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Greenaway’s Mirror Shakespeare

Shakespeare’s The Tempest Recreated

A thesis by Imre Radnai 2010


The paper aims at studying the relationship between the ways, and different modes of artistic articulation, imagery and the making of images could be presented on the late Renaissance Shakespearean stage and in postmodern cinema. In the first part of the thesis, the author attempts to take into consideration those studies in criticism that converge to show how Shakespeare in his romances, and particularly in The Tempest, experimented to give an overwhelming /all encompassing presentation through a harmonious synthesis of dramatic forms, theatrical modes and the utilisation of new theatre technology in his performances, exceeding the limitations of his contemporary stage. In the late romances -by consciously thematising the nature of illusion by and within creating illusions-, Shakespeare directs attention to artistic mediation as a reflection of our human capacity to perceive different spheres of reality and our human stance. Through his blending of different theatrical modes with their matching analogous allegoric themes in action -with an underlying approach to self-reflexivity and complex handling of time as common denominators- Shakespeare could lead his audiences to a unique perception of what we could describe as the staged images of time and thought. The result, according to Lucking, is the experience of The Tempest’s island as a place -that is out of space and time-, is an experience that entirely becomes “the country of the mind”1. This mode of articulation could peel off place and time from the plot resulting in a transcended, abstracted spatial-temporal phenomenon. I propose, Shakespeare’s fascination with visuality and developing a freer dramatic form, suggested by his poesis in the play, could be analysed relying on Henri Bergson’s term of the image and Gilles Deleuze’s notions of the crystalline structure, time-image and anyspace-whatever. These ideas motivated the author to consider these properties of the drama the forerunner of modern and postmodern cinematic phenomena, and modes of expression in some respects. The unique temporal properties - the sequencing of the play with the condensation and unfolding of its imagery in the rigid dramaturgical framework - the first scene, the inserted show elements of the banquet and the masque scenes, could all be interpreted as the embryonic expressions of modern and postmodern cinematic representations articulated in Prospero’s Books via: sequential montage, framing and picture in picture techniques, superimposed images. Also, the unfolding of the emblematic imagery

Lucking, p.21.


on stage, applying Jacobian theatre technology, could result in an analogous impact on its audiences as a cinematic or multimedia performance of today, focusing on audio-visual perception while calling for reflection. The pre-modern stage of the play functions much like the screen of postmodern cinema, as a place of problematization and thinking through representations.

The second part of the thesis tries to seek -through formal indicators in both works of art- the spirit joining their authors in their visions. Self-reflexive imagination, using allegories and the experimentation with different media have always played an important part in the postmodern film director and painter, Peter Greenaway’s works -making him a however crucial though controversial, crucial author for several theorists of film studies- urge his audiences to realize that a film is, first of all, a construct –a created illusion, an artifice- and should be dealt with as a unique mechanism that helps our comprehension of the nature of illusion and reality. By deliberately blurring the borderline between different media whether presented on film or in live “staged” performances, he also takes inspiration from deconstructivism, experimenting with all possible visual methods to reveal the “thin air” on which a piece of art is grounded. In this respect, his adaptation of The Tempest, Propsero’s Books, is an audio-visual journey of exploration and experiment to recreate Shakespeare’s text on celluloid. The director is faithful to the original body of the text by incorporating almost all the lines of the drama –the fact further emphasized by the performance of the re-known classic actor of Prospero, Sir John Gielgud in the movie -, thus paying tribute to the Bard and the Shakespearean tradition. GreenawayThe director also shows his joining spirit to the drama in his inserted extra narrative. By his method of translating and structuring the imagery of the text as well as the imagery of the epoch, he Greenaway leads his spectators to perceive time as “out of joint” via the digital technology providing him with vast possibilities to propel pictures on the screen to convey the images of memory and thought, rendered through according to an extravagant and complex design. By the dramatized reflections on ng the creative process and the different modes of representations within the piece, the viewer could receive a cinema of ideas. The production on celluloid also turns back upon itself following Shakespeare’s attitude, to overcome its own formal limitations by utilising new techniques and state-of-art digital technology. His productions are also apostrophized as “the cinema of excess” demonstrating his interest in the relationship between filmmaking, the making of art and the history of visual culture2.


Peter Greenaway’s Postmodern/Poststructuralist Cinema p.38.


leading the writer of the thesis to call the production an emulation of “The Tempest experience”. 4 .The author of the film provides direct instances for the mode of articulation evolved by the filmic medium of modern and postmodern cinema. The film could be realised to be conscious of itself as an artifice. crystal image and the image of thinking. defined as the time image. a zone that is open. and raises awareness in its audiences.

his attraction to visuality and his problematization of theatricality suggested by his latest masterpiece.turns the stage with its events into a borderline. The second part of the paper finds the practices of postmodern cinema unfolded in Greenaway’s adaptation of the play. and reality – it is the place of differentiation and merger. I would propose.Being Caught to Be Released Throughout the first part of the thesis I make an attempt to explore whether Shakespeare’s complex poesis unfolded by The Tempest through particular depictions could not be interpreted as embryonic expressions of phenomena later deployed in the modern and postmodern “cinema of thinking”. artifice and Gille Deleuze’s notions of the crystalline structure. Shakespeare’s unique dramatic mode and his imagery in performance of The Tempest –mostly through its inserted scenes and visionary descriptions. the primary element in the construction of meanings. the sequencing of the drama with the compression and unfolding of its imagery by the first scene and the inserted show elements of the banquet and the masque scenes. The analysis of the first sequence of the film tries to outline Greenaway’s approach to the filmic image with its “preverbal” properties. While the stage is also a space of reflections --by differentiating between dreams. while he deliberately unfolds his process of creating his filmic universe in front of us. Such scenes translate the subordination of movement to time. Jacobian theatre technology in the rigid dramaturgical framework. Prospero’s Books. and coinciding actuality and virtuality. These qualities represent the Deleuzian phenomena of the timeimage and the image of thinking in modern cinema that lead audiences to gain the experience of the vital impetus as well as different qualities of time by the artifice. timeimage and any-space-whatever. postmodern references to 5 . through self-reflection. relying on the Cinema volumes by Deleuze. the unique temporal experience. the making of his devised illusion. resulting in a temporal experience Bergson termed as duration. The director follows Shakespeare by providing an insight to the creative process of his artifice. could all be interpreted as the embryonic expressions later unfolded by modern and postmodern cinematic articulations via: framings.and picture in picture.techniques as well as the application of different camera movements. an art that could be a “philosophical programme” and become “the friend of the thinker”. Also we can trace his references to different literary and dramatic structures (pre-modern. The chapters summarise the theatrical modes in Shakespeare’s epoch. different montage. The analysis relies on some of Henri Bergson’s key terms: image. He accords Deleuze’s claim about the medium that has become thinking by its own means. over-bridging interiority and exteriority. body. visions.

The “airy spirit” leaves not only the narrative framework but the screen as well by running from the background towards the foreground. Bergson and. the director metaphorically releases Ariel in the last frames of his work. Prospero’s Books by enumerating meta-theatrical elements reflects Shakespeare’s attitude to his medium and emulates the original play by displaying meta-theatrical and meta-cinematic devices of expression. He provides his spectators with a pluralistic vision to allude to the creative impetus in his strategy. He demonstrates a fluid view of art in a paradoxically rigid framework.Jacobean and baroque modes as well as the French new novel) contributing to the genesis of film conveyed by his complex extra discourse and extravagant imagery. thus the interpretation of the film itself. 6 . Thus we can find the vital analogies of art and life and the making of reality by illusion through the joint multifocal vision of Greenaway. he demonstrates how different meanings are constructed and provokes the audiences to participate in the construction and reconstruction of meanings. By means of his strategy of representation. In the final sequence of the film. Deleuze. jumping out of the frame and off the screen into the auditorium. leaving the mere moving film image behind. while reminding us with Shakespeare of the finite and illusory qualities of representations and the infinity of the whole of reality. virtually. having deconstructed its own universe built up by the first sequence. analogously to the drama. Greenaway in his equivocating adaptation joins the releasing spirit of Prospero/Shakespeare to call for participation and emphasises the capacity of his medium and art for “free play”.

deriving from ποιέω: a kind of “making/creating …in the soul through the cultivation of virtue and knowledge” defined by Plato in the Symposium. the themes of his major plays from the based on its Biblical sense by which the world was created. the “overcoded” verbal instances. is apparent throughout Prospero’s magic. and overcoding. for which he applied Jacobian theatrical technology. typical of the emblematic theatrical mode. the meaning of the metaphor. 3 7 . “All the world is a stage. we experience how Greenaway creates his filmic Shakespeare’s late masterpiece to explicate the idea of his stage as a site for problematising epistemological issues of his age by representing his imagery. The teatrum mundi topos common to Renaissance audiences had been thoroughly explored and developed by Shakespeare throughout his career. The induction of The Taming of the Shrew with its jest on the poor beggar is not only a framework. a condensed five-act play which has not too I use the term ποίησις. In The Tempest all the possible theatrical devices. seem to be unfolded in this final masterpiece. aiming at audio-visual perception. to display the nature of illusion and art. (http://en.” the topos is phrased in As You Like It. In the analysis of the complex opening sequence of the film in the second major part of the thesis. I try to shed light on the role of image . and it could be his last play with all its encompassing effect that elevated its spectators to enter and experience. techniques and forms of presentation available in the late Renaissance are enumerated and submitted.may also help our understanding of theatrical representation and the meta-theatrical property of the play. And all the men and women are merely a special new image we know by affections “from the inside” and find inserted in the universe . The power of the word is emphatic. Shakespeare provides an extensive view of the human stance and capacity in his final opus by revealing the creative/magical process behind a devised illusion with the systematic reflection on the same illusion. By incorporating all the key genes. The word.wikipedia. following the Bard’s lines to explore his approach to the body and human existence. In this genesis there is a movement beyond the temporal cycle of birth and decay.relying on Bergson’s definition of the term as a key phenomenon by which human reality is constituted an intermediary between perception and memory . are obvious in the play.We are tossing on what illusions? In the following chapters. as the source of power to create. also referring to its derivation ποίησις: ‘magical procedure’ regarding the theme of magic in the drama. to elicit catharsis during its reception. are both reflected and used respectively by Greenaway’s adaptation as well. The notion of the body according to Bergson . the DNA map of Shakespeare’s poïesis3.

much to do with the very plot, but an induction to the idea of theatre itself, a direct analogy and proclamation for off-stage spectators. This upbeat directs attention to the problem of transforming men into spectators and actors. The opening scene of The Tempest is rich in this respect in verbal allusions and images launching the play’s allegorical mode, and is suggestive from a structural point of view as well. The episode on the “brave ship” with its passengers could function as such a compositionally and dramaturgically organic introduction to the rest of the story and induction to the play itself. The perspective of the sequence underlies the notion: we are not yet in the spatial realm of the plot, on the island, we are at sea. The classical unities of the play, are gradually made evident to the audience throughout the course of dramatic events, and are reflected upon by recurring references in dialogues. However, the very scene at the beginning is the only action in progress that does not take place on the magical island of Prospero4. The emphatic function of the first moments is also relevant if we take into account the staged objects of the show, the props enchanting the people of the pit or the spectators of the court, by state-of-art theatre technology typical of Jacobean masques. This unique feature, different from all the previous plays, the direct audiovisual effect resulting in an affect, diverges from the conventional Elizabethan dramaturgy and theatrical fashion of introducing the dramatic space and evoking the atmosphere via verbal communication, performed in dialogues or detailed descriptions by the characters. On the contrary, everything in the opening scene is for the eyes and ears - depicted by the first lines of the drama through stage directions:
“SCENE 1 On a ship at sea; a tempestuous noise of thunder and lightning heard. [Enter a Master and a Boatswain]”5

Later not only the spectators, but most of the characters on stage, are further captivated by delicately devised illusions, the fine show of the banquet scene and the inserted masque itself. As the audience is first shocked through a pure audio-visual perception, sympathy could be more effectively evoked between performers and spectators during the first minutes. The initial event is a vehicle regarding the mimetic aspect of the play whose function is to introduce sympathetic engagements, compassion, as well as it is the basis for revealing the

The awareness of the relentless quality of time is evoked –the clock-time of the plot is synchronized to the time of presentation experienced during the performance- as well as the references by different characters actually roaming on the isle, are all demonstrative of the strict dramaturgy. 5 Throughout the thesis I use the Shakespeare Navigator on-line edition of The Tempest available at



nature of illusion within the drama. But neither the characters aboard nor the audience of the performance have found safe ground, we are thrown in a tempesta, we are in violent commotion and disturbance, as we are thrown into relentless tempus6another theme characteristic of the late masterpieces.
"The hour`s now come; / The very minute bids thee open thine ear. / Obey and be attentive."

