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THE COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLLEGE

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August Col Ret

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Call Number

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C.I

FL Form 887 (Rev) 22 O t 52 USACGSC—P9-0798—T—26M—30 Sep 68

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P R E P A R E D

A N D

EDITED

BY

T H E

E I G H T H

U . S.

A R M Y

\ S,

HISTORICAL

SECTION

H AMPHIBIOUS GHTH
MAY 1 4 1948

CONTENTS:

C. I

under the banner of the eighth general of the army douglas macarthur lieutenant general robert I. eichelberger the story of the amphibious eighth the occupation leaders the combat record medal of honor, dsc, dsm the corps, the divisions, the combat teams the leaders in combat major general clovis e. byers combat planners today's administrators a humorous slant: memphis and yokohama

DEDICATION

page 6
page 8
page 12
page 1 9

GENERAL OF THE PACIFIC THE EIGHTH'S COMMANDER

THE EIGHTH IN WAR AND PEACE THE EIGHTH'S GENERALS page 4 6

OPERATIONS OF THE EIGHTH FOR VALOR AND SERVICE

page 51
page 67
page 75
page 89

THE FIGHTING FORCES OF THE EIGHTH THE COMMANDERS OF. THE EIGHTH CHIEF OF STAF page 9 6

THE EIGHTH'S WAR-TIME SECTION CHIEFS THE EIGHTH'S SECTION CHIEFS TODAY THE TRAVELS OF THE EIGHTH page 113

page 99
page 107

DEDICATED

TO

THE

BRAVE

OFFICERS

AND

MEN

W H O

F O

G H T

A N D

DIED

U N D E R

THE

B-ANNER

OF

THE

E I G H T H

A R M Y

GENERAL OF THE ARMY DOUGLAS MACARTHUR
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS

N O ARMY OF THIS WAR HAS ACHIEVED GREATER GLORY AND DISTINCTION THAN THE EIGHTH

GENERAL OF THE PACIFIC
When as Supreme Commander of fhe OccupaHon, General of me Army Douglas MacArthur made, his dramatic entry into Japan he climaxed one of me most outstanding military careers in United States history. The military epic that is General MacArthur's life story started from the day of his birth. He was born the son of Lieutenant General Arthur MacArthur in Little- Rock, Arkansas, where his father was stationed at the time. Raised in an army atmosphere, it was natural mat he should enter the United States Military Academy. On June 11th 1903, he graduated a\ the head of his class with the commission of a second lieutenant of Engineers. Shortly after leaving West Point the youthful MacArthur was on his way across the Pacific bound for the Philippine Islands—the land which was in the years to come to furnish the setting for the greatest chapters of his life. His assignment on engineer construction work gave him an early opportunity to study the Philippine people and the Islands. He relumed to the States, only to be reassigned to the Orient in October 1905 to serve as aide to his father who. was then on duty in Tokyo. A secret mission which was entrusted to him at the time afforded him additional opportunity to travel in the countries of the Far East.

Following his tour in Japan he served as Aide to President Theodore Roosevelt until 1907. During these years, he developed many friendships with the leaders of the Washington administration and government which were to last through the adventurous years to come and served him in good stead when later confronted with the gigantic task which came before him. The ten years following his White House activities were filled with professional assignments and duties which served to broaden his experiences and deepened his brilliant understanding of military affairs and requirements. Four years with the General Staff climaxed this period of endeavor prior to our entrance into the First World War. It was at this time that General MacArthur conceived the idea of the Rainbow Division — the Division that was destined to serve so gallantly. As Chief of Staff he was instrumental in directing its organization and training. He arrived with the Division in France in October 1917 His World War service encompassed practically all of the major offensives. In turn he served in the Vanvouleure, La Franche and Rolamont training areas; and later in the Luneville, Baccarat, Esperance-Souain sectors. Following these actions he was engaged in the Champagne-Marne defensive, and in the Aisne-Mame offensive. He was in command of the 84th Infantry Brigade when that organization went through the poignant days of the St. Mihiel, Essey and Pannes, Woevre, Meuse-Argonne and Sedan offensives. The General then assumed command of the 42nd Division until November of 1918; completing his foreign tour with the Army of Occupation. After the close of the war, General MacArthur served in the office of the War Department

Chief of Staff.
When in 1919 he started a four-year term QS Superintendent of the West Point Military Academy, General MacArthur saw an opportunity to modernize the training and improve the administrative and executive, offices of the Academy. Many graduates of these years are the leaders who directed the streamlined victory of this war. General MacArthur added three more tours of duty in the Philippines during the years of 1922­ 1925; 1928-1930; and 1935-1936. His 1928 assignment to the Philippines was that of Philippine Department Commander. In 1935 he became Military Adviser to the Commonwealth of the Philippines; and in 1936 Fieid Marshal of the Philippine Army. From 1930 to 1935, General MacArthur served as Chief of Staff of the U. S. Army, an assign­ ment for which his earlier duties qualified him preeminently. The effects of these years as Chief of Staff were far reaching and effectively constructive. When he was retired from the Army in 1937 his withdrawal from public office lasted less than four years. As conditions in the Orient became increasingly critical, President Roosevelt again called on Pacificwise General MacArthur, this time to assume command of the United States Army Forces in the Far East. In March, 1942, President Roosevelt directed General MacArthur to leave Corregidor and establish our outpost in Australia. There he was to organize and prepare to lead our forces back

for the liberation of the Philippines. In mid-April, General MacArthur was given the Command of the Southwest Pacific Area; and heading this command he began the long march which was to end in Japan with the complete surrender of the Japanese Empire. As Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers in Japan, his policies have transformed Japan from a ruthless military dictatorship into a democratic government and in the short period of its existence under his guidance, its leaders have formulated and adopted one of the world's most enlightened constitutions. The Japanese now have freedom of thought, speech, and religion; militarism has been destroyed, both as a factor in international policy and as a national ideal; land reform is transforming feudal peasants into self-respecting landowners; the strength of the Zaibatsu, which lowered the living standards and stifled the free economic life of Japan, has been broken, and much progress has been made in the restoration of the peacetime economy of the nation. In his wisdom, General MacArthur has not imposed these reforms from above but has insisted that the Japanese bring about these changes through their government by democratic processes. In doing so he has won the admiration of the world and the respect of the Japanese people. In a world where many nations are torn by internal strife, Japan under the guidance of the Supreme Commander has been a model of constructive progress and has made rapid strides toward the day when it will take a respected place among the nations. The concept which has guided General MacArthur throughout the occupation was indicated in a state­ ment he made on the second anniversary of Japan's defeat: "History records no other instance wherein Ihe military occupation of a conquered
people has been conducted with the emphasis placed as it has been here, upon moral values
involved between victor and vanquished. Right rather than might has been the criterion."
In recognition of his outstanding services as a soldier and statesman General MacArthur has been awarded the following decorations and awards by the people of the United States and nations the world over:
Congressional Medal of Honor Distinguished Service Cross with Two Oak Leaf Clusters Distinguished Service Medal with Two Oak Leaf Clusters Distinguished Service Medal (Navy) Silver Star with Six Oak Leaf Clusters Bronze Star Medal Air Medal Purple Heart with Oak Leaf Cluster Australian Pacific Star Belgian Commander Order of Crown British Knight Grand Cross of the Bath Chinese Grand Cordon of Pas Ting Czechoslovakian Grand Cross Order of White Lion Ecuadorian First Class Decoration Abdon Calderon French Grand Officer Legion of Honor Legion of Honor Fourragere (French) French Croix de Guerre with Four Palms French Grand Cross of the Legion of Honor Greek Medal of Valor Guatemala Cross of Military Merit of the First Order Hungarian Grand Cross Order of Military Merit Italian War Cross Italian Grand Cordon Order of the Crown Mexican Grand Cross of Military Merit Netherlands Knight Grand Cross of the Order of OrangeNassau with Swords (Military Division) Philippine Medal of Vefor Philippine Distinguished Service Star Philippine Defense Medal Philippine Liberation Medal Polish Grand Croix Polonia Restitute Polish Virtutae Militaire Rumanian Grand Cross Order of Military Merit Yugoslavian Grand Cross Order of White Eagle

