-drag devices are undesired during this stage.04. o If the pilot chooses to continue at this speed. 13. VSreq = 5 ⋅ GS = 5 ⋅ 300 = 1500 ft min 13. the pilot has great flexibility in applying them.

great emphasis was put above on the economics of the descent.4 Conclusion Page : 97 of 171 As you have read. In today’s industry. Although safety remains the top priority – economic flying is becoming ever more important. the descent must be safe and economic! Instr. As Airberlin has a considerable fleet size. even minor fuel savings per aircraft can add up to vast sums for the entire fleet over the course of a year.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Descent planning 13. fuel cost is a major factor in determining the future of any company.04.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. So remember.08 .

control surfaces. • • • • • For dispatch with secondary airframe or engine parts missing refer to Configuration Deviation List (CDL). Experience has proven that the operation of every system or component installed on the aircraft is not necessary. 14. the aircraft could not be flown in revenue service unless such equipment was operable. • • Instr. the MEL does not include obviously required items such as wings. certain conditional deviations from the original requirement are authorized to permit continued or uninterrupted operation of the aircraft in revenue flight: they are published in the MINIMUM EQUIPMENT LIST (MEL) related to applicable regulations. If deviations from this type certificated configuration and equipment required by the operating rules were not permitted. The MEL makes no distinction between what is required for the flight between origin and destination (including the intermediate stops) and what is required for a flight beyond the scheduled arrival point. engines. MEL conditions and limitations do not relieve the pilot in command from determining that the aircraft is in a fit condition for safe operation with MEL specified unserviceabilities.1 Objectives An airplane is being type certificated with all required equipments in operating conditions.04. in specific conditions and during limited period. For the sake of brevity. It is important that rectifications be accomplished at the earliest opportunity. The failure of instruments or items of equipment in excess of those allowed to be inoperative by the MEL causes the aircraft to be unairworthy. In order to maintain an acceptable level of safety and reliability the MEL establishes limitations on the duration of and conditions for operation with inoperative equipment. passenger convenience items. specific operations or airlines particular definitions. etc… All items which are related to the airworthiness of the aircraft and not included in the list are automatically required to be operative for each flight.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. Therefore. when the remaining instruments and equipment provide an acceptable level of safety. landing gear.2 General application of the MEL • • MEL provisions are applicable until the airplane commences the flight and therefore have to be considered during taxiing prior take off. entertainment systems.08 . The MEL is intended to permit operation with inoperative items of equipment for a period of time until rectifications can be accomplished.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Minimum Eqipment List Page : 98 of 171 14 Minimum Equipment List (MEL) (Source: A320 Airberlin MEL) 14. His decision to have allowable inoperative items corrected prior flight will have priority over the provisions contained in the MEL. etc… or items which do not affect the air worthiness of the aircraft such as galley equipment.

Dispatch with a MAINTENANCE message displayed on ECAM STATUS page is allowed without specific conditions except for the following message: • AIR BLEED: Refer to MEL 36–00–01 14.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Minimum Eqipment List Page : 99 of 171 • Air carriers are responsible for exercising the necessary operational control to assure that no aircraft is dispatched or flown with one or more MEL item inoperative for an indefinite period and without first determining that any interface or interrelationship between inoperative systems or components will not result in a degradation in the level of safety and/or an undue increase in crew workload.00 and FCOM 2. refer to Flight Manual and FCOM. emergency procedures. • • 14. The MEL does not include these requirements. 14.00 page 8.03.04.4 Required Navigation Performance (RNP) • • Minimum equipment/functions required to begin RNP operations are listed in FM 4. refer to QRH. CAT3 SINGLE. The exposure to additional failures during operation with failed inoperative systems or components must also be considered to determine that an acceptable level of safety is being maintained.51. The MEL does not include these requirements. 14. Instr.00 and FCOM 2.50.04.03.08 .3 Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM) • • Minimum equipment/functions required to begin RVSM operations are listed in Flight Manual 4.2.2.2. or airworthiness directives.04.1 Handling of maintenance messages displayed on ECAM status page At the head of each ATA chapter of this MEL. CAT3 DUAL automatic approach and landing • • Equipment to be operative to get CAT2. or CAT3 DUAL capability displayed on FMA are listed in QRH and in the Flight Manual 4. unless the flight manual or airworthiness directive provides otherwise.2. refer to Flight Manual and FCOM. The MEL does not include these requirements.2 CAT2. A MAINTENANCE message indicates the presence of a category of failure which can only be identified by the interrogation of CFDS. the related MAINTENANCE messages which may be displayed on ECAM STATUS page are listed with the indication of the associated dispatch status.03. This MEL may not deviate from requirements of the flight manual limitations section.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. FM and FCOM. CAT3 SINGLE.

2 Section 00E Section 00E contains ECAM warnings/MEL entry.3 Structure of the MEL The content of the MEL is divided into four parts: 14. 14. 14..4 Presentation of the MEL For a detailed description of the presentation of the MEL refer to MEL 01. 14.3.1 Section 00 General Section 00 contains general information about the manual.4 Section 02 Operational Procedure Section 02 contains operational procedures. is described in section 02 Operational Procedures When a MEL item calls for a maintenance procedure.3 Section 01 MEL The Minimum Equipment List contains the LBA approved list of equipment which may be inoperative for aircraft dispatch and/or clearly specified NO GO items if necessary • • When a MEL item requests a flight crew action.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.08 .3..A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Minimum Eqipment List Page : 100 of 171 14.00 Page 1-5 Instr. a so called operational procedure (labelled by an (o) ) a procedure.3. 14.3.04.. this is labelled by an (m). The relevant procedure can be found in the AM (Aircraft Maintenance Manual) and has to be carried out by a certified mechanic.

A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY RNAV Page : 101 of 171 15 RNAV 15.2.2) The appropriate FMS/RNAV .2 ) Area Navigation (RNAV) is a method of navigation.10) (Source: A320 FCOM 2.2 Without GPS PRIMARY RNP requirements are met. 8. page101) is a parameter describing lateral deviations from an assigned or selected track as well as along track position fixing accuracy on the basis of an appropriate containment level. 8. The indication for air traffic control is the appropriate equipment code. triple IRS) Note: The filing on ATC-FPL is mandatory for use of FMS/RNAV . which permits aircraft operation on any desired flight path within the limits of the capability of self-contained aids or a combination of these.3 in approach provided a required accuracy of 0. • • RNP 5 (Basic RNAV) RNP 1 (Precision RNAV) 15.2 Dispatch requirements (Source: Air Berlin OM-A.1 General (Source: Air Berlin OM-A.2.3.3.2Nm is manually entered in MCDU PROG page RNP. see chapter 15.8 the required RNP is as follows: • • • en-route navigation: terminal navigation: approach: RNP-5 RNP-1 RNP-0.3.2.STARs 15.transitions to final approach (clearance limit to intermediate fix) are an integral part of the standard arrival procedures and should not be filed separately in the ATC FPL.3. which has to be incorporated in field 10 of the ATC flight plan.3.3 15.3 Required Navigation Performance (RNP) (Source: A320 FCOM 2.04.1 General When referring to RNP-X.4. The Required Navigation Performance (RNP. the value X is the navigation accuracy expressed in NM which has to be met with a probability of 95%.36Nm is manually entered in MCDU PROG page Instr. The equipment code for the A320 is E (double FMS. provided the radio navaid coverage supports it for: • • RNP.1 en route and in terminal area provided a required accuracy of 1.08 .04. double EFIS.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. According Jeppesen air traffic control 7.0.1.51 P-RNAV FOR EUROPEAN TERMINAL PROCEDURES) 15.

2 Procedures • • • • • When GPS PRIMARY is not available.08 .04. independently of the estimated accuracy displayed on the MCDU. revert to the default required accuracy. enter 5NM or use the radial equivalent to 5NM XTK accuracy. Instr. B-RNAV capability is maintained for 2 hours. The minimum required equipment to enter B-RNAV airspace is: One RNAV system. Manual selection of a required accuracy on the MCDU is optional. 15. or when entering the terminal area. or enter the appropriate value on the MCDU.3.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. When leaving RNP-5 airspace. or with the GPS MONITOR page (if GPS installed): o o o o NAV ACCUR DOWNGRAD FMS1/FMS2 POS DIFF CHECK IRS 1(2)(3)/FM POSITION ECAM : FM/GPS POS DISAGREE (if GPS installed) • • • If the accuracy check confirms that RNP-5 capability is lost.51 BRNAV IN EUROPEAN AIRSPACE) 15.1 General In this airspace.0. If manual entry of a required accuracy is desired.1NM.5 in terminal area provided AP or FD in NAV mode is used RNP. and revert to conventional navigation. for: • • • RNP. radio navaid coverage is assumed to support RNP-5 accuracy.4 B-RNAV in European airspace (Source: A320 FCOM 2.3 in approach provided AP or FD in NAV mode is used 15. provided GPS PRIMARY is available. resume navigation with the other FMGC.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY RNAV Page : 102 of 171 15. check navigation accuracy with the navaid raw data.4. which means: • • • • • • One FMGC One MCDU One VOR for FM navigation update One DME for FM navigation update One IRS Flight Plan Data on two NDs.1 en route RNP.4. or if both FMGCs have failed: Inform the ATC.3 With GPS PRIMARY RNP requirements are met.4. which is 6.0. If one of the following MCDU or ECAM messages is displayed. If the accuracy check confirms that only one FMGC position is incorrect. periodically crosscheck the FM position with navaid raw data. In inertial navigation.

as loaded from the navigation database should not be modified.51 P-RNAV FOR EUROPEAN TERMINAL PROCEDURES) 15. HDG to intercept the F-PLN. or without appropriate radar coverage.5.08 . If one of the following messages is displayed. distances and altitude constraints with the procedure chart. or if both FMGCs are failed: Inform the ATC and revert to conventional navigation. If the accuracy check confirms that only one FMGC position is incorrect. Instr.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.5. or enter the appropriate value on the MCDU. When leaving the terminal procedures. tracks. check or enter RNP-1 in the MCDU and check HIGH accuracy. The terminal procedure (RNAV SID. unless instructed to do so by the ATC (DIR TO. If GPS PRIMARY is not available. RNAV TRANSITION.5 P-RNAV for terminal procedures Page : 103 of 171 (Source: A320 FCOM 2.2 Procedures • • When GPS PRIMARY is not available.1 General For terminal procedures requiring P-RNAV capability within European airspace. and checked for reasonableness by comparing the F-PLN page waypoint sequencing..4. check navigation accuracy with navaid raw data or the GPS monitor page (if GPS is installed) : o o o o o • • • • NAV ACCUR DOWNGRAD FMS1/FMS2 POS DIFF CHECK IRS 1(2)(3)/FM POSITION ECAM : FM/GPS DISAGREE (if GPS installed) ECAM : FM/IR POS DISAGREE • • If the accuracy check confirms that RNP-1 is lost.04.. insertion of waypoints loaded from the navigation database). RNAV STAR. crosscheck the FM position with the navaid raw data. which means : One FMGC One MCDU One VOR or GPS receiver for FM navigation update One DME or GPS receiver for FM navigation update One IRS One FD Flight Plan data for two NDs. The procedure.) must be loaded from the FM navigation database.. .. radio navaid coverage can be assumed to support RNP-1 accuracy. resume navigation with the other system.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY RNAV 15. 15. two RNAV systems may be mandated by the procedure chart. revert to the default. The minimum required equipment to fly a P-RNAV procedure is: • • • • • • • • One RNAV system. prior to starting the procedure. For terminal procedures with legs below the MSA.

and radio position updating is used. It means that GPIRS data again complies with the required integrity criteria. Instr.04. Each IRS position and inertial speed are continuously tested. If one of the IRSs fails. For this. each IRS can independently select their GPS source in order to maximize GPS data availability.08 .03.20. The crew can deselect/select the GPS on the SELECTED NAVAIDS page.6 Position Computation (Source: A320 FCOM 1. (Refer to Navigation modes). During non ILS approach. the loss of the GPS primary function triggers a triple click aural warning. The selection is performed using the following hierarchy : • • • Onside GPIRS position GPIRS 3 Opposite GPIRS position If the GPIRS data does not comply with an integrity criteria. the "GPS PRIMARY LOST" message is displayed on the ND and on the MCDU scratchpad. refer to FCOM 4. one is selected according to a figure of merit and priority. If the test fails. 15. If one of the IRSs drifts abnormally. As long as GPS primary is in use. Otherwise. Navigation) Each FMGC computes its own aircraft position (called the "FM position") from a MIX IRS position and a computed radio position or GPS position.22. each FMGC uses only one IRS (onside IRS or IRS3). The FMGS selects the most accurate position.6. 15. Among these 3 GPIRS positions received by each FMGC. all usual navigation performance requirements are met. if necessary. considering the estimated accuracy and integrity of each positioning equipment. When the CHECK IRS (1. the GPS mode is rejected. the MIX IRS position uses an algorithm that decreases the influence of the drifting IRS within the MIX IRS position.6. GPS/INERTIAL is the basic navigation mode provided GPS data is valid and successfully tested. the corresponding IRS is rejected. 2 or 3)/FM POSITION message appears on the MCDU. and computes a mean-weighted average called the "MIX IRS" position.2 GPS Position Each IRS computes a hybrid position that is a mixed IRS/GPS position called GPIRS.1 Mix IRS Position Each FMGC receives a position from each of the three IRSs.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. navaids plus inertial or inertial only are used. the "GPS PRIMARY" message comes up on the ND and on the MCDU scratchpad.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY RNAV Page : 104 of 171 15. When the GPS primary function is recovered.