These lines demonstrate, at the beginning, how thematic and theatrical meanings spring up from the words of the play. The “minute bids” us, spectators, too. Miranda is addressed by Prospero right after his daughter recounted her visionary perception about the shipwreck that we reckon to be real within the narrative, according to the first scene. Thus, both temporal axes -the time of the narrative and that of the performance- get synchronized. The unities are so rigorously kept throughout the story that in the final act Alonso remarks that it has been just three hours he and his son got shipwrecked. Prospero lays down his magic garment:
Lie there, my art. Wipe thou thine eyes; have comfort. The direful spectacle of the wreck, which touch’d The very virtue of compassion in thee, I have with such provision in mine art So safely ordered that there is no soulNo, not so much perdition as an hair Betid to any creature in the vessel Which thou heard’st cry, which thou saw’st sink. Sit down; For thou must now know farther I.ii.30-38

Moreover, he confirms the visionary aspect of reality, the storm has just abated; however, while giving comfort to her daughter, he immediately corrects her. The tempest was raised by magic, we are informed it was held under the control of Prospero and no passengers of the vessel were hurt. The “potent art” of the father created the events by foreseeing the conjunction “the most auspicious star” of “bountiful fortune” signalled him to summon his enemies ashore. The theme of the controlling figure of his created reality has already appeared in As You Like It and in Measure for Measure. Gradually, instead of holding up the mirror to nature, the emphasis is on the visionary with creative capacity, finally taking the figure of the

The title is most suggestive as Northrop Frye pointed out, the etymology roots in Latin tempus. “The sense evolution is from “period of time”, to “period of weather”, to “bad weather”, to “storm”. The figurative sense is from the early 14th century “violent commotion”.


mage who raises the storm, but we must “know farther”. We also learn the controller figure cannot avoid the effect of his created reality on himself, since it works upon himself as well, and he should meet it as the unexpected. In The Winter’s Tale, the other late romance centred on the theme, time is presented as an artificer and as the force of nature speaking of “his7 scene” and “his8 play” shifting the focus on the relationship between nature and art in harmony. The authorship in the piece is addressed to “great creating nature” suggesting there is no distinction between art and life, celebrating the triumph of art. Throughout The Tempest, the theme of art is further developed by Shakespeare merging with the quantized, mechanic aspect of time to draw upon the limitations of art. Many in the 17th century began to see the formerly animal Platonic universe as mechanical, and mind was still placed apart, a designer after the divine creator, the primum movens. Restraint, strictness, discipline are some of the key values leading to freedom, enumerated in the plot, woven into the relentless shape of temporality as condition. These characteristics are also reflected in the composition of the play. The design is extremely conscious of itself. Scenes are paired into mirror scenes and there are only nine of them, the fewest in number, since A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Rose claims. His study outlines the idea as follows9:












He pairs the following scenes thematically pointing out the 5th scene as the axis. [S1-The Epilogue], S2-S8; S3-S7; S4-S6. I would suggest that we should add the first scene and the epilogue to the arches. Rose does not comment on them when discussing the symmetry of scenes however the balance is still kept with the thematically relevant 5th scene in the middle, marking a turning point where with the young couple alone by vowing their love seal as a potential regenerative power the pure beginning of the “brave new world” to come is anticipated. The opening scene, matched to the epilogue, could create the framework for the plot since they both address the audience directly though in different ways. They are binary opposites, considering the fact, the harsh induction utilises and presents the spectacular side of the theatre experience on the greatest scale -drawing the audience by affect and technology into its illusion-, while the Epilogue is a
7 8

Italics by me Italics by me 9 Rose: p. 173.


but a demonstration that it has already dismantled itself. Hillis Miller. [University of California Press. 1975. Prospero applies the hegemonistic mode of exercising power.fine passage recited concluding the deconstruction10 of all such visionary illusions and thus of release. the magic that belongs to the revenge cycle of the romance is finally “abjured” as “rough”. 34) 11 Stephen Orgel: The Illusion of Power: Political Theatre int he English Renaissance p." Georgia Review 30 (1976). Ariel. The experience. to the human and natural domain of compassion. The redemptive cycle of the play is not governed by the cogito of the mind.and off-stage spectators. he has to face the unfathomable again. 67. practically escapes to his studies in Milan. for the “bettering” of his mind. Prospero. but thin air. one of the properties of dynamism. the spirit of nature enslaved by Prospero draws the magician’s attention from the abstractions of his plotting. The first scene could be interpreted as the submersion in the late Renaissance show par-excellence also typical and favourite scenery that time –the equivalent of present time mega-cinema productions applying the latest technologies available. the court audience saw the models of the universe devised by the sophisticated machinery of masques.that occurs to him as unexpected. has its impact on him as well. The phenomenon further echoed in similarly eye-catching scenes leads towards the recognition of such instances by both on. However. the enchantment is generated through scenic emblematic fiction. but by the spirit of love and the power of 10 “Deconstruction is not a dismantling of the structure of a text. On the island he devices his prescience he probably learnt from his books in his study to take revenge. neglecting “worldly ends” that provokes his exile –the result of violating the natural order. p. "Stevens’ Rock and Criticism as Cure. 11 . is evoked in the first scene and developed to be reflected upon by the characters’ comments. Also. showing an interest in the “magic”power that makes something visible by allying with the forces of technology to gain control. As Stephen Orgel thinks. his alienation from the whole of reality and his indebtedness to his modelled world of thought . The magic. as the demonstrations of the divinity of the human mind. produces fictions to become reality. Descartes’ cogito. from computer animation to 3D imaging to convey favourite action scenes. a shift to the modern epoch. of being enticed by the spectacle – either the spectators of the experience are off the stage. his models in thought. Its apparently-solid ground is no rock." (J. or on the stage within the plot-. It well reflects the change of attitude towards an ocular vision that becomes the power of Jacobean theatre. Still. as science.and the storm image analogous to a disturbed and enticed consciousness. the “mind’s eye”. There is a process of differentiation as well as a process of integration throughout the drama.11 The technical and artistic instruments organize knowledge to imprint the world with the models of thought that has its source in reason. the process of regeneration he commenced.

The play conveys the creative powers through the figure of Prospero with the limitations of art by deconstructing the speculum mundi phenomenon as another facet of the teatrum mundi topos. In this sense. the Bard reflects upon the limitations of seeing. The drama suggests a release from theatre. rather the opposite. Shakespeare consciously reflects upon his art and achieves a freer dramatic mode within a disciplined dramatic structure. providing a harmony between Art and Nature. practiced knowledge and representations. but finally he is turned to realise his true Self by the help of the “airy spirit” to release him “back to the elements” and among us. Thus. art as self-sufficient and conforming to the „logic of creation”. we could realise his holistic attitude to find his artifice turning towards the whole of reality. by the Epilogue. the motor of the enchanting magic that liberates. as it not only turns out from the narrative. the divinity of the mind could be revealed as wisdom --an awareness of the balance regarding the relations between nature. Prospero knows how to set Ariel free and knows how to enslave him. Prospero’s science “art”. kép. true Self-realization and regeneration is a communal event and requires participation. László Kovács sheds light upon this question in his essay: Írás. and in the final analysis. Peter Hallward explicates the differentiation between the „logic of creation” and „logic of causation” claiming with Deleuze. the power of regeneration. We could say the creative process embeds deconstruction to bring the releasing quality of art to fruition. We could realise how Shakespeare finds and frees the creative impetus of art. from the world of illusions. the force of life and parts it from “rough magic” he finally abjures –the application that imposes models-inthought on the world. that also interprets the idea to the theatre. It is not the diminution of the human mind. both sharing the quality of transition.13some other probable qualities of an artifice the paper revisits relying on Bergson’s approach. science and art . 13 These issues and attitudes taken in the play suggest a convergence of the pre-modern and the postmodern epochs. but also from the centre of reflections regarding the sequence of the play. Moreover.test in Apertúra: http://apertura.compassion. it is 12 12 . To complete his realise the human Self. from the Epilogue.from the “logic of causation”12. through reflections and inspection.

accompanied by “soft” music. Of his bones are coral made. "The Elements of Typographic Style") http://www." (Robert Bringhurst. After long practice.” I. the poet. is a weaver. The scribes made this old and audible abstraction into a new and visible fact. guiding all the shipwrecked during their wanderings on the wondrous island. are part of the symbolic nature of the piece. their work took on such an 14 13 . as well as through different references to music by the characters.but the true storyteller. Nothing of him that doth fade But doth suffer a sea-change Into something rich and strange. demonstrative of Shakespeare’s mode of articulation exploiting the auditory faculty of perception. sounds and noises. to shift the focus to an intuitive mode of perception towards “heavenly music”. Sea-nymphs hourly ring his knell: [Burden: Ding-dong. The simple ditties of Ariel. The “sweet music” and cacophonous noise. Those are pearls that were his eyes.etymonline. The air is full of music. and the raconteur is a spinner of yarns -. The songs of the airy spirit also function as a chord of colourful threads in the symbolicmetaphoric fabric of the play as a complex artistic composition. flexible texture that they called the written page a textus.] Hark! now I hear them-Ding-dong bell. regarded as core elements in the semiotics of the play. which means cloth. They propel symbols.461-467 Metaphors build up allegories to embody the development of themes conveying major issues as: The idea of ‘performance text’ refers to the term textus : "An ancient metaphor: thought is a thread. “[ARIEL'S SONG] Full fathom five thy father lies. inescapable for the audience at performance. could be interpreted as a direct representation of the interwoven nature of the play as performance text14.What music can we hear? The finding of Shakespeare criticism to entitle the play to be the most musical piece of the ouvre could be easily realised through the design regarding the performance -most characteristically the inserted Masque.

15 The ability to listen to the music of the spheres was of philosophers and investigators persuading divine ideas being pure in their intentions. art. This is no mortal business. empower the metaphoric feature of the presentation. an approach underscored by Shakespeare’s contemporary. Francis Bacon in his 15 “First. the artist and creative capacity .realised by men as regenerative cosmic powers. the perceived world is analogous to an eternal world that is intelligible. in the Christian version. to finally arrive at the conclusion articulated in the Epilogue: the release from illusion. Originally. What music is referred to? What imagery is evoked? At the dawn of the Renaissance. nor no sound That the earth owes. Then. The direct representation of harmony was not easily conceivable through the framework of the medieval period. as representing shadows of reflections. Aristotle’s view of arts as the pure relations of nature could be easily mingled with Plato’s view. the harmony within the sensible world.” (Koenigsberger p. Ancient Neoplatonists designated the sensible world as the first object of knowledge. 216) 14 . or. The history of Francis of Assisi was also a great example in Christian mysticism for the phenomenon of experiencing nature. while the tunes. geometry and music were arts containing information about nature’s harmony as direct imitations. triggering change. as the ecstatic manifestation of God. is God.time . release –through questioning fixed schemes of thinking enabling characters to gain different experiences. one can achieve a sympathetic recognition of the qualities that are analogous to first principles or divine ideas. with its sphere of actions and psychic relentless clock-time.” I. the qualities of love and compassion . I hear it now above me. Ferdinand is the first character in the dramatic sequence realising the very quality of the song.the application of illusions to conduct towards awareness and freedom. were the major issues for artists and thinkers -influenced by medieval theology imposing distinctions between arts and nature. they can realize certain experiences of release accordingly. regarding both its kind and degree. with its sphere of altering consciousness. based on Pythagorean ideas. Prospero at a later stage of events requires “heavenly music” to quiet his mind. a stepping stone towards wisdom. commenting it as follows: “The ditty does remember my drown’d father.ii. physical time. nature’s beauty and its imitation by arts. the auditory aspect.469-471 The words are most essential to these songs to devise imagery. the cosmic order and harmony revealed by this beauty affecting the soul and the mind. beginning with the sensible world.

we are turned to the experience of the whole. Milton also inserted a visionary masque in his hymn On the Morning of Christ`s Nativity merging the Christian lore and Neoplatonic tradition in the appearing allegorical figures of Wells: p.” (Eneads. From the experiencing of representations as parts carved out from the whole. What can they have in common beauty here and beauty there? They have we suggest this in common: they are sharers of the same Idea. Book II. emblems. Ferdinand could endure all the challenges -as he was empowered by his passionate love to Miranda. and holy in the union of them in a perpetual and uniform law.and he is entitled to perceive the “solemn” music and show. I. claiming the ethical goodness prerequisite of the investigator of wisdom: “He must be holy in the description of His works.”16 In Shakespeare’s time the identification of music. and its articulated view of reality. would pass our lives in blessed peace which even the gods might envy. 2 Henri Bergson in his philosophy suggests an analogous quality by his concept of the artifice. Having been tested by Prospero and purified through the toils that were put on him and conducted by the mage. an allegory presented by Prospero to the new generation reminding them of the ephemerality of the sensible world. free from grief. The Neoplatonic belief in arts with their capacity to rehabilitate the fallen state of human existence17 was widely accepted: by purifying our hearts. explicating it as a „zone” of existence that has the capacity to restore/recompose the experience of continuity. 231 19 Wells p. love and social harmony was a commonplace rooted in medieval thoughts. towards „direct experience”. (See below p.Advancement. 1)18 The play may be said to belong to the discursive fields of Neoplatonism. but of symbols. It is structurally further emphasized by the disruption of narrative to bring the effect of breaking the spell that theatre produces on its audiences. holy in the connection of them. we are again able to hear the music of the spheres. the enlisted mythological narratives. her beauty evoked in him. then the two orders will be in this alike. where Juno and Ceres descend to sing of peace and fecundity to the young couple. VII. 12.) 18 Koenigsberger p. 65 17 16 15 . and we ourselves. by the betrothal Masque. 6. or between wholes on different planes of existence in Plotinus: “But is there any similarity between loveliness here below and that of the intelligible realm? If there is.” Milton in his essay on the music of the spheres reads as follows: “only if human nature were to be reformed would all things turn back to the Age of Gold.19 Inevitably the pastoral peace of the Masque is not of social realism. The word beauty is another repository of the tenet in the Renaissance to indicate a proper relationship between parts and the whole. This idea is also expressed in the fourth act of The Tempest. based on its symbolism.