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L I . GEN. ROBERT L. EICHELBERGER
C O M M A N D I N G EIGHTH U. S. ARMY

TO THE TROOPS OF THE EIGHTH ARMY
The accomplishments and victories of the "Amphibious Eighth" may be viewed with pride and wifh me realizaMon that they will go down in history as outstanding achievements. To all who valiantly served to overcome an aggressive adversary that at me end victory might be assured and mat me ideals of our country might be perpetuated, I extend my heart­ felt gratitude. And to those for whom there was no returning we extend our solemn pledge that their death shall not have been in vain — Since our victorious entry into Japan well over two years ago it has been our privilege to serve as occupational forces to implement the policies and to execute the directives of our Supreme Commander, General of the Army Douglas MacArthur. The mission of the occupa­ tion has been one to challenge your best qualities as soldiers and as proponents of the demo­ cratic way of Nfe. In both you have served your country well! May you who have served or are serving with the Eighth know that it is you who have provided its glory and distinction.

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THE GENERAL WITH HIS FAMOUS B-17, "MISS EM"

THE COMMANDING GENERAL WITH LT. COL. LEONARD WING AT ZAMBOANC

The arrival in Japan of Lieutenant General Robert L. Eichelberger with the advance elements of the Amphibious Eighth Army on August 30, 1945 terminated a period of wartime combat leadership thaf began in the jungles around Buna and included the engagements in New Guinea, the Netherland's East Indies, and the Philip­ pines. The war was over but many great problems still had to be faced. Above all others was the difficult problem of executing the directives of the Supreme Commander over Japan, a nation in whose defeat his own soldiers had played such a decisive role. His success in meeting this problem is manifested in both the American and the Japanese reactions. Robert L. Eichelberger was born in Urbana, Ohio, on March 9th, 1886, the youngest of five children—four boys and a girl. His father, a successful attorney-at-law, believed in teach­ ing his children to be .self-reliant and Bob spent several sum­ mers in his boyhood working on his father's farm. Along with a love of the outdoors he developed an interest in sports and played on the varsity of his high school football and baseball teams. This zest for sports was to stand him in good stead when he took over as Superintendent of the United States Military Academy. He received his appointment to West Point in his sopho­ more year at Ohio State University and became Lieutenant Eichelberger on June 11th, 1909.

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One of the greatest turning points of Eichelberger's life was his marriage, on April 3rd, 1913, to Miss Emma Gudger of Asheville, North Carolina, who was to prove a constant inspira­ tion to him. During the war, his repeated references to her were an indication of his devotion; even his personal Flying Fortress was named, "Miss Em." His military trail led through Indiana, Texas, the Panama Canal Zone, New York, and the Mexican border. His preWorld War I service culminated in his appointment to the position of professor of military science and tactics at Kemper Military Academy in the latter months of 1916. His first love, however, was field service with the infantry and with the outbreak of the war he became a battalion com­ mander in the 20th Infantry and, later, in the 43rd Infantry. In July, 1917, he was assigned as G-3, Eighth Division. Arriving in Siberia on September 2nd, 1918, he served as Assistant Chief of Staff, Operations Division, and Chief Intel­ ligence Officer, American Expeditionary Forces, Siberia, until April 3, 1920; he participated in operations in Suchan Valley during June and July, 1919. Completing this tour of duty he was transferred to Manila, where he served as Assistant Chief of Staff, Military Intelligence Division, Philippine Department, unril

GENERAL EICHEIBERGER, GENERAL S W I N G A N D COLONEL BOWEN NEAR CAVITE

AWARDING THE PURPLE HEART TO PVT. HAROLD THOMPSON, 40TH DIVISION

October, 1920; and on special duty for the Philippine Department in China, unMI February 24th, 1921. In 1921, during the Limitation of Armaments Conference in Washington, D.C., General Eichelberger served as American liaison officer with me Chinese delegation. After compleMon of the conference, he remained on duty with me Military Intelligence Division until August 1st, 1924. He attended the Command and General Staff School at Fort Leavenworth in 1926 and served on the staff of the school from the time of his graduation until the summer of 1929 when he attended the Army War College. Later he served on the staff at West Point and as Secretary of the War Department General Staff under General MacArthur and General Malin Craig. Returning to troop duty in January, 1939, he assumed command of the 30th Infantry at the Presidio, San Francisco. The War Department, however, realizing the inevitability of the Second World War and recognizing the need for the best possible leadership at its most important training school appointed him Superintendent of West Point on October 18th, 1940. In January, 1942, he was released to organize the 77th Division which was reactivated under his command in March 1942. In June he was appointed to the command of the I Corps with which he went to Australia in August 1942. The I Corps first entered the fighting in the Pacific Area in the combined American-Australian offensive against the Japanese in the jungle defenses in the Buna afea. On December 1st, 1942, when he assumed command at the front, he found a force weakened by malaria and reduced in combat effectiveness by its failure to crack the Japanese defenses. General Eichelberger analyzed the situation quickly, reorganized and regrouped units, corrected weak points in command, improved the suppiy, and developed methods of breaching the enemy lines. Above all, he furnished the battle weary troops with inspirational leadership. The revitalized force attacked,

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GENERAL EICHELBERGER AND GENERAL BYERS OFFSHORE NEAR LEYTE

taking Buna Mission on January 2nd, 1943. General Eichelberger's success at Buna resulted in his being placed in command of all Allied Forces in the Buna-Sanananda area and he turned his efforts toward taking Sanananda. Within three weeks the last Japanese position was reduced. After Sanananda fell, the I Corps returned to Australia where General Eichelberger trained and rehabilitated his troops until he moved to Goodenough island in February, 1944. It was here that General MacArthur gave him the assignment of taking the great Japanese stronghold at Holiandia, Dutch New Guinea. This operation, which isolated a great Japanese Army, was successful and the I Corps was soon busy at the task of constructing a base of operations complete with port and airfield facilities from which further operations were conducted. The 41st Infantry Division (reinforced) assaulted the strongly defended island of Biak on May 27th, 1944. After the Division had suffered bloody reverses in the early stages of the fighting, General Eichelberger and his I Corps staff were sent to Biak to take charge. Wilhin a week after their arrival the main objective had been captured. The American Force in the Pacific was now to launch the great offensive against the Philippines and, on September 7th, 1944, General Eichelberger assumed command of the Eighth Army in Holiandia, New Guinea. Space limitations prevent even the brief mention of all of the combat landings of this army. To mention a few.- Palawan, Zamboanga Peninsula, Southwestern Luzon, Cebu, Negros, Bohol, the Sutu Archipelago, and Mindanao — fully two-thirds of the land area of the Philippines—-were taken by the divisions of the Eighth Army. General MacArthur had assigned the main assault at the heart of Japan to the Eighth Army ; however, the sudden end of the war obviated this mission. As a result, on the 2nd of September, 17

1945, the Commanding General of the Eighth Army stood on the deck of the battleship, " U . S. S. Missouri," proud in his knowledge of the part he had played in bringing rhe Japanese to their knees. Two years have passed since the day of the surrender. General Eicheiberger as Ground Force Commander is still in Japan, his divisions spread from Hokkaido to Kyushu; the people are placid and are working hard to absorb the principles of democracy; the soldiers are noted for their exem­ plory conduct. His administration of the Occupation has been a success. To this great commander, leader, and administrator, for his outstanding services the United States and other nations of the world have presented high honors and awards. These indications of appreciation and esteem are presented herewith :
DISTINGUISHED SERVICE CROSS: For extraordinary heroism in action, 28 June Jo 3 July 1919, while serving as Assistant Chief of Staff, .G-2, American Expeditionary Force, Siberia. OAK LEAF CLUSTER TO THE DISTINGUISHED SERVICE CROSS: For heroism in action in New Guinea during the Papuan Campaign, 23 July 1942 to 8 January 1943. DISTINGUISHED SERVICE MEDAL: As Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2, for his conspicuous service with the American Expeditionary Force, Siberia. FIRST OAK LEAF CLUSTER TO THE DISTINGUISHED SERVICE MEDAL: As Commanding General, I Corps, for meritorious service in the Southwest Pacific Area from 24 January 1943 to 1-9 August 1944. SECOND OAK LEAF CLUSTER TO THE DISTINGUISHED SERVICE MEDAL: As Commanding General of the Eighth Army from September 1944 to May 1945, he commanded operations in many islands of the Philippine Archipelago and destroyed organized Japanese resistance on them in a series of masterful amphibious operations. DISTINGUISHED SERVICE MEDAL (NAVY): For excep­ tionally meritorious service to the Government of the United States in a duty of great responsibility as Commanding General, I Corps, the Papuan Campaign, Southeastern New Guinea, from 25 August 1942 to 23 January 1943. SILVER STAR: For gallantry in action in Luzon, Philippine Islands, on 3 February 1945. FIRST OAK LEAF CLUSTER TO SILVER STAR: For gallantry in action at Biak, Netherlands East Indies, on 23 June 1944. SECOND OAK LEAF CLUSTER TO SILVER STAR: For gallantry in action at Davao, Mindanao, Philippine Islands, on 4 May 1945. LEGION OF MERIT: For performance of outstanding service as Commanding General, 77th Division, in 1942. BRONZE STAR MEDAL: For heroic achievement in connection with military operations on Zamboanga, Mindanao, Philippine Islands, 1 to 12 March 1945.
AIR MEDAL: For meritorious achievement while participat-
ing in aerial flights in the Southwest Pacific Area from 1 December 1942 to 1 August 1945. PRESIDENTIAL UNIT CITATION: Headquarters, I Corps, for Buna Campaign, 1943. OAK LEAF CLUSTER PRESIDENTIAL UNIT CITATION: 11 th Airborne Division, for operation south of Manila, February 1945. HONORARY KNIGHT COMMANDER OF THE MILITARY DIVISION OF THE MOST EXCELLENT ORDER OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE: For courageous and valiant leadership as Commander of the Buna Sector of the Papuan Campaign. GRAND OFFICER OF THE ORDER OF ORANGE-NASSAU WITH SWORDS: Awarded by Queen Wilhelmina of Holland for liberation of Hollandia and Biak. DISTINGUISHED SERVICE STAR OF THE C O M M O N ­ WEALTH OF THE PHILIPPINES: For meritorious service rendered in the reconquesl and liberation of the Philippines.

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H GHTH IN WAR AND PEAC

THE EIGHTH ARMY IN WAR AND PEACE

By land, by sea, by air the Eighth Army has swept, always triumphant, from Memphis, Tennessee, to Tokyo, Japan. The Eighth Army began its role in the Pacific War on the 7th of September, 1944 when Lieutenant General Robert L. Eichelberger assumed command in Hollandia, New Guinea. Two days later, the Army received its first mission. When it arrived in the Southwest Pacific the Eighth Army Headquarters consisted, almost intact, of the experienced Second Army Staff built up by Lieutenant General Ben Lear and Lieutenant General Lloyd R. Fredendall during three years of training in the States. General Eichelberger brought from his old command, the I Corps, his chief of staff, Major General (then Brigadier General) Clovis E. Byers, and his G-3, Brigadier General (then Colonel) Frank S. Bowen, Jr., who had served under him in the battles of Buna, Sanananda, Hollandia, and Biak. The Deputy Chief of Staff, Colonel Arthur P. Thayer; G - l , Colonel August E. Schanze; G-2, Colonel George A. A. Jones; and G-4, Colonel Henry C. Burgess, remained in the positions they held in the Second Army. When the staff was assembled in Hollandia in September, it was a well tempered unit, ready for action. Eighth Army's first mission involved assuming control of all operational areas in New Guinea, New Britain, the Admiralties and Morotai and taking command of about 200,000 troops dispersed in 20 localities extending from Australia to Morotai. These first four months prior to initiation of major Eighth Army amphibious operations furnished an excellent opportunity for reorganizing and training the staff to meet the peculiar administrative, logistical, and tactical conditions of the South­ west Pacific.

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MEMPHIS 1944

YOKOHAMA 1945

In the early fall of 1944, General MacArthur outlined to General Eichelberger his brilliant scheme for the liberation of the Philippines and his proposed employment of the Eighth Army. As the plan finally crystalized, Sixth Army was to take Leyte, establish a beachhead on Mindoro, and strike a blow against Luzon at Lingayen Gulf. Eighth Army would move up to Leyte and conduct operations to regain control of the southern Philippines, feint toward southern Luzon from Mindoro, and support Sixth Army in Luzon by delivering two sharp blows on the west coast; one at Bataan and the other south of Manila. By the first of the year, Eighth Army Headquarters had moved to Leyte and assumed control of operations in the Philippines south of Luzon. The long drawn out task of hunting out the 27,000 Japanese remaining on Leyte began, and continued on a decreasing scale for several months as the enemy was gradually exterminated. At the same time, Brigadier General William C. Dunckel's Western Visayan Task Force, composed of the 503rd Parachute Regimental Combat Team, and elements of the 24th Division, pierced through the Japanese-infested Visayan Islands to take Mindoro. This action also caused the enemy additional concern regarding the possibility of a landing on the southwestern coast of Luzon. It was the last preparatory step for the heavy blow struck at Lingayen. Near the end of the first month of 1945, as the XIV Corps, under Major General Oscar W. Griswold, moved from the beachhead at Lingayen down the central plain toward Manila, the Eighth Army entered the Luzon picture. On January 29th, Lieutenant General Charles P. Hall's XI Corps, composed of the 38th Division

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THE INFANTRY MAKES A WET LANDING ON PANAY

PATROL FROM THE AMERICAL ADVANCES IN NORTHERN CEBU

and a Regimental Combat Team of the 24lh Division, struck the ZambaJes coast about 15 miles northwest of Subic Bay. The Corps mission included the seizure of our pre-war naval base at Olongapo, the protection of the XIV Corps' right flank, and the blocking off of Bataan Peninsula. General Hall achieved complete strategic and tactical surprise and the assault waves waded ashore unopposed. The initial objectives were captured so rapidly that General Eichelberger was able to hand the force over to General Walter Krueger only 24 hours after the landing. In three days, the Corps captured Olongapo and moved out across the base of Bataan Peninsula toward Manila. The second Eighth Army blow was aimed at Nasugbu, 45 miles south of Manila. In view of reports of large and shifting Japanese concentrations in the area, it was prescribed that no exploi­ tation of a successful landing could be made unless personnally ordered by the Commanding General, Eighth Army; the same limitation applied to committing the reserve parachute regiment from the air. It was essential, therefore, for General Eichelberger to be present. D-Day found him in the field. Major General Joseph M. Swing's aggressive 11th Airborne Division, reinforced, effected its landing at Nasugbu on January 31st. The Japanese were completely surprised and within three hours after the landing General Eichelberger made the decision to drive on to Manila. That was the beginning of the famous beachhead that was to become 200 yards wide and 50 miles long. Brushing aside infantry-artillery delaying action, the 11th thrust inland to run up against well organized positions in hill masses flanking the road. On February 2d, the 188th Infantry, under Colonel Robert H. Soule (promoted to Brigadier General as a result of his brilliant execution of this operation), decisively defealed the Japanese holding these positions, and drove on up the road that same day. On February 3rd, the 511th Parachute Regiment dropped on Tagaytay Ridge, key point

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UNLOADING TO START A SCOUTING MISSION ON CEBU

on the road to Manila, and moved out to spearhead the column. One hundred and four hours after the initial landing, the 11th ran up against heavily fortified positions, supported by artillery up to eight inches in caliber, extending across the narrow corridor in the southern outskirts of Manila. The reduction of these positions was underway when the operation passed to Sixth Army control on the 1 Oth of February. Thus a flexible, aggressive, battle-wise command, immediately at the scene of the action, was able with only a light force to outflank and neutralize 10,000 Japanese troops in southern Luzon and prevent the full concentration of forces that would have massed to defend Manila. After the Nasugbu blow the Japanese south of Manila never again regained any semblance of effective organization. By the time Eighth Army's job in Luzon was finished, preparations were well under way for the Visayan Campaign. General MacArthur's strategic plan for the liberation of the central and southern Philippines was a classic. First, bases for air and light naval forces on Palawan and in the Zamboanga Peninsula — Sulu Archipelago areas would be seized to complete the isolation of the central Philippines, bring under control the vital seaways to the west and south of the Philippines, and render the large Japanese forces in Mindanao and the Celebes strategically impotent. Then, the big ports and developed areas on Panay, Cebu, and Negros Islands would be taken in a rapid succession of amphibious strikes. From these points, the Eighth could reach out to reoccupy the entire Visayan area. The liberation of isolated Mindanao was to follow. By conducting these operations concurrently with the Luzon Campaign, the entire Philippines would be free and Ihe bulk of our troops, would be made available for operations against Japan by the time Luzon was cleared.

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AMERICAL TROOPS CRAWL ASHORE UNDER JAPANESE FIRE O N CEBU ISLAND

To support its operations in the southern Philippines, the Eighth Army had the cruisers, destroyers, submarines, PT boats and amphibious components of the Seventh Fleet; the bomber, fighter, reconnaissance, and transport elements of the Thirteenth Air Force, and four Marine Air Groups. Great credit is due to these supporting forces for their participation in the operations. The Seventh Fleet transported troops, protected convoys, and furnished fire support for landings. The Thirteenth Air Force and the Marine airmen performed invaluable services in close support, air supply, evacua­ tion, troop transportation, and reconnaissance. The veteran 41st Division, under the leadership of Major General Jens A. Doe, was given the p b of securing Palawan, Zamboanga, and the Sulu Archipelago. On the 28th of February, a task force built around the 186th Regimental Combat Team, commanded by Brigadier General Harold Heney, landed against an estimated 1,700 Japanese near the key Palawan port, Puerto Princesa. Resistance to the landing was negligible; and a demoralized enemy fled to the hills. While recon­ struction of the ruined Japanese airfield was rushed, the force started the tedious process of occupying the remainder of Palawan and nearby islands and destroying the Japanese garrisons. Eleven days after the the Palawan landing, under cover of the planes of the Thirteenth Air Force and the guns of the Seventh Fleet, the 41st assaulted the beaches west of Zamboanga City The surprised garrison of about 9,000 was unable to defend its beaches and airfields and by the day after the assault, the 41st had seized the airfields and had driven down to capture Zamboanga City, Harassed by extensive mine fields and spasmodic delaying action, General Doe drove the Japanese back into their main mountain positions. At the same time amphibious blows were launched against the 2,500 Japanese on Besilan, Jolo, and the Tawi Tawi groups. It took more than a month of

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MEN OF THE 40TH DIVISION MOVE FORWARD ON PANAY

ENGINEERS BRIDGE A STREAM IN MINDANAO

heavy mountain fighting to knock out the Japanese resistance at Zamboanga, but by the third week of April, the bulk of the enemy forces in ihe areas had been destroyed; and the Eighth had airbases at Zamboanga and throughout the Sulu Archipelago. The Eighth had cleared the way for the imminent invasion of Borneo by our Australian Allies. The next major strike after Zamboanga was against Panay Island. The 40th Division was withdrawn from the battle of Luzon and turned over to the Eighth Army for the job. Under command of Major General Rapp Brush, the division formed the nucleus of the task force which, on the* 18th of March waded ashore at Tigbauan 14 miles west of the port of lloilo and raced eastward against light delaying action to take lloilo in three days. The 2,200 Japanese on Panay could make no strong effort to defend the vital port and fled to the hills in disorder. There were an estimated 15,000 well-organized Japanese troops concentrated in the northwestern coastal plains of Negros and opinion varied as to whether the Eighth should hit them with the available five battalions or build up a strong force. General Headquarters offered reserves; but this would mean a delay. General Eichelberger's previous successes had been based on the utilization of a single mobile army reserve to cover several operations. These experiences, then, decided the issue, and preparations for a landing on the central coast opposite lloilo were initiated immediately. The 503rd Parachute Regimental Combat Team, reserve force, under Colonel George M. Jones, was alerted for a drop on northern Negros. General Brush struck Negros on the 29th of March. A small gallant raiding party, led by Second Lieutenant Aaron Hanson, captured the vital Bago River Bridge intact, use of which was essential to a rapid northward advance, before the prepared demolitions could be set off. In the first two days,

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11TH AIRBORNE PREPARES FOR THE BIG JUMP-LUZON

THE END OF THE PHILIPPINES C A M P A I G N - M A N I L A

the 40th drove northward to take the key City of Bacolod and its airfield. The disorganized Japanese, unable to execute their scheme to block the Eighth's advance up the coastal highway at the succes­ sive river lines lying across the path, started withdrawing into the rugged interior of the island as we drove northward. By May 10th, northern Negros was ours. It had been unnecessary to drop the 503rd; but it was brought in by water to aid in the reduction of the Japanese mountain positions which the enemy defended doggedly for weeks before they could be overrun. On the 26th of March, between the dates of the Panay and Negros landings, the battle-wise Americal Division, less the 164th Infantry, under Ma|or General William H. Arnold, initiated operations against the 15,000 enemy on Cebu Island. The troops of the Americal Division went ashore rapidly, and, after dashes with delaying detachments on the road leading from the landing beach reached Cebu City within 30 hours. The Japanese made no effort to defend the ruined city but withdrew in good order to honey­ combed positions that had been prepared in the steep hills overlooking the harbor. Defense of the excellent positions was stubborn and unyielding. Initial losses were heavy and the division's 164th Regiment, under Colonel William J. Mahoney, was brought in to deliver the knockout punch in a successfully coordinated division attack. Remnants of the Japanese deserted their positions and scattered to the hills. While our troops and guerrilla forces cleared the island of remaining Japanese, the 164th Regimental Combat Team struck at Dumaguete in southern Negros to eliminate the last important Japanese stronghold in the

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^uts-T^d* -

1J^

THE TOTAL DESTRUCTION OF HIROSHIMA

Visayas. Landing on 26th April against light resistance, our forces drove the ever-withdrawing enemy into the mountains of the hinterland. By 16th June, the last resistance was overcome. Although not officially closed until June 20th, the Visayan operations were virtually complete by the end of April. After the compaign, General MacArthur paid tribute to the Eighth Army and to General Eichelberger with the statement: "...my heartiest commendation for the brilliant execution of the Visayan campaign. This is a model of what a light but aggressive command can accomplish in rapid exploitation." In 44 days the Eighth Army had conducted 14 major landings, and 24 minor ones, averaging almost one a day. The key points of the Visayas once seized, the Eighth Army prepared for Mindanao. The strongest Japanese concentration on Mindanao, later proved to be 30,000, was on heavily defended Davao Gulf near Davao City. At the other end of a muddy east-west road connecting the Davao Gulf to the west coast lies the Cotabato area, where approximately 2,000 Japanese were located. Midway along the road, another narrow twisting trail-like road, the Sayre Highway, leads northward to Macajalar Bay. Along this road was a third Japanese concentration consisting of between 10,000 and 12,000 troops. Thorough advance reconnaissance revealed that an amphibious assault at the beaches near Davao would be too costly. The decision was made, therefore, to strike at Cotabato and extend the Eighth Army's control over the island from a base to be established there. This course would be slower but would save countless American lives. Major General Franklin C. Siberf's X Corps was designated to undertake the Mindanao operation.

27

OPERATION CORONET
SHOWING MAJOR GROUND COMBAT ELEMENTS ALLOCATED FOR THE OPERATION SIXTH ARMY

He was given two reinforced divisions; the 24th, under Major General Roscoe B. Woodruff; and the 31st, under Major General Clarence A. Martin. Initial plans for a landing at Malabang 30 miles north of Cotabato were changed enroufe when Colonel Wendell W. Fertig's guerrilla information showed that the Japanese were withdrawing from the area and that guerrillas had occupied rhe objective airstrip. On April 17th, the 24th Division effected their main landing at Parang, 10 miles north of Cotabato; only a battalion went in at Malabang. The following day, Cotabato was taken amphibiously. The unpredictable Japanese, caught unaware, could attempt no strong defensive action at any point; so the Eighth Army utilized the opportunity with a quick thrust toward Davao. At the same time, an attempt was initiated to secure as a line of supply the twisting, treacherous waterways of the great Mindanao River which paralleled the Davao Road at its midpoint. Mounted in the heavily-armed assault craft of the amphibious 3rd Engineer Special Brigade, commanded by Brigadier General David A. D. Ogden, a regiment attacked up the river line. Both the overland and waterborne expedition advanced rapidly. Brushing aside minor resistance, they reached the halfway point across the island in a four-day drive. The enemy forces in the north were now cut off from those around Davao. The river route proved useable and the poor road was abandoned as a main line of supply. Our unexpectedly rapid advance to the center of the island placed us within striking distance of Davao Gulf and created a remarkable opportunity to assault the Davao Gulf positions from their defenseless rear before the Japanese could prepare adequate defenses. The situation was reminiscent of Singapore. General Woodruff did not hesitate. While rhe 31st moved up to strike northward toward Macajalar Bay, he sped on to Davao Gulf. April 27th, just 10 days after the landing at

28

EIGHTH ARMY
FOUR CORPS ELEVEN DIVISIONS

FIRST ARMY

Parang, the 24th reached the gulf. The beachhead which was now established did away with the long and tenuous overland route, and supplies could be brought in directly by sea. The same day the gulf was reached, General Woodruff attacked northward up the coastal road. His objective was Davao City. Three days later he had captured the city, while the enemy dug in above Davao for a fight to the finish. The 24th Division, which was strung out for 50 miles along the inadequate narrow road, knifed deep into an enemy force numbering 30,000. General Eichelberger proclaimed the achievement as one of the bright pages of the war. The rapid exploitation and the fearless, offensive action had reduced a four months' job to a two weeks' task. With the taking of Davao City, the strategic victory was won ; but one of the most brutal land battles of the Philippines Compaign had just started. The 31st Division ran into real trouble. The rainsoaked, rutted road disintegrated rapidly. This eventuality was anticipated, however, and while General Martin's spearhead thrust forward, supplied largely by air, the 108th Regimental Combat Team, commanded by Brigadier General Robert O. Shoe of the 40th Division landed at Macajalar Bay to secure a new coastal base. Landing on May 10th, the force fought southward against sporadic delaying action to join with the 31st Division 13 days later. The new supply road was soon in operation and the two forces merged to destroy the enemy area which had faded into the mountains east of the road. By the 10th of June, the remnants of the enemy had been driven into the hills to starve or die of disease. It took General Woodruff's 24th Division nearly two months of hard fighting to destroy the

29

JAPAN SUES FOR PEACE - MANILA

THE EIGHTH'S COMMANDER GREETS GENERAL MacARTHUR AT ATSUGI

fanatical enemy in the Davao area. By the end of June, General Franklin Sibert's X Corps had ex­ tended its control over all Mindanao. On July 1st Eighth Army assumed control of the entire Philippines when it was directed to take over the Luzon operation. Although organized Japanese resistance had been declared broken on Luzon, the remaining armed enemy troops had to be hunted down, dug out of holes, and destroyed in order to complete the liberation of this island. The XIV Corps, commanded by Lieutenant General Oscar W. Griswold, assumed the tactical control of the operation with the 6th, 32nd, 37th, and 38th Divisions plus elements of three divisions and one regimental combat team under his command. The mopping up was handled aggressively by all units and by the 15th of August the enemy force had become so reduced as to become tactically impotent. The actual strength of the Japanese, as indicated by casualties and surrender reports was well over 50,000. Upon the close of the Visayan and Mindanao operations in June 1945, the Eighth Army faced its greatest task. General Eichelberger's veteran army was to strike the main blow in the invasion of Japan. Sixth Army was to start the show with Operation Olympic aimed at the southern island of Kyushu late in October. Then early in 1946, the Eighth and the First Armies were to apply the crusher, Operation Coronet, an assault on Tokyo Plain—the heart of Japan. Preliminary invasion planning was started while mop-up operations were still underway on Luzon. Suddenly the schedule changed ! On August 6th Two days later the Russians plunged into the war. By enough and publicly sued for peace. Eighth Army occupation of northern Honshu and was not caught the atomic bomb was dropped August 10th the Japanese had was assigned the mission of unprepared. As far back as on Hiroshima. had more than taking over the June, General

30

THE SUPREME COMMANDER SIGNS THE INSTRUMENT OF SURRENDER

Eichelberger had directed his staff to begin planning for this eventuality. Two complete plans for the initial landing were evolved, the first an amphibious one, the second a combination of airborne and amphibious landings. The latter was subsequently adopted. The Japanese capitulated on August 15th, and four days later an advance echelon of the Eighth Army was flown to Okinawa, prepared for any emergency. By this time conferences between Japanese emissaries and members of General MacArthur's staff had indicated that the landings and the occupa­ tion would be peaceful. Plans were predicated upon the full cooperation of the Japanese. The enemy forces would be disarmed under their own supervision and the Allied occupation would be progressive following demobilization in specified areas. The plan was designed to avoid possible incidents which might renew the conflict. A small reconnaissance party landed at Atsugi Airfield, 20 miles southwest of Tokyo, on the morning of August 28th. The primary mission of this group was to determine the condition of the airfield and to establish operational facilities. In what has been termed the most daring landing in history, General Eichelberger arrived in Japan with the first echelon of the 11th Airborne Division shortly after daybreak on August 30th. This small group of men were landing in a hostile country where they were outnumbered thousands to one by nearly 4 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 men still under arms in Japan. Other units of Eighth Army arrived in rapid succes­ sion. On September 2nd, the surrender terms were signed in an impressive ceremony on the Missouri in Tokyo Bay. Three days later the flag of the United States was raised over the American Embassy in V o k y o . It was then that General MacArfhur gave the Eighth Army's Commander the memorable order:

31

LU

-Vr

EIGHTH ARMY

General Eichelberger, have our country's [lag unfurled and in Tokyo's sun let it wave in its [ull glory as a symbol of hope for the oppressed and as a harbinger of victory for the right. By mid-October Eighth Army had completed its primary mission of occupying northern Honshu pothly, rapidly, and efficiently the troops of three corps, consisting of seven divi­ ental combat teams, took up their occupation posts in Japan. During this time sited the men of his command impressing them with the thought that they were the United States of America. Sixth Army, which had been assigned Southern r d Kyushu, completed its part of the occupation mission by the end of October, with the inactivation of the Sixth Army, Eighth Army took over the occupation of Japan with its 75,000,000 population. At peak strength, late in 1945, the two Armies had a total strength of nearly half a million men. Six months later there remained only one army with a strength well under 200,000. Nevertheless the occupation was running smoothly and quietly—a situation many had thought impossible at the beginning. The most bitter war in Pacific history had left Japan prostrate. Small groups of dazed, wearyeyed Japanese stared silently and impassively at the first Americans to land. The drab ruins of Yokohama were almost deserted, particularly by the women who had fled to the country in terror of the invadeySW^At first the American veterans were wary — a few days before they had been waging a bloody^j|L^gainst these people — yet firmness to duty was combined with an admirable restraint from c r i ^ ^ ^ J ^ y came not as arrogant conquerors in a defeated land but to uphold the traditions for which they fought. The natural friendliness of the Gl and the cooperative attitude of the Japanese quickly overcame fears and prejudices. The lesson these soldiers taught has had a tremendous impact on Japanese hhought. After a year of occupation, General MacArthur could say :

BCOF

THE ZONES OF RESPONSIBILITY

I wish to pay tribute to the magnificent conduct of the troops. With few exceptions they
could be taken as a model for all time as a conquering army . . . Nothing has so tended to impress
Japanese thought — not even the catastrophic fact of military defeat itself. They have for the first
time seen the free man's way of life in actual operation and it has stunned them to new thoughts
and new ideas.

Whereas bands of demobilized soldiers and underground organizations might have been expected to wage guerrilla warfare or offer resistance in other ways, neither of these potentialities developed. Occupational personnel travel casually and unarmed throughout Japan and mingle freely with a co­ operative populace which almost universally shows great respect for, but little fear or resentment toward, the American. Arms have not been carried except when on duty since the first weeks of the occupation. The number of overt acts against occupational personnel have been so limited and so minor in nature as to be almost negligible. The Japanese who had fearfully speculated concerning their fate as they first watched our troops from the shadows of their ruined cities now have new hope and faith in the future. With civil rights which heretofore they have never enjoyed, with the rebuilding of their cities, and with the restoring of their peacetime economy all eyes are hopefully turned toward the eventual peace. Eighth Army had accomplished its initial mission—to bring in troops and occupy the strategic areas and governmental centers of Japan—but that was only part of the job. "Mercy teams" had been organized to expedite the release of the thousands of Allied prisoners in Japanese stockades. These teams arrived in Yokohama on August 30th along with the advance echelon of Eighth Army. They were aided by United States planes which swooped over the prison camps to drop food and. supplies.

33

YOKOHAMA 1945

YOKOHAMA 1947

Allied prisoners were released and processed for evacuation at the rate of 1,000 a day so that the liberation of all prisoners in the camps in Honshu, Hokkaido, and Shikoku was accomplished in only 18 days. Eighth Army was weeks ahead of the most optimistic pre-occupation estimates and, in all, recovered and evacuated 23,985 persons ! Sixteen divisions and hundreds of smaller units participated in the occupation, but the majority were either inactivated or returned to the United States within the first fe-w months. By the middle of 1946, except for various headquarters and service units, the only American forces remaining were the 24th and 25th Infantry Divisions under I Corps and the 1st Cavalry and the 11th Airborne Divisions under IX Corps. I Corps occupied Kyushu, Shikoku, and most of the southern half of Honshu, IX Corps the northern half of Honshu, including the Tokyo area, and Hokkaido. Non-tactical units in Japan under General Eichelberger's Command include the 138th AAA Group. Kobe Base, the 3rd Transportation Military Railway Service, the 2nd Transportation Major Port, the 4th Replacement Depot, the 49th General Hospital and eleven station hospitals, and more than 200 other units such as depots, school, signal units and military government teams. The occupation took on a truly international aspect with the arrival of the British Commonwealth Occupation Forces under Lieutenant General Northcott in the spring of 1946. This force is under the operational control of Eighth Army. One British Indian Division and two independent brigades—one from Australia and one from New Zealand—took up posts on southern Honshu. Units of these troops share honor guard responsibilities with picked American units in Tokyo.

34

The primary mission of Eighth Army, apart from the physical occupation of Japan, is to insure "that Japan comply with the terms agreed on in the instrument of surrender and contained in all direc­

DOKO DES'KA ?

fives issued to the Japanese by the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers." Basic instructions for the conduct of the occupation were delivered to General MacArthur in the form of a document known as the "Initial Post-Surrender Policy for Japan." Though it was written at the close of a bitter and costly war, the document is remarkable (or its lack of vindictiveness and its concern for the welfare of the common people of a nation which had so recently been a treacher­ ous and unscrupulous foe. The policy was ruthless, however, in so far as it dictated that the milita­ rist and the influence of militarism which led Japan into war be totally eliminated from her political, economic, and social life. Japan was to be completely disarmed and demilitarized and her war making potential destroyed in order "to insure that Japan will not again become a menace to the United States or the peace and sepurity of the world." Our second objective was "to bring about the eventual establishment of a peaceful and responsible government" which would "conform as closely as may be to the principles of democratic self-government. . . " Subsequent instructions, which have implemented rather than changed the general policies.outlined above, are approved by an eleven-nation Far Eastern Commission and transmitted to General MacArthur who is responsible for putting them into practice. He is assisted by a four-power Allied Council an advisory body only, seated in Tokyo. The Japanese Government receives orders in the form of directives from General MacArthur, and Eighth Army is responsible for the enforcement of these directives throughout Japan. The first of the objectives, that of demilitarizing Japan, was accomplished with startling speed. The Japanese War and Navy Ministries were converted into demobilization ministries which disarmed and demobilized more than 2,500,000 Japanese soldiers and 1,300,000 sailors, then in Japan, in less

35

DESTRUCTION OF WAR MATERIEL

than [our months. The occupational troops seized all military installations and huge amounts of munitions, arms, and other material. Military installations, except for those needed by the occupational forces, have been gradually returned to the Japanese—many a former airfield is now covered with growing crops. Army stockpiles of food and clothing were returned to the people for domestic use. Hundreds of tanks, thousands of airplanes, and millions of weapons were scrapped and their metals recast into implements of peaceful pursuits. Nearly one million tons of explosives have been destroyed by demolition, burning, or dumping at sea—a tricky and dangerous job accomplished by Eighth Army Ordnance experts. Underwater clearance teams have swept all important harbors. Small caches of unreported arms and munitions are still being discovered, but no organized plan to circumvent the directives has come to light. In order to shatter Japan's war-making potential, Eighth Army, on orders from the Supreme Com­ mander, has seized and held for reparations more than 900 industrial plants which had been used to manufacture the materials for Japan's war machine. The end of the war found over 6,500,000 Japanese overseas, scattered from Manchuria to Singapore and throughout the islands of the Pacific. Nearly 1,165,000 non-Japanese Asiatics living in Japan wished to return fo their native lands. Making use of both American and Japanese shipping, a repatriation program was instituted in the autumn of 1945. The responsibility for repatriation was placed on the Japanese Government under Eighth Army supervision. By mid-1947, Military Government repatriation officers could proudly announce that more than 5,500,000 persons had been returned to their homes, both to and [rom Japan, through nine repatriation centers. The slightly less than a million Japanese still remaining overseas were practically all in Russian-controlled areas (rom which

36

REPATRIATION OF FOREIGN NATIONALS

DEMOBILIZATION OF THE ARMED FORCES

repatriation was slowly taking place through the three centers still in operation. In December 1945, the Eighth Army tribunals began the arduous task of bringing Japanese war criminals to trial. 175 cases involving 368 defendants were completed in the first 20 months. Ten commissions worked steadily to bring speedy justice to the more than 500 suspects still awaiting trial. The responsibility for the conduct of these trials, except for the prosecution, rests with Eighth Army which must try all such cases save those of the top-ranking suspects held before the International Tribunal in Tokyo. Penalties given by the courts have been severe, but both the Japanese and the world press have attested to the fairness and justice with which the trials have been conducted. War criminal suspects and those already convicted, numbering well over one thousand Japanese, are held by Eighth Army in Sugamo Prison, a modern penifentiary on the outskirts of Tokyo. This institution has received much praise, both for the efficiency with which it is operated and for the humane yet strict treatment accorded the prisoners. The secret police, Japan's Gestapo, was dissolved. The treacherous Black Dragon Society and other ultra-nationalistic organizations were outlawed. Military exercises were prohibited in schools and text books revised to eliminate militaristic teaching. The Shinto religion, which had been twisted to support the militaristic clique and to glorify Japan's "divine* destiny," was denied state support and its influence eliminated from the schools. The Zaibatsu, giant family monopolies, had lowered the living standards of the majority of the Japanese people and stifled free economy. These corporations have been broken up and their hold­ ings turned over to a government agency for resale to the public. Anti-monopolistic legislation has been written into the law books.

37

FIRST WAR CRIMES TRIAL

EQUAL RIGHTS FOR WOMEN

With the demobilization of the Japanese Army and Navy, the destruction of the tools of war, the elimination of militarism as an ideal, the punishment of war criminals, and the dissolution of the Zaibatsu, the downfall of Japan's military power was more or less completed. The accomplishment of the second objective—"to bring about the eventual establishment of a peaceful and responsible government. . . "—has also been achieved to the extent possible for the time, but history will indicate the ultimate value the Japanese will place on this rare heritage by the zeal with which they will guard and defend it. Beginning with his famous "Bill of Rights" directive in the second month of the occupation, General MacArthur has issued a steady flow of orders to the Japanese Government designed to guide the thinking of the people into new paths and to establish a government that will be a true expression of the people's will. Legislation controlling freedom of speech, press, assembly, and religion was abrogated. Women were made equal with men in the eyes of the law. Political prisoners were liberated. The trade union movement was legalized and quickly mushroomed into thousands of unions with nearly five million members. The political-economic purges have barred nearly half a million wartime militarists and profiteers from public life. School teachers have been carefully screened to remove those who still nurture militaristic and ultra-nationalistic ideals. The school curriculum has been revised, text books rewritten, and the educational system decentralized. Under the occupation, two elections, as free as any in the world, have been held. More than seventy percent of the eligible electorate, including women for the first time, have voted in the general elections. In its voting, the public has indicated a preference for a middle course and elected few candidates from either the right or left extremes.

38

LAND REFORM BECOMES A REALITY

A new constitution has been adopted, one of the most enlightened in the world. It renounces war as a means of policy, recognizes the dignity and rights of the individual, creates a Diet and a Cabinet directly responsible to the electorate, and transfers sovereignty from the Emperor to the people. The Emperor, by his own admission no longer divine, has been shorn of power and most of his wealth but still commands the respect and veneration of the mass of the Japanese. There can be no real political freedom where the mass of the people are in economic want and bondage. Endless encouragement and help has been given to the Japanese by the Occupational Forces in the rehabilitation of peacetime industry, the increase of farm production, and the restoration of foreign trade. Thousands of tons of American food has been distributed among the people to fill the gap until their own economy is self-sufficient. A land reform program has been instituted with the aim of making five million tenant farmers independent. Fifty-four Eighth Army Military Government Teams stationed throughout the country, in addition to Special Staff Sections at Army and Corps level keep close watch on the progress from totalitarian feudalism to a democratic form of government and economic self-sufficiency. One team serves each of the 46 prefectures and each of the eight administrative regions. The primary mission of Military Government is to supervise the execution of the directives of the Supreme Commander. The Eighth Army policy has been based on the idea that the Japanese people are responsible for their present condition and must work out their own salvation, none-fhe-less, every effort must be made to revitalize industry, agriculture, mining, fishing, commerce and trade, and other phases of the economic life in order to make the people self-sufficient as rapidly as possibie. Through constant surveillance health and public welfare standards have been raised. There is much groping and fumbling by the Japanese people in their struggle to practice

39

FREEDOM OF ASSEMBLY

democracy.

They must be helped to gain a real understanding of their responsibilities and privileges.

The old guard is clever and resists change in subtle ways. Sometimes a firm hand is essential. The occupation army must remain constantly alert to insure attainment of the objectives. In carrying out the occupational mission, Eighth Army has been faced with many new and difficult problems of organization, supply, and deployment of troops. Commanders have had to exercise to the fullest their ingenuity, imagination, and skill to meet and solve these special problems. The redeployment and readjustment programs have placed a particular burden on Eighth Army in maintaining military efficiency and a high level of morale. The occupation was barely under way before large numbers of "high point" veterans began boarding ships to return home. The 4th Replacement Depot was assigned the task of processing these men. By November 1945, the depot was handling 25,000 each month. During the first two years of the occupation 387,325 men passed through the depot on their way home. Incoming replacements totaled 170,776. The 1 Uh Replacement Depot processed 35,000 returnees during the two months it served under Eighth Army, and several divisions were returned directly without clearing through the depots. Because of this tremendous turnover, the Eighth Army had undergone three distinct changes in personnel during the first two years of the occupation. First to arrive were the veterans of the Pacific War. These were largely replaced by men trained for combat who had not seen action. Finally came the young draftees with a liberal percentage of regular army men. The large turnover made it especially important to classify, screen, and give specialist instruction to all arrivals. In addition to their normal duties, all units have been exceedingly busily conducting "on-the-job" training and surveying the skills of replacements to make maximum use of their respective

40

DEMOCRATIZE THE SCHOOLS

IMMUNIZATION TO SAFEGUARD HEALTH

talents. A large percentage of the draftee replacements had little more than five weeks of basic training. These men completed their thirteen weeks training schedule under Eighth Army tutelage. Nine large schools train technicians in the various technical branches of the army, and the divisions conduct similar schools. Tactical units have held numerous field exercises and maneuvers to keep their organizations at a high standard of proficiency. A number of disasters — earthquakes, tidal waves, fires, and floods — have found the troops well organized and prepared for any emergency. The people of stricken areas have learned that they can rely on immediate and generous aid when disaster strikes. Bringing in supplies and distributing them to the widely scattered units throughout the country is a special problem. The 2nd Major Port in Yokohama operates the world's fifth largest port where most of the shipping brings in troops and supplies for Eighth Army. Kobe Base receives supplies for troops in the southern part of Japan and also reclaims army property—equipment valued at more than thirty million dollars having been repaired there during the first two years of the occupation. All passenger and freight trains used by the Allied Forces in Japan are the responsibility of the 3rd Transportation Military Railway Service. This unit operates sleepers, diners, baggage cars, nearly 600 passenger coaches, hospital cars, Post Exchange trains, and other railway facilities in addition to handling nearly 200,000 tons of Allied freight each month. The Quartermaster Section has developed and is operating the two largest hydroponic farms in the world. These furnish the occupational personnel in Japan and Korea with fresh vegetables. Apart from its principal job of procuring and issuing the supplies which keep the army going, the Q M Section also operates shoe and equipment repair shops, sales commissaries, service stations and a wide variety of other service installations.

41

2D T MAJOR PORT DELIVERS FOOD A N D SUPPLIES

GUARD AT THE IMPERIAL PALACE

The Post Exchanges furnish occupational personnel with the combined commodities of very nearly all the shops to be found along Main Street in Home Town, U.S.A. The Army Exchange Service operates nearly 200 principal and sub-branch Post Exchanges and the popular soft drink and snack bars. Along with a huge volume of sales of regular merchandise, the Post Exchanges provide barber and beauty shop services, radio and watch repairing shops, garages, tailor shops, photo developing services, clothing for dependents and civilians, and household goods for dependent homes. Gross sales in the Post Exchanges total over $60,000,000 annually; large business indeed I Early in the occupation numerous schools were opened by the Information and Education Section under the Army Educational Program. At the end of two years they had been consolidated into seven Educational Centers in the areas where troops were concentrated, two Area Schools serving ­ divisions, and ten unit Schools serving regiments. In addition to the thousands of students who have received instruction in these schools, many more have registered for United States Armed Forces Institute courses, and all have participated in the Troop Information Program. The Troop Information and Education Section also maintains seven Armed Force Radio Stations which provide programs to lighten the leisure hours and provide information of local and world interest. To augment the school training program throughout Eighth Army an extensive athletic and recreation program was organized by Special Service. Millions of dollars worth of supplies — from fishhooks to pianos — have been issued. Every soldier has equipment and facilities available for participating in many athletic activities. To increase interest and keep competition at a high piteri, All-Japan Tournaments in the major sports have been conducted on the division and major command level.

42

Located at scenic spots throughout the country are 27 hotels where soldiers may rest in pleasant surroundings while on leave.

EIGHTH ARMY DEPENDENT HOUSING

Fifty "circuit-riding" professional librarians maintain a high standard of service in the two metropolitan and 185 smaller libraries which have been established for the troops. Motion picture theaters are open nightly, and numerous plays and variety shows have been provided, including those given by Japanese performers. The American Red Cross with its helpful field directors, cheerful hostesses, and well equipped service clubs performed invaluable services for the troops throughout the first two years of the occupation. The second anniversary of the end of the war found the Army taking over the 56 Service Clubs from the ARC for continued use and enlisting the services of many of the Red Cross girls as army hostesses. The arrival of dependents was another important factor in the maintenance of a high level of morale. The first families arrived in June 1946, and to date over 8,000 families have been brought to Japan. The Engineers have been responsible for the planning, building, and remodeling of the thousands of homes in which these families are quartered. AN of the homes conform to high standards of American living. Schools are provided for the children, and commissaries and Post Exchange services have been enlarged to meet household needs. Eighth Army was successful in war; it has been successful in peace. Careful planning, excellent leadership, and conscientiously performed duty have resulted in an occupation which has demonstrated to a defeated people the best that America has to offer in the realm of human values. All this is a tribute to the American soldier in Japan. Secretary of War Patterson crystalized the thought when, speaking of the troops of Eighth Army, he said, "...they are the best representatives the American nation could have...It is an Army capable of carrying out the difficult duties of the occupation, — an Army of which the American nation is proud."

43

44

THE EIGHTH ARMY MILITARY GOVERNMENT OF JAPAN

TOKYO-KANAGAWA
SPECIAL DISTRICT

HOKKAIDO
SPECIAL DISTRICT

H EIGHTH'S GENERALS

CORPS COMMANDER

MAJOR GENERAL ROSCOE B. WOODRUFF Graduated me United States Military Academy in 1915, saw service on me Mexican border and, as a company commander, served in France in 1917. He continued in the military service after World War I and climaxed his pre-World War II record with his assignment in 1939 as Chief of Training Branch, G-3, War Department General Staff. He was promoted to Brigadier General in January 1942 and became Assistant Commanding General of the 77th Division. He took the VII Corps to Europe in May 1943 and later assumed command of the XIX Corps. General Woodruff returned to the United States in March 1944 and was subsequently assigned to the command of Army Garrison Force 248 in Hawaii. In November 1944 he took over the 24th Infantry Division in the Philippine Islands, a command he held until assigned I Corps for the occupation of Japan in November 1945. General Woodruff holds the Distinguished Service Medal with cluster, the Silver Star with two clusters, the Bronze Star Medal, the Purple Heart, and the Army Commendation Ribbon. 47

IX CORPS COMMANDER
MAJOR GENERAL CHARLES W. RYDER Graduated the United States Military Academy in 1915 and, after a short period of service on the Mexican border, served in France with the 1st Division. In the post-war years he instructed at the Military Academy and at Fort Benning, Georgia. From 1930 to 1933 he served with the 15th Infantry Regiment in Tientsin, China. Upon his return to the United States he joined the War Depart­ ment General Staff. In 1937 he left this post to become Commandant of Cadets at the Military Academy. He returned to field duty in January 1941 when he became Chief of Staff of VI Corps, a tour which was to be followed by his assignment as assistant commander of the 90th Infantry Division and his promotion to Brigadier General. He went overseas in May 1942 as commander of the 34th Infantry Division but assumed command of the entire Eastern Assault Force shortly after his promotion to Major General in July 1942. With this force he cleared Algiers ; and later led the 34th Division through the Tunisian and Italian Campaigns. Following his return to the United States on July 25th, 1944, he assumed command of the IX Corps which he took to the Philippines. After the Japanese surrender he brought this command up from Leyte to assume duties of occupation force in Hokkaido and Northern Honshu. General Ryder holds the Distinguished Service Cross with cluster, the Distinguished Service Medal, the Legion of Merit with cluster, the Silver Star with cluster, the Purple Heart, and the Army Commendation Ribbon.

48

MAJ GEN CHARLES L. MULL1NS, JR 24 INF DIV 25 INF DIV

LIAM C. CHASE I CAV

MAJ GEN JOSEPH M. SWINC 11 AB DIV

LT GEN H.C.H. ROBERTSON BCOF

BRIG GEN ROBERT W . CRICHLOW JR KOBE BASE

BRIG GEN FRANK C. McCONNELL 2D MAJOR PORT

49

NEW GUINEA MAPIA-ASIA

LEYTE MINDORO PALAWAN

ZAMBOANGA

PANAY

NEGROS CEBi

BOHOL MINDANAO LUZON JAPAN

OPERATIONS O H GHTH

NETHERLAND'S EAST INDIES

NEW GUINEA

52

General Robert L. Eichelberger took command of the Eighth Army on September 7, 1944. Two days later it received its first mission — the destruction of the enemy remaining in New Guinea and the Netherlands East Indies and the staging of units for the pending assaults on the Philippines. Units that were to become a part of this army were scattered throughout Australia, the Bismarck Archipelago, the Admiralties and New Guinea. In many areas — Biak, Morofai, Wakