F O R LIBRARY
From JEERAGE K. BASAVAPPA, B. A, 2, Cottonpet, Bangalore City.
South India.

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Thou sert young and I was old. long before the marriage of Uma.BASAVESVARA THE FOUNDER OF THE VIRASAIVA LINGAYET RELIGION OR " Long before (the wearing of) Kajiya Kankala. long before the destruction of the three Funis. B . ] . A . Basavappa. O! Kudala Sangamadeva the Great Giver. long before Hari and Virinchi. long long long before." [Picture by Jeerage K.

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T H E AUTHOR MR JEERAGE BASAVALINGAPPA RETIREO HEAD-TRANSLATOR HIGH COURT OF MYSORE .

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SOUTH INDIA. Sadasivappa Jeerage.PREFACE. BASAVAPPA. A short discourse on * the Scriptural Authorities of the Virasaivas or Lingayets' written in English by the author is appended to this translation. It is being discussed and argued from all quarters by all persons. I must not forget to mention here my thanks due to M r . my brother. JEERAGE K. 2. Jeerage Basavalingappa. become an open question. T H I S is a translation of the little Kanarese work entitled written by Mr. BAHGALORE CITY. The foundership of the Virasaiva or Lingayet Religion has. COTTON PET. for his help in compiling the Index to this translation. provided they are based on facts and figures and not on whims and fancies. both in print and on platform: and it is a very important question and I am sure it is worth all the discussion and argument. Quotations which are not found in the original but whose sources only are mentioned. my father. It is with a view to throw some light on the true history of the religion that this little work was written but never with any party spirit: and with the same view it has now been translated into English. 2 . of late. are inserted in this translation with explanatory notes for the ready reference of the reader: and they are shown within brackets.

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date and place are known prior to Basavesvara. Marujasiddha. The history of the pre-Basavesvara period has to be related after historians make more investigation. It is learnt that there had been in existence prior to Basavesvara only Lakulisa and other Saiva mathas (monasteries). of late. till now. They. . No mention is made of the word Vltaiaiva or (the fundamental characteristic features of Viraiaivism. but not Vlrasaiva mathas. it will be found that copious proofs have not. some are contemporaries of Basavesvara and some are posterior to him. If an enquiry is made as to whether Virasaivism existed prior to Basavesvara. Among Revaijasiddha.) Astdvarana. EkOrama and Visvaradhya. namely. Pandita. Pasupata Saiva. who were at first Kalamukha and other Saiva Gurus. Lakulisa Saiva. come forth. but no reference has been made to Vlraiaivisnu No name of sany Virasaiva celebrity can be found. Mention is made only of Saiva. Kalamukha Saiva and other divisions. who are.WHO IS T H E FOUNDER OF T H E VlRASAIVA OR LINGAYET RELIGION ? EN Virasaiva Religion W H came the celebratedhave tobybewhom it was into existence and founded—are matters which investigated. Panckachara and Salsthala either in any of the inscriptions or in any of the independent works whose authorship. radhya. became Virasaiva Gurus at the time of Basavesvara and their mathas (monasteries) were established after Basava. addressed as Panchacharyas.

no mention is made of Lingadharana or the word Virasaiva or Saisthala in the said work from the beginning to the end. D . [In the first sthala of the said work. It is as follows:— Besides. and the " Ramanatha .2 That Revarasiddha was at first a Lakulisa Saiva may be seen from the " Revanasiddha Ragale" written by Hampeya Harisvara in 1165 (?) A . Revanasiddha. D . while being taken by the Chola king to the Visrtu temple. may be seen from the "Ekorama Purana" written by Haradanahalli Nanjanacharya in 1650 A . showing thereby that Revanasiddha was a Saiva before he became a Virasaiva or Lingayet.] That Ekorama was at first a Saiva and afterwards became a Vlrasaiva by the deity Raman&tha Linga of Mudanuru. is described as one having the characteristics of a Lakula. under the name of Pinnanka.

showing that Ekorama received Vlrasaiva Dikse from the deity Ramesvara Linga. that Basava had. that he had gone to Kalyana to see Basava. He was performing: his religious rites as a Suddha Saiva. Thereupon Ekorama determining himself to receive the Virasava Dikse.D. [How Ekorama became a Virasaiva is well described in the seventh and eighth chapters of the " Ekorama Purana. went to Mudanur temple and there received the Dikse at the hands of the deity and became a Virasaiva. Tirumuia and others. become absorbed into . by that time." Volume I I . Just then Sankhukarna Ganadhlsvara came from Kailasa and explained to Ekorama about the greatness of the Virasaiva doctrine. Manikyavachakar.Vilasa" written by Sadasivayogi in 1554 A." As regards " Ramanatha Vilasa". is given here:— That Panditaradhya was younger than Basava." an abstract of which is given here in English:— "Ckorama was devoted to Ramanatha Linga of Mudanuru and was worshipping it. He was also devoted to Tirujnani. the extract given in the " Kavicharitre.

D . that he (Panditaradhya) wrote " Basavamahatmya Gita" in praise of Basava. D . the " Aradhya Charitra" written by Nilakanthacharya in 1485 A . may be seen from the " Samskrita Pandita Charitra" written by Gurur&ja Kavi in 1430 A. Panditaradhya. namely. the relevant portion of which is quoted here:— Tt^t^the aforesaid four persons.D. Revanasiddha." Volume I.. [The substance of all these three works is given in a nut-shell in the " Kavicharitre.4 Sangamesa (Linga). Ekorama and . and the " GururajaChSritra " written by Siddhananjesa in 1650 A .

Marulasiddha. D . through Nirlajja Santiah. explained the eight Pathas of Samadhi (the eight ways of union. to eight different batches of them. Ekorama. of whom Revanasiddha. complying with their request. The extract relating to this reads as follows:— . Panditaradhya and some others formed the fifth batch which was shown the fifth Patha of Bayala Samadhi.5 Marulasiddha came to Sivdnubhava Mantapa (the house of religious experience) of Basava and obtained Jangamasthana (priesthood) in the presence of Allama may be seen from the Vacliana written by Sangana Basavesvara in 1600 A . and that Allama Prabhu. [ I n his Vachana Sangana Basavesvara says that Basava and others requested Allama Prabhu in the Sivanubkava Mantapa (the house of religious experience) at Kalyana. to enlighten them on the different ways of Samadhi (union with God) they should adopt.

M. with those mentioned in Harisvara's "Revanasiddha Ragale". The incidents mentioned in the six stanzas of this inscription tally. may be seen from the " Chaturacharya Purana" written by Sampadaneya Parvatesvara in 1698 A. Bommarasa's "Revanasiddha Purana"...D. the Nizam* s Dominions [published by Dr. word lor word. M. the stone inscription of the Saka year 1109. of Sirivala. in the " Sivanubhava" Magazine for the month of May 1929] may be seen. $. in the temple of Siddhalingevara. Mallanna's "Revanasiddha Kavya". but he also lived after him for twenty years.A. Nandimatha. Basavanka's "Revana Sangatya" and .D.S. (London). Revanasiddha not only lived during the time of Basavesvara.C. corresponding to 1187 A.R.6 That Revanasiddha received Virasaivopadesa (initiation in the Virasaiva tenet) at the hands of Allama.A. For this.S.

[The inscription containing the six stanzas runs as follows:— 3 .7 a portion of the stanzas of Sacjaksari's "Rajafiekhara " (relating to the story of Revanasiddha).

who pardoned him and entertained the whole city with the Payasa. that. crossed the stream by his own will-power. begged pardon of Revanasiddha. Vira Bijjala being struck with awe. Vira Bijjala offered him boiling Payasa (a kind of sweet gluey food) which Revanasiddha rubbed against a pillar. in consequence. without using the ferry-boat. of course. . at Mangafavada.8 The incident mentioned in the first stanza is that Revanasiddha entertained the Royal Town (rook tf Utf) with Barbala rice. This is exactly the popular story narrated in the aforesaid works. This is. Revanasiddha. that when Revanasiddha begged the King Vira Bijjala for alms. The incident mentioned in the second stanza is that when the stream became flooded. the palace of Vira Bijjala caught fire and that thereupon.

that the K i n g V i r a Bijjala had. being himself a Siddha. that. indeed. The incident mentioned in the fourth stanza is that Revanasiddha. seeing it assume the form of a serpent. in Mangalavada. she meditated on Revanasiddha for help.9 the well-known story. showed . that Revanasiddha melted the Suragi and drank it and that Goraksa immediately feeling a burning sensation in his stomach surrendered himself to Revanasiddha who pardoned him and saved him. upon which Revanasiddha made the earth shake. and that he easily took out the Suragi and offered it to Bijjala. at Kollapura. that he asked Sule Mayidevi to give away her only daughter. upon the advice of a Karpara Jogi. The incident mentioned in the third stanza is that when once Revanasiddha uttered the word SiddJta (one versed in occult science). written in the works referred to above. several maidens to be sacrificed to enable him to take out the long-coveted Suragi (sword) from the river of Masanuru. all people took objection to the same. that he was short of one maiden to make up the required number. thereupon. the familiar story. This is. kept in prison. defeated the Karpara Jogi and drove him out and walked over the river allowing Bijjala to come in the boat. that Goraksa. who. that Revanasiddha immediately came from Kasi. took objection to Revanasiddha's calling himself a Siddha and caused a Suragi (sword) given to him as alms. requested Revanasiddha to put it in its original place. related in the said works.

This is again the famous story that is narrated in the above-said works. This is again the well-known story. D . he stopped the shaking of the Varadaraja deity in Kanchi to the great joy of the devotees. T h i s is to be investigated. That portion of the inscription which relates to the date is given below:— . The incident mentioned in the last sixth stanza is that Revanasiddha took to dancing. . written in the aforesaid works. at Mangalavada. that Revanasiddha behaved as a mad man on one occasion when he worked in the house of Ganada Kallisetty mentioned above and on another occasion when. it is not clear to what event this refers in the works mentioned above. I t will be seen from all this. he gave Tavanidhi to Ganada Kallisetty and his wife and ended their poverty. The incident mentioned in the fifth stanza is that Revanasiddha entertained the king with music. as already mentioned. of Ganada Kallisetty. put on the appearance of a Manila (mad man) and made people think that he was furious. assuming the name of Pinnaka Nayanar. The date of the inscription is Saka year 1109 which corresponds to 1187 A . that when Revajjasiddh* was working in the house. that the incidents contained in a concise form in the several stanzas of the inscription tally with the incidents narrated elaborately in Harisvara's " Revanasiddha Ragale" and other works mentioned above. Unfortunately.10 Tavanidhi (treasure).

ment of Basava. it will have to be noted that it is also written in the same . Dvyaksara. and Visvakarna. Trimukha. and that it is written in the "Svayambhuvsgama" that there had been born in the three Yugas previous to them.—then. and Panchamukha. Ghantakarna. Tryaksara. namely. Chaturaksara and Panchaksara. Gajakarna. the four or five persons. who worked in furtherance of the move. next Ekamukha. Dvimukha. are of Kaliyuga. Daruka. first RSnuka. namely. on the contrary. Chaturmukha. If it is argued. and next Ekaksara. Revariasiddha and others. that the aforesaid five persons. Renukcharya and others cannot be said to have founded the VIrasaiva Religion.11 I have discussed all about this in detail in the "Sivanubhava" Magazine for the month of June 1932 and the same may be seen. For these reasons.

Nilalohitaganesa in Tretayuga. Basava alone will be the originator of Viraiaivism in the previous yugas. For the present. Nirmayadeva in Tretayuga. whose authorship.12 "Svayambhuvagama" that Allama Prabhu was Niranjanadeva in Kritayuga. Siva will have to be considered as the founder of the Virasaiva Religion. date and place are known. As it is written in the " Yogajagama" that Siva came down in the form of Anadi Bhakta and preached Astavarana. Vrusabhaganesa in Dvaparayuga and Basavaganesa in Kaliyuga. just as he is the originator in Kaliyuga. are found out. It is written that Basava too was Skandaganega in Kritayuga. A l l the Vachanakaras and all the independent authors have written that Basava is An&di Bhakta (Bkakta existing from beginningless time). The authorship. the authorship. If the Agamas. Panchachara and Satsthala. date and place of the Agamas are not known. history has to be built upon the Vachanas of Basava and other Pramathas (saints). from a philoso" . date and place of which Vachanas are known. If the foundership of the VIrasaiva Religion has to be determined only on these philosophic thoughts. All these things are stated only from a philosophic view. something can be said as regards historical truth. even then. Niskaladeva in Dvaparayuga and Prabhudeva in Kaliyuga. From a philosophic view another point may be noted. then. but they are not historical facts. All the Agamas which contain the aforesaid facts are those that have been added after Basava in the heat of philosophic imagination.

It is written in the Vachanat of Adisetty as follows:— . during the last period of Basava and others). and it is also seen that they were not known to Basava and other prominent Saranas (saints) in the early part of the period. But they have been addressed merely by their respective names. instead of being addressed as Panchacharyas or Chaturackaryas. As Renukacharya and others were at first Saiva gurus and as they. But from a historical view.. namely. their names have been left out in the Vachanas of the prominent Saranas. That is why Basava and others have not referred to their names. according to the " Sangana Basavesvara vachana" and the " Chaturacharya Purana" referred to previously. There can be no other founders of the Virasaiva Religion than Siva and Basava. It is written in the " Yogajagama" as follows:— It is seen that the five persons. The names of these four persons appear in the Vachaitas of later Saranas. Renukacharya.13 phic view. Basava alone will have to be considered as the founder of the Virasaiva Religion for the reasons stated previously.e. visited Basava and others in their last period (i. Marujasiddha and others had not got the appellation Panchdcharyas at the time of Basava.

. though Renukacharya and others lived at the time of Basavesa and though they worked in furtherance of the movement of Basava. the term Panchacharyas has been given to them at a later time for distinguishment.14 For these reasons.

He was sent out to tour the country. The other Pithas of the aforesaid five Gurus went on being established after Basava as the rules and regulations of Virasaivism got formulated. Hearing this news the said Muktimuni invested his disciple Ajata Bhiksavritti Svami with Patta at Srisaila and sent another Digambara Muktimuni to Malenadu to vanquish the Jains. alone is the first Pitha. built a temple near Honnuru. After touring many countries. At that time. took out (the image of) Vireia from the river. Then the said Digambara Muktimuni came to Malenadu. gained victory over the Jains. This Rudramunisvami had a disciple by name Muktimuni. he came to the throne of Srigiri and stayed there. The Sunya Simhasana instituted by Basavefia in Kalyana and ascended by Srimanniranjana Jagadguru Allama Prabhudeva.T H E FIRST PITHA (PONTIFICAL THRONE) AMONG THE VIRASAIVA GURU PITHAS. Then. in Malenadu the Jains had removed (the image of) Virabhadresvara and had thrown it into a river and had caused trouble. Among them Rudramunisvami is one. some Charapatis remained in Kalysna alone in secrecy. and installed the . When the Pitha of Balechalli was established is given below: It is known that when the catastrophe befell the town of Kalyana. the Sivasaranas scattered in different directions.

to 1559 A . that Ekorama. who was a . As the Jangama Matha formerly built by Sllavanta Nayaka at Kasi had become non-existent. He also built a Jangama Matha at Himavatkedara. Then. D . This fact may be seen in the ninth chapter of the fifth part of the " Channabasava Purana" written by Virupaksa Pandita in 1584 A . Thereafter. It is seen from the work " Keladinripa Vijaya" written by Lingakavi. received honours at the hands of the Padusaha of Delhi and built a Jangama Matha called "Chavaliki Mandai" at Delhi. D . had a duel with one Ankusakhana in Delhi and defeated him. he built there the village of Balehalli and ascended the Simhasana (pontifical throne). he invested one of his Champatis with Patta and attained Sivayoga Samadhi (union with God). This Doddasankanna Nayaka went touring the country in the disguise of an Atita Jangama. that some Plthas came into existence in the reign of the Virasaiva k i n g Doddasankanna Nayaka whoruledfrom 1546 A .16 image therein. with the intention of punishing the wicked people." mentioned previously. It is written in the "Keladinripa V i j a y a " as follows:— As it is seen from the " EkOrama Purana. he (Doddasankanna Nayaka) purchased a site and built a Jangama Matha again. D .

For these reasons. Doddasankanna Nayaka built Jangama Mathas at Gaya. have styled themselves as Matasthapakas (founders of religion) ia their works on the ground of having worked ia connection with Virasaivism. D . after Basava. Similarly. was invested with Patta at Mudanuru alone when he became a Virasaiva after obtaining Lingadharana from his personal deity Ramanatha Linga of Mudanuru. it is clear that the Jangama Matha at Kedara was built later on by Doddasankanna Nayaka. Prayag and many other places. Doddasankarma Nayaka built a Mat/ia newly at Nepal. Some people. it can be seen that the term Matasthapaka is used in the case of Renukacharya and others merely out of people's fancy. It is written in the " Keladinripa Vijaya " as follows:— In the same manner. For example:— In 1430 A . Gurubasavakavi addressed himself as .17 Saiva at the time of Basavesvara. but historically Basava alone is the Virasaiva Matasthapaka (the founder of the Virafoiva Religion) for the reasons already stated.

Immadi Tontadayya calls (his) hero Vajrabahu as In 1560 A . Panchachara and Saist/tala. As it is stated. under inspiration. D . * I f . Sampadaneya ParvateSvara in stating the genealogy of his Gurus writes.18 In 1530 A . Virakta Tontadarya writes about himself in the "Satakatraya T i k e " as In 1698 A . Basav&rSdhaya writes about himself in the "$ivay5gapradipike" as " 0?d^3 Though. As Basava alone is the cause of Astdvarana. that according to the " Yogajagama" even Siva came down in the form of Anadi Bhakta (Bhakta existing from beginningless time) and related Astavarana. previously. Siva becomes the founder of the Viraseiva Religion on the ground of his having uttered the Agamas. Panchachara and Satstha/a. Basava alone is the originator of Virasaivism. D . D . historically Basava becomes the founder of the Virasaiva Religion on the ground of his having uttered the Vachanas* . philosophically. " wddo In 1700 A . different people have each. I say that Basava alone is the founder of the Virasaiva Religion. called themselves as Matasthapakas in the abovesaid manner. they cannot be regarded as Matasthapakas. D . after Basava.

all the Virasaiva independent authors and other authors have written that Basava alone is the originator of Virasaivism. From the time of Basava down to the present day. I quote here only a few authorities:— Allama Prabhu writes in his Vachana as follows:— Gururaja Kavi. as told by PanditSrSdhya.19 The statement that Basavesvara is historically the Matasthapaka (founder of religion) is a true Statement. as follows:— The King of Keladi (Basavappa Nayaka) writes in his "Sivatattvaratnakara " as follows:— Mogge Mayideva writes in his " Satakatraya "" as follows:— Chamarasa writes in his "Prabhulinga Lile" as follows:— " rook ^KT^rtT^o riorttf lite afctomr." . in the " Gururaja Charitre " writes.

. Sri Jagadacharya Virupaksa Vodeyar says that Nandisvara alone is the originator of Viraiaivism according to a dictum of a Risi which runs as follows:— .A. J. N. writes in his " History of Mediaeval Hindu India.Litt. M. V. then all the Vira6aivas will have to accept the same.A. the prime-minister of the state founded the Virasaiva sect. as follows:— [" Basava's doctrine was so distinct and novel that he must be considered the founder of a new sect.B. But if any scholars make more historical investigations ana show that the Virasaiva Religion was founded by some others prior to Basava... that Basaveavara alone is the founder of the Virasaiva Religion."] Mr. Farquhar. M.. LL.20 M r . of the Bombay University. Vaidya. D. C. writes in his " Primer of Hinduism " as follows:— [" At Kalyan in the Marajha country in the 12th century." written in English."] Thus it will be seen from some of these investigations.

(London). under the name of Silavantanayaka. that after Basavesa a certain Saratta by name Kalaketi Brahmayya obtained. M. a Vana (wood) known as " Harikesavananda " from the K i n g Jayachanda in 1185 A . according to historical investigation. pleased the Padusaha of Delhi by his valorous deed. Nandimatha. (1) D r .S.R. that Doddasankanna Nayaka. D .A. that the work "Kejadinripa V i j a y a " written by Lingakavi and the work " Sivatattva Ratnakara" written by Basavaraja K a v i are authorities for the same and that the present " Jangamavadi M a t h a " is the same Matha (mentioned above). (2) Sri Gurulingadevaru of Belgaum (Camp Kasi) writes in the "Sudarsana. that it is the opinion of the scholars that the ViraSaiva Religion could not have been in existence prior to the eleventh and twelfth centuries A . C. obtained help from him and got again the very site and established a Jangama Matha. writes in the " Sudarsana.A. ." a M a h a r a j a paper of Sholapur. that it fell into the hands of the Mussalmans. at Kasi. the K i n g of Kejadi. S.. and established there a Jangama Matha." a Mahar a j a paper of Sholapur. went on a tour round the country. M.A D D I T I O N A L FACTS. dated 12th March 1934. D .

It is the Guru who makes the Bhakta. Among the Virasaivas nothing is won by caste. Bhakta (layman) has one kind of status and Guru (clergyman) has another kind of status. A l l should work for the Virasaiva community on the principle that all who wear Linga are one.WORDS O F A D V I C E T O T H E COMMUNITY. It should be borne in mind that only the Vachanas of Basava and other Pramathas are the scriptural "authorities of the Virasaiva Religion. The Lingayets should be zealous about their religion. Lingayets should always wear Linga on the body. Differences exist only in religious status. Everything is won by occupation. [ L e t Basava be their friend. philosopher and guide and let his Vackana—" None is lower than myself and none higher than theSivabhaktas"—be ever their motto. One should not become proud that he is a Bhakta and one should not become elated that he is a Guru. Anybody can take up any occupation. Linga is always a religious symbol for the Lingayets. There are different occupations. They should work for its progress. People of all occupations are equals. ] . It is the Bhakta who becomes the Guru. There are no caste distinctions among the Virasaivas.

It begins to make its appearance in the Upanisats in place of the word Rudra which is the name of the Storm-God in the "Rigveda". The word Siva. It can be seen from the Vachanas of Basavegvara and his colleagues that it is Basava that gave Linga first to Animisayya and through Animisayya to Allama Prabhu. and through Allama Prabhu to . Sri Basavesvara. The Vedas are not their scriptural authority. The Linga dharana (the wearing of Linga on the body) which is also a distinguishing characteristic of the Lingayets is not treated in the Vedas. The chief tenets of the Lingayets which are embodied in what are called Satstkala (the six steps to salvation). Astavarana (the eight environments) and Panchachara (the five religious observances) are not related in the Vedas. There is much confusion as to what the scriptural authorities of the Virasaivas or Lingayets are.APPENDIX. Scriptural Authorities of the Virasaivas or Lingayets. though accepts the monotheistic conclusion and the omnipresence of God in the last part of the Vedas. which is the name of the deity of the Sivaworshippers in general. he condemns outright the polytheism of the earlier part of the Vedas and the killing of animals in the Yejnas (Sacrifices) which is the essence of the Vedas throughout. is also not found in the early part of the Vedas.