15. The FMGS updates the FM position using GPS or radio navaids if the GPS function in inoperative. as stored in the database. These navaids are displayed on the SELECTED NAVAIDS page. The decreasing priority order is: • • • • IRS-GPS IRS-DME/DME IRS-VOR/DME IRS only During ILS approaches the system performs. If one or more navaids fail. the FM position is updated to the runway threshold position. LOC is also used for quick update.4 FM Position At flight initialization. At takeoff. each FMGC displays an FM position that is a mixed IRS/GPS position (GPIRS). In flight. using LOC beam during ILS approach. or the DME/DME radio position.08 .04. at a rate that depends upon the aircraft altitude. each FMGC can use offside navaids to compute the VOR/DME. when in GPS/IRS mode. The radio navaid selection is displayed on the DATA "SELECTED NAVAIDS" page. the FM position approaches the radio position. possibly corrected by the takeoff shift entered on the PERF TO page.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. It can use 4 main different FM navigation modes to make this update. a lateral temporary updating using one of the following modes : • • • • IRS-GPS/LOC IRS-DME/DME-LOC IRS-VOR/DME-LOC IRS-LOC Instr.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY RNAV Page : 105 of 171 15.6. or the GPS position.6. Note : The FM position update at takeoff is inhibited when GPS PRIMARY is active.3 Radio Position Each FMGC uses onside navaids to compute its own radio position. The available navaids are : • • • • • DME/DME VOR/DME LOC DME/DME-LOC VOR/DME-LOC It uses LOC to update the lateral position.

28 NM + 8 NM/h for the first 21 min. Default area RNP values: • • • en route: terminal: approach o GPS: o other cases: 2.08 .XX".3 NM 0.22.20.0 NM 0.0 NM 1.04. accuracy is LOW. or "AREA RNP IS XX.5 NM Instr.2 NM. the crew should check the entered value. When a pilot enters a RNP that is larger than the published value. if necessary. When this occurs.28 NM 0. + 2 NM/h after IRS/VOR/DME IRS ONLY Note: After an IRS alignment or at takeoff the EPE is set at 0. CURRENT NAV MODE IRS/GPS EPE (RATE or THRESHOLD) (FOM² + 100²)^0. Navigation) The FMGS computes an Estimated Position Error (EPE) continually.28 NM the GPS position is rejected. EPE increases or decreases as the distance between the a/c and the VOR/DME.1 NM + 0.5 Evaluation of position accuracy (Source: A320 FCOM 1.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. The system displays the EPE to the crew. if the new required criteria (default value) are smaller than the displayed manually-entered value. EPE increases continuously IRS/DME/DME Tends towards 0. EPE decreases from initial value to 0. The RNP value shall be in accordance with the specified RNP values of the navigation/approach charts (if a RNP is specified). • If the EPE does not exceed the appropriate criteria.XX". and modify it.5 in meters REMARK FOM = Figure of Merit of GPS If above 0. • If the EPE exceeds the appropriate criteria.6. The number displayed in the Required Navigation Performance (RNP) field is (in decreasing order of priority): • • • The pilot-entered value the database procedure value The system's default value. accuracy is HIGH. and compares it with the required navigation performance (RNP). one of the following messages is displayed: "PROCEDURE RNP is XX.28 Nm.05 X DME DIST minimum : 0. It is an estimate of how much the FM position has drifted. This message is also displayed upon a flight area change. and is a function of the navigation mode the system is using.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY RNAV Page : 106 of 171 15.

15. FACF = Final Approach Course Fix MAP = Missed Approach Point FAF = Final Approach Fix Instr. CHECK in blue. The MCDU message can be cleared but the ND message cannot. When the GPS is manually deselected. As an example. accuracy is HIGH and GPS is the primary mean of navigation. NAV accuracy does not immediately downgrade.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY RNAV Page : 107 of 171 When the position computation uses IRS/GPS mode. then the lower ECAM display unit displays the NAV FMS/GPS POS DISAGREE amber message and A/C POS. based upon estimated drift.08 ..04. 80 NM before T/D or at approach phase transition. When the GPS is lost. "GPS PRIMARY" is displayed on the PROG page. 3. and the associated MCDU display. and temporarily on the ND.7. and the single chime sounds. when the GPS function is lost.3. but only when the EPE exceeds the required criteria.7 RNAV approaches with vertical guidance (Source: A320 FCOM.5 minutes of latitude or longitude. During a non ILS approach.1 Coding requirements A number of FMGC coding guidance requirements have been identified. a triple click aural warning is also triggered. As a result. The master caution light comes on. the EPE is always smaller than any airworthiness required value. the following drawings show the coding of an VOR DME IAP (with the MAP before the runway). and either of the FMGC positions deviates from the GPS positions 1 or 2 by more than 0.. This is why the flight crew must periodically check position accuracy. When the GPS function is lost. and must be considered. when performing navigation database validation for the use of managed guidance in approach. GPS/FMS POSITION DISAGREEMENT: When GPS primary is active. the "GPS IS DESELECTED" message is displayed on the MCDU.19 & OEB 826/1 ) 15. Caution: • • • "HIGH" or "LOW" indicates FM position accuracy. a "GPS PRIMARY LOST" message is displayed on the ND and MCDU scratchpads.

it more often consists of 3.7.1 The lateral F-PLN coding requirements • • The FACF and the FAF must be aligned with the approach course. FMGC guidance may start the final approach descent slightly before the FAF.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.19) for Non Precision and RNAV approaches are applicable.2 Flight crew Procedures The SOP (FCOM 3.04. When the MAP is located at. with the MAP after the runway threshold. However.1. the runway threshold. lf the FACF and the FAF are collocated. the MAP is located at. the crossing altitude difference at the FAF is not significant (less than 50 feet).A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY RNAV Page : 108 of 171 The final approach consists of a sequence of at least two waypoints.1. the course change at the FAF should be small. the FAF. It is important for the crew to identify the MAP position. The following recommendations are provided to highlight specific vertical navigation aspects when FINAL APP mode is used. between the MAP and the FAF. or 4. a Step Down Fix (SDF) is added an the approach final descent between the FAF and the MAP The SDF is not necessarily identical to the waypoints published an the approach chart. In most cases.7. The identification of the waypoints shown an the MCDU often differs from the identification shown on the approach chart. When the MAP is located after the runway threshold. A sharp turn would prevent the aircraft from overflying the FAF. Instr. or any previous SDF in the final approach. • The MAP of an RNAV IAP must be located at the runway threshold.2 The vertical F-PLN coding requirements • • • • • An altitude constraint must be coded at each approach waypoint. In the above example. 15. and the final descent would start before the FAF.7.08 . An AT or ABOVE constraint can be used for an SDF. and the MAP. without the aircraft being established an the final approach course. Any waypoint of the approach should not be common to a STAR or a VIA waypoint with different altitude constraints. Sometimes.03. the 3 waypoints are the FACF. and depending an the position of the approach axis relative to the runway. waypoints. or after the runway threshold. But sometimes this difference may be higher. 15. 15. or before. Sometimes. This FPA will appear an the MCDU. or at the runway threshold (RW). an FPA (# 0°) must be coded at the MAP. Combining altitude constraint may lead to erroneous vertical flight path guidance. an FPA = 0° must be coded at the MAP For these "old style IAP".

crosscheck consistency with the distance to the runway and the approach angle. the active F-PLN.2. so that the vertical flight path will clear obstacles with the required margin. and on the ND in PLAN mode with the CSTR displayed).2 Limitations to approach F-PLN modifications When performing an IAP. This minimum OAT should be given to the crew when appropriate. In the future. This may require that a minimum OAT be defined. For the final approach procedure the crew should check the following: • • • • • • • • • • • • Approach course Waypoints and associated altitude constraints IAP must not include a Procedure Turn (PROC T indicated an the MCDU) Distance from the FAF to RW. GPS 1+2 on GPS MONITOR page CHECK BOTH IN NAV GPS PRIMARY on PROG page CHECK AVAILABLE If GPS PRIMARY is not available • • RNP for approach CHECK/ENTER HIGH accuracy CHECK 15. the crew must check the FMS F-PLN (on the MCDU. Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. F-PLN modifications : • • • No lateral modification of the F-PLN from FACF (inclusive) to RW or to MAP. No altitude constraint modification from FACF to MAP Even in case of a very low OAT.7. or FAF to MAP Approach angle (shown an the MCDU line above the related waypoints) If MAP. extracted from the navigation database can be modified provided the following limitations are observed : 1. for RNAV approaches the minimum OAT will be published an the approach chart itself. no altitude correction can be entered in this way.GuideA320 .7.1 Approach F-PLN verification Before starting the approach. A modification is permitted before FACF. an FPA # 0° must be defined MAP of an RNAV IAP must be located at the runway threshold. Altitude at the MAP or at the runway threshold: lf the crossing altitude at MAP is not shown on the approach chart.04. using NAV and FINAL APP modes. Note : The MAP of a GPS IAP can be located before the runway threshold. starting from the beginning of the STAR down to the runway and the missed approach procedure. after the runway threshold : FPA = 0° at MAP If MAP before or at runway threshold : FPA # 0° at MAP For each Step Down Fix.2.08 Instr.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY RNAV Page : 109 of 171 15. and verify the profile against the published IAP chart. provided the resulting change in the flight path course is not so large that it prevents the aircraft from being laterally-stabilized on the final approach course before reaching the FAF.

at the latest.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. provided the RADIAL IN corresponding to the final approach course (approach course + 180°) is selected.08 . Use altitude indication versus distance to the runway to monitor the vertical navigation. 15. DIR TO. and the interception angle should not be so large that it prevents the aircraft from being laterally-stabilized an the final approach course before reaching the FAF. so that the vertical F-PLN is intercepted before the FAF. CAUTION • Before arming NAV. Monitor VDEV and FPV (on the PFD) and XTK error (on the ND). 2. Check correct TO waypoint on the ND. • • • Check that APPR NAV is engaged. and have a correct location of the DECEL point. when the aircraft reaches MDA (MDH) .7.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY RNAV Page : 110 of 171 • • When the FAF is the TO waypoint.. provided the resulting change in flight path course at FACF is not so large that it prevents the aircraft from being laterally-stabilized on the final approach course before reaching the FAF. If the lateral guidance is unsatisfactory.2. when established an the final approach course. Once cleared for the approach.. and the VDEV scale is on the PFD. DIR TO FAF is permitted. • • • DIR TO FACF is permitted. press the pushbutton when flying towards the FAF or the FACF. Instr. revert to NAV/FPA or consider the go-around. at the latest. the autopilot automatically disengages.3 Lateral F-PLN interception in HDG/TRK : • • F-PLN must be intercepted before the FACF. 15. perform a go-around. or Before FAF. For aircraft with FMS2 : DIR TO/INTERCEPT TO FAF is permitted. it is recommended to enter Vapp as a SPD CSTR at FAF. The FAF should be sequenced in NAV mode. check that the correct "TO" waypoint is displayed an the ND. Note : In managed guidance (FINAL APP mode engaged). and that the interception angle is not so large that it prevents the aircraft from being laterallystabilized on the final approach course at the FAF. provided the interception angle is small. The intercept path in HDG/TRK must not cause premature sequencing of the FAF. If the vertical guidance is unsatisfactory.50 or 400 feet (if no MDA/MDH entered).2.7. the FROM waypoint must not be cleared in an attempt to perform a DIR TO/INTERCEPT. FINAL is armed.4 Vertical F-PLN interception : • The crew should manage the descent. To benefit from managed speed.04. provided the resulting change in flight path course at FAF is small.

3NM) If the sum of the X-TRK Error and the EPE is greater than the RNP perform a go around! When APPR is selected an the FCU. 3. armed for Missed Approach That the aircraft starts the descent and follows the correct lateral and vertical flight path. and that the FPV is consistent with the approach angle. it is not permitted to use the autopilot to perform NPAs in the following modes: • • FINAL APP NAV V/S Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. General) If one engine is inoperative. After passing the FAF. vertical navigation can be monitored by using the distance to the RW.1. and if no navaid raw data is available to revert to selected modes.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY RNAV Page : 111 of 171 15. unless navaid raw data is available to revert to selected modes. 15. FM1/FM2 POS DIFF. The IAP must be discontinued.7.GuideA320 . Generally the following applies: XTE: EPE: RNP: XTE + EPE ≤ RNP X-TRK Error (displayed on the ND) Estimated Position Error (displayed on the PROG Page) Required Navigation Performance for Aprroach (normally 0.3 Approach monitoring For RNAV IAP.08 Instr. when one of the following warnings occurs • • • • GPS PRIMARY LOST. if GPS is installed and is not deselected. FINAL blue) Correct TO waypoint on the ND Blue descent arrow at FAF and the correct F-PLN Correct Vertical Flight Path deviation indication When passing the FAF. the crew should check that the X-TRK and V-DEV are correct. NAV ACCUR DOWNGRAD. and the altimeter reading. during an RNAV approach.04. when stabilized an the final descent. or to the MAP displayed an the ND. FM/GPS POS DISAGREE.8 Non Precision Approaches with engine-out (Source: A320 FCOM. the crew must verify the • • • • Correct FMA display (APP NAV green. if GPS accuracy is required.22. the crew must verify • • • • • Correct altitude indication Correct FMA display (FINAL APP green) Correct TO waypoint an the ND Correct blue track an the ND.

04. Instr. Only FD use is permitted.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY RNAV Page : 112 of 171 • NAV/FPA.08 .GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.

before.04. 2. Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. that there is not any damage in the pitot-static probes and adjacent area The altimeter accuracy by setting the QNH or the QFE. procedures) Any deviation.34. ADR1/ADR3 respectively ADR2/ADR3 is 20ft).A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY RVSM Page 113 of 171 16 RVSM 16. 16.3. page 34. Check letter W in field 10 of ATC flight plan. Check. The reading should then agree with the altitude of the apron or the zero height indication within a 75 ft (23m) tolerance. whenever possible. Check. therefore will not be documented.2. page 115) (max difference between ADR1/ADR2.5 page 30.GuideA320 .3 Pre-flight procedures (Source: Air Berlin OM-A 8. procedures) (Source: A320 FCOM. 3. Review of maintenance logs and forms to determine the condition of equipment required for flight in RVSM airspace. procedures) The flight crew shall verify: • • • • • • • The condition of the equipment required (refers to chapter 0. see also chapter 16. The purpose of these six additional flight levels is to reduce controller workload and to provide the airspace user community with an improved operating environment and to optimise flight profiles. RVSM Implementation) The implementation of a reduced vertical separation minimum represents a major capacity enhancing objective of European Air Traffic Harmonisation and Integration Programme (EATCHIP) work programme. Effectively. regarding the RVSM status of the aircraft.2.6.08 Instr.2 General procedures (Source: Air Berlin OM-A 8. on ground. during or after a flight shall be notified by an entry into the WO with reference to the RVSM status of the aircraft [e. Change of RVSM aircraft status shall be reported to Traffic Centre TXL immediately.5. 16. aircraft nonRVSM compliant) and notify as HlL item.4.2.4.3. The European Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM) reduces the separation minimum between FL290 and FL410 to 1’000 ft between suitable equipped aircraft. the introduction of RVSM will permit the application of a 1’000 ft vertical separation minimum (VSM) between suitable equipped aircraft in the level band FL 290 – FL 410 inclusive.g. thereby making available six additional usable flight levels. page 34. A copy of the WO shall be faxed to MOC and Traffic Centre TXL. that the two primary altitude indications are within tolerances (FCOM 3.3. flight instrument tolerances) (Source: A320 FCOM. page 114) for RVSM operations and that maintenance actions have been taken to correct defects.50. RVSM compliance is the normal aircraft status. Check reported and forecasted weather on the flight route. RVSM Implementation.34. Additionally MOC and Traffic Centre TXL have to be informed as soon as possible by using any means of communication available.5.04.1 General (Source: Air Berlin OM-A 8. Ensure that maintenance actions have been taken to correct any defects of required equipment. RVSM Implementation.

A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY

RVSM 16.4 In-flight procedures

Page

114 of 171

(Source: Air Berlin OM-A 8.3.2.5, page 34, RVSM Implementation, procedures) (Source: A320 FCOM, 3.4.34, flight instrument tolerances) (Source: A320 FCOM, 2.4.50, procedures)

• • • •

• •

All the required equipment shall be monitored and checked to ensure satisfactory operation before (transition airspace/ transition altitude) and within RVSM airspace. In RVSM airspace and transition areas restrict the rate of climb/descend during step climb/descent to 1000ft/min when operating 2000ft of other aircraft to minimize the generation of TCAS TA´s and RA´s. The aircraft should not overshoot or undershoot the cleared flight level by more than 150 ft The automatic altitude control system shall be engaged during level cruise by reference to one of the two altimeters. The altitude capture feature shall be used whenever possible for the level off. Always select new altitude first on the altitude-select-panel before starting climb or descend. The autopilot should be engaged within RVSM airspace for cruise and flight level changes. At intervals of approximately one hour, check that PFD altimeter indications agrees in accordance with the instrument tolerances (FCOM 3.04.34, see also chapter 16.6, page115). The usual scan of flight deck instruments should be sufficient. The altimeter system being used to control the aircraft should be the same that is used by the transponder transmitting information to ATC. Select ATC 1 for Autopilot 1 and select ATC 2, when Autopilot 2 is in use.

16.5 Requirements for RVSM

(Source: A320 FCOM 2.4.50) Aircraft requirements: RVSM regulations require the following equipment/functions in order to be operative: • • • • • • 2 ADR + 2 DMC 1 transponder 1 Autopilot function 1 FCU channel (for altitude target selection and OP CLB/OP DES mode engagement) 2 PFD 1 FWC (for altitude alert function)

Instr.GuideA320

Revision: 4

Effective Date: 25.04.08

A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY

RVSM 16.6 Altitude tolerances

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(Source: A320 FCOM, 3.4.34, flight instrument tolerances) The values below apply to aircraft in symmetrical flight (no sideslip), in clean configuration and in straight and level flight. • PFD 1 or 2 at ground check : plus or minus 25 feet

Maximum differences between altitude indications
FL/speed Altitude (ft) comparison between

ADR 1 and ADR 2 (on PFD) Gnd check FL50/250 kt FL100/250 kt FL200/300 kt FL300/.78 FL390/.78 20 50 55 90 130 130

ADR 3 and ADR 1, or ADR 3 and ADR 2 (on PFD) 20 65 80 135 195 195

ISIS and any ADR 1, or 2, or 3 100 130 185 295 390 445

Instr.GuideA320

Revision: 4

Effective Date: 25.04.08

A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY

Taxiing and braking

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17 Taxiing and braking

17.1

Taxiing

17.1.1 General (Source: A320 FCOM 3.3.10, Taxi) • Little, if any, power above idle thrust will be needed to get the aircraft moving (40 % N1 maximum). Thrust should normally be used symmetrically. Once the aircraft starts to move, little thrust is required. Use of the engine anti-ice increases ground idle thrust, thus the pilot must be carefully on slippery surfaces. The engines are close to the ground. Avoid positioning them over unconsolidated or unprepared ground (beyond the edge of the taxiways, for example). Avoid high thrust settings at low ground speeds, which increase the risk of ingestion (FOD), and the risk of projection of debris towards the trimmable horizontal stabilizer and towards the elevator. The normal maximum taxi speed is 30 knots in a straight line and 10 knots for a sharp turn. As the ground speed is difficult to assess, monitor ground speed on the ND. Do not "ride" the brakes. As 30 knots is exceeded with idle thrust, apply the brakes smoothly and decelerate to 10 knots. Release the brakes, and allow the aircraft to accelerate again.

• • •

17.1.2 180° turn on the runway (Source: A320 FCOM 3.3.10, Taxi) A standard runway is 45 meters wide. However, this aircraft only needs a pavement of 30 meters wide for a 180° turn. The following procedure is recommended for making such a turn in the most efficient way.

17.1.2.1 For the CM1 Taxi on the right-hand side of the runway and turn left, maintaining 25° divergence from the runway axis. Maximum ground speed is 10 knots. When the CM1 is physically over the runway edge, he turns the nose wheel full right and sets 50 % to 55 % N1. Note: To avoid skidding the nose wheel on a wet runway, perform the turn at very low speed, using asymmetric thrust and differential braking as necessary.

Instr.GuideA320

Revision: 4

Effective Date: 25.04.08

90.08 . For the whole procedure (taxiing with one engine (departure.1. (Taxi on the left-hand side of the runway).A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Taxiing and braking Page 117 of 171 180° turn on runway 180° Turn 17.3 Taxiing with one engine (Source: A320 FCOM 3. it may be advisable to taxi on one engine.4. The pilot must exercise caution when taxiing on one engine to avoid generating excessive jet blast.1.4. Instr. 17.2. slippery taxiways.90) When the aircraft is not in such unusual operational environments as an uphill slope. or high gross weight. arrival)) refer to FCOM 3.04.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.2 For the CM2 The procedure is symmetrical. one engine taxi.

4.25 & 3. Instr. page 47 17. If the BRAKES HOT message is still on when the aircraft is parked. brake fan selection should be delayed for a minimum of about 5 minutes.10) If the caution BREAKS HOT is displayed during taxi in.03.1 General For technical details refer to A320 FCOM 1.2 Brake temperature limitations requiring maintenance action (Source: A320 FCOM 3. If an arc is displayed on the ECAM WHEEL page above the brake temperature. chapter 7. and 150°C with the brake fans ON. and thus avoid oxidation of brake surface hot spots.3. avoid applying the parking brake.04.2 Brakes 17. The temperature difference between 2 brakes on the same gear is greater than 150°C and the temperature of one of the brakes is lower than 60°C.30 For operational details refer also to section resetting of computers & CB’s .1.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Taxiing and braking Page 118 of 171 17. or done just before stopping at the gate (whichever occurs first).32.2. page 66 or A320 FCOM 2.04.02.2.2.10 17. 3. the flight crew should not set the PARKING BRK ON. When one brake temperature is above 500°C (or 350°C with brake fans ON).3 Brakes hot (ECAM warning) (Source: A320 FCOM 3. One brake’s temperature exceeds 900°C. unless operationally necessary. to allow thermal equalization and stabilization.04.32.08 . 17. • • • • Delay takeoff. select the brake fans on prior brake temperature reaches 260° C.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. A fuse plug has melted.32 P2) Maintenance action is required in following cases: • • • • • The temperature difference between 2 brakes on the same gear is greater than 150°C and the temperature of one of the brakes is higher than 600°C.4 Taxiing in icing conditions For this topic refer to section winter operation chapter 11. until the brake temperature is below 300° C with the brake fans OFF. The difference between the LH and RH brakes average temperature is higher than 200°.

2. brake applications should be reduced to a minimum.4.2.com -> Library ) The following aspects have to be taken into account: • • • • To minimize brake wear. set parking brake to off 17.08 .4. To minimize brake wear.4.4 General recommendations (Source: CARBON BRAKE DRIVING Background.2 Landing • Use of Auto Brake is recommended when need of brake application is foreseen: o On short or evenly contaminated runways: LO (or MED) o On long and dry runways: LO (Autobrake usage reduces BRAKE DIFF TEMP) Reduce the number of brake applications to one! • 17. Facts & Figures. brake temperatures of between 100° and 250° should be avoided during taxi Brake temperatures of 450° and above should be avoided (oxidation!) Regular use of Parking Brake requires additional maintenance action and may lead to dragging brakes.04. http://fb-airbus.3 Taxi in (Arrival) • • • • • • Release the parking barke at the parking position as soon as possible Let the brakes thermally stabilize (Wait at least 5-10 Minutes before using the brake fan unless the temperature reaches 450° or more) Use the brake fan to reduce the brake temperature below 100°C Reduce applications during taxi Do not ”ride” the brakes Alternate left and right braking when taxiing slowly (reduces number of applications by 50 %!!) Instr. Optimum Technique.1 Taxi out (Departure) • • • • • Brake temperature should not exceed 100°C If brake temperature is above 100°C use the brake fan Reduce applications during taxi Do not ”ride” the brakes Alternate left and right braking when taxiing slowly (reduces number of applications by 50 %!!) 17.2.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Taxiing and braking Page : 119 of 171 17. As soon the chocks are in place.2.airberlin.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.

or in the relevant ground equipment.4 Fail passive automatic landing system An automatic landing system is fail-passive if. 18. For a fail-passive automatic landing system the pilot assumes control of the aircraft after a failure (JAA). For CAT II and CAT III A.2 Alert Height ICAO: An Alert Height is a height above the runway.1 Decision height Decision height is the wheel height above the runway elevation by which a go-around must be initiated unless adequate visual reference has been established and the aircraft position and approach path have been assessed as satisfactory to continue the approach and landing in safety (JAA). CAT III Operations 18. above which a CAT3 autoland would be discontinued and a missed approach executed.04. fail-passive capability is announced by the display of CAT 3 SINGLE on the PFD. touchdown and roll out may be accomplished using the remaining automatic system. For CAT III B the visual reference must contain at least one centerline light.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Low Visibility Operations Page : 120 of 171 18 CAT II. the flare. On Airbus aircraft since the A320.08 . Instr.1. 18. above which a Category III approach would be discontinued and a missed approach initiated if a failure occurred in one of the redundant parts of the automatic landing system. if a failure occured in either the airplane systems or the relevant ground equipments.1 Definitions (Source: Airbus getting to grips with CAT II / CAT III operations) 18. there is no significant out-of-trim condition or deviation of flight path or attitude but the landing is not completed automatically. if such a failure occurs.1.3 Runway Visual Range Runway Visual Range (RVR) is the range over which a pilot of an aircraft on the centreline of the runway can see the runway surface markings or the lights delineating the runway or identifying its centreline (ICAO).GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. a pilot may not continue the approach below DH unless a visual reference containing not less than a 3 light segment of the centerline of the approach lights or runway centerline or touchdown zone lights or runway edge lights is obtained. based on the characteristics of the aeroplane and its fail-operational automatic landing system. Below the alert height. in the event of a failure.1.1. The Alert height for the A320 Family of Airberlin is 100ft 18. Airbus: The alert height is the height above touch down.

2. DH is always limited to 100ft or Obstacle Clearance Height (OCH).08 . the DH is lower than 100ft (typically equal to 50ft for a fail-passive automatic landing system and 20ft for a fail-operational automatic landing system).GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. 18.5 Fail operational automatic landing system An automatic landing system is fail-operational if.2 Decision height and alert height concept (Source: Airbus getting to grips with CAT II / CAT III operations) 18. • • If the visual references have not been established. When necessary. The pilot must decide if the visual references adequate to safely continue the approach have been established. If the visual references have been established. In Category II operations. On Airbus aircraft since the A320. However. in the event of a failure below alert height. the pilot may always decide to execute a go-around if sudden degradations in the visual references or a sudden flight path deviation occur. the published DH takes into account the terrain profile before runway threshold. fail operational capability is announced by the display of CAT 3 DUAL on the PFD.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Low Visibility Operations Page : 121 of 171 18. the approach. The DH is measured by means of radio-altimeter.1 Decision height concept: Decision height is a specified point in space at which a pilot must make an operational decision. a go-around must be executed. whichever is higher. Instr. the approach can be continued. the automatic landing system will operate as a fail-passive system (JAA). In the event of failure.1.04. In Category III operations with DH. the flare and landing can be completed by the remaining part of the automatic system.

GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. Airbus getting to grips with CAT II / CAT III operations) Alert height is a height defined for Category III operations with a fail-operational landing system.5.70) o When in LAND mode.30 & 4.5.08 .2 Alert height concept (Source A320 FCOM 1.70.22. The AH is only linked to the probability of failure(s) of the automatic landing system.04.22.30 & 4. a go-around must be initiated if a failure affects the fail-operational landing system. the radio altitude goes below 200 feet and o the aircraft gets too far off the beam (LOC or GLIDE) o or both autopilots fail o or both localizer transmitters or receivers fail above 15ft o or both glide slope transmitters or receivers fail above 100ft o or the difference between both radio altimeter indications is greater than 15 feet.2. • • Above AH (100ft AGL). Below AH. Instr.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Low Visibility Operations Page : 122 of 171 18. the approach will be continued except if AUTOLAND warning is triggered The AUTOLAND warning is triggered in following cases: (Source A320 FCOM 1.

04.08 .A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Low Visibility Operations 18.3.1 CAT II With RVR 350m at DH = 100ft (typical CAT II) Instr.3 Visual Segments Page : 123 of 171 18.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.

04.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Low Visibility Operations Page 124 of 171 18.3.2 CAT III With RVR 200m at DH = 50ft (typical CAT IIIa) Instr.08 .GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.

a minimum radius of curvature of 1500m) in the area located just before the threshold (60m wide. The lights are fixed unidirectional lights showing green. 18. 200m long).4. The lights are fixed lights showing variable white. Instr.8%. outside the runway with a distance of no more than 3m to the runway end.3 Runway Slope For CAT II or CAT III.5 Runway Edge Lights Runway edge lights are placed along the full length of the runway in two parallel rows equidistant from the centerline. This limitation is due to the fact that automatic landing systems use radio altimeter and a rapid slope change could disturb the landing.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. outside the runway with a distance of no more than 3m to the threshold. The runway length is only an operational limitation.e. 18. ICAO also recommends a spacing between the lights of no more than 6m for runways intended for use by CAT III approaches. 18. 18.6 Threshold Lights Threshold lights are placed in a row at right angles to the runway axis. and runway centerline lights.04.4.1 Runway Length There is no specific requirement concerning runway length for an aerodrome to be CAT II or III approved.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Low Visibility Operations Page 125 of 171 18. with a distance of no more than 3m to the runway edge.08 . To permit the use of the automatic landing system.4. when it is not possible.4. 18. kept to a maximum of 2% per 30m (i.4 Runway characteristics 18.4. The basic pattern of runway lights is shown in the figure below. These lights are uniformly spaced at intervals of no more than 60m and may be omitted at the intersections. runway touchdown zone lights. runway end lights. with a minimum number of 6 lights. runway edge lights. it is recommended that for the first and the last quarter of the length of the runway the slope does not exceed 0.2 Runway Width The runway width should be normally not less than 45m. disregarding normal standards. 18.4.7 Runway End Lights Runway end lights are placed in a row at right angles to the runway axis. ICAO also recommends that slope changes must be avoided or.4. The lights are fixed unidirectional lights showing red. uniformly spaced at intervals of no more than 3m.4 Visual Aids-Runway Lights Runway lights on runways intended for use by CAT II or CAT III operations consist of high intensity threshold lights.

The lights are fixed lights showing blue.4.11 Taxiway Centerline Lights Taxiway centerline lights have to be installed on airfields intended for use by operations with an RVR 400m or less (400m is the mean value for CAT II approach).5m.5m with a preference of 18m. • Alternate red and variable white from the point 900m to the point 300m from the runway end (pairs of red lights followed by pairs of variable white lights if the spacing is only 7.5m. They are located along the centerline of the runway. 15m or 30m for CAT II and only 7. 7. 18. but provide efficient visual aid during low-visibility operations. The lights are fixed lights showing green.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Low Visibility Operations Page 126 of 171 18. These lights are fixed lights showing: • Variable white from the threshold to the point 900m from the runway end.It is specified by the ECAC that sequenced strobe lighting is considered to be incompatible with CAT II and III operations.4.4.12 Stop Bars Stop bars are placed at each taxi-holding position when the runway is intended for use at an RVR less than 400m and are specially required for all CAT III approaches. The longitudinal spacing between pairs of barrettes is 60m or 30m. 18.5m in length. it should be switched off when CAT II or CAT III approaches are in progress.8 Runway Centerline Lights Runway centerline lights are a specific requirement for CAT II or CAT III approaches. The lights of the stop bars show red and are spaced at intervals of 3m. It consists of a row of lights on the extended centreline of the runway. They extend from the threshold for a longitudinal distance of 900m (full touchdown zone) but do not extend beyond the mid-point if runway length is less than 1800m. spaced at an interval of no more than 1. When installed for other operation.5m or 15m for CAT Ill. with a longitudinal spacing of approximately 7.04. The lateral spacing (or gauge) between the lights is not less than 18m and no more than 22. Each barrette must be not less than 3m and no more than 4. but from the beginning of the taxiway to the perimeter of the ILS critical area/sensitive area or the lower edge of the inner transitional surface.9 Touchdown Zone Lights Runway touchdown zone lights are a specific requirement for CAT II or CAT III approaches. The lights inside each barrette are fixed unidirectional lights showing variable white. 18.5m) • Red from the point 300m to the runway end. the lights are alternately showing green and yellow. but it is recommended to have a spacing of 30m for low minima. 18. or less than. The pattern is formed by pairs of barrettes containing at least three lights. These stop bars are an efficient means to avoid aircraft intrusion into the obstacle-free zone (OFZ) or into the critical/sensitive area during approaches in very low visibility conditions.5m. and only optional for CAT III operations.4. extending over a distance of 300m from the threshold (over 900m for CAT I).13 Approach Light System The approach light system is mandatory for CAT II operations. The lateral spacing between lights must not exceed 15m but the proximity of a curve must be indicated by a spacing equal to. Instr.4.08 .10 Taxiway Edge Lights Taxiway edge lights are not a specific CAT II or CAT III requirement.4. 18.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.

04.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.08 .A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Low Visibility Operations Page 127 of 171 Runways lights Instr.

GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.08 .A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Low Visibility Operations Page 128 of 171 CAT IIIA / CAT IIIB approach light system Instr.04.

08 . Instr.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Low Visibility Operations Page 129 of 171 TWY Lights Typical RWY taxi-holding position signs and associated TWY markings.04.

If the speed is managed. does not affect the receiver.30 .08 . When the aircraft reaches 400 feet RA. the speed target is computed by the FMGS and may be modified by the crew through the MCDU. When the aircraft reaches 700 feet RA with APPR mode (LOC and G/S) armed or engaged. when at least one AP/FD is engaged. This function (ILS tune inhibit) is available. At 700 feet RA. via the MCDU or RMP.70) 700ft FMGS frozen 400ft FCU frozen 350ft LAND GREEN 200ft AUTO LAND WARNING becomes active 100ft ALERT HEIGHT When managed. 4. the system does not accept any modifications the flight crew may enter on the PERF APPR page (surface wind. selected landing configuration. or VAPP) for speed guidance purposes below this altitude. to ensure stabilized speed guidance.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Low Visibility Operations Page 130 of 171 Technical aspects (Source: FCOM 1. any new VAPP or WIND entry in the MCDU has no effect on the speed target.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. the ILS freq and course are frozen in the receiver. LAND mode engages. even if Flight Management fails.22. the current speed target value is memorized by the autothrust. Any attempt to change the ILS frequency or CRS.04.5. Below 700 feet. The flight crew can only disengage this mode by engaging the GO AROUND mode Instr.

Instr. and the "Hundred Above" and "Minimum" auto callouts will Abe announced.04 gives the reference of the tests. none is required.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. Note : Flight crews are not expected to check the equipment list before approach. FMA CAPABILITY EQUIPMENT CAT 2 1 AP ENGAGED 0 1 0 0 1 1 1/1 2 2 1 1* 1* 1* 1 (displayed on both sides) 2 1 for PNF 1&2 2/2 2 1 1 CAT 3 SINGLE 1 AP ENGAGED 1 2 1 0 1 1 1/1 2 2 1 1* 1* 1* 2 2 2 1&2 2/2 2 1 1 CAT 3 DUAL 2 AP ENGAGED 1 2 1 1 2 2 2/2 3 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 1&2 3/3 2 2 1 AP/FD AUTOTHRUST FMA A/THR CAUTION ELECTRICAL SUPPLY SPLIT FMGS MONITORED FOR FMA LANDING CAPABILITY FAC ELAC YAW DAMPER/RUDDER TRIM HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT PFD DUs FLIGHT WARNING COMPUTER BSCU CHANNEL ANTISKID NOSEWHEEL STEERING RADIO ALTIMETER ILS RECEIVER BEAM EXCESSIVE DEVIATION WARNING ATTITUDE INDICATION (PFD1/PFD2) ADR/IR AP DISCONNECT PB NOT FMGS MONITORED FOR FMA LANDING CAPABILITY "AP OFF" ECAM WARNING "AUTOLAND" LIGHT RUDDER TRAVEL LIMIT SYSTEM WINDSHIELD HEAT (L or R windshield) WINDSHIELD WIPERS OR RAIN REPELLENT (if activated) ND DUs AUTO CALLOUT FUNCTION ATTITUDE INDICATION (STBY) DH INDICATION 1 required for auto land with crosswind higher than 12 kt 1 for PF 1 for PF 1 one is required for auto land 1 2 1 1 1 for PNF 2 1 1 *For automatic rollout.08 . provided that the DH value has been entered an the MCDU.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Low Visibility Operations 18. one is required. Electrical power supply split : This ensures that each FMGC is powered by an independent electrical source (AC and DC). On ground. which verify the CAT III availability in each system. Fallure of antiskid and/or nosewheel steering mechanical parts are not monitored for landing capability. the equipment list determines which approach category the aircraft will Abe able to perform at the hext landing.04. the crew should use the list to confirm the landing capability.5 List of required equipment Page 131 of 171 The table in the QRH 5. The DH will Abe displayed an the FMA. When an ECAM or local caution occurs. For autoland without automatic rollout.

Approach ban Policy regarding an approach ban may differ from country to country. The selected alternate must have weather conditions equal to or better than CAT I. if RVR becomes lower than the minima. who will check the status of the ILS and lighting and protect the sensitive areas from incursion by aircraft or vehicles. o brief review of procedure in case of malfunction below 1000ft. Required RVR values must be available for CAT II/III approaches. go-around procedure.08 . After OM or equivalent. o review approach procedure (stabilized or decelerated). o Although it is not required to check equipment that is not monitored by the system. the approach may be continued. Seat position The correct seat adjustment is essential in order to take full advantage of the visibility over the nose. Usually the final approach segment may not be continued beyond the OM or equivalent DME distance if the reported RVR is below the published minima for the required transmissometers. Such an approach may not be undertaken until the clearance has been received. The seat is correctly adjusted when the pilots eyes are in line with the red and white balls located above the glareshield. o optimum seat position and reminder to set cockpit lights when appropriate • • • • • • Instr. landing lights can be detrimental to the acquisition of visual references.6 Approach preparation Page 132 of 171 • Aircraft Status o Check on ECAM STATUS page that the required landing capability is available. the required RVR values should be transmitted. CAT II or CAT III crew briefing The briefing should include the normal items as for any IFR arrival and in addition the following subjects should be covered prior to the first approach: o destination and alternate weather. o review applicable minima (performance page). the landing capability will be reduced. Before the outer marker. ATC calls Unless LVP are reported active by ATIS.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Low Visibility Operations 18. o airfield and runway operational status CAT II / CAT III.04. ATC calls. if any of this equipment is seen inoperative (flag). Weather Check weather conditions at destination and at alternates. o aircraft systems status and capacity and downgrading possibilities o brief review of task sharing. Reflected light from water droplets or snow may actually reduce visibility.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. o On the A320 Family it is not necessary to check AUTOLAND WARNING light. Use of landing lights At night in low visibility conditions. clearance to carry out a CAT II or CAT III approach must be requested from ATC. etc. Landing lights would therefore not normally be used in CAT ll or CAT III weather conditions.

or equivalent position. means that part of the runway used during the high speed phase of the landing down to a speed of approximately 60 knots. Instr. the approach may be continued to DA/H or MDA/H. or no decision height. if the reported RVR/visibility is less than the applicable minima. the published State Approach Ban applies (refer to OM Part C . Where no outer marker or equivalent position exists. and 75 m for the stop-end. 18. The touch-down zone RVR is always controlling. the commander shall make the decision to continue or abandon the approach before descending below 1 000 ft above the aerodrome on the final approach segment. Note 2: Where a State Approach Ban is more restrictive. If.2 Commencement and Continuation of Approach (Approach Ban) (Source: Airberlin OM-A 8. asuitably located NDB or VOR. the mid point and stop end RVR are also controlling. If the MDA/H is at or above 1 000 ft above the aerodrome. For aeroplanes equipped with a roll-out guidance or control system. if published on the instrument approach chart.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. • • • • Note 1: The equivalent position referred to above can be established by means of a DME distance. If reported and relevant.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Low Visibility Operations 18.08 .7 Landing Page 133 of 171 18.04.The approach may be continued below DA/H or MDA/H and the landing may be completed provided that the required visual reference is established at the DA/H or MDA/H and is maintained.2) Cat II or III landings shall not be conducted unless: • • • • • • • The airplane concerned is certificated for operations with decision heights below 200 ft. If the touch down zone RVR is not available.4.7. In this case the midpoint RVR must be at or above the applicable minimum value for the approach. after passing the outer marker or equivalent position the reported RVR/visibility falls below the applicable minimum. Specific approval/authorisation for Cat II and III operations is granted by the authority The Flight Crew consists of at least 2 licensed pilots Landing is carried out by the Commander LVP are in force. the minimum RVR value for the mid-point is 75 m. the midpoint RVR may substitute the touch down zone RVR. the approach can be continued down to the applicable minimum. in this context. The minimum RVR value for the mid-point is 125 m or the RVR required for the touchdown zone if less. “Relevant”. SRE or PAR fix or any other fix that independently establishes the position of the airplane. and equipped with the systems required for operations as certified by the Authority DH must be determined by means of a radio altimeter To maintain the safety of operation it is required to report any failure of approaches by using an adequate reporting form.4.3.EAG Route Manual).1 Low Visibility Procedure for Cat II/III landing (Source: Airberlin OM-A 8.10) • The commander may commence an instrument approach regardless of the reported RVR/Visibility but the approach shallnot be continued beyond the outer marker.7.

2 CAT II (auto land) • • • • • DH: RVR: Headwind: Crosswind: Tailwind: 100ft (resp.08 . according EAG chart minimum) TDZ: 300m (resp. 10 kt * if relevant 18. the mid point and stop end RVR are also controlling.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.7. Landing distance: 15% or 300 m . Landing minima will be the higher of the basic minima as tabulated below or those published by the state of jurisdiction as reflected in the EAG chart or special minima published by Air Berlin. Wind limitation is based on surface wind report by the tower. Displayed wind on the ND may be disregarded. max. Landings at a friction coefficient below 0.7.7.3. according EAG chart minimum) MID: 125m* END: 75m*. latest at 80 ft no limitation (33kt demonstrated) max.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Low Visibility Operations Page 134 of 171 18.04. the minimum RVR value for the mid-point is 75 m.3. and 75 m for the stop-end. Aprroach CAT II CAT III A CAT III B RVR TDZ 300m 200m 75m RVR MID ZONE 75m 75m 75m RVR END ZONE 75m 75m 75m 18. 10 kt * if relevant Instr.26 are prohibited.3 Summary Limitations (Source: Airberlin OM-A 8.1 General limitations • • • • • • • • • • • CONF3 or CONF FULL Slope angle within -2.runway shall be available in addition to the landing distance requirement for dry runways. For aeroplanes equipped with a roll-out guidance or control system. according EAG chart minimum) MID: 125m*END: 75m*. according EAG chart minimum) TDZ: 300m (resp. 30 kt max.3. It is not allowed to convert a meteorological visibility to RVR for calculating Category II or III minima or when a reported RVR is available. 20 kt max. FCOM) 18.10.5° & -3. If reported and relevant.15° Airport Altitude below 2500ft Automatic rollout has not been demonstrated on snow covered or icy runways.4.7.3 CAT II (manual landing) • • • • • DH: RVR: AP OFF: Crosswind: Tailwind: 100ft (resp. The touch-down zone RVR is always controlling. The maximum allowable tailwind for automatic landing and roll out is 10 knots.whichever is greater . The minimum RVR value for the mid-point is 125 m or the RVR required for the touchdown zone if less.

according EAG chart minimum) MID: 125m* END: 75m*. A/THR must be used in selected or managed mode Headwind: max.7 Engine out (CAT II or CAT 3 Single) • • • • • • • • DH: 100ft / 50 ft (resp.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. according EAG chart minimum) MID: 125m* END: 75m* Config: FULL Engine out procedure completed latest at 1000 ft AGL A/THR must be used in selected or managed mode Headwind: max.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Low Visibility Operations Page 135 of 171 18. A/THR must be used in selected or managed mode Headwind: max. 30 kt Crosswind: max.8. 10 kt * if relevant 18.3. 10 kt * if relevant 18.4 CAT IIIA (CAT 3 Single) • • • • • • DH: 50ft (resp.3. 20 kt Tailwind: max.8 Failures and associated actions 18. according EAG chart minimum) RVR: 300m / 200m (resp.04. according EAG chart minimum) RVR: TDZ: 200m (resp. 20 kt Tailwind: max. according EAG chart minimum) RVR: TDZ: 200m (resp. 30 kt Crosswind: max.7. according EAG chart minimum) MID: 125m* END: 75m*. 30 kt Crosswind: max. according EAG chart minimum) MID: 75m* END: 75m* Alert Height: 100ft A/THR must be used in selected or managed mode Headwind: max. 20 kt Tailwind: max.3.08 .3.7. 10 kt * if relevant 18.7.6 CAT IIIB (CAT 3 Dual) • • • • • • • DH: NO RVR: 75m (resp.5 CAT IIIA (CAT 3 Dual) • • • • • • DH: 50ft (resp. 10 kt * if relevant 18.1 General Instr. 20 kt Tailwind: max. 30 kt Crosswind: max.7.

Failures that do not trigger a downgrading of capability but are signaled by other effects (Flag. In CAT III DUAL. ECAM warning. • • • CONTINUE the approach to the planned minima.1 General The abnormal procedures can be classified into two groups • • Failures leading to a downgrading of capability as displayed on FMA and ECAM with an associated specific audio warning (triple click). • • As a general rule. to check system configuration and limitations and brief for minima. Above 1000ft: Instr. The nature of the failure and the point of its occurrence will determine which response is appropriate. Another approach may then be undertaken to the appropriate minima for the given aircraft status.8.2. providing the appropriate conditions are met Below 1000ft (and down to AH when in CAT III DUAL) the occurrence of any failure implies a go-around. a single failure (for example one AP failure or one engine failure) below AH does not necessitate a go-around. It has been considered that below 1000ft. if a failure occurs above 1000ft AGL the approach may be continued reverting to a higher DH. REVERT to higher minima and proceed to a new DH (above 1000ft). The FCOM describes what should be the crew responses to failures in function to the height.04. But a go-around is required if the autoland warning is triggered. cautions and a downgrading of capability.08 . and a reassessment of the system capability. GO AROUND and reassess the capability. amber caution and associated audio warnings). instrument or element during the approach.8. not enough time is available for the crew to perform the necessary switching.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Low Visibility Operations Page 136 of 171 In general there are three possible responses to the failure of any system. in general.2 Abnormal Procedures 18. It should be noted that some failures might trigger ECAM warnings.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. • 18.

Depending on terrain profile before the runway LAND mode may appear at lower height. at least one FD is available. loss of AP (cavalry charge).8. engine failure. Downgrading from CAT 2 to CAT 1 permitted only if • • • • • ECAM actions are completed. At 350ft RA LAND must be displayed on FMA and runway course must be checked. If visual references are sufficient and a manual landing is possible. disconnect the AP immediately. the PF may decide to land manually. • RVR is at least equal to CAT II minima.04. amber caution (single chime). If visual references are sufficient and a manual landing is possible. the decision to downgrade is completed above 1000ft AGL. These conditions need to be obtained no later than 350ft AGL to allow a satisfactory automatic landing. LAND is displayed if LOC and GS track modes are active and at least one RA is available. Note: switching from one AP to another before 1000ft AGL is permitted.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. After touchdown In case of anti-skid or nose wheel steering failure. • Briefing is amended to include CAT II procedure and DH.2 Downgrading conditions Downgrading from CAT 3 to CAT 2 is permitted only if • ECAM actions are completed. If runway course is incorrect or LAND does not appear. At flare height If FLARE does not come up on FMA. This can be acceptable provided it has been demonstrated that automatic landing is satisfactory. Below 1000ft and above DH (for CAT 2 or CAT 3 SINGLE) or above AH (for CAT 3 DUAL) a go-around must be performed in case of: • • • • • ALPHA FLOOR activation. the PF may decide to complete the landing. At 200ft RA and below Any AUTOLAND warning requires an immediate go-around. downgrading of capability (triple click).2.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Low Visibility Operations Page 137 of 171 18. a go-around must be performed. disconnect AP and take manual control. • Decision to downgrade is completed above 1000ft AGL. Instr. If automatic rollout control is not satisfactory. briefing is amended to include CAT 1 procedure and DH. a go-around must be performed or if conditions permit. a CAT ll approach with AP disconnection no later than 80ft may be performed. RVR is at least equal to CAT I minima.08 .

04.08 .9 Effect on Landing Minima of temporarily failed or downgraded Equipment (Source: Airberlin OM-A 8.11) Failed or downgraded equipment Effect on Landingminima CAT III CAT II Not allowed No effect No effect if replaced by published equivalent position No effect May be temporarily replaced with midpoint RVR if approved ba the state of Aerodrome.4.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Low Visibility Operations Page 138 of 171 18. day only RVR as for CAT I basic facilities RVR 300m by day.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. 550m by night RVR 300m by day. 550m by night Not allowed No effect except delays due to reduced movment rate Instr. RVR may be reported by human observation No effect Not allowed for DH > 50ft Not allowed No effect Not allowed ILS Standby transmitter Outer marker Middle marker TDZ RVR assessment system Midpoint or Stopend RVR Approach Lights Approach Lights except the last 210m Approach Lights except the last 420 Stanbypower for approachlights Whole RWY light system Edge lights Centerline lights TDZ lights Stanbypower for RWY lights Taxiway light system No effect No effect Not allowed Day only RVR 300m.

At least CAT 2 capability must be displayed on FMA.10.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.10. For CAT III operations at least once every 6 months a missed appr. landing and roll-out must be closely monitored as the crew must be ready to take over in these flight phases as well.3 Limitations • • • Automatic landing must be approved in the AFM.04. 18.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Low Visibility Operations 18. 18.08 . 18.10.4. The flight crew is reminded to be vigilant for ILS disturbances when conducting automatic landing on any ILS quality beam in CAT I or better weather conditions when the critical area protection is not assured by ATC. Instr. must be conducted in an approved simulator as a result of an autopilot failure at or below decision height with a RVR of less than 300m.11 Training and Qualifications (Source: Airberlin OM-A 8.10 Autoland in CAT I or better weather conditions Page 139 of 171 18. the crew will decide to continue the automatic landing or to take over manually or to go around. The crew should be warned that fluctuations of the LOC or GS may occur and that the PF should be prepared to immediately disconnect the AP and take the appropriate action should unsatisfactory automatic landing performance occur. AFM limitations must be observed including: o Glide slope angle o Airport elevation o Flap configuration o Wind limits o Required equipment for CAT II must be operative.2 Crew procedures • • • • Visual cues must be obtained at the applicable DA (baro) (CAT I) or a go-around must be performed. nevertheless automatic landing on CAT I ILS quality beam is possible provided the Airline has checked that the guidance below 200ft is satisfactory.7) • • All CAT II/III licenced pilots must conduct at least 3 approaches with an automatic landing within 6 months (all mandatory approaches may be conducted in an approved simulator). Flare.1 Airports requirements The Automatic Landing System performance has been demonstrated during type certification with CAT II or CAT III ILS qualify beam. Being in visual contact with the runway.

3) Before commencing Category II/III operations.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Low Visibility Operations 18. who are new to the aeroplane type: • • 50 hours or 20 sectors on the type. including line flying under supervision.12 Type and command experience Page 140 of 171 (Source: Airberlin OM-A 8. until a total of 100 hours or 40 sectors.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. or pilots to whom conduct of the flight may be delegated.04. has been achieved on the type. the following additional requirements are applicable to commanders. including line flying under supervision. and 100 m must be added to the applicable Category II or Category III RVR minima unless he has previously qualified for Category II or III operations with a JAA operator.08 . Instr.3.4.

).04.1 General (Source: Airbus getting to grips with CAT 2/3 operations. .4. a takeoff alternate is required within one hour. 19.4.26 are prohibited. RVR measurement system.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Low Visibility Operations Page 141 of 171 19 Low visibility Takeoff 19. When weather conditions are more severe than the landing minima. It is not allowed to convert a meteorological visibility to RVR for calculating Take-Off minima. a Take-Off may only be commenced if the pilot in command can determine that the RVR visibility along the Take-Off run required (JAR take-off field length) is at or above minimum required.2 Take Off Minima (Source: Airberlin OM-A 8. When no visibility is reported or the reported visibility is below that required for Take-Off and or RVR is not reported. Above time is determined at the one engine inoperative speed and equals 370NM Before commencing take-off. a commander must ensure that the RVR or visibility in the takeoff direction of the aeroplane is equal to or better than the applicable minimum and that the condition of the runway intended to be used should not prevent a safe take-off and departure.. Take-offs at a friction coefficient below 0.1) • Take-Off minima must selected to ensure sufficient guidance to control the aircraft in case of: o discontinued take -Off in adverse circumstances or o continued take-Off after failure of the critical engine The commander shall not commence Take-Off unless the weather conditions at the aerodrome f departure are equal to or better than applicable minima for landing at that aerodrome unless a suitable Take-Off alternate aerodrome is available.4) Takeoff with RVR less than 400m is considered as LVTO by JAR OPS 1. Airberlin OM-A 8. The maximum RVR at Takeoff is quite independent of the aircraft type and aircraft equipment except for very low RVR.4. • • • • • • Instr. Take-Off with minima less than 400 m requires that LVP's are in force.. Category II or III minima or when a reported RVR is available. The Takeoff minima is mainly determined by the airport installation (runway lighting system.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. the RVR is reported and the flight crew members have satisfactorily completed training in a simulator.08 . The pilot in command has to perform the T/O if the RVR is less than 400 m.

The takeoff minima may be reduced to 125 m RVR (Category C aeroplanes) or 150 m RVR (Category D aeroplanes) when: • • • • • Low Visibility Procedures are in force.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. The required RVR value must be achieved for all of the RVR reporting points throughout the Accelerate Stop Distance (ASD). High intensity runway centreline lights spaced 15 m or less and high intensity edge lights spaced 60 m or less are in operation.08 . edge and runway end lights are required) 500m 250m / 300m (Note 1 & 2) Runway edge and centerline lighting 200m 250m (Note 1) Runway edge and centerline lighting and multiple RVR information 150m /200m (Note 1 & 4) Note 1: Note 2: Note 3: Note 4: The higher values apply to Category D aeroplanes.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Low Visibility Operations 19.3 Ground Facilities Requirement for Take Off Page 142 of 171 Ground facilities RVR / VIS (Note 3) Nil (day only) Runway edge lighting and/or centerline marking (for night. The reported RVR/Visibility value representative of the initial part of the take-off run can be replaced by pilot assessment. Flight crew members have satisfactorily completed training in a Flight Simulator. A 90 m visual segment is available from the cockpit at the start of the take-off run. with the exception given in Note 3 above. For night operations at least runway edge and runway end lights are required. Instr.04. and The required RVR value has been achieved for all of the RVR reporting points throughout the Accelerate Stop Distance (ASD).

During the approach. The speed target is displayed on the PFD speed scale in magenta. the energy of the aircraft is maintained above a minimum level ensuring standard aerodynamic margins versus stall. 3 and VFE . using the "ground speed mini function".GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. 20. This Ground Speed is called "GROUND SPD MINI". in order to keep the ground speed at or above the "Ground Speed Mini".22. it will automatically follow the IAS target.2 Ground speed mini function principle The purpose of the ground speed mini function is to take advantage of the aircraft inertia.5 in CONF FULL. If the A/THR is active in SPEED mode.1.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Performance Page 143 of 171 20 Performance 20.1 Ground Speed Mini Function (Source: A320 FCOM 1. if it lands at VAPP speed with the tower reported wind as inserted in the PERF APPR page.1 Speed mode in approach phase When the aircraft flies an approach in managed speed. Wind is a key factor in the ground speed mini function. When the aircraft flies this indicated speed target. when approach phase and managed speed are active. chapter 13) 20. The minimum energy level is represented by the Ground Speed the aircraft will have at touchdown. 2.04. A320 Instructor Support. This managed speed target is computed in the FMGS. ensuring an efficient thrust management during the approach.1.30. Instr. using the wind experienced by the aircraft. It does so by providing the crew with an adequate indicated speed target.08 . when the wind conditions vary during the approach. is variable during the approach. the FMGS continuously computes the speed target. The lowest speed target is limited to VAPP and its upper limit is VFE of next configuration in CONF 1. The minimum energy level is the energy level the aircraft will have at touchdown. It is independent of the AP/FD and/or ATHR engagements. the speed target displayed on the PFD in magenta.

1 VAPP computation VAPP. 20.04.1. Instr. The IAS targets have two limits : • • VAPP as the minimum value VFE – 5 kts in CONF FULL. or VFE of the next configuration in CONF 1.1. 20.1.1 Tower wind It is the MAG WIND entered in the PERF approach page.1. Gusts must not be inserted. 20. automatically displayed on the MCDU PERF APPR page.3.4.4 Speed Computation 20.08 .3 Current headwind component The actual wind measured by ADIRS is projected on the aircraft axis to define the CURRENT HEADWIND COMPONENT (instantaneous headwind).2 Tower headwind component The TWR HEADWIND COMPONENT is the component of the MAG WIND projected on the runway axis (landing runway entered in the flight plan).GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.1.4. The IAS target is displayed on the PFD as a magenta triangle moving with the gust variation.1. they are included in the ground speed mini computation. 15 kts) The crew can manually modify the VAPP and TWR wind values on the PERF APPR page. 20. 2 or 3 as the maximum value. that is the MCDU VAPP value plus an additional variable gust. The gust is the instantaneous difference between the CURRENT HEADWIND COMPONENT and the tower headwind component.1. is computed as follows : VAPP = Vls + ∆ maximum of • • • 5kts for ATHR 5kts for severe icing 1/3 of steady headwind (max.3. It is the average wind. It is always positive (or equal to zero for no wind or tailwind).A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Performance Page 144 of 171 20.3 Terminology 20. The CURRENT HEADWIND COMPONENT is used to compute the variable speed target during final (IAS target). as provided by the ATIS or the tower.3.2 Speed target computation The FMGS continuously computes a speed target (IAS target). It is used to compute VAPP and GS mini.

04. 2. It is always referenced to True North. It allows an efficient management of the thrust in gusts or longitudinal shears.3 Ground speed mini (GS mini) computation Ground speed mini concept has been defined to prevent the aircraft energy from dropping below a minimum level during final approach.08 . Thrust varies in the right sense but in a smaller range (± 15% N1) in gusty situations which explains why it is recommended in such situations. The GS mini guidance has 3 major benefits: 1. (VAPP + current headwind . The GS mini value is not displayed to the crew.4. gusts are considered if in the past 10 mn the peak wind value exceeds by typically 10 kts or more the two minute average wind. The METAR is a ten minute average wind. thus it is an instantaneous wind information. It provides additional but rational safety margins in shears. The wind information used by the FMGS for the Managed Speed target control during the approach (GS mini guidance) is provided by the onside IRS (update rate typically 10 times/sec).1. 20. 3. It allows pilots "to understand what is going on" in perturbed approaches by monitoring the target speed magenta bugs: when it goes up = head wind gust. with 10 minute gusts. Note: • • • The ATIS and tower wind is a two minute average wind.1. we obtain the following result : IASTARGET = Max [VAPP.tower headwind)] Instr.5 Example Approach on runway 09 The tower wind direction is on the runway axis 090 with 30kt VAPP = VLS + 10kt (1/3 of 30kt) VAPP = 140kt IAS target values If we turn the previously explained speed target definition into formulae.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Performance Page 145 of 171 20.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.

30) = 160 kt Max [VAPP.04.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. (140 + 50 . (140 + 10 . (140 + 0 .30) = 140 kt Max [VAPP. (140 + 30 .A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Performance Page 146 of 171 Current wind in approach IAS target Current wind in approach (a) 090/50 (b) 090/10 (c) 270/10 (d) 090/30 IAS target Max [VAPP.08 .30) = 140 kt Instr.30) = 140 kt Max [VAPP.

limiting factor: VMU A 50kg HIGHER GW REDUCES V1 by 9kt!! Instr.& Engine anti ice RWY CG GW 61450kg: GW 61500kg: 240/5 17°C 1019 1 off dry > 27% Flex 56° Flex 54° V1 = 142 .04. V2 = 135 . VR = 142 .2 Take off performance considerations Page 147 of 171 • • • • Always calculate the T/O performance with the most accurate GW! LMC.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Performance 20. VR = 133 .08 .GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. V2 = 143 . limiting factor: OBS V1 = 133 .procedure according OMA does NOT allow making an LMC without recalculating the T/O Performance even if the change is only 100kg! (See example below) Don’t just reduce Flex temperature perform a complete recalculation If the wind is different at T/O position perform a complete recalculation Already 100kg difference can make a huge difference in Speed! Example: ZRH RWY 28 Wind Temperature QNH Conf Wing.

Example: Given: • • Weight : 65000kg Wind at FL350 : 10 kt head Find: Minimum wind difference to descend to FL310 : (40 – 4)= 36 kt Results: Descent to FL310 may be considered provided the tail wind at this altitude is more than (36 .5. Instr.04.15) Following diagram shows if a lower level would be more economically when winds are less in lower altitudes.08 .10) = 26 kt.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Performance 20.3 Wind altitude trade for constant specific range Page 148 of 171 (Source: A320 FCOM 3.

4) 20.2 Actual landing field length requirements (in-flight calculation) the following calculation therefore needs to be carried out: • • • Un-factored landing distance (dry) + correction for the wet/contaminated runway + correction for system failures .if any = corrected un-factored distance • + an operational factor of at least 1.4.04.4 Landing field length requirements Page 149 of 171 (Source: Airberlin OM-A 8. never be lass than the distance calculated for dispatch purposes (including the 1.67 for jets.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.20 = required distance to land This required distance for the (actual) landing shall.67 operational factor).A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Performance 20. In case of a runway forecasted or reported to be wet/contaminated an additional 15% shall be added. 20. however.2.4.1 Dispatch requirements The un-factored landing distance (= the distance from 50 ft to stop) shall be factored with 1.1. Instr.08 .

32) Factor for wet RWY (fwet = 1.3 Summary Dispatch: LDreq = LDunfactored ⋅ 1.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.15) (Note 1) Factor for CAT III Approach (fCAT III = 1.4. See QRH 4. configuration FULL Instr.67 Normal Operations: In flight: Abnormal Operations: the greater of LDreq = LDunfactored ⋅ 1. Or +300m whichever is more.67 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ LDreq = ULD ⋅ foperational ⋅ fsystem failure ⋅ fwet ⋅ fCAT III ⎭ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ LDreq LDunfactored foperational fsystem failure fwet fCAT III Required Landing Distance Unfactored Landing Distance (Note 3) Operational factor (foperational = 1.03 landing distance without autobrake.67 ⎧LDreq = ULD ⋅ 1.04.15) ( Note 2) Notes: 1: 2: 3: Alternatively the table unfactored landing distance wet can be used.08 .2) Factor for system failures (see QRH 2.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Performance Page 150 of 171 20.

pavement width for 180° turn Main Gear track (outside face of tire) Max.0 g. + 2.1.01. difference between ADR1 / 2 and ADR3: Instr. -1000ft – 9200ft PA max.4.0 g.1.2% min.08 33.5m (A321) 34. The operational limitations are ordered according a normal flight in flight phases.6m (A321) 9. A320) 27.1.6m (A320) 44. operating temperature Runway slope limits: Runway width: Manoeuvring load limits: clean: slats extended / flaps retracted slats & flaps extended Maximum take-off and landing altitude: Pitch in T/O: Range of ADIRS (FCOM 3.8 (A319) 37. difference between ADR1 and ADR2: 20 ft (on ground) 55ft (FL100) 130 ft (FL390) 20 ft (on ground) 350 ft (FL390) Effective Date: 25.0 g. Operational limitations Limitations which have direct consequences in normal operation and should be known by heart.1 Technical limitations 21.1m 12m 12.2 Flight instrument tolerances (Source: FCOM 3.1 General (Source: FCOM 3. + 2.5° in windshear between 73°N and 60°S max.34): 21.0 g to 0. 18° / 22.5 g to .A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Limitations Page 151 of 171 21 Limitations The limitations in this summary are divided in two groups: • Technical limitations Limitations out of the FCOM which are most of them nice to know since the FWC is monitoring them or they have no direct consequence in normal operation.34) Altimeter: max.5m 4m 23m (A319. • 21. operating altitude: Max.2m FL 390 (39’800ft PA) -70 C OAT +/.04.20) Length Wingspan Tail height Tail width Fuselage width Min.01.0 g to 0.GuideA320 Revision: 4 . 45m + 2. Most of the operational limitations can also be found in the section technical limitations.

A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Limitations Page 152 of 171 max. -20°C (35’000 ft PA) min.08 .1. .21) Maximum positive differential pressure Maximum negative differential pressure Ram air inlet opens only if differential pressure is lower 21. difference 4° Heading: 21.6 psi -1 psi 1 psi Instr. .20) Take-off & Landing: In flight: min.1. 55°C (0 ft PA) min.04. difference between ADR1 / 2 and ADR3: max. .45° / max.01.1.66° / max. difference between ADR1 / 2 / 3 and stby ASI: 100 ft (on ground) 185 ft (FL 100) 445 ft (FL390) 6 kt / m0. .GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. .1.008 (ground) 4 kt / m0. -25°C (39’000 ft PA) min. 37°C (9000ft PA) min.4 Cabin pressure (Source: FCOM 3.01.008 (FL390) 6 kt (on ground) 8 kt (FL390) max.40° / max.70° / max.20) Maximum take-off weight (brake release): Maximum landing weight: Maximum zero fuel weight: A319: A320: A321: A319: A320: A321: A319: A320: A321: 75’500kg 77’000kg 93’000kg 62’500kg 64’500kg 77’800kg 58’500kg 61’000kg 73’800kg 8.5 Structural weight limits (Source: FCOM 3.008 (ground) 3 kt / m0. difference between ADR1 / 2 / 3 and ISIS: Airspeed: max. -10°C (30’000 ft PA) 21. difference between ADR1 and ADR2: max.63° / max.01 (FL390) 6 kt / m0.3 Opearting temperatures (Source: FCOM 3.

operating speed rough air speed: max.22) Height for engagement after Take-off (with SRS mode) Straight in non precision approach Circling approach: ILS approach with CAT 1 displayed on FMA: All other cases 21.23 VS1g 110 kts ( 0ft) / 110 kts ( 0ft) / 103kt (8000ft) max.13 VS1g VLS = 1. A320) 215 kts (A321) 185 kts 177 kts (A319 .20) (all speeds IAS) VMO / MMO VRA / MRA VFE / MFE max.6 Speeds (Source: A320 FCOM 3.01. 230 kts max. selectable speed: T/O: Other modes: 350 kts / M 0.01. then the autopilot can remain engaged.08 .7 Use of autopilot (Source: FCOM 3.67 max.82 250 kts / M 0. only CAT I automatic approach without autoland can be performed.65 230 kts 215 kts 200 kts (A319 . 20kt 100 ft MDA MDA-100ft 160ft 500ft Note: Wind limitation is based on the surface wind reported by the tower. 250 kts max. 200 kts VMCA VMCG (config 1 +F) Gear retraction VMLO retraction: Gear extension VLO extension: Gear extended VLE: Windshield wipers: Tire speed: Speed for opening cockpit Window: 21.22) Headwind: Tailwind: Crosswind: max.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Limitations Page 153 of 171 21.1.8 Automatic approach.01.04. A320) 190 kts (A321) VLS 103kt (8000ft)= 1. If the tower reports a surface wind beyond limitations.1. 280 kts / M 0. If the wind displayed on ND exceeds the above–noted autoland limitations.1. 220 kts max. but the tower reports a surface wind within the limitations. 195 kts max. slats / flaps extended speed: 1: 1 + F: 2: 3: 4: VLS: min.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. landing and roll out (Source: FCOM 3. 10kt max. Instr. 30kt max.

if the following precautions are taken: • • • • • • The airline has checked that the ILS beam quality and the effect of terrain profile before the runway have no adverse effect on AP/FD guidance.1. In particular the effect of terrain discontinuities within 300 meters before the runway threshold must be evaluated. Instr.15°) range. otherwise go–around is initiated. Visual references are obtained at an altitude appropriate to the performed CAT I approach.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Limitations Page 154 of 171 21.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. the AP may be disconnected at anytime. but performance on snow-covered or icy runways has not been demonstrated.1 Engine out CAT II and CAT III fail passive autoland are only approved in configuration FULL. for safety purposes.08 . With slope angle within (– 2.2 Automatic landing CAT II and CAT III autoland are approved in CONF 3 and CONF FULL. they should disconnect the AP at or above 80 feet: this altitude being the minimum to take over and feel comfortable.8. independent of the aircraft systems. At approach speed (VAPP) = VLS + wind correction. may occur and the PF is prepared to immediately disconnect the AP and take appropriate action.5°. Maximum wind conditions for CAT II or CAT III automatic approach landing and roll out. Automatic landing is demonstrated: • • • • With CAT II and CAT III ILS beam. The crew is aware that LOC or GS beam fluctuations. Nevertheless. For airport altitude at or below 2500 feet. Minimum wind correction 5 knots . 21. However automatic landing in CAT I or better weather conditions is possible on CAT I ground installations or when ILS sensitive areas are not protected.8. and if engine-out procedures are completed before reaching 1000 feet in approach. Automatic rollout performance has been approved on dry and wet runways.1. – 3. Automatic landing in CAT I or better weather conditions The automatic landing system's performance has been demonstrated on runways equipped with CAT II or CAT III ILS approaches.04. When the crew does not intend to perform an autoland. maximum 15 knots. At or below the maximum landing weight. should unsatisfactory guidance occur. At least CAT2 capability is displayed on the FMA and CAT II/CAT III procedures are used.

A320 Max usable wing tanks: Max usable center tanks: Total usable Fuel: A321 Max usable wing tanks: Max usable center tanks: Total usable Fuel: Maximum allowed wing fuel imbalance • Inner tanks Tank Fuel Quantity (Heavier tank) Full (5’350 kg) 4’300 kg 2’250 kg Note: Instr. 33kts gusts up to 38 kts* * Values are demonstrated values and not operational limitations Tail wind (T/O & Ldg. or the cargo door is on the leeward side).1. 1’500 kg 1’600 kg 2’250 kg The variation is linear between these values (No limitation below 2 250 kg) Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.785) (ρ=0.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Limitations Page 155 of 171 21. 40 kts Keep parking brake on with wind speeds above: 21. if the aircraft nose is oriented into the wind.04.10) A319 . 1.28.01.1.GuideA320 2 x 6126kg 6476 kg 18’728 kg (ρ=0.785) (ρ=0. at or below 5300 ft): 15 kts (>5300 ft: 10 kts) (A320) 10 kts (A319) Note: The maximum tailwind for automatic landings and rollout remains 10 kts ! Maximum wind for passenger door operation : Maximum wind for cargo door operation : 65 knots 40 knots (or 50 knots.785) 2 x 7250kg 8200 kg 23’700 kg Maximum allowed imbalance.1.28 .20) Following: Cross wind for T/O: Cross wind for LDG: max.9 Weather (Source: A320 3. 29kts gusts up to 38 kts* max.08 .10 Fuel (Source: FCOM 3.

1.10) Altitude for LG extension: Altitude for flap extension: Min.04.1.GuideA320 . FL 250 max.35) Oxygen pressure: 6° (40kt) / 0° (130kt) 75° (0kt) / 0° (70kt) 95° max.12 Break.11 . -43°C (Jet A1) 21.3.27 .1.1.1. flight controls (Source: FCOM 3. 1.11 Hydraulic (Source: FCOM 3. 800 psi (2 Crew / 40°C) min. max. 3.1. 150°C with break fan on.08 Protection time Instr.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Limitations Page 156 of 171 • Outer tanks: Maximum allowed imbalance: 530 kg Fuel management • • • Tanks must be emptied in the following order: center tank then wing tanks Takeoff on center tank is prohibited. FL 200 FULL (A319. Fuel temperature: min. FL 200 260kt 40 kt Keep Parking brake on with wind speeds above: Do not set N1 above 75% on both engines with the parking brake on Steering angle: Rudder: Tiller: Towing: Break temperature for T/O: Altitude for flap extension: Speedbrakes NOT usable for configuration: 21. 1000 psi (+1 observer / 40°C) min. max.32.29) Normal operating pressure 3000 psi +/-200 21. cruise at FL 100 -> 110min Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. A320) FLAPS 3 and FULL (A321) min. 300°C with break fan off. gear.13 Oxygen (Source: FCOM 3. Speed to cut off green hydraulic pressure: max. 1300 psi (+2 observer / 40°C) during emergency descent ->10min.

01.14 Electrical (Source: FCOM 3.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Limitations Page 157 of 171 against smoke with 100% oxygen at FL 80 -> 15min.04.2e) Max continuous load per generator Max continuous load per TR (continuous) 100 % (90 kVA) 200 A 4 + 4 Masks -> 12min approx. HI 30min Instr.1.08 . Cabin: Smoke hood: Bottle in cabin: 21. 15min LOW 1h.

) with 20 sec. cooling maximum reverse should not be used below 70 kts Idle reverse is allowed down to acft stop Instr. 140° C max.15 APU (Source: FCOM 3. 2 Min.12 Pressurization/ ventilation (Source: FCOM 3. delay After 4 starts 15 Min.49) Maximum N (ECAM display) 107 % Note : The APU automatically shuts down at 107 % N speed.1.5 qts + estimated consumption (0.16 Engine (Source: FCOM 3.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Limitations Page 158 of 171 21.1. / 10min. 155° C for 15 Min.04. 9. 3 start cycles thereafter wait 60 min before attempting 3 more cycles APU bleed air extraction for wing anti ice is not permitted 1. Maximum for start (below 25000 feet) Maximum for start (above 25000 feet) APU start: 900°C 982°C max.1.70) Time limit for T/O & GA: EGT limit for starting: EGT limit MCT: EGT limit T/O & GA: Oil temperature: engine start T/O power Oil quantity: Engine start: Reverse thrust: 5 min. OEI 725°C 915°C 950°C min.-10° C max. min.5 qts/h) 4 Starts (max.6) Pack flow selector: LO if number of PAX < 115 LO if number of PAX < 85 (A320) (A319) HI for abnormally hot and humid conditions NORM for all other operating cases 21.08 .-40° C min. that appears on the ECAM. trans.3.This corresponds to an actual N speed of 106 %.1.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.

The assumed temperature must not be lower than the flat rating temperature. Instr. with the operating engines at the thrust available for the flex temperature.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.70) • • • • Takeoff at reduced thrust is only permitted. if the airplane meets all applicable performance requirements at the planned takeoff weight.08 . Takeoff at reduced thrust is permitted with any inoperative item affecting the performance.04. or the actual OAT. with the operating engines at the thrust available for the assumed temperature. only if the associated performance shortfall has been applied to meet all performance requirements at the takeoff weight.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Limitations Page 159 of 171 Reduced Thrust Takeoff (Source: FCOM 3. Takeoff at reduced thrust is not permitted on contaminated runways.01.

4.1 Cockpit Preparation (Source: FCOM 3. 9.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. 3.3 qts/h) (off – on -> check) battery charge currents are below 60 A and decreasing min. LO if number of PAX < 115 LO if number of PAX < 85 (A320) (A319) Pack flow selector: HI for abnormally hot and humid conditions NORM for all other operating cases Altimeters max.5 V (ensures charge 50%) charging cycle about 20 minutes do not use APU Bleed with external Airconditioning connected -> valve damage between 2000 and 2700 PSI (full pedal deflection).5 qts/h) A319: min.3.4 . 25. 10 minutes if one IRS has a residual ground speed greater than 5 knots complete a fast alignment on all 3 IRS. 800 psi (2 Crew / 40°C) * min. difference between ADR1 / 2 / 3 and ISIS: 100 ft (on ground) Instr. 11 qts + estimated consumption (0.5 qts + estimated consumption (0.2 Operational Limitations 21.2.34 FLIGHT INSTRUMENT TOLERANCES Engine oil quantity: Battery: A320: min. if no 1000 PSI limiter installed APU: Brake pressure check: IRS: full alignment ca.34) Oxygen pressure: min. 1300 psi (+2 observer / 40°C) * * If below check FCOM 3.04.08 . difference between ADR1 and ADR2: 20 ft (on ground) max.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Limitations Page 160 of 171 21. 3.6 . 1000 psi (+1 observer / 40°C) * min.4.3.

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21.2.2 Taxi (Source: FCOM 03.03.10) N1 Taxispeed Brake fan: max 40% max 30 kt straight ahead max 10 kt in turns If an arc is displayed on the ECAM WHEEL page above the brake temperature, select the brake fans on prior brake temperature reaches 260° C max. 300°C with brake fan off. max. 150°C with brake fan on.

Break temperature for T/O:

Icing (Sorce: FCOM 3.3.9) Note: Icing conditions may be expected when the OAT (on the ground and for take-off), or when TAT (in flight) is 10° C or below with visible moisture in the air or standing water, slush, ice or snow is present on the taxiways or runways. During ground operation when engine anti ice is required and OAT is plus 3 deg C or less, periodic engine run-up to as high a thrust setting as practical (70 % N1 recommended) may be performed at the pilot's discretion to centrifuge any ice from the spinner, fan blades and low compressor stators. There is no requirement to sustain the high thrust setting. The run-ups should be performed at intervals not greater than 15 minutes. Subsequent takeoff under these conditions should be preceded by a static run-up to as high a thrust as practical (70 % N1 recommended) with observation of all primary parameters to ensure normal engine operation. 21.2.3 Before Take Off (Source: FCOM 03.03.07) Start IGN START if heavy rain or severe turbulence is expected after takeoff.

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21.2.4 Take Off (Source: FCOM 3.3.12; 3.5.6 ;3.1.28; 3.1.70 ; FCTM 020.50) max demonstrated crosswind T/O max demonstrated crosswind LDG max tailwind A320 A319 Max Pitch at Rotation without Tailstrike Max Pitch after T/O Separation due to wake turbulence: (Source: EAG ERM, ICAO RAR 12.28.2) behind heavy aircraft (>136’000kg) same position intermediate position 2 min 3 min 29kt, gusts 38 kt 33kt, gusts 38 kt 15 kt 10 kt 11.7° (A320) 13.5° (A319) 18°

Time limit for T/O & GA: Fuel:

5 min. / 10min. OEI Takeoff on center tank is prohibited. Max. Imbalance of outer Tank is 590kg

Icing (Source: FCOM 3.4.30) Icing conditions may be expected when the OAT (on ground and for takeoff), or when the TAT (in flight) is at or below 10°C, and there is visible moisture in the air (such as clouds, fog with low visibility of one mile or less, rain, snow, sleet, ice crystals) or standing water, slush, ice or snow is present on the taxiways or runways 21.2.5 After Take Off / Climb (Source: FCOM 3.3.12) Packs: Note: Select PACK 1 ON after CLB thrust reduction Select PACK 2 ON after a min. 10 seconds waiting period but not later than Flaps are set to zero. Selecting pack ON before reducing take off thrust would result in an EGT increase. Selecting both packs ON simultaneously may affect passenger comfort.

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Flight instrument tolerances (Source: FCOM 3.4.34) Altimeter: max. difference between ADR1 and ADR2: max. difference between ADR1 / 2 / 3 and stby altimeter: 55ft (FL100) 130 ft (FL390) 185 ft (FL 100)

21.2.6 Cruise Turbulence (Source: FCOM 3.4.91) Above FL200 Below FL 200 275 kt or Mach 0.76 (which ever is less) 250 kt

Icing Conditions (Source: FCOM 3.4.30 OPERATIONS IN ICING CONDITIONS) ENGINE ANTI ICE must be ON during all ground and flight operations, when icing conditions exist, or are anticipated, except during climb and cruise when the SAT is below - 40° C. ENGINE ANTI ICE must be ON before and during a descent in icing conditions, even if the SAT is below - 40° C.

21.2.7 Approach

max demonstrated crosswind T/O max demonstrated crosswind LDG max tailwind A320 A319 auto LDG max tailwind auto LDG max crosswind auto LDG max headwind Speedbrakes NOT usable for configuration:

29kt, gusts 38 kt 33kt, gusts 38 kt 15 kt 10 kt 10 kt 20 kt 30 kt FULL (A319, A320) FLAPS 3 and FULL (A321)

Instr.GuideA320

Revision: 4

Effective Date: 25.04.08

3) Behind a heavy acft: All other cases 5Nm 3Nm 21.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Limitations Page 164 of 171 Wake turbulence radar separation minima (Sorce: ICAO RAR 12. to allow thermal equalization and stabilization and thus avoid oxidation of brake surface hot spots. Engine shut down minimum 3 minutes after LDG.08 .GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.28.3.03.21) Pitch Bank Full reverse max 10° max 7° min.9 After Landing (FCOM 03.8 Landing (Source: FCOM 3.23) • • if above 30° C OAT consider Conf 1 Brake fans selection should be delayed for a minimum of about 5 minutes. or done at the gate (whichever occurs first). if full reverse used • Instr. 70kt 21.04.2.2.

24) Above 21 kt Maximum wind for passenger door operation : 65 knots Maximum wind for cargo door operation : 40 knots (or 50 knots. Report (The IR part of the ADIRU must be considered as failed). if the excessive deviation occurs after two consecutive flights). Maintenance action is due in the following cases : • The temperature difference between the 2 brakes on the same gear is greater than 150°C.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Limitations Page 165 of 171 21. or • The difference between the LH and RH brakes' average temperature is higher than or equal to 200°C or • A fuse plug has melted or • One brake's temperature exceeds 900°C IRU Performance On POSITION MONITOR page Residual ground speed check: Below 5kt 6-14 kt 15-20kt ok perform a fast alignment Report (The IR part of the ADIRU must be considered as failed.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.3. wait at least 10 seconds before switching off the electrical supply to ensure that the ADIRS memorize the latest data. or brake temperatures are likely to exceed 500°C. Instr.24 .11 Leaving Aircraft (Source: FCOM 3.3.08 . 3. and the temperature of one brake is lower than or equal to 60°C.2.04. use the brake fans. 40 kts Keep parking brake on with wind speeds above: 21. or the cargo door is on the leeward side).25) After having switched off the ADIRS.4. and the temperature of either one of the brakes is higher than or equal to 600°C or • The temperature difference between the 2 brakes on the same gear is greater than 150°C.3. if the aircraft nose is oriented into the wind. Drift 5nm or below (in all other cases consult FCOM 3. disregarding possible oxidation phenomenon.10 Parking (Source: FCOM 3. parking brake application should be avoided unless operationally necessary When turnaround times are short.32) Brakes • above 500°C.2.

before switching off the batteries Instr.04.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.08 .A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Limitations Page 166 of 171 Wait until the APU flap is fully closed (about 2 minutes afte the APU AVAIL light goes out).

GuideA320 .08 B BARO BAT BCL BCDS BITE BIU BFE BMC BNR BRG BRK BRT BSCU Barometric Battery Battery Charge Limiter Bite Centralized Data System Built-in Test Equipment Bite Interface Unit Buyer Furnished Equiptment Bleed Air Monitoring Computer Binary Bearing Brake Bright Braking Steering Control Unit Instr.04.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Abreviations Page 167 of 171 22 Abreviations A ABN Abnormal AC Alternating Current A / C Aircraft ACARS ARINC Communication Addressing and Reporting System ACP Audio Control Panel ADF Automatic Direction Finder ADIRS Air Data Inertial Reference System ADIRU Air Data Inertial Reference Unit ADM Air Data Module ADR Air Data Reference ADV Advisory AEVC Avionics Equipment Ventilation Computer AFS Auto Flight System AIDS Aircraft Integrated Data System AIL Aileron AIU Audio Interface Unit AMU Audio Management Unit ANT Antenna ALS Approach Light System ALT Altitude ALTN Alternate A / P Auto-Pilot APPR Approach APPU Asymmetry Position Pick off Unit APU Auxiliary Power Und ARPT Airport AS Airspeed ASAP As Soon As Possible ASI Air Speed Indicator A / SKID Anti Skid ATC Air Traffic Control ATE Automatic Test Equipment A/THR Auto Thrust Function ATS Auto Thrust System ATT Attitude AWY Airway BTC BTL Bus Tie Contactor Bottle C C Centigrade CAPT Captain. Capture CAS Calibrated Airspeed C / B Circuit Breaker CBMS Circuit Breaker Monitoring System CDL Configuration Deviation List CDU Control Display Unit CFDIU Centralized Fault Data Interface CFDS Centralized Fault Display System CG Center of Gravity CHG Change CIDS Cabin Intercommunication Data System C / L Check List CLB Climb CLR Clear CMD Command CMPTR Computer CO Company CONT Continuous CO RTE Company Route CPCU Cabin Pressure Controller Und CRC Continuous Repetitive Chime CRG Cargo CRS Course CRT Cathode Ray Tube CRZ Cruise CSCU Cargo Smoke Control Unit CSD Constant Speed Drive CSM / G Constant Speed Motor / Generator CSTR Constraint CTR Center CTL PNL Control Panel CVR Cockpit Voice Recorder D DA Drift Angle DAR Digital AIDS Recorder DC Direct Current DDRMI Digital Distance and Radio Magnetic Indicator DES Descent DEST Destination DEU Decoder / Encoder Unit DFA Delayed Flap Approach DFDR Digital Flight Data Recorder DH Decision Height DIR Direction DIR TO Direct To DISC Disconnect DIST Distance Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.

04.08 . Feet FT/MN Feet per Minute FU Fuel Used FWD Forward FWC Flight Waming Computer FWS Flight Waming System G GA Go Around GCU Generator Control Unit GEN Generator GLC Generator Line Contactor GMT Greenwich Mean time GND Ground GPCU Ground Power Control Unit GPS Global Positioning System GPWS Ground Proximity Waming System GRND Ground GRP Geographic Reference Point GRVTY Gravity GS Ground Speed G/S Glide Slope GW Gross Weight F FAC Flight Augmentation Computer FADEC Full Authority Digital Engine Control System FAF Final Approach Fix FAP Forward Attendants Panel FAR Federal Aviation Regulations FAV Fan Air Valve F / C Flight Crew FCDC Flight Control Data Concentrator FCU Flight Control Unit FD Flight Director FDIU Flight Data Interface Unit FDU Fire Detection Unit Instr. Hot Hydraulic Control Unit Heading Heading Selected Handle High High Intensity Effective Date: 25.GuideA320 H H HCU HDG HDG/S HDL HI HI Revision: 4 Hour.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Abreviations Page 168 of 171 DITS DMC DME DMU DSDL DSPL DTG DU Digital Information Transfer System Display Management Computer Distance Measuring Equipment Data Management Und (Aids) Dedicated Serial Data Link Display Distance To Go Display Unit E E East ECAM Electronic Centralized Aircraft Monitoring ECB Electronic Control Box (APU) ECM Engine Condition Monitoring ECON Economic ECP ECAM Control Panel ECS Environmental Control System ECU Engine Control Unit EDP Engine Driven Pump EFCS Electronic Flight Control System EFIS Electronic Flight Instrument System EFOB Estimated Fuel On Board EIU Engine Interface Unit EIS Electronic Instruments System ELAC Elevator Aileron Computer ELV Elevation ELEC Electrics EMER Emergency EMER GEN Emergency Generator ENG Engine EO Engine Out EPR Engine Pressure Ratio ESS Essential EST Estimated ETA Estimated Time of Arrival ETE Estimated Time en Route ETP Equal Time Point EVMU Engine Vibration Monitoring Unis E / WD Engine / Waming Display EXT PWR External Power EXTN Extension FF Fuel Flow FGC Flight Guidance Computer FIDS Fault Isolation and Detection System FL Flight Level FLSCU Fuel Level Sensing Control Unit FLT Flight FLT CLT Flight Control FMA Flight Mode Annunciator FMGC Flight Management Guidance Computer FMGS Flight Management Guidance System FMS Flight Management System F/0 First Officer FOB Fuel on Board F-PLN Flight Plan FPA Flight Path Angle FPPU Feed Back Position Pick-Off Unit FPV Flight Path Vector FQI / FQU Fuel Quantity Indication / Unit FREQ Frequency FRT Front FRV Fuel Retum Valve FT Foot.

GuideA320 N N Normal. Meter MAC Mean Aerodynamic Chord MAG Magnetic MAG DEC Magnetic Declination MAG VAR Magnetic Variation MAINT Maintenance MAN Manual MAX CLB Maximum Climb MAX DES Maximum Descent MAX END Maximum Endurance MB Millibar MCT Maximum Continuous Thrust MCDU Multifunction Control and Display Unit MCU Modular Concept Unit MDA Minimum Descent Altitude MECH Mechanic MEL Minimum Equipment List MFA Memorized Fault Annunciator MI Medium Intensity MIN Minimum MKR Marker MLS Microwave Landing System MLW Maximum Landing Weight MMEL Master Minimum Equipment List MMO Maximum Operating Mach MN Mach Number MRIU Maintenance and Recording Interface Unit MSA Minimum Safe Altitude MSG Message MSL Mean Sea Level MSU Mode Selector Unit (IRS) MTBF Mean Time Between Failure MTOW Maximum Take-Off Weight MZFW Maximum Zero Fuel Weight K KG KT Kilogram Knot L L Left LAF Load Alleviation Function LAT Latitude LAT REV Lateral Revision LAV Lavatory LCN Load Classification Number LDG Landing L / G Landing Gear LGCIU Landing Gear Control Interface Unit LGPIU L/ G Position Indicator Unit LH Left Hand LIM Limitation LS Localizer Inertial Smoothing LK Lock LL Latitude / Longitude Instr.04. North NACA National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics NAV Navigation Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25. Mach.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Abreviations Page 169 of 171 HLD Hold HMU Hydraulic-Mechanical Unft HP High Pressure HPTCC HP Turbine Clearance Control HPV High Pressure Valve HUD Head Up Display HYD Hydraulics HZ Hertz I IAF Initial Approach Fix IAS Indicated Airspeed IDENT Identification IDG Integrated Drive Generator IFR Instrument Flight Rules IGN Ignition IGV Inlet Guide Vane ILS Instrument Landing System IMM Immediate INB Inbound INBO Inboard INCREM Increment INIT Initialization INOP Inoperative INR Inner INST Instrument INTCP Intercept I/O Inputs / Outputs I/P Input or Intercept Profile IP Intermediate Pressure IPC Intermediate Pressure Check-valve IPPU Instrumentation Position Pick-off Unit IRS Inertial Reference System ISA International Standard Atmosphere ISOL Isolation LLS Left Line Select Key LOC Localizer LONG Longitude LP Low Pressure LPTCC LP Turbine Clearance Control LRRA Low Range Radio Altimeter LRU Line Replaceable Unit LSK Line Select Key LT Light LVL Level LVL/CH Level Change LW Landing Weight M M Magenta.08 .

A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Abreviations Page 170 of 171 NAVAID Navigation Aid (VOR / DME) ND Navigation Display NDB Non Directional Beacon NM Nautical Miles NW Nose Wheel QAR Quick Access Recorder QFE Field Elevation Atmosphere Pressure QFU Runway Heading QNE Sea Level Standard Atmosphere Pressure (1013 MB) QNH Sea level Atmosphere Pressure QT Quart (US) QTY Quantity O OAT Outside Air Temperature OBRM On Board Replacable Module OFF / R Off Reset OFST Offset O/P Output OPP Opposite OPT Optimum OUTB Outbound OUTR Outer OVBD Overboard OVHD Overhead OVHT Overheat OVRD Override OVSPD Overspeed R R RA RACC RAT RCDR RCL RCL RCLM RCVR REL REL REV RH R /1 RL RLSK RMI RMP RNG RPM RPTG RQRD RSV RTE RTOW RWY RWYM Right.GuideA320 S S South SC Single Chime S / C Step Climb SD System Display STAT INV Static Inverter S / D Step Descent SDAC System Data Acquisition Concentrator SDCU Smoke Detection Control Unit SEC Spoiler Elevator Computer SEL Selector SFCC Slat / Flap Control Computer SFCS Slat / Flap Control System SFE Seiler Furnished Equipment Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.04.08 . Red Radio Altitude Rotor Active Clearance Control Ram Air Turbine Recorder Recall Runway Centerline Lights Runway Centerline Markings Receiver Release Runway End Lights Reverse Right Hand Radio / Inertial Runway (Edge) Lights Right Line Select Key Radio Magnetic Indicator Radio Management Panel Range Revolution per Minute Repeating Required Reserves Route Regulatory Takeoff Weight Runway Runway Markings P P-ALT Profile Altitude P/B Push-Button P-CLB Profile Climb PCU Power Control Unit P-DES Profile Descent PDU Pilot Display Unit PERF Performance PFD Primary Flight Display PHC Probes Heat Computer P-MACH Profile Mach POB Pressure Off Brake P-SPEED Profile Speed POS Position PPOS Present Position PPU Position Pick-off Unit PR Pressure PRED Prediction PROC Procedure PROC T Procedure Turn PROF Profile PROG Progress PROTEC Protection PSU Passenger Service Unit PT Point PTP Purser Test Panel PTR Printer PTU Power Transfer Unit (Hydraulic) PVI Paravisual Indicator PWR Power Instr.

Go-Around TOGW Take-Off Gross Weight TOW Take-Off Weight T-P Turn Point T-R Transmitter-Receiver TRANS Transition TROPOTropopause TRK Track TRU Transformer Rectifier Unit TTG Time to Go W W WHC WPT WTB WXR White.GuideA320 Revision: 4 Effective Date: 25.08 . Total Tactical True Air Speed Total Air Temperature To Be Determined Top of Climb Traffic Collision Alert System or Threat Analysis / Collision Avoidance System T / D Top of Descent TDZ Touchdown Zone Lights TEMP Temperature TGT Target THR Thrust THRL Threshold Lights THS Trimmable Horizontal Stabilizer TK Tank TK Track Angle TKE Track Angle Error TMR Timer TLA Throttle Lever Angle TO. Take Off TOGA Take-Off .04. Turn.A320 LINE TRAINING SUMMARY Abreviations Page 171 of 171 SID Standard Instrument Departure SIM Simulation SLT Slat SOV Shutoff valve SPD Speed SPD LIM Speed Limit SPLR Spoiler SRS Speed Reference System STAR Standard Terminal Arrival Route STEER Steering STRG Steering STS Status SW Switch SWTG Switching SYNC Synchronize SYS System UFD ULB UNLK UTC Unit Fault Data Underwater Locator Beacon Unlock Universal Coordinated Time V V V1 V2 VBV Vc VEL VFE VFEN VFTO VHF VHV VIB VM VMIN VMO VOR VOR-D VR VREF V/S VSI VSV Volt Critical Engine Failure Speed Take Off Safety Speed Variable by pass valve Calibrated airspeed Velocity Maxi Velocity Flaps Extended VFE Next Vetocity Final Take-Off Very High Frequency Very High Voltage Vibration Maneuvering Speed Minimum Operating Speed Maximum Operating Speed VHF Omnidirectional Range VOR-DME Rotation Speed Landing Reference Speed Vertical Speed Vertical Speed Indicator Variable Stator Vane T T TACT TAS TAT TBD T/C TCAS True. West. Weight Window Heat Computer Waypoint Wing Tip Brake Weather Radar X XCVR XFR XMTR XPDR XTK Transceiver Transfer Transmitter Transponder Cross Track Error Y Y Yellow Z ZFCG Zero Fuel Center of Gravity ZFW Zero Fuel Weight U Instr.