20 Unlike the mimetic artist.21 The fine dramaturgy.and off-stage spectators to be alert to intuit the music of the spheres. by Prospero to call events forth-. Thus.Truth and Justice returning to earth. He can conjure up whatever worlds he likes instead of producing a copy of the phenomenal universe. through words –the repository of power used by Caliban to give form to his temper. revealing the qualities of his spirit. In his masterpiece. Shakespeare seems to shift the focus from story to meaning. The Tempest could be described as a crystal of the Bard’s poïesis. onomatopoetic expressions with tunes and music performed-. experiencing the proportions. then the hierarchical aspects of the traditional idea of the harmony of nature could give way to more fluid views. to silence –that urges develop the imagery of the play once nested in Jacobian theatre technology. The characteristic of the play to repeatedly expose visions for the illusion deconstructs the theatre of spectacle and selfconsciously proposes a more fluid and dynamic view of art in which meaning is generated between play and audience. reflects the themes.35) 21 Wells p. rhythm and pattern of thoughts. and last but not least. the Neoplatonic visionary does not pretend. functioning as a prism set in motion. based upon the classical unities as its framework. or by the three men of sin during their unconscious rambling of human wit. but also to embody the information in their works. Prospero’s show would probably be recognized by Milton as the expression of human potentialities. 20 “When men saw fit not only to evoke geometry and music as arts that actually contained direct information about nature`s harmony. There is a tendency in the drama to move from sounds –the affective sound effects. a fine example for the shift the Renaissance meant by the estimation of men and the values of their works. Shakespeare’s art seems to unfold itself. regarding it as historians. the “heavenly music” suggested by the end of the fourth act probably belongs to the sphere of mind. 72 16 .” (Koenigsberger p. rooted in allegories and metaphors – transforming into each other.

all which it inherit. is an allegory of harmonious. by image. how could the “we” of the monologue be characterised? The “baseless fabric” of the vision and the “stuff” we are “made on” according to the text and its context. he articulates an approach that avoids dualism and the traps of materialist and idealist extremes. his central concept. These our actors. He addresses the issue in his opening hypothesis in the following manner approaching the interrelationship between matter and image: 17 . We definitely perceive ourselves as bodies and other bodies. as a private and elite entertainment amiable to James. Yea. “made on”? Is the stuff similar to that of vision in both senses of the word referring to both the faculty of perception. ideal existence. were all spirits. Nevertheless. other objects. and the mental faculties of dreaming and imaging? Furthermore. The solemn temples. surrounding us. and our dreams. In Matter and Memory. are synonymous and imply a common nature.” IV.What “stuff” are we “made on”? The inserted Masque. Is it possible to find these perceptions and faculties a common denominator suggested by the monologue? To articulate answers I would rely on Henri Bergson’s philosophy. Prospero’s end of the revels speech sheds light upon the complexity of the idea: “Our revels now are ended.i. like this insubstantial pageant faded. As I foretold you. The cloud-capp'd towers. the gorgeous palaces. the great globe itself. shall dissolve. We are such stuff As dreams are made on. and Are melted into air. And. We also perceive visions and dreams. And. like the baseless fabric of this vision. and our little life Is rounded with a sleep. It embodies the Classical ideal of cosmic order in a concentrated form –providing a fine show in the public theatre to please the eye and to educate-. in both cases the imagery fuels the entertainment that is based on the underlying notion of image. The intentions of the show could be double folded. Leave not a rack behind.148-158 What “stuff” are we. He finds an existence that defines the whole of reality. while transcending theatrical perception – to fulfil the intellectual demands of more sophisticated audiences. into thin air. depicted in the era that transmits the teatrum mundi metaphor in its most elevated fashion.

30 MM p. 11. the image differs from representation. He both criticises materialism as extreme differentiation and idealism as extreme nondifferentiation. 161/9.”32 These thoughts lead to the notion of the body as an image known from the inside by affection. in the presence of images. that the image only appears to be. 219/72.”25 But.23 As matter is defined in terms of extension. there are two characteristics for the image at this stage of the discussion: extension and presence (the appearing quality of image). 161/9. in the very section of Matter and Memory. in the vaguest sense of the word.185/35. from matter”. Bergson claims. thus they mean objectivity. 28 If one tries to explore matter by reduction still finds images. according to Bergson in Matter and Memory p.“Here I am. an ineffectual impulsion. the image is presence.”22 We must characterize the term through differentiation for better understanding. all hidden power. It is also connected to other images in the whole. while matter does not differ from representation. it is not affection. but this notion is not idealism for him. images could be characterized by extension. in fact.”31 “The body inserts itself as something new in the universe. this fluid. they are all images.” 29 Lawlor p. a colourless light. 25 MM p.161/9. “Things that are external have an order that does not depend on our perceptions. and there is a special kind of image: “Yet there is one image that contrasts with all the others in that I know it not only from the outside by perceptions. but less than what a realist calls a thing – an existence placed halfway between the “thing” and the “representation”” . Presence according to him means. The French philosopher also tells us that matter is images. images perceived when I open my senses. dissolve them into vortices revolving in a continuous fluid. that in nature. 31 MM p. 32 Lawlor p. 24 Lawlor p. and escape the traps of materialism/realism and idealism. Bergson claims.27 But matter is based on images. as far as it is external and objective and not internal. by pointing out that matter is no thing (form) “that produces representations in us. but also from the inside by affections: it is my body.4. these movements. 22 23 Mater and Memory 169/17 MM p. 18 . 30 Thus. Bergson approaches image by using degrees to differentiate. and it is: “precisely what it appears to be. can themselves be determined only in relation to an impotent touch. therefore. the order of our perceptions depends on extension. 185: „Condense atoms into centres of force. unperceived when I close them. 169/17. His comment on the problem reads: “…by “image” we mean a certain existence that is more than what an idealist calls a representation. but would be of a nature different from these representations”26. these centres. An image is not a thing either.”24 Bergson goes on to say: “an image may be without being perceived. representation and image cannot differ29. Also. Thereby we eliminate all virtuality. 26 MM p. and implies. 9.28 And he adds. 27 MM p.

in its very depth it lives and vibrates. the colour is not even the duplicata of a diminutive object like an atom or a corpuscule… The vibrations are there in the qualities. Deep within the light of qualitatively different colours. as well as continuity . and most importantly. which poetically translates in this context to an artifice or contrivance.and from the outside as object –where this outside does not radically differ from matter. Combined with the word vision (here in its denotation as "supernatural or imaginary appearance"). a continuity of images. Images connected to other images make up “the fabric” attributed with “baseless” emphasizing its 35 MM p. p.html 34 László Kovács argues for this notion in his essay: Írás. movements. that has depth.when we open our eyes the flow of light is experienced immediately. however. “Indeed we have no choice: if our belief in a more or less homogeneous substratum of sensible qualities has any ground. the language and the texture of the play echoes Shakespeare’s indebtedness to the body. The philosopher insists on his choice of the word image because of its referential charge. Its objectivity – that is. something that goes beyond our sensation. via the notions of quality and act as important milestones in the discussion. kép. referring to the pageant.”35 The image is a virtual surface.34 We could now ask: is image “baseless”? Is it without any foundation? Here we cannot go further by the help of the monologue itself.” In: http://www. His essay on laughter 33 The expression means: “’substance without foundation’. in quality itself. Shakespeare és Greenaway találkozása a boncasztalon in http://apertura. Thus. that is. First. not essentially distinct. 6. what it contains over and above what it yields up – must then consist … precisely in the immense multiplicity of movements which it executes. the vibrations. test. it suggests the unity of complex colours and shades through visual perception. we are special images “made on” the “stuff” -that is also the “baseless fabric of this vision”. it continues the theme of theatrical magic. Nevertheless. somehow. The notion of movement is all important in his philosophy. this can only be found in an act that would make us seize or guess.bardweb. 37 Bergson articulates his ideas based on the example of the chrysalis to point out that there is an aspect that goes beyond quality. it refers to art. It reads in Lawlor as follows: „Deep within the chrysalis there are vibrations of the larva that make the chrysalis gleam. providing a turn: movement does not depend on things. it is such. it is real. which are given to con-science. within its chrysalis. The Tempest explores human consciousness. Thirdly. Motionless on the surface. and in depth it is of vibrations. it is alive36. but could follow Bergson in his explanation of image. it suggests a surface with depth.” as Lawlor images surrounding us share. Secondly. 339 36 „The impression that the image copies a thing comes from the fact it is a surface and a surface has depth. there are the quantitatively continuous vibrations of science. The concept of vibrations …means that consciously seen colours are neither the mere translations of a hidden original text nor the ‘duplicata’ of a non-present object. 19 . a depth that moves37. as if this sensation itself were pregnant with details suspected yet unperceived.

and even of perceiving. however claiming their virtual identity.defines art as the picture of the vibrations of nature38. Taking the direction of leaving action to intuition. a turning away from the external in order to pay attention to the internal. Nevertheless. is far from easy: yet this is the negative part of the work to be done. and when it is done. We only get indifferent abstractions. while representation is cut out from the whole. the dawn of our human experience begins. for our soul would vibrate then continually in unison with nature. we turn towards dreaming. It is the first decomposition of the whole. with the infinitely small elements of the real curve which we in this way see. p. a direction from the particular to the whole. I really believe that art would be useless.” L: p. page 3). 1999. that is above the decisive turn where experience bends in the direction of utility. language and sense. if we could enter into immediate communication with things and with ourselves. when we have placed ourselves at what we were calling the return of experience. We have learnt that the image differs from representation by degrees. Nevertheless. where imagination only constructs its relations. One can find examples for these turns and their motivations in The Tempest. life and death. it remains open and returns41 us to “immediate experience”. Provided the artifice turns towards the “moving images”. because the image is connected to other images in the whole. that of schemas. 68. nor pure perception in actuality. by finally putting aside the emphasis on the triumphant character of art. If it reverses the “natural order of things” by prioritizing things to movement because of utility. from matter and action: “Renouncing certain habits of thinking. p. We get the first interval by representations. we still have to reconstitute. via breaking up the continuity of images -the natural continuity-. It is a sort of experience of death. Representation is less than the image. while the imagistic picture is nature. artificial obscurity. or “immediate consciousness”. The experience. the parts of the whole. memory and spirit. defined as “good sense”. Everything becomes “inert”. symbols. illuminating the passage from the immediate to the useful. Laughter: An Essay on the Meaning of the Comic. helped by memory. a turning away from social life and practicality.” – reads Bergson in MM. I would suggest this virtual identity realised by Shakespeare. as characters of the „What is the object of art? If it were the case that reality strikes our senses and our consciousness directly. mutually reaffirming one another. L. It is a zone between matter and spirit. representations.40 The recomposition is artifice. revisiting the theme again in The Tempest. However. we must keep them distinguished: the artistic picture is art. when giving „great creating nature” the authorship in The Winter’s Tale with a triumphant aspect of art (see above. to spirit. natural and unnatural. and results in fakery. and discusses the distinction between the artistic picture created by spiritual energy and the natural picture created by material energy. would carve out in space and fix in time inimitable pictures. 41 This is a turning away from the literal human experience. it turns into unnatural. he suggests an even more balanced approach to the issue. A.8. 135. 39 Lawlor writes: „Art and image are… virtually identical in Bergson. or rather that all of us would be artists. Bergson calls it a “zone”. Bergson claims there is no pure memory. 38 20 . Our eyes. is given by the realisation of the interpenetration of the two extremes. but it can be recomposed. 40 Lawlor p. when we have taken advantage of the nascent light with which. 321.39 The issue of art raises the question of representation again. Green Integer. the form of the curve itself which extends itself into the darkness behind them.

96-106 Both of the encounters are interrupted by Prospero’s warning to Miranda to pay attention. 86-93 Next. Where's the master? Play the men. by telling of it. their consciousness. too. It is the most apparent in case of exchanges between the shipwrecked. The dialogues between characters are also demonstrative about their attitudes. to return to “good sense”. out o' th' substitution. First inevitably. neglecting his social role by leaving the art of governance behind: “And Prospero the prime duke. When Prospero accounts his past as the duke of Milan to his daughter. Hence his ambition growingDost thou hear?” I.that is. Made such a sinner of his memory. A confidence sans bound. focusing on authority: “ALONSO. Not only with what my revenue yielded. He being thus lorded. first he mentions his turn toward the spiritual realms of life. And executing th' outward face of royalty With all prerogative.ii. those being all my studyThe government I cast upon my brother And to my state grew stranger. Prospero and Antonio were drawn by extremes and – although we feel sympathy to the duke. have care. actions and non-actions. which had indeed no limit.ii. the social hierarchy is questioned immediately in the first scene aboard the ship. being transported And rapt in secret studies.both characters diverted and had/has to face all the consequences of their decisions. like one Who having into truth. But what my power might else exact.plot are described -thus could be also grouped. His intention is later revealed for us. Thy false uncleDost thou attend me?” I. enticed by worldly. To credit his own lie-he did believe He was indeed the Duke. define their scope of perception. Good boatswain. he tells about how his brother ended up in total fakery. being so reputed In dignity. 21 .according to their attitudes towards the “worldly” or spiritual ends of life. material power: “As my trust was. and for the liberal arts Without a parallel.

every day. sir. When the sea is. None that I more love than myself.BOATSWAIN. you do assist the storm. give thanks you have liv'd so long. the different attitudes of the shipwrecked are revealed by their accounts and opinion of their escape: “GONZALO. we will not hand a rope more. and this disturbance is further extended to affect the souls brought ashore on the island. you have cause. evoking all connotations of the word.i. We get informed not only about the mage’s disappointment and his quest for vengeance. of joy. the raging of the sea as an analogy colours forthcoming parts coined with Prospero’s anger against those who “wrong’d” him. GONZALO.” I.-Cheerly. if it so hap. as the characters’. The masters of some merchant. Also. if you cannot. Use your authority. Do you not hear him? You mar our labour. few in millions Can speak like us. peace. be merry. the audience’s common sense immediately gets twisted. put in action. BOATSWAIN. boson? BOATSWAIN. I pray now. good. Beseech you. yet remember whom thou hast aboard. ANTONIO. providing a turn to a different scheme of thinking. if you can command these elements to silence. good hearts!-Out of our way. Later. The disturbance in nature is an extension of his affective disturbance put in effect at great intensity. Nay. for our escape Is much beyond our loss. keep your cabins. We are in a storm in all respects. I mean our preservation. and work the peace of the present. weigh Our sorrow with our comfort. Good. GONZALO. and the merchant. ALONSO. be patient. good sir. I say. The harsh circumstances of natural forces endangering the mere human existence immediately outdate social hierarchy. Our hint of woe Is common. Then wisely. and make yourself ready in your cabin for the mischance of the hour. BOATSWAIN. 22 . Have just our theme of woe.9-27 The interwoven property of Shakespeare’s imagery is overwhelming again. Prithee. You are counsellor. some sailor's wife. So have we all. Where is the master. but the fact he had raised the storm. Hence! What cares these roarers for the name of king? To cabin! silence! Trouble us not. So. keep below. but for the miracle.

you're paid.) 43 Consciousness is a selection from the whole of images called matter infused with our unconscious psychical states. 42 Bergson in Creative Evolution expounds the idea to find the very mode of this generation. Fie. He receives comfort like cold porridge. Therefore. SirSEBASTIAN. indeed. He could not miss't. Comes to th' entertainerSEBASTIAN. reflecting their different levels of consciousness43. Dolour comes to him. Ay. Their perceptions of the island differ. the qualities of their thoughts determine the quality of the facts they perceive42. (CE. GONZALO.SEBASTIAN. You have taken it wiselier than I meant you should. So. ha. and a subtle. Ha.368. Look.i. GONZALO. he's winding up the watch of his wit. Temperance was a delicate wench. The air breathes upon us here most sweetly. 23 . my lordANTONIO. you have spoken truer than you purpos'd. spare. not only the relations of facts generate the laws of their thought. and delicate temperance. evolution. but also the form. Though this island seem to be desertANTONIO. SEBASTIAN. ha! SEBASTIAN. and almost inaccessibleSEBASTIAN. as the forthcoming passage suggests. Uninhabitable. ADRIAN. ADRIAN. memory. SEBASTIAN. I prithee. p. GONZALO. SEBASTIAN. It must needs be of subtle. as he most learnedly deliver'd. YetADRIAN.” II. The visitor will not give him o'er so. When every grief is entertain'd that's offer'd. ANTONIO. tender. as this selection takes place in our body. One-Tell.1-25 The exchanges between the members of the courtly party suggest. A dollar. what a spendthrift is he of his tongue! ALONSO. by and by it will strike. ADRIAN. GONZALO. ANTONIO. YetANTONIO. when they are contrasted: “ADRIAN.

The play introduces us to a perception. GONZALO.characteristic of the vibration experienced throughout the dramatic sequence and by all the particularities of the imagery . then through reflections. The process leads through deconstructing former modes of thought and perceptions. He misses not much. As if it had lungs. With Bergson.SEBASTIAN. and analogously enlarged. In a condensed manner. they develop simultaneously. True.” II. The astonishing quality of the play lies in its metaphorical operations on all interpretative levels. in the operations of the drama. it focuses our attention on the interplay between the two. serving as another milestone to the theme of release. Or. With an eye of green in't. instead of being reffered to them as discrete units. Here is everything advantageous to life. ANTONIO. And what strength I have's mine own. save means to live. The issues within the plot become more complex. Which is most faint. Now 'tis true. from the reality of charm and dreams.and effect-oriented theatrical experience in the opening scene. SEBASTIAN. Let me not. he doth but mistake the truth totally. I must be here confin'd by you.i. in dramaturgy -. Propsero revisits the turns in the play. and rotten ones. or take another turn back through the consolation scene to its Archimedean point. Or sent to Naples. as 'twere perfum'd by a fen. leads us to the theatre of thought and meaning –reflected upon the ephemerality of our life in “the end of revels speech”. and talk about how the colours and shades in their intensities we find articulated.and the other way round.35-58 These aspects of consciousness complement and interpenetrate one another –as it turns out form the working of the plot. The ground indeed is tawny. SEBASTIAN.and asks for release: “Now my charms are all o'erthrown. ANTONIO. SEBASTIAN. how they colour or over-dominate one another. No.through perceptions . to transform them and gain another one. ANTONIO. to turn back again . the Epilogue. regarding both its characters and the spectators of the performance. 24 . GONZALO. Of that there's none. How lush and lusty the grass looks! how green! ANTONIO. to the reality of the island perceived as bare.over the dream and vision-oriented aspect of reality – unconscious visionary capacity . By doing so. we could realise the dynamics in consciousness. The drama attracts attention to a balanced experience of life by simultaneously contrasting the priority of sensuality .

is change and progress. dwell In this bare island by your spell. We can realize it then as a movement of differentiation between states and respectively taken their instants in time. It is a conception of time in which we find generation and is in the realm of life and consciousness as the philosopher articulated in Time and Free Will45 Shakespeare suggests by his magical theatre of The Tempest a concept of image that is not a copy of a hidden thing. These notions evoke immobility. Now I want Spirits to enforce. or else my project fails. or different unities to be decomposed or recomposed. but a dynamic existence. We can only deduce the phenomenon through time and with the aid of our memory. We face frozen unities . This merger. we have talked about different levels of consciousness and different stages of the dramatic process. Which pierces so that it assaults Mercy itself. or “real time”. What we can intuit by the drama . probably we could intuit as the attribute in Shakespeare’s 44 45 MM: Bergson reads in Time and Free Will: „ … 25 . And really. Which was to please. is discernable. through our analytic approach they only provide different parts for comparison. The insensible. It is the merger between two instant states.” Epilogue 1-20 The island itself becomes an extended metaphor. It is a result and locus of creative processes -an intermediary. moving. art to enchant. relating matter and spirit as suggested through the analogue of the chrysalis explicated by Bergson in Matter and Memory – that is based on duration. It is an image that is vibrating.having cogitated its dramaturgy as the network of action-relations and the direct verbal reflections on key issues and themes .Since I have my dukedom got. Gentle breath of yours my sails Must fill.we find the whole of experience fading. “monistic substance”. and frees all faults. For the sake of the analysis here. And my ending is despair Unless I be reliev'd by prayer. wherein states melt into each other44 Bergson termed it as duration. And pardon'd the deceiver. the transformation from one state to the other one. It is a flow of continuity our consciousness interprets as an undivided whole. But release me from my bands With the help of your good hands. When we approach analytically we find that change has a haunting character.

The Bergsonian image providing the intermediary between physical and spiritual spheres of existence. 46 Rodowick: p. one of the key issues in the forthcoming chapter. Shakespeare in his latest play articulates an approach to existence according to which the world is not of independent subjects and objects and there are no sheer divides between the human and nonhuman realms of reality. as bodies – special images . 195. since “the image can expand to encompass any world with all the subjects and objects in it. through perception and our memories. 26 .”46 We. Thus. we could experience the world with Miranda as “brave new” as well as with the old sage we could ask for release. paradoxically raising our awareness to delegate us to the problem of actuality and virtuality. In the final analysis we could also realize. we could find an analogy to the “stuff” of the end of revels speech. but we find entities constituted by their the universe constitute a selection of images and live to explore the whole of reality.“baseless fabric”. The Bard’s masterpiece suggests a world as image in its Bergsonian sense. with his notion of matter as the aggregate of images. We could reconcile with illusions realising them as the part of the whole of reality.

immersing the audience in a particular experience. characters comment their perceptions and experiences reflecting upon situations. remaining open for further interpretations with its relations to our memory. on the very process at work. or the inserted sequences of the banquet and the masque. beside applying the former dramatic and highly elaborated props .the audience perceive “framed” instances. where affection and cognition appear in interaction. rendered according to sever unity regarding its property to meet the classical unities . forming our experience of reality that indirectly emphasises the meta-theatrical nature of the drama. where the setting of a scene was evoked by overcoded verbal communication that was ekphrastic in character. The emblematic mode of Renaissance theatre. We can gain an insight to the interaction between actuality & perception and virtuality & memory. that is simultaneously getting accumulated by the perceived and cogitated instances. not only towards reflection. provides his audiences with the technology of the Masques . moving tableaux by scenes that are the audio-visually most entertaining parts of the play. the accumulated power of the imagery is transformed into an audio-visual perception. a phenomenon later devised in the modern cinema by montage and picture in picture techniques. the audience gains a description/depiction and finds itself in a particular situation.The aspects of time and the “time-image” in The Tempest Throughout the scenic sequence of the play. In such cases. different camera angles. movement is subordinated to time to provide a given milieu. a place that functions to provide infinite relations for the characters. The island of the plot turns out to be a “conceptual persona”. as well as. Shakespeare. On one hand. Place is springing up from time. We could find the unfolding situations traversing the borderline between actuality and virtuality turning the stage into a space of such liminal situations. In this way. towards virtuality. through reflection and cognition. during the process of transmission. as it 27 . This peculiar experience is based on imagery and staged images extending both towards the direction of perception and actuality in performance. instead of story-telling. on the other. The drama urges a turn in the audience’s experience. In these sequences. Different points of view are delivered. but to focus on the interaction between perception and memory. the perception evokes a “chora”. The entertainment is enhance the performance he uses both modes. that also emphasize its visionary aspect: the first scene as an induction. through Jacobian technology.

[Exit]” II.could meet both the demands of the sophisticated audience at the court. as well as the audience of the playhouses.” I.i. where I have lostHow sharp the point of this remembrance is!My dear son Ferdinand.276-281 This is a key moment. If thou beest Prospero. an internal clock. How thou hast met us here. to underscore the strict beat of the sequence: “PROSPERO. functioning as chronothetics.ii. What is the time o' th' day? ARIEL. “PROSPERO. Ariel. reveal their common past in Milan. The time 'twixt six and now Must by us both be spent most preciously. regarding the dramaturgical framework of the play. but there's more work. At least two glasses. (…) For yet ere supper time must I perform Much business appertaining. whom three hours since Were wreck'd upon this shore.113-114 “ALONSO. the events of the plot are contemporaneous with the time of the performance conforming to the classical notion of temporal unity. thy charge Exactly is perform'd. Give us particulars of thy preservation. throughout the story we meet further references. From the first act the attention is drawn to the notion of time. Past the mid season. he has to conclude his project on time. PROSPERO. as we realise. proportionally rendered.” V. Next. exploring their relationship through the theme of change and regeneration. he asks Ariel for a time check and we are made aware of the fact that the mage himself is also timed.147-152 28 . Prospero first mentions time to Miranda -with its relentless character that “bids”.i. The Tempest is abundant in references to different qualities of time and memory. as the basis of the present situation and to outline his plot.

gradually turning from the spatialtemporal actuality of the wilderness.found specific features of expression in post-war cinema and defined them as crystalline structure47 . As Rodowick reads: the time image “neither presents an imaginary world complete unto itself in which we are asked to believe. 29 . 195) 49 Deleuze Dictionary p. visionary – quality of experience the characters go through within the drama. 59.a means of filmic articulation generating the time-image of modern cinema. 60. lacking or full”. 50 Deleuze Dictionary p. firmly related to the spatial dimension of the play.narration in relation to his concept of the time-image in his Cinema 2 volume and “equates the crystalline structure of the cinema with the nature of its self-reflexivity and the temporal medium…. including the magical .”49 He explicates the notions of the crystal-image. There is another aspect of time with different quality.dream-like. and in relation to the image. from exteriority. while reflecting upon it. the crystal concept is the production and apprehension of time.”50 A crystal of time is formulated in films. It governs the internal events of the sequence the unfolding of different themes. We gain a peculiar experience with qualities. and it is the time of assimilation by the audience.Thus. Deleuze introduces his notion of the crystal “co-joining existing scientific and artistic conceptions of the formal properties and concepts of a crystal to work through the Platonic conception of a real image and its counterpoint: virtual image. Gilles Deleuze – who thought of Bergson as his forefather. the limpid or opaque. conveys such peculiar qualities. encompassing the interrelationship between memory and perception. the seed and the environment – providing its axis. It is through this song that certain meaning submerge and in a rich connotative field begin to expand through metaphors and allegories to colour both Ferdinand’s and our observation of the past events and the forthcoming actions in the play. The crystal then becomes a concept that Deleuze methodologically uses in his consideration of thought. transmitting between the realm of virtuality and actuality.48 For Deleuze a crystal is a phenomenon that explores relations in an audio-visual situation as: the actual-virtual. (p. relying on his philosophy in several respects . when the 47 48 Deleuze: Cinema2 p. articulated in the song “Full fathom five” performed by Ariel. The crystal is thus a philosophical mechanism that is illustrative of concept production. It is the psychological aspect of time. towards an imaginary present that relates with the recollections. We could gain the analogy of the cinematic movement-image. crystalline. So. this is a period of revelation both for the characters in the plot. and analogously for the audience. the chronological time of the plot and the time in which the play is transmitted are synchronized. 67. nor does it give us a transcendent perspective from which the world should be judged as false or true. The “sea change” as a key symbol. The song provides Ferdinand and us with a description of a vision. Time is subordinated to movement. time and differences in becoming.

moreover. in case of the drama we cannot speak about filmic images. The theatre turns to itself. the time-image: “derives from an intuition of the Whole. The quality of the inserted show differs from Ariel’s song in its scale. and the virtual is turning to the actual. 80. provokes attention on the reflective mode. of universal becoming. when Prospero directly addresses the audience. It is the retrospective poetical focal point in all respects (considering poetry in language.” (p. Prospero’s final monologue is an 51 52 Deleuze: Cinema2 p. the par excellence crystalline expression of the drama is the Epilogue. It is the enlarged variant of the vision evoked by the Ariel songs throughout the sequence. with Ferdinand and the airy spirit. It is a movement in the crystal on its “seed-milieu” axis.i. 81. putting into circuit an actual image and a virtual image. and mirrors theatrical articulation. a “picture” that is also dynamic. as well as its reference.and the actual experience so fully that the accord of the two domains results in their indiscernibility. It gains its astonishing power from the directness in its reflexive property and the mode by which it extends the drama’s metaphoric capacity through ultimately merging the virtual levels -the recollections of the experience. whether we are in the theatre. It is moving in “itself”. or over the text at home.51 Certainly. A similar experience is provided by the inserted Masque surrounded by Prospero’s remark at the beginning of the show: “PROSPERO. it is a moving tableaux. Ariel’s song.image absorbs the real into a general theatre. we get an audio-visual situation that is floating. Considering Ariel’s song. These images are forming a circuit during in our perception. both its “force”. thematic references).) 30 . the auditory expression is presented to us with its visuals. This very occurrence is the property of crystalline structures. and the lines delivered by Prospero framing the event. (…) No tongue! all eyes! Be silent… “ IV. but what appears to us during the reception of Ariel’s song and the Masque scene is analogous. The song evokes a virtual image in our mind. There is the possibility of the “real” to become absorbed and the virtual to become actual. According to Deleuze relying on Bergson’s philosophy. The actual image is the stage with its props. is change52. The actual image is moving towards the virtual. we should perceive it. However. resulting in a shift from perception to thought. its representations. interpreted by Rodowick. change or creative evolution. 66 Soft music Enter Iris – and in the concluding monologue. and for the reader the wilderness as it pops up in his imagination. It is a moving reflection.

Below. 79. non-chronological time. to take part in the action that is still going on. he draws attention to himself. No. but provokes and makes participation inevitable. by addressing the audience. but we see time in the crystal. Nevertheless. and it is this. the investigation of the on-going process that has also been an investigation. The scene provides a surveillance of surveillance. It is a moment of presenting and experiencing time directly. the drama. We see in the crystal the perpetual foundation of time. …. It carries a brave form.(the crystal is the) mobile mirror that endlessly reflects perception in recollection. Through this complex phenomenon we face the foundation of time at the end of The Tempest. Both the recognition of situations and characters of the plot differ according to characters respectively. Regarding this special image I quote Deleuze’s Cinema 2 volume: “What constitutes the crystal-image is the most fundamental operation of time: since the past is constituted not after the present that it was but at the same time.analogy to the crystal-image53 in post-war cinematic expressions. while the other preserves all the past. a recollection. one of which makes all the present pass on. when the recording of the scene is put into circuit with internal mirroring. it eats and sleeps and hath such senses As we have. to finally address his spectators to cooperate and reflect on the very moment. how it looks about! Believe me. Time consists of this split. Prospero. This is the powerful non-organic Life that grips the world…. The interplay between the virtual and actual aspects of life is relevant in the drama through the references to the importance of memory and recognition regarding their role in reconstituting reality by different modes. Then. next he opens our scope by reflecting upon the plot having experienced as a unity. taking into consideration the self-reflexive moments and scenes in the play that also form crystalline structures. demonstrating how the present is continuously splitting into the past. focusing on their altered mode of consciousness and/or on their different schemes of reality. commented by Prospero: “MIRANDA. The crystal-image was not time. the camera is watching the very scene it is recording. sir.” p. The circuit is a direct reflection extending itself.Time has to split at the same time as it sets itself out or unrolls itself: it splits in two dissymmetrical jets. What is't? a spirit? Lord. there is another example through the dialogues between Miranda and Ferdinand when they first meet. But 'tis a spirit. and but he's something stain'd With grief. thou mightst call him A goodly person. after this special moment. 53 31 . This gallant which thou seest Was in the wreck. not only reflects and evokes.. wench. that's beauty's canker. Cronos and not Chronos. He hath lost his fellows. it is time that we see in the crystal. such. In the previous chapter we observed how differently the shipwrecked people of the court perceived the island. time has to split itself in two at each moment as present and past…. first embeds them in his presence. PROSPERO. to his own condition.

) – that interested European post-war cinema. and My strong imagination sees a crown Dropping upon thy head. my spirits are nimble. imagining. what might! No more! And yet methinks I see it in thy face. Which I do last pronounce. One of its passive facet. dealing with dreams.489-497 The nature of illusion is a major issue unfolded by the piece. creative aspect.And strays about to find 'em. and surely It is a sleepy language.ii. is. 54 Deleuze claims in Cinema 2.ii. What. Most sure.” I. art thou waking? ANTONIO. My prime request. as by a thunder-stroke. and thou speak'st Out of thy sleep. What is it thou didst say? This is a strange repose. th' occasion speaks thee. recur throughout the sequence54. Worthy Sebastian? O. as by consent. What might. ANTONIO. 32 . And yet so fast asleep. standing. Sebastian and Antonio are plotting against Gonzalo who is fast asleep: “ANTONIO. I do. Nor I. the equivalent for the cinematic time-image is "the disturbances of memory and the failures of recognition" ( p. sir. hallucinations and visions. They fell together all.” I. Do you not hear me speak? SEBASTIAN. What thou shouldst be. Here is an instance for the metaphoric capacity of the dialogues through “sleepy language”. No wonder. And that you will some good instruction give How I may bear me here. They dropp'd. SEBASTIAN. Noble Sebastian. to be asleep With eyes wide open.535-543 “FERDINAND. 55. O you wonder! If you be maid or no? MIRANDA. moving. the goddess On whom these airs attend! Vouchsafe my pray'r May know if you remain upon this island. dreaming and its dynamic. speaking. But certainly a maid.

55 The interplay and dynamism of virtual and actual are conveyed. But one fiend at a time. I'll fight their legions o'er. The winds did sing it to me. Therefore my son i' th' ooze is bedded. why stand you In this strange stare? ALONSO. “Shakespeare can afford.109-118 As a result of the broken sensory-motor reactions of the characters. as it is reflected upon as an illusion: “GONZALO. we shift towards the virtual aspect of the situation. I' th' name of something holy. to even play with. it is monstrous. and the thunder. duree and not temps. it did bass my trespass. They could be interpreted as junctions in the network/ textus of the drama by underscoring the alterations and the penetration between the magical experiences – turbulences. wink'st Whiles thou art waking. With the people on the island.Thou let'st thy fortune sleep-die rather. That deep and dreadful organ-pipe. Alonso cannot respond in an immediate way to the very situation he is in. O.iii. pronounc'd The name of Prosper. the unity of time. characters find themselves in situations where they are unable to act and react in a direct. and told me of it.” 56 Lucking: p. providing a mental depth to the situation through verbal descriptions. characteristic of the time-image in Deleuze. immediate way. monstrous! Methought the billows spoke. and I'll seek him deeper than e'er plummet sounded.”56 The outlined modes of time not only overlap each other as Lucking points out. And with him there lie mudded. the action seems to peel off. 55 33 . duration. leading to a breakdown in his sensory-motor reactions. The breaks and pauses within the narrative of the dramatic sequence are also peculiar.213-231 In the visionary Banquet scene. to provide the extraordinary quality of reception. while clock-time is ticking by unnoticed we find the aspect of time Bergson called “real time”. [Exit] SEBASTIAN.” II. but also fuse. sir. III. 21. leading to what Deleuze calls a breakdown in the sensor-motor system. which finds its archetype in the European modernist or art film. because what he is fundamentally interested in is mental and not sequential temporality. dream visions raised by Prospero – and the characters’ “ In the time-image.i.

non-visionary. The audience could gain an insight to. till when. in each discrete element building up those events. Instead of the mere contrasting of exteriority – conveyed through spatial orientations. Do not infest your mind with beating on The strangeness of this business. single I'll resolve you. be cheerful And think of each thing well. Sir. Which to you shall seem probable. The qualities of universal becoming. standard schemes of perception and memory. that The Tempest. dream visions and memories with duration – the focus seems to shift on their relation and their dynamism. moreover. while they also function as indicators of “spatial time”. Shakespeare through the figure of Prospero. And there is in this business more than nature Was ever conduct of. This is as strange a maze as e'er men trod. providing an image. Which shall be shortly. of every These happen'd accidents. a borderline that is reflecting and finds its place on the stage. both the clock-time of the plot and the theatrical performance. the time in which it unfolds is psychological rather than strictly chronological in character. Some oracle Must rectify our knowledge. but also in each discrete scene and event. spirit. traversing both. the revelatory capacity of the play gains its power from the above outlined aspects of temporality working not only in the relations between scenes.” V. given to perception as clock-time with its pertinent locus – with interiority .” – and continues to remark that this property of the drama “lies at the basis of the seeming paradox. or intuit. PROSPERO. my liege. within illusions that metaphorically Alonso and Prospero in their exchange articulate in the final act: “ALONSO. according to an analytic approach. considered as the field of actuality. expanding the perception of the inserted Masque and its interpretation in the “end of revels” speech. that of. Thus.the field of virtuality. presents us with an awareness of the qualities of reception in theatre. I would suggest these qualities of the sequence show an analogy with the conception of the time-image by Deleuze. yet achieves a universality that is as unlocalized in time as in space”. also relying on Lucking’s observation I would propose. while remarkable for its scrupulous adherence to the classical unities. i 275-285 34 . Lucking also emphasises the revelatory property of the drama as: “Since process within the play is ultimately determined by the dynamics of revelation. at pick'd leisure. [Aside to ARIEL] Come hither. the qualities of the generative process in the work of art.

And pardon'd the deceiver. we could find the island as a “singular space” that “merely lost its homogeneity”. as used by artists and philosophers to establish a sense of order to a chaotic and changing world. Donato: Gilles Deleuze's Bergsonian Film Project Part 1 <> 59 Totaro. Donato Totaro. Deleuze uses the term as a form of “conceptual persona”. Since I have my dukedom got. the 57 Deleuze: Cinema 1 p. To articulate it. Donato: Gilles Deleuze's Bergsonian Film Project Part 1 ( 35 . so that the linkages can be made in an infinite number of ways. in the first part of his analysis Gilles Deleuze's Bergsonian Film Project. dwell In this bare island by your spell.internationalfestival. It is a space of virtual conjunction. in all places. grasped as pure locus of the possible"57 I would refer back to the different experiences of the island through the eyes of the characters. and find: however. adding Prospero’s words from the Epilogue: “(…)Let me not. Moreover. 109. a “conceptual persona”. which has merely lost its homogeneity. we cannot escape the island experience as an entity. in all times.internationalfestival. Also. the principle of its metric relations or the connection of its own parts. Relying on the perceptions of the characters.The theatre and the island of The Tempest as an “any-space-whatever” I would raise a minor issue rooting in Lucking’s last quoted remark on the play and Deleuze’s term of the any-space-whatever. that is. refers to Reda Bensmaia to propose. and can understand the island as the metaphor of the theatre. 58 Totaro. we should find out about the term in the postmodern philosopher: “Any-space-whatever is not an abstract universal. It is a perfectly singular space. that is the space of “virtual conjunctions” and the locus of the possible by providing the possibility to “make linkages in an infinite way”. But release me from my bands With the help of your good hands” Epilogue. 5-10 We arrive at the notion of the “any-space-whatever”.58 He emphasizes with Bensmaia. the term implies “a condition for the emergence of uniqueness and singularities”59.

counter-marks of the “cinema of thinking” according to Deleuze. While the self-reflective capacity and the final stance achieved at the end of the sequence by abjuring totalistic practices. the film shows direct examples for the concepts of “crystalline structures”. suggests an approach to reality analogous to the postmodern times by realizing interrelationships important. “time-image” and “any-space-whatever”. however “bare” it can be. It draws our attention to an integrity that is instead of totalizing provides an openness. Peter Greenaway. 36 . Shakespeare’s drama suggests a logic that displays the medieval analogous thinking while through reflections and differentiation uses rationalistic logic as well. we could find those peculiarities of the play that explore themes and fields like the power of illusion. still it is vibrating somewhere in-between its immanent and transcendent qualities. We find our mind and body and the world interpenetrate one another. temporality. We find the island. speeds and directions. awareness that is brought by reflection on its own medium. that is the quality of the whole as we found in Bergson and later in Deleuze. These issues and the play’s complex allegorical and metaphorical property attracted the director. from a historical aspect. foreshadows the criticism of the modern era. is not a mere space of geometry. but a space that is “anthropological” as determined by the human elements of time. It is perceived and practiced according to these human experiences. and the creative process. the play of the pre-modern. In the final analysis. an era of transition between the renaissance and modern. deployed and brought to extreme in the postmodern epoch. As we later will see. the “rough” magic. Thus. By taking the phenomenological and aesthetic points mentioned throughout the previous chapters. we could find The Tempest a late renaissance emblematic drama with its medieval roots becoming a modern piece of dramatized illusion. to create his adaptation Prospero’s Books to the screen.drama asks for transcendence. a phenomenon MerlauPonty arrives at in his term “incarnate Cogito”. reworking Descates’s split between the body and the mind. to reveal relations in existence.

we can realise deconstruction being the part of the creative process. time-image and crystalline structure. On these grounds I would propose that the film emulates “The Tempest experience” in a postmodern fashion. Thus. the medium provides and Deleuze forecasted at the dawn of the digital era. demonstrates the author’s demand for a holistic attitude with the participation of the audiences realising the creative process and possibility. 37 .the film unfolds finding its roots in the drama in embryonic state. a production of the early 1990s as well. an evolvement. the zone of different powers and raise the audience’s awareness and provide them a possibility to find.“Repetition and Difference” In the forthcoming chapters I try to outline the joining spirit of Shakespeare’s masterpiece and Prospero’s Books on film aesthetic grounds. By the investigation of the last sequence of the production. and his jump in slow motion help the audience realise the impulsive activity that belongs neither to the world and space of the author – whether it is Prospero’s/ Shakespeare’s / Greenaway’s regarding the narrative structure and the discourses of the film – nor to the world and space of the subject who perceives. However. I suggest his very demand is palpable in Prospero’s Books. but to the field between them.the Bergsonian “zone”. rejuvenating during the shot. I ground my argumentation on Gilles Deleuze’s notions of the film image –with its “pre-verbal” property-. the sequence could be interpreted as the final reflection on representation and the nature of illusion . to the artifice. Throughout the analysis of the first sequence of the film I try to shed light on the self-reflexive mode by which Greenaway provides an insight to the creation of the universe of his artifice. the director’s art having been mostly interpreted as pure intellectualism. This idea has been realised by the artist in his live multimedia and VJ projects of recent years. instead of a framed totality. Ariel’s run towards the foreground. referring to some aesthetic phenomena -mentioned in the previous part of the paper . the open aspect of the work of art -among many other aspects previously presented. turning to the infinity of reality. Bergson termed as a zone.

the uses and abuses of media61 60 61 Maricondi: p. The director could realize analogous phenomena to his artisitic attitude regarding his creations in general and the play. The opinion is not surprising. we should allude to those phenomena and ideas Shakespeare demonstrates in The Tempest and Greenaway unfolds in Prospero’s Books: -The stage/screen as the place of problematization regarding epistemological issues. “Where’s the Master?”:The Technologies of the Stage. These are the peculiar features of the play that with Deleuze we could define as analogous examples of the crystalline structure and the time-image on the basis of the film adaptation. James Andreas claims.An outline of the environment to Greenaway’s crystalline structure I would first highlight some of the major cultural and aesthetic issues from Greenaway’s network of his artistic interest and attitude in which Prospero’s Books was created and are apparent in the adaptation to introduce my discussion and revisit the field of scenic phenomena we found present in The Tempest with the purpose to prove that the modern cinema unfolded the same devices with its own means.” p. rediscovered. qualities he not only deploys but also analyses in his adaptation. He seems to accord Deleuze. To follow the director’s fancy of taxonomy and making up catalogues. the film is a “philosophical medium” that is used by him to “read” culture60. who claimed modern film to be “the friend of the thinker”. since the director is well-known to make a cinema of ideas instead of emotions and character identification. The medium is the message in The Tempest.Stage on stage. the man-made reality. and Screen in: Shakespeare without Class: Misappropriations of cultural capital Edited by Donald Hedrick and Bryan Reynolds PALGRAVE 2000 38 . film in film: meta-theatricality / metacinematic mode by self-reflexivity. and current media and the powers for stasis and change that are implicit in and generated by them. play in play and picture in picture. Book. . In a lecture explicating his approach he said.190 James Andreas. 177. foreshadowing postmodern hyperspace -Exploring new technologies: spectacular mode of expressions in media. becoming a “film essay”. as Paula Willoquet-Maricondi finds the production in her study. The representations of reality becoming the models for reality. The play itself is a multimedia spectacle and extravaganza that serves as an illustration of its own speculations about technological power and its uses and abuses. Shakespeare anatomizes “ancient.

Acting. and utilise multimedia to extend his artistic endeavour. the power of life and existence. Time. His paintings e. the artist deals with these issues and the experience of peculiar spatial-temporal experiences in other media. however.-The uses of knowledge and the known as the “logic of causation” and art as the “logic of creation” turning towards the unknown. turn out to be speculations on text. Audience.64 62 63 Hallward p. Properties.62 -The creative impetus in focus: realising it as the common denominator of Nature and Art. I should add here that beside the filmic medium. Willoquet-Maricondi p. The project can be considered a unifying work by the artist that responded to his concerns with multiple viewpoints and his desire to activate his audience. Text. His installations. components of the cinema he later explored in city installations. 104. the director elaborated on some basic elements of filmic expression titled as: Location. Frame. Light.g. seem to refer to themselves in a scrutiny. different from film. By his public art-project The Stairs that consisted of ten installations in various cities exhibited for 100 days respectively. actors. change and metamorphoses. audience. 39 . the one titled In the Dark. 47. -Focus on movement. exhibitions and operaticproductions are “meta-and-mega-cinematic “events” that cross-fertilize one another and intricate ways and exist in multiple versions”. Scale and Illusion.63 Some of his installations and performances translate or reflect the filmic experience or basic elements of the medium by their respective means. Regarding The Tempest and other Greenaway’s films in general we should also consider the following problems: -Building rigid structures to be overcome -Foregrounding visuality -Providing peculiar experiences of time and space to the audiences We also find some aspects the director deliberately emphasises in his productions referring to his inspirations by late Renaissance and 17th century art as: -Thematizing things and people in the analogous fashion of the ancient art of memory. 64 Willoquet-Maricondi p. 25.

In his expressions the audience can realise his approach to art with its inherent capacity to repetition65 -in the Deleuzian sense of the notion. The following link is a reference to one of Bill Viola’s video installations. N. Moreover. that of pictures on screen. At this stage of my discussion. we find a peculiar experience enhancing the performance springing up from the emotive spheres of reception. 2010 66 I provide active internet links to websites that include short clips to demonstrate discussed filmic which work has extreme relevance to the very first pictures in the first sequence of Prospero’s Books.instead of imitation. he explores all the possibilities immanent in this form of art. further enhancing the visual properties of his productions not only to call attention to his conceptualizations. These peculiar images as well as the props of the studio absorb and As Deleuze explicated the very aspect of art in his volume Repetition and Difference András Bálint Kovács: Notes to a Footnote: The Open Work according to Eco and Deleuze in Afterimages of Gilles Deleuze’s Film Philosophy edited by D. the multimedia artist shows a rather holistic attitude to experiment with different media to liberate his audiences by provoking an awareness of his works as an artifice. meticulously wrought props to achieve greater impact on his audiences. Regarding the filmic medium. it does not mean an absolute refusal of the property of the medium to affect at Greenaway. the director pays particular attention to music to set it free from its standard accompanying function. Still. besides developing conceptual strategies with different uses of lightning or colourcoding. as a painter. to elevate its conceptual and dramaturgical role in the constitution of meanings. I would argue. in Prospero’s Books. Rodowick Published by the University of Minnesota Press. but to please the eye and affect. mostly apparent in the first scenes of Prospero’s Books66. a “zone” of “free play” that may lead them back to the impetus of life.Despite approaches in film theory explicating the art of Peter Greenaway as extremely intellectual. As an example. The director “practices” cultural memory – on theses grounds some critics could find him to be elitist . camera plans.and tries to overcome set regimes of past and present modes of representations/expressions by utilising current technology. By the very inversion of the standard hierarchy and In his adaptation he used paint box technology that widened the director’s possibilities of expressions. scenes in the thesis. he deliberately designs eye-catching scenes. a meditation on time: 65 http://www. evoking the works of Bill Viola. inevitably diverting from the Hollywood and Bollywood regimes that focus on industrial and economical concerns and find their major goal in fulfilling public demands centred on the mimetic mode of the cinema. Some references are made to the mode of video installations of the late 1980s and early 1990s. I would call attention to the very first images of dropping water as well as to the charged quality of the sequence with evokative power by its allusions to Renaissance alchemical emblems and universal symbols displayed in the manner of video installations: 40 . regarding the relationship between the score and pictures.

he once distances his audience from the perceived instances and differentiates to hinder a “bromic” effect of movies to draw us back to his devised illusions again.I outline the modes Greenaway explores these concepts in his early etudes and films. He shows a paradoxical and maybe provocative attitude to meet the current fashion of media culture: by increasing the tempo of transmission the artifice invites us to revisit it again and again. shedding light on their created and constructed quality – whether relying on the audiences’ emotions or cogitations – to make them participate and reflect. By his strategies in presentation. The director pushes the limits of abilities to perceive information to an extreme by the “density” and the speed of transmitting images. The bookish knowledge to control people is the ground for the director to set his discourse on when he says: “We are all so knowledgeable now there’s so much knowledge available. too. By his discourse and inserted extra narrative woven into the drama. Greenaway has always underlined to make bookish films and as the title suggests his “film essay” focuses on the volumes Gonzalo provided him in his exile. From an aesthetic point of view.67 The film becomes a critical reading of the dawning as well as the end of modernity. he can articulate his encyclopaedic demands. in readings and re-readings. 41 . To depart my analysis how Prospero’s Books unfolds the play’s properties to provide a unique spatial-temporal experience and its self-reflexive quality to problematize illusion through metaphors of dreaming and memory and the relationship between virtuality and actuality. his creations are so much overloaded with audio-visual information that it is almost impossible to receive and explore the artifice in one encounter. Via his 67 Willoquet-Maricondi: p. have become magicians”.youtube. 178. to generate meanings. During his career working as a film editor and director at COI (Central Office of Information) from 1965. the Guttenberg-galaxy of the modern era is translated into the “image propelling” postmodern epoch.display traditional forms of fine and plastic arts. while directing our attention to the transformations in our culture and the cinematic medium as well. These works display his interest in the techniques that were developing in the decade and are countermarks of the neo-realist http://www. The director consciously urges us to realise and apply the possibilities inherent in our video and digital culture to reset our mode of receiving moving images. that in some sense. he experimented with the medium. resulting in another facet of repetition. the embryonic states of the Deleuzian notions of the time-image and crystalline structure. we.

the disruption of movement is achieved. subjective character of time seeps through these gaps into the sequence. Gaps pop up at different registers of the sequence. Her part of the conversation –an indirect monologue of translated by the narrator into English. discrete temporal aspect. thus able to forecast he future of his articulations. Through the rhythm of the sequence provided by montage technique and the alteration of the clicking metronome sound effect -sometimes 42 . A phenomenon we could interpret as a mode of repetition: the present embedded in the past. One of these experiments titled Intervals68 sheds light on the different modalities of time. the Bergsonian duration.on the other hand by the breaking of the flow via sudden cuts. the psychological. The clicking of the metronome evokes the quantized. our attention is focused on the peculiar experience of tempos and periods of movement. In his feature films we can find 68 69 The film etude is available at: http://www. Throughout the course of his works the director The episode is available at: http://www. while images evoked by the talk-translation-narration are inserted into the shot depicting the woman talking. some of the shots present internal montages themselves conveyed by the rhythm of the people walking into and leaving the plan from the right or the left side. refers to and reflects upon his own previous creations regardless of media sometimes reworking and renewing them. measured. The filmic concept of crystalline narration appears in The Falls. still different. Instead of the events and the narrative of the images. The sensory-motor scheme gets disrupted by these images. the people passing by in Moreover.Greenaway explores time by drawing attention to the gaps in the sequence. other times setting apart from movement appearing in the images and the movement established by the arrangement of the images in the sequence. We experience shuffles during the perception of the images. as a result of the shuffle and montage technique. One of the episodes shows a woman talking on a public phone in once by their audio aspect –when the clicking of the metronome is paused and then restarted.69 These experiments well demonstrate the direction the film maker takes from the late 1960s and his exploration of different temporal and reflexive modes Gilles Deleuze terms as the major tenets of modern and postmodern cinema. while due to the pauses and the abnormal movement the sequence provides.Italian cinema in film theory. It is interesting to see how through the depiction of movement the director overcomes the movement-image to make the different qualities of time accessible for the spectator. another short film of his early career made up of fictional mini-narratives rendered in taxonomy accompanied with a voice-over of documentaries.

Actuality is foregrounded by the director while referring to the virtuality of pasts and opening up an expectation concerning the very next event to take place. During his walk the camera in a slow tracking shot scans the pictures on the wall.70 Or another example is how he crystalizes memories and reflects on the displayed past moments of the main character to leak them into a present situation and force his spectators to extend their scope of attention to the past. 43 .”72 In short. 74 Deleuze: Cinema2 p. splitting. they coexist from the point of view of the actual present. Deleuze: Cinema2 p. mostly portraying private moments and emotionally charged situations from his life71. Finally the man reaches the end of the line of photos and faces the blank white wall against which he pushes his face. to the future. Metaphorically speaking. in recollection. we enter these regions. the “smallest circuit that contains all the past”73. each one with its characteristics. The gesture could be interpreted as the print of the present on a surface. a white the peak of past. 73 Deleuze: Cinema2 p. 96. a conception films depict and its first great example is 70 71 The scene from the film is available at: http://www. On the other hand. the future. different plans altering according to each photograph. “sheets of past” and “peak of present” in Deleuze and goes back to the idea by Bergson. Through reflection on recollection and memory Greenaway turns the present into a tense moment by extending it and urging expectations. adolescence.expressions and techniques as well as ideas reappearing based on his etudes and short experimentations with the celluloid In his movie Zed and Two Noughts the director extends his time-images when he expounds on the themes of decay and evolution in the final scene reflecting the present turning into past resulting in a crystal-image. we can see time.”74 These are the paradoxical features of non-chronological time. self-reflexive of the cinematic mode of expression. waiting. we are simultaneously childhood. the present and by generating expectations. the 72 . sheets. When we try to remember. Fellini articulates this Bergsonian approach as: “We are constructed in memory. that “memory is not in us. when the photo made of flesh is “taken” and the character is facing the white wall in a tense moment. 96. We get a crystal made up of circuits of pasts and the powerful present. each one of them containing everything at the same time. old age and maturity. The past constitute shrunk or extended strata. an infinitely contracted past. the past could be described as circles that are The scene from the film is available at: http://www. its aspects and themes. the circles. present is the extreme limit. The whole scene reflects the notion. a world-memory. From the point of former presents they seem to succeed each other. but it is we who move in a Beingmemory. The architect of The Belly of an Architect enters a room full of devices of photography and slowly walks past a wall packed with black and white photographs of his past.

org/wiki/Peter_Greenaway#Prospero. mirroring. but a simultaneity of the peaks of presents. mostly based on different time-images -memory and dream images. and he demonstrates his admiration of Dutch painting. that is to its story. According to the philosopher we can approach present in a different way. a present of present and a present of future. the audience’s imagination propels the probable virtual solutions “the peak of the present” could enter. It is the possibility of treating the world of life. The formation of a complex crystal in the first sequence of Prospero’s Books Only cinema narrows its concern down to its content. 97. as well. (Peter Greenaway in an interview in Zoom.27s_Books 75 76 44 . as one single event which provides the basis for the implication of presents.Orson Welles’s Citizen Kane according to unfold his filmic universe. the morphing of forms. instead. and thus simultaneous and inexplicable.” On these grounds he continues: “a time is revealed inside the event.”75 The idea leading to a timeimage to be found in Robbe-Grillet’s Last Year in Marienbad. 98. articulates his special crystals and constructs a network of the different crystalline structures. Moreover. detail and fragment. as the whole of time. by separating it from its actuality and adopting St Augustine’s “fine formulation. which is made from the simultaneity of these three implicated presents. from these de-actualized peaks of presents. its structure. 77 http://en. as probable events to take place. in which there is no succession of the presents. Regarding Deleuze: Cinema2 p.76We can realise in Prospero’s Books how Greenaway. there is a present of past. His fascination with the Renaissance worldview is echoed in his writings as well. in the tense pre-longed moment of waiting regarding the scene. other virtualities. It should. all rolled up in the event. or simply a life or an episode.” His scopic regime weaves the narrative aspect of the texts he uses and different forms of the past to work out the texts and forms of the future. all implicated in the event. In this manner he re-writes images with respect to art history.wikiquote. and applies an “opticality that becomes a form of memory. the manippea. making the temporal experience of the work schocking. tromp l’oeil. as future. concern itself with its form. being aware of these modes of cinematic expression. Deleuze: Cinema2 p. relying on the old but striving for the new. 16 Nov 1988)77 The director is generally fond of the aesthetic figurae of scopic regimes used by the late renaissance and the baroque epochs all presented in his adaptation as veduta painting.