told him that next morning he would see a Linga coming out from the mouth of the image of Nandi (sacred bull) in the temple and that he should wear it on the body. at the age of sixteen. who in turn gave Linga to Siddharama. after waking up in the next morning. gave up the Brahmanical thread and going to his personal deity Sangam§Svara and sleeping there in a night. From this story it can be inferred that Basava wore the .) According to Hampeya Harivara's " BasavarajadSvara Ragaje". Accordingly. dreamt that Sangamesvara appeared in human form and. In a dialogue between Allama and Channabasav as to from whom they got Linga." by Guluru Siddavlrana chary a. Basava. he found die Linga and wore it on the body.24 many others. He also gave Linga to Channabasava. quarrelling with his parents. Channabasava says toAllama in his Vachana as follows:— (Vide Chapter on Channabasavarajadevara Sampadane" in the " Sunya Sampadane.

As regards the Agamas and other works. he gave rise to what is called the Vachana Literature which is vast in extent. In doing all that is necessary for propounding his liberal doctrines. T h e earlier portions relate to the Saivas and the later portions relate to the Vlrasaivas or LingayetsIn the work " Siddhanta Sikhamani" it is thus stated:— Thus it can be seen that some special portions of the twenty-eight Sivagatnas are the authorities of . The Vachana Literature must be considered as the original scriptural authority of the V i r a £aivas.25 Linga himself in the presence of the deity and that no one else gave it to him. As the poet Hampeya Harisvara is one nearer in time toBasavesvara than the other Lingayet authors. It can be seen from the above facts that it is Basava that is the cause of all the achievements regarding the Virasaiva or Lingayef Religion. I have to say a few words. his narration may be more relied upon than those of the later authors. There are what are called twenty-eight Sivagatnas which are considered as the authorities of the VIra6aivas. T h i s Vachana Literature is the source of all the subsequent authorities which rose up after Basava. But the whole of them are not the authorities.

it is necessary that the religious works of the Virasivas of Lingayen must be separately grouped together and treated as additional . Each te quite separate from the other. the Purayas treat of Siva. The same thing has been done with the Puranas also. Gubbi Mallanarya and others call the special portions as "Virasivagamas". as the tenets of Viraiaivism or Lingayetism are quite distinct from the tenets of other sects and as Virasaivism or Lingayetism has got an independent characteristic. only in one instance. Visnu and other matters. It can be seen that the separate Agamas treating of Virasaivism or Lingayetism have been added later on to the older Saivagamas. If there is a Saiva " Paramesvaragama". just as it was done in the case of the Agamas and the Puranas as mentioned above. there is a separate Virasaiva " Paramesvaragama". The Upanisats also have not been left out. many authors such as Mogge Mayideva. For the purpose of making a distinction. In the earnestness to give prominence to the Virasaiva Religion. While all. have been compiled and added.26 the Virasaivas. works called " Lingadhatantipanisat " and " Vlralaingyopanisat". By 'special portions' it should not be understood that the Saiva portions and the Vlraiaiva portions are mixed up. treating of the Virasaiva Religion. Whatever it may be. the portion treating of Virasaivism has been added to them in toto later on and is given the name of " Sankara Samhite ".

some of the later Lingayets have made bold to say that their religion is Vedic and have striven to prove it by trying to give an import of Lingadhdrana to some passages of the Vedas. In the order of scriptural authorities. with which Basava and his colleagues worked in proclaiming their worldwide doctrines and in starting a new schism. bold and anticaste spirit. to the independent scriptural authority of the Vachanas which stand separate unlike the other works referred to above. the Vachanas of Basava and his colleagues occupy the first rank and the others a secondary rank. . It is unfortunate that the independent. while Basava and his colleagues condemned caste system and the animal sacrifices of the Vedas although they accepted the monotheism of the final part of the Vidas.27 scriptural authorities. in forming their judgment about the Virasaiva or Lingayet Religion. It is for this reason that. Subsequent to Basavevara there have been some departures in some works in point of history and doctrine. began to fall down after about two hundred years from Basava for the reason that some later Lingayets began to be swayed by the influences of the surrounding society with regard to social and religious practices and began to cover up the liberal principles taught by Basava and his colleagues in their Vachanas to give a false orthodoxical appearance to Basava's society. which the research scholars must not lose sight of.

28 Conclusions have to be scriptural authorities. proclaimed in the Vachanas by Basava and his colleagues as to the true doctrines of Virasaivism or Lingayetism and not from some later scholars ivho have deviated from the paths of Basava and his colleagues. . Basava is an original man and has proclaimed his own doctrines and has founded his own schism and has handed down his own scripture.

Basavappa Nayaka. 16. 18. Channabasava Parana. 5.14. Animisayya. 16. 5. Dikse. Virasaiva. 16. Channabasava.28. Chavaliki Mandai. 4. 9. 16. Basava. 23. 15. 12. 2. 22. B—Contd. Basavaganesa. 12. .19. Basavaradhya.6. 15. Anadi Bhakta.INDEX.) A Adisetty. 12. 24. 23. 15. Aradhya Charitra. 18. the Virasaiva King of Keladi. Basavarajadevara Rag'aje. ( The figures denote the numbers of Pages. 17. 3. 16. 27. 1. 19. 11. Bijjala. Chaturmukha. 13. Basavesvara (see Basava). 12. 4. 24. 12.19.17. Asfavarana. Bommarasa. Chaturaksara. 1. the king of Keladi. Barbala rice. Doddasankanna Nayaka. Dikse.ll. 15. 16. 24. 2 1 . Dvaparaynga. 18. 5. B Balehalji. 25. Allama Prabhu (see Allama). Agama. A jika Bhiksavritti Swami. 16. 2 1 . 26. Chaturacharya Purana. 23. Channabasavadevara Sampadane. Basavesvara. Dvimukha. 11. Charapatis. 2 1 . 5. Digambara Muktimuni. 12. C Chamarasa. 19. 15. Chaturacharyas. 17. Ch6|a King. 24. 18. 6. 1. 3. 18. 19. Basavanka. 6. 13. Basavamahatmya Gita. 8. 24. 13. Bhakta. 12. Bayala Samadhi. 14. 3. Basavesa (see Basava). 20. 15. Allama.20. A t i t a Jangama. 23. Delhi. Basavaraja Kavi (see Basavappa Nayaka). 15. Dvyaksara. 27. D Daruka. 11. 16. 1 1 . Ankusakhana. 6. 6. 23. 12. 24. Allama Prabhu Deva (see Allama). 23. 25. Sri (see Basava). 13. 4. 1 1 .18.

15. Guruhasava Kavi.12. 24. Lingadharanopanisat. 20.30 E Ekaksara. 18. Mallama. Jangama Matha. Guru. 21. 21. 4. 9. 15. 2. Gururajacharitra. Ekdrama Purina.2. Ekdrama.2.ll. 17. Jangamasthana. Kalamukha 6aiva. 5. M Malenidu. 3. 24. Kaliyuga. F Farquhar. Mr. 11. 5. 15. Kavicharitre. 11.19. 15. Jayachanda. History of Mediseval Hindu India.titt. 17. 25. 3. Karpara Jogi. 1. 3.19. 27. 1. 2. 16. 23. 1. Kedara (see Himavatkedara). L Lakula.3. 18. Jangamavadi Matha. 21. Harikesavananda. Linga Kavi. 10. Kalamukha. Ghansakarna. 26. 6. 16. 16.A. 17. Kalyan. 15. 2. Kasi. 17 Keladinripa Vijaya. 16. 11. Lingayet. Gubbi Mallanarya. Gaya. 23. 4. Lakrfisa. 5. 22. 1.D. Ganada KaMsetti. 16. N. 9. 21. 10. 3.20. Gdraksa. Gurulingadevaru. GQ|uru Siddhaviranacharya. 21. 22. Kalyana (see Kalyan). 9.. 24. 12. Kalaketi Brahmayya. Eikamukha. Kritayuga. 21. 20. . Harisvara (set Hampeya Hari svara). Kanchi. 6. 25. 28. 23. 9. 1. 28. 22. Lingayetism. 17. Koltapura. Lingadbarana. H Hampeya Harisvara. 10. Linga.4. Gajakarna. 11. 25. K Kailasa. 2. Gururaja Kavi. 27. HonnOru.17. 26. J. M. 21. 21. 4. G J Jains. 2... 21. 10. I Immadi Tontadayya.16. Lakulisa Saiva. Himavat Kedara.

3. Xi d. Majhas. Pitha. Muktimuni. 6. Matha. Nepal. 2. 14. Nirmayadeva. 1.S.V+ Panchamukha. Pasupata Saiva. Nanjanacharya. 6. 1. 2 . 19. 5.13. 5 . HaradanahalJi. 10. 24. Nilakan|haeharya. Mudanur temple. 6. the first.13. 6. 11. 2. 10. 18. 15. Renukacharya. Pramathas. 8. 1 . 19. N Nandi. P Padusaha of Delhi. 26. Ramanatha Vilasa. Revanasiddha Kavya. 7. Mangajavada. (London). Viraiaiva. Prabhulingalile. Panchachiryas. Nilalohitaganesa. 1. Nandimatha.l. Mathas. 17. 2. Ramanatha Linga. 6.R A. 12. 17. Paramesvaragama. 12. 13. 11.10. 10. 26. Paysa.13. 12. 5. Panchacharyas. 2. 1. Revanasangatya. 12. 15. Ramesvara Linga.M—CMM. 8. 3. Niskaladeva. 12.A. Dr. 4. 22. 16.18. Maru|a. 3. Nandlsvaia. Mogge Mayideva. $aiva. 17. 6 . &. Panditaradhya. 15. 7 . 5. 9. 15. 12. Revanasiddha Parana. MatasthSpaka. M. 4 . 20. 16. 10. Puranas. 11 Panditacharitre. the river of. 3. Niranjanadeva. Samskrita. Paachaksara.14.12. Virakuva. Pinnaka Nayanar (see Pinnanka). 26. 1. . 17. Marujasiddha. 23. Pitha of Bajehalli. 17. 21. 1. 3.19. 11. 1.16 Prabhudeva (see Allama). 26.17. Revanasiddha Ragale.21. 3. 8 . Primer of Hinduism. Saiva. Renuka. Masanuru.SC. 20. Manikyavachakar. 11. 2. Panchachara.3. Revanasiddha. 9. Pithas. Patta.. 17. M. Pinnanka. 4. the appellation. 21. Nirlajja Santayya..17. Prayag. Paramesvaragaina. R Rijasekhara. 15. 4. MudanUru. 10. 9. 2.

21. 13. Rudramumswaml. 2. Tryaksara. 13. Saiva. Sankara Samhite. 19. 3. Sangamesa (Linga). Sivagamas. S Sadaksari. Siddhanta Sikhamani. Satakatraya. 3. 11.28. 5. the word. Sangana Basavesvara. 24. 15. 5. 3.2. Tirujfiani. Saiva Gurus. 9. Sunya Sampadane. 15. Vachana. Upanisats. 18. 12. Sangana Basavesvara Vachana. 21. Srisaila. Buddha Saiva. 15. Sangamefivara. Silavanta Niyaka. 6. 18. 24. the temple of. Satakatraya Tike. 26. 4. 19. 23.25.12. 16. 12. Sule Mayidevi. 21. 13. 6. Tirumula. Sampudaneya Parvatesvara. Saivlgamas (see Sivagama). Saranas. Simhasana. Rudra.13. 3. 12. 10. Sirivala. 1. Vachana literature (set Vachanas). Siddharama. Sivabhaktas. Rigveda. Sivanubhava Magazine. . 15.2. Siddha. 5.23. 16. 25. Trimukha. 26. 4. 24. S—Contd. 21. Siddhalingesvara. Samadhi. 12. 26. Sivayoga Samadhi. 7.32 R—Contd. 23. 23.12. Sudarsana. 6. V Vachanaklras. Sadasivayogi. 18. 18. Siva Saranas. 25.l.27. 15. the throne of. 6.17. Sunya Simhasana.18. 22. Sivatattva Ratnakara. Sivanubhava Mantapa. 18. the word. 11. Srigiri. 22. 5.11. Tretayuga. 15. 13. 1. Satsthala. 9. Svayambhuvagama. Sivayogapradipike. 19. 23. 26. Sankukarna Ganadhisvara. 16 SkandaganeSa. 9.24. 11. Suragi (sword). 12. Siva. T Tavanidhi. Sntathala. Slddhanajesa. 3. 23.

6. 18. 19. C. 28.A.—Primed at The Bangalore Press. Virasivigamas. 3. 12. Virasaiva Gurus. 17. 11. 26. Virupaksa Vodeyar. Viraiaiva. 8. Visnu temple. Vrisabhaganesa. Superintendent. 10. 20. 18. Bangalore City. Vajrabahu. 26.. the deity. 13. V—Contd. 9.. Vira Bijjala (see Bijjala). 23. 12. Sri Jagadacharya. Visvaridhya. V . VarailarSja. Yogajagama. 27. Y Yejnas. L L B. 1. 26 Viresa. 23. Subramanir Aiyar. Virasaiva. the word. Mysore Road. 18. M.33 V—Contd Vaidya. 2. 22. Virasaiva Matasthapaka. 20. VirabhadreSvara. 1. 20. by T. 26. 17. 25. 15. Virakta Tontadarya. 18. Viralaingyopani§at. Mr. 2. 15. 1. Vedas. Virasaivism. 16. Virupakasapandita. 26. . 23. 2199-34. VirasaivupadeSa. 17. 2. 12. Visvakarna. 1. 15.

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