Prospero’s Books we find writing and re-writing the key processes that are supported by the visual design of the complete film based on paint-box video technology to provide the author with a wide-range of cyrographic techniques to create images and imagery to form crystalline structures conveying complex ideas and providing peculiar experiences in reception. a virtual. Via depicting the production of lines. while we get the reversal of the dramatic experience. we gain a reflection on the creative process of writing. from the outset we are informed. In the opening scene.and only at the beginning of the film do we find a sort of rearrangement regarding the body of the text. Thus. that in effect from the very first moment creates a distance. taking a canonical position regarding literary criticism by interpreting Prospero’s figure as the metaphor of Shakespeare who bids farewell to the stage. Hardly a few segments of the play were omitted –mostly the lines of the Masque scene. as a kind of frame. expanding on the fictional tomes Prospero brought to the island. He conceptualizes the original text of the drama in a fascinating manner. mental borderline between the dramatic events of the play and the event of the film. Instead of drawing us into the dramatic events we find a gap. I reflect upon the images of the sequence at a later stage in the chapter when explicating Greenaway’s crystalline structures in detail. Greenaway authors the dramatic text through the character of Prospero. after the very first period of the opening sequence. applying it to the cinema. regarding the first scene as an induction. I analyse in detail in the next chapter of the paper. set up by Greenaway’s extra diegesis of the books. a flow of information floods the screen and the audience’s perception. At this early stage of the film sequence we can also immediately realise how the director 45 . but I should remark here that by special framings via picture-in-picture technique. in the representation of the first scene of the play. It is important to mention here. and gradually gets woven into the original text to develop the peculiar narrative strategy of the film. as the film immediately burdens our reflective capacity to follow and interpret the displayed instances. analogous to the original play. Greenaway translates the process of creation into the theatrical mode and through the filmic images popping up the imagery of the first scene of the drama further extends the creative process. We find ourselves in the raging sea of images and meanings evoked by the cinematic imagery. when the focal point of Greenaway’s interpretation is set by Prospero. the beginning of the film suggests the director’s reading of the play through books and knowledge enhancing his emphasis on the act of writing by the fine calligraphy the hand is scribing the lines in the images. a peculiar experience sustained throughout the cinematic performance until the very last moment when they seem to merge. “Knowing I loved my books…” Immediately reflective of the title. Through Gielgud’s sounding the written lines. his hand writing in a close up and Gielgud’s voice sounding the sentence. that the extra discourse is set by Greenaway.

pure cinematic image. character and intent and ambition. Renoir presents images of water in two modes when forming crystals. I rely on the classification of crystals by Deleuze to explore this construction. revealing light.” 80 His comment evokes the aspects of time in Bergson: the past. that of Shakespeare’s play. Regarding our investigation of crystalline states and modalities. The first three minutes of a film make great demands on an audience's patience and credulity. according to Deleuze in the French school of modern cinema. in flow and its equivalent pair of image is of the wind in Renoir81. The first state is characterised by standing water or frozen water surfaces as equivalents of the flat mirror. Duration. Moreover. with the first drop suddenly arriving from the top of the frame and falling to the bottom. a mental involvement. In the analysis we find different modalities of the crystalline structure developed by Greenaway that finally results in his complex expanding film crystal. the empty http://en. A great deal has to be learnt very rapidly about place and attitude. the zero degree of the moving image. a most symbolic expression of a moving image.synoptique.wikiquote. like the olive oil changes incessantly and cannot be divided. From a film theoretical point of view it is also allusive of Tarkovsky’s metaphor of the cinema. the protagonist pours olive oil onto his palm and says: “One drop plus one drop makes a bigger drop. It translates the void. The first crystal type according to the 78 79 The sequence is available at: http://www. The appearance of the black blank image once presents the par excellence. present.indirectly urges his spectators to “read” the opening scene. and future are indivisible and they co-exist. according to the scene in his Nosthalgia. He initiates a second genesis. 46 . Via the opening sequence78 of the film. or in other words extending the process to urge contribution. as a medium providing the image of the universe in one drop. we are provided with an insight by the director to the creation of his cinematic universe. even in a Biblical sense as well.27s_Books Michael Vesia: Transcendental Images of Time and Memory in Andrei Tarkovsky’s Nosthalgia http://www. 84. an involvement by reflection and cogitation. The second state features water in motion. However we could call this 81 80 Deleuze: Cinema2 a formal entrance-point. integrating them to the creative process. to be actively involved in the construction of meanings. not two. These seconds are evocative in several respects.”79 He opens his production with images of dripping water with their blops. The director explicated the importance of the opening scene in a film as: “The start of a film is like a gateway. regarding its quality. a fictional process and pseudo genesis of the original dramatic text adopting the first scene of the play.

Greenaway generates from the essential cinematic moving image . by an image of a hand writing in calligraphy the lines “Knowing I loved my books”. The basis that reveals and melts everything into itself is the moving image in the Bergsonian sense that becomes the fibre of all the texts appearing in the work. It is a condensed image of Being. The process of creation has just started in front of our eyes and the audience’s attention has been drawn to this aspect. stimulate our imagination and become symbolic. but these pasts make up an abyss instead of distinguishable sheets of pasts. marking the last point of deconstruction.a pure audio-visual situation. the process of formation begins and evokes the idea of 82 Deleuze: Cinema 2: p.French thinker is the perfect crystal. Here the pure optical and sound scenario crystallize. It could be considered as a point of reference to the interpretation of the filmic universe. and splashing into the void. or regarding the void. and is made with a seed which incorporates the environment and forces it to crystallize”82 And really. a minimal crystal image in an inventive mode. I propose. The auditory facet of the cinematic image. each crystal is infinite by right. completes the visual facet of the event and at the same time reflects the whole of the event. into an actual and virtual facet and they oscillate. It is the image dividing in two. the hovering spirit. We can only perceive the drop falling then splashing and blopping. The oscillation of the first image of dripping water is oscillating with the image of the sheet and the writing hand.time begins to split. is construction itself that reappears in the final sequence of the production. memory. 47 . alternating the blackish background with the white sheet of paper. 85-86. The period translates each drop of water as an expansion of the spirit into thought. generating the surface to move and form a tail and falling back to blop . in the process of being made. the blop. by their economy. and as Deleuze remarks: “In fact there is never a completed crystal. from above. However simple the very first image is. a process that does not go to its limit. we experience the falling of the drop and the sum of these drops. Picturing a natural phenomenon in such manner suggests the indiscernibility of presentation and representation here. By the drop -moving in out of the frame of the screen. in form of writing text. Such modes of minimalist images. This way. it provides an anatomy of the cinematic image by reflecting upon its capacity of movement and turning the focus on time as well. living beings and reflections enter into the circuit of coexistence exchanging and constituting a vision of the world as spectacle and theatre. the second movement at the stage of crystallization is the introduction of the narrative.that of the dripping water . The basic element designating the core in the director’s creation of the artwork. The image of writing protrudes in the intervals between the blops. the phenomenon of dripping water. their pasts. evoking through the void association: the whole of time and its movement. We face the present of the drop and its immediate past. when objects.

between presentation and representation. It is displayed in a smaller framed picture. The Tempest being the 25th in order. thus the director provides his first picture-in-picture image at this stage of the process. Thus. I would suggest in the original play Shakespeare foreshadows the postmodern notion of this hyper-reality if we take into account the Utopia of Gonzalo. The 24th is The Thirty-six Plays and the last one that Prospero is writing during the sequence he titles. . referring to the number of film-frames within a second on celluloid. or from their pages models pop up. At these moments. echoing Lyotard’s answer to the question what postmodern is. or the scene when the shipwrecked courtly party is wondering and discuss the strangeness of the island. They are curious volumes. smudge the borderline between virtuality and actuality. The director sees Prospero “not just as the master manipulator of people and events but as their prime originator. Thus. On his island he plans a drama to right the wrongs done on him. The idea gathers even further force if we take into consideration the narrator’s voice. . pushing towards the new. 9. the age of hyper-reality. the embedded image is over imposed by the dripping images of water suggestive of the idea. or in their mirrors actions take place. Greenaway underscores the written text. This phenomenon could be realised and extended by Greenaway in his rework. as they move. The Book of Water. underscoring their relationship to the medium. The most interesting of all are the last two books. who is informing us about the qualities and contents of the volumes in the tone similar to educational films and children’s tales. The strange and lively character of these books. Interestingly.thought in articulation. The number of the tomes appearing throughout the film is 24. The strategy by Greenaway to depict the authoring of the dramatic text as a fictitious thread interwoven into the images bringing the text to movement and life is peculiar to emphasise the Prospero-Shakespeare interrelationship and to position himself in this magician-artist dichotomy. bleed and smell. saying: “Finally it must be clear that it is our business not to supply reality but to invent allusions to the conceivable which cannot be represented . the representations and fantasies become the models of reality. the intermediary phenomenon between the Guttenberg galaxy and our digital age. a reconstitution of the known to reveal difference. Gielgud’s voice enters a few seconds later. an internal monologue and life. alluding to the script of the play and in general the scriptures. we could interpret the film as one of these curious books. The 83 Greenaway: Prospero’s Books: p. the first of the fictional tomes Prospero brought to his exile.”83 To support this suggestion we should know that television and video technology widely used the 25 frame per second ratio in the 1990s to transmit images on screens. Then Greenaway’s extra discourse is introduced. The act of writing precedes the act of wording. Also the film could be interpreted as a repetition in a Deleuzian sense. 48 . these imagery books belong to the diegesis of the film.

instead of reflecting directly what they are facing.85 The next movement in crystallization and in the genesis of the film’s discourse is when Prospero utters the first word of the play: “Boatswain!” in the Renaissance pool and interior. Cinema 2: p. I say” and the repetitive music of the 84 Trevor G. So. precisely because it has no object other than entrances into the spectacle…. a constellation with Deleuze we could describe as: “The spectacle becomes universal and keeps on growing.answer is: Let us wage a war on totality. 8/2 http://www. how to get into it.less a theatre than a giant Luna park”89 The metacinematic quality of the universe is raised. Still we are perceiving spectacle after spectacle. finally we enter the complex crystal when the lines are uttered by Prospero/Shakespeare wording the lines of the boatswain: “Out of the and by the presentation of prop mirrors emerging from the pool. spectators from the plot of the drama. Soon we can see Prospero depicted in the fashion of Antonello de Messina’s Saint Jerome in His Study86 writing in front of a mirror. let us activate differences…”84 For him the way to the unpresentable. 89 Deleuze. could be found in mini-narratives and small strategies applied according to the given context of the moment that should be left behind being conscious of their constructed nature. playing with a model ship reading out the script.”88 The crystal provides multiple entrances. Elkington: Between Order and Chaos in: Film-Philosophy vol. 8/2 85 See Trevor G. The extra diegetic volume. The Book of Mirrors87. 87 See Tables ii. but. Elkington: Between Order and Chaos in: Film-Philosophy vol. the virtual events on the ship. The third type of crystalline state is provided by these images. The phenomenon is directly referred to by the fictional tome and their pages functioning as extraordinary mirrors. According to the second type of crystal in Deleuze. 86. The most important characteristic of this state is that from this stage “the question is not what comes out of the crystal and how. Greenaway seems to reach towards this unpresentable by making holes in totality throughout his representational strategy in the film and arriving at the Deleuzian fourth type of crystal state. let us be witnesses to the unpresentable. on the contrary. displaying moving images. to his 'postmodern sublime'. Greenaway sets Prospero’s wording of the script to be the actuality of the image. 49 . in which the problem is of taking and deserting and tearing off roles. Cinema 2: p. life must come out. distancing us. through the crack of a perfect 86 See Tables i. appear in a framed smaller picture in which we can see the passengers of the ship conjured up. or in other words. and the word triggering the dramatic action of the play introducing the representations of the ship at sea. 88 Deleuze.

but state of art video technology merging with traditional works of fine art to translate hypertexts into hyperspace. The sea-change of the original text transcending the processes of the drama seems to be alluded to through the crystallization process in the film. He spreads his magic cloak and all the mythical figures and spirits.html> Willoquet-Maricondi: p. another strategic direction of movement in the film evoking the process of reading. both the conventional and peculiar aspect of the long take is presented. escorted by his spirit servants dancing according to a mechanical choreography. movement in the narrative. We find a multitude of singular surfaces opening into spaces linked into a network. 72.horschamp. long shots function to explicate change in plot. with animals of the island spring up from behind. enhancing the atmosphere. 01 May 2009. Gielgud is walking from left to right. when rules of life undergo a series of metamorphoses. Donato. urges us to overcome the seen and look for the whole behind the fragments to understand the playful game. by pushing the morphing of forms to a borderline. Off Screen. while allusions by props are made to mythologies and arcane knowledge. according to Bakhtin91. To the final period of the first sequence of the production a long tracking shot is attached. by using not only conventional cinematographic techniques. and does it in a multiple manner. while with Prospero we are approaching the second scene of the drama. In the tune the lines of the first scene are mixed intensifying the reflection on the musical quality of the text. By digital technology the director meticulously articulates metamorphoses in a Neo-Baroque design. Diverting from conventional starts. Greenaway. propelling various images onto the screen via picture-in-picture technique. the film analogously moves towards possible relationships to convey the quiddity of things. the island of the film becomes a hyper-space-whatever.90 In the long tracking shot when Prospero is walking through the Renaissance prop colonnade. spatially indicated by an archway through which the magician enters. Prospero is putting on his clothes having emerged from his pool. “Muriel:Thinking with Cinema about Cinema”. If we could find the island of the play an any-space-whatever. by overloading us with his unfathomable imagery. He provides us with a carnivalisation. 91 50 . analogous to wrapping into culture and civilization. The filmic movement reveals space to accumulate layers of meaning over layers of images. rather than describing situations in detail. <http://www. regarding the strategy of representation taking the process to its extreme. As the overinterpretation of the drama takes place through the metaphorical and allegorical mode. in Greenaway. 90

92 Furthermore. regarding acoustics: 1. water dripping: that is acoustic and visual 2. soft. wide pictures are used in compositions. conveying the whole of time as the past. the camera view is static. long. In the opening sequence metronomic timers. The storytelling is quick moving and episodic with deliberate confusion of memory and fantasy. illusive framing is used influenced by late 17th century Italian and Dutch painters.takes 4. chronothetics occur to enhance the discrete aspect of time: 1. these tenses are presented simultaneously on screen by picture-inpicture technique. memory-images referred to by in-depth camera movements 5. regarding the optical facet of images: 1. according to past. bright and white. calm night with filtered. Pictures of past tense are dark and richly coloured with artificial. Pictures of future tense are characterized by starry darkness. the mystic airy noise belonging to Ariel Expressions developing into time-images: a. b. their figure show at the edges. bluish.Finally. natural daylight. and warm lights. wing effects. Sometimes in case of picture-in-picture scenes.the movement of characters enter or leave frames or between frames. There are three temporal modes made apparent by lightning technique within the narration of the film. 13. only acoustic. the unfolding of movements. I would highlight some other key modes of expression that unfold the focus of the play on time and develop into time-images. broken sensory-motor connections/reactions 2. panoramic. the voice-over 2. 3. the present and the future are all present on the screen depicted in different frames. toplight. fire flames: acoustic and visual 3. the split between the action and the voice of character 92 Greenaway: p. 51 . Pictures of present tense are characterized by a lighting of noon light. interior lighting. wind blows: acoustic and visual 4. present and future tenses.

while the sound effect of the chronothetic dripping of water recurs. as an engagement of community . the adolescent Ariel character continues the run on. The magician is throwing all his books into a canal. Thus. now in slower motion and finally the child Ariel figure in slow motion appears and jumps up and in frozen frame by frame movement and flies out of the framework of the screen. From another archway. The fourth state of the crystal. When the 24th book. soul and spirit. We see both books sinking. Prospero’s monologue is initiated in a close up. the volume was written by William Shakespeare and one play is missing and has its space in the volume.3. i. Ariel appears as a young man from the colonnade and starts running towards the foreground.developed into actual interplay in case of courtly masques. the narrative space is being decomposed gradually. 52 . when suddenly Caliban fishes them. The audience is invited to participate in the interplay between body. according to Merlau-Ponty. by his zone. while the creative process is being presented to them 93 Willoquet. Water splashes and blops the screen turns into the dark void. Greenaway demonstrates art’s and the artifice’s property for a free-play and provides us with the possibility of a Bergsonian turn by his artifice. With Prospero. We should bare in mind the dynamics of interactivity.Maricondi: p. effects are “out of space”. images by acoustic spaces. We can follow up the final deconstruction of the filmic universe. The volumes shriek and burn. However. and Ariel the elemental spirit.e. the lively quality of the theatrical performance. The Thirty-six Plays is in Prospero’s hands. A moment of the film emphasizing the central role of Caliban in Greenaway’s adaptation. we could interpret Ariel’s flight. returning to the basic image of water and dark void. as the representations of the creative impetus of processes and change virtually jumping into our space. 193. towards life by decomposing his abstractions to return us to the natural image of the dripping water. the narrator informs us. The symbol sheds light on the fact: nature is always more than our representations and urges us to get involved. its ritualistic aspect. symbolic of the change. in a close-up with light reflected on water. His image in a framed screen is distancing while the camera toggles backwards opening the environment of the pool from the first sequence. whose character conveys the “undividedness of the sensing and the sensed”93. decomposition in the last sequence of Prospero’s Books The final sequence of the movie depicts the abjuration of Prospero’s magic. evoking other threads of actions. interpreting him as the sensous intellect.

on several screens. despite they are still different. On these grounds we could suggest that the audience. During a VJ reflections. They are forced. We ourselves face pictures and are invited to cooperate and share the spirit of creation. surrounding the audience. He provides his spectators with a guided flow of pictures. he offers his audiences great freedom. on which the audience can create his/her narrative. could gain a holistic experience of reality by and within illusion. evoking different milieus and interrelations. we find sequences or stills projected by the director mixing and rendering at the scene into a larger sequence. It suggests the automaton of random processes and artificiality. turning the auditorium into a special place equipped with several screens and audio devices – has extended the cinematic modes of expression towards demonstrating the creative process in and by pictures. Both performances are live. Greenaway through his VJ performances . shedding light on illusion. presenting a flow of carefully selected images. The director’s mode of performance focuses on a creative process that tends to propel representations. without which the show is lost for them. dynamic and open. instead of a totalistic reflection of reality. in the past few years.using state of art digital technologies. a space of playing with images. The more rigorous theatrical performance is constructing its representations to direct us to an experience of the organic whole. urged to participate in the creative process. 53 . It should be noted. through direct and indirect references. raising a livelier atmosphere for reception. However.

In such sequences. Shakespeare. On the one hand.and the Jacobean spectacular theatrical mode – with sophisticated props and extravaganza . as well as. the audience experiences a description by the emblematic mode of Renaissance theatre. This peculiar experience is based on imagery and staged images extending both towards the direction of perception and actuality in performance. besides the application of the former dramatic mode. where the setting of a scene was evoked by verbal communication that was ekphrastic. the accumulated power of the imagery affects and determines perception itself. or the inserted sequences of the banquet and the masque – in which different points of view are articulated. applying different camera angles. a chora. the audience finds framed instances through scenes that convey the visually entertaining and visionary aspects of the play – the first scene as an induction. Prospero’s Books. also provides his audiences with the technology of Masques . during the process of transmission.Conclusion Through the foregoing chapters I have made an attempt to shed light on how Shakepeare’s The Tempest evokes a peculiar spatial-temporal experience in its audiences that suggest cinematic phenomena in their embryonic form Deleuze terms the time-image and crystals deployed by post-war and postmodern cinema. An analogous problematization appears in Greenaway’s film essay by merging all sorts of media by state of art video and computer technology to read the aesthetic practices of the explore epistemological issues of his age and his medium and mediation. where affection and cognition interplay. auditory and visual alike while the 54 . movement is subordinated to time to provide an articulation of a milieu. As we could realise in the first part of the thesis. Instead of story-telling. towards virtuality. the problem of creating illusions. merging the two modes. In the sequence of the play rendered according to rigorous continuity. and outline the analogous direction of self-reflectivity realized by Greenaway to repeat Shakespeare at difference in his adaptation. modern and postmodern ages by the and highly elaborated props .to enhance the performance. a phenomenon later unfolded and devised in the modern cinema by different montage and editing techniques. remaining open for further interpretations with their relations to our memory. A special place is springing up from time. through reflection and cognition. regarding the play’s property to meet the classical unities. the dramatist found a freer dramatic form by fusing the emblematic theatrical tradition – where images were transmitted by overcoded verbal communication .

they emphasize the capacity of the artifice. both works of art attempt to provide us with a holistic view of existence. The whole of the play finds its sound base in dramaturgy that relates each “frame”. On the other hand. body. based on Bergson’s notion of the image and Deleuze’s crystalline structure.a quality that brings the meta-theatrical and metacinematic characteristics to a mutual fruition. the actual and the virtual . both works of art provide the notional representations of picture / image. Instead of a totalistic reflection of reality. I proposed. the theatre itself. in an abstract set of data and give direction towards the experience of the whole. characters comment their perceptions and experiences reflecting upon situations. and recognize the meta-theatrical nature of the drama. though through different proportions. the postmodern notion of hyper-reality is foreshadowed by the magical island of the play. or to result in mere representations without any actual relations. “sequence” and “view” in the space-time continuum of the performance rigorously. 55 . as well as the audience of the playhouses. Regarding these qualities of the interplay of actuality and virtuality in the play. Through mediate between fields of perception and memory. According to the findings in the first part of the paper.imagery unfolds in front of us by the audio-visual mode. The entertainment is overwhelming. as we found in Bergson . by which they urge a turn in the audience’s experience of the play towards reflection and cogitation and draw the attention to the interplay between perception and reflective cognition on the real process at work. word / writing. as set of images with their dynamic interrelations – a zone. meeting both the demands of the sophisticated audience at the court. both creations convey a more fluid view of art and urge awareness of a more holisitc sense and notion of reality in accordance with Shakespeare’s synchretic view of his global medium. the characteristics unfolded by Greenaway’s digital interpretation. Thus we can gain creative insight into the interaction between actuality and virtuality forming our experience of reality. However. and find the limitations of their representations and reflect upon change and the impetus in the creative process they explore in front of our eyes .

the teachers of these subjects can find a way to explain and demonstrate the interrelations not only between different disciplines. see below is a taxonomy of major issues of the As an example for a possible arrangement of information as an a comparative mini-course that finds its ground in visuality and the notion of the image in the broadest meaning of the =onepage&q&f=false> 94 56 . modern and postmodern ages contrasted94.abundant in references and quotations considering culture and civilization . within a course of five sessions: Session One and Two: Discussion in class could spring up from the first sequence of the film. From each of these pairs the discussion could proceed in the class. but also the issues in the course of as a network of information can help teachers and students integrate their knowledge and reflections based on a contrastive attitude to explore different possible focuses for their analysis. the history of art and philosophy. history. on Prospero’s figure writing and wording the text: I consulted Len Masterman’s volume Teaching Media to the contrasted points of modernism and postmodernism <http://books. the various artistic forms embedded by the production calls for a course that involves: =onepage&q&f=false> and Emery Lee’s Teaching Art in a Postmodern World <http://books.Pedagogical Review Regarding secondary school classroom work in the third and the fourth year. The wide range of disciplines. The students’ everyday experience of current media practice would help them to open discussions on different issues and fields of art. As our multimedia culture usually excites/motivates adolescents. The film. the peculiar film could be the basis on which an interpretation is founded. A syllabus of a mini course could be developed and conducted according to cooperative teaching methods. students could be provided with a complex overview on the convergence of the pre-modern and postmodern epochs throughout Greenaway’s film . Thus.

Network of ideas: .Artists as prominent members of society.Postmodern artists’ approach to emphasize the construction of meanings. individualism and self-expression in focus during the Renaissance. .Art for art’s sake: alienation from social function – Art for meaning Session Five: The Neo-Baroque design of the film Network of ideas: 57 . Session Three: The quoted and re-written alchemical images of the film with the narrator’s voice-over expaining the tomes The network of ideas: . the avant garde ideal of progression in aesthetics .The aesthetic pluralism of the postmodern Session Four: Prospero’s renaissance palace on the island conjured by Greenaway and the epilogue to discuss the relationship of arts and society.The Shakespeare-Prospero-(Greenaway-Gielgud) axis and relationships conveyed by the film.The Modern’s art for art’s sake approach: the alienation from social functions .The modern artists as odd individuals: self-expression at its extremes. as products of their time and space.The network of relevant ideas.The Renaissance preserving sacrality by the elevated stance of art . the Renaissance.World evokes the use of language and language articulates the world. humanist ideals. the role of the author in different eras and contexts. . .The modern approach towards and claims for abstractions: turning art into science.The emergence of sciences and different disciplines from alchemy in the Renaissance . . other focuses of discussion: . . the problem of authoring texts.The artists and their works appear in the postmodern age as individuals in their contexts.

..Art history as linear progress or repetition in Deleuze’s system. 58 .Universality through singularities.

Cambridge University Press. Lucking. Rose. Adrian: Deleuze Dictionary. Paula. and Mary Alemany-Galway: Peter Greenaway’s Postmodern/Poststructuralist Prospero’s Books: A Film of Shakespeare's The Tempest. Salentina. 1983. Willoquet-Maricondi. Gilles. Bergson. Harper Torchbooks. Edinburgh University Press. Books Cited from the Internet: Bergson. London: Continuum. Renaissance Man and Creative Thinking: A History of Concepts of Harmony 1400-1700 . 2009. drama and music. 1972. Gilles.Bibliography Books Cited: Bergson. 1975. Matter and Memory. Peter. Lanham: Scarecrow. Dorothy. Cambridge-Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. Orgel. 2005. Stephen: The Illusion of Power: Political Theatre in the English Renaissance. 2004. A. 06 +memory&hl=hu&cd=1#v=onepage&q&f=false> Parr. L. Peter: Out of This ctionary&hl=hu&cd=1#v=onepage&q&f=false> Hallward. Deleuze and the Philosophy of Creation. 04 Oct. Hassocks: The Harvester Press Ltd. David: The Artifice of Eternity: An Essay on The Tempest. Lecce: Adrietica ed. 1960. 1979. 2005. Wells. 2001.. 2009. Cinema 1. Henri. Dover Philosophical Classics. <http://books. Henri. 1999. Henri. Robin Headlam: Elizabethan Mythologies: Studies in poetry. Cinema 2. An Essay on the Meaning of the Comic. Deleuze. 2005. Deleuze. 12 Sept. 1994. Laughter. 2010.London: Continuum. Four Walls Eight Windows.: Green Integer. Verso 2006. University of California Press.. Time and Free Will. <http://books. Grenaway. 59 . Mark: Shakespearean Design. 1991.

01 May 2009. Michael. Film-Philosophy vol. Leonard: The Challenge of Bergsonism. Trevor G. Donald and Bryan 1985. Shakespeare without Class: Misappropriations of cultural capital. ard&lr=&ei=ukTKS8fgNIqQywSJ_YH7Bw&hl=hu&cd=6#v=onepage&q&f=false > Hedrick. The Tempest. “Írás.html> Articles Cited from the Internet: Elkington. “Between Order and Chaos”. William. Synoptique Donato. test: Shakespeare és Greenaway találkozása a boncasztalon”.google.” 14 Feb 2009. “Muriel:Thinking with Cinema about Cinema”. 22 Dec. <http://books. University of Minnesota 2010.> Vesia. “Transcendental Images of Time and Memory in Andrei Tarkovsky’s Nosthalgia”. László.film-philosophy. <http://books. <http://books. 8/2. Continuum 2003. < < http://clicknotes. < kép. 23 July 2009. 11 March <http://books. New York: bs_slider_thumb#v=onepage&q&f=false> without+class&ei=J0fKS_GNJ4qQywSJ_YH7Bw&hl=hu&cd=1#v=onepage&q&f=false> gson&lr=&ei=4EXKS42MLaeeygSSr8iYCA&hl=hu&cd=2#v=onepage&q=lawlor%20bergs on&f=false> Lee. < ei=Y0bKS7rOLqOGygTc5JHRBw&hl=hu&cd=2#v=onepage&q&f=false> Shakespeare.: Afterimages of Gilles Deleuze’s Film Philosophy. Common Ground Publishing bs_slider_thumb#v=onepage&q&f=false> Rodowick. 22 July 2009. Emery: Teaching Art in a Postmodern World. 11 March 2010. “Gilles Deleuze's Bergsonian Film Project Part 1.html> Totaro. 13 Feb 2010. Len: Teaching Media.horschamp. Apertúra 2007/nyár <http://apertura. D. <http://www. 2009. 10 Jan> Ková> Totaro. <http://books. Off Screen.> 60 . Shakespeare Navigator 04 Jan 2009.<http://books.

youtube. <> “tempest”. Peter Greenaway <> The Belly of an Architect .php?search=tempest&searchmode=none> “textus”.> Video Installation by Bill Viola <http://www.etymonline. Peter Greenaway <http://www. Peter: <> “Peter Greenaway Quotes” <http://en. <http://www.etymonline.wikiquote.On-line Dictionaries and Encyclopedias Cited from the Internet: “baseless fabric”. <http://www. Dir.> ZOO. Dir.html> “poesis”.com/watch?v=BT0ELNvNxIA&feature=related> Prospero’s Books. <http://www.27s_Books> Videos Cited from the Internet:> Intervals. Greenaway. Peter: <> 61 .youtube. Peter Greenaway <

Tables i. Saint Jerome in his Study by Antonello de Messina (1474-1475)95 95 62 .

the original prop by Peter Greenaway 96 http://www.Saint Augustine in his Study by Sandro Botticelli (1480)96 The Book of 63 .co.

Other props used in the film 64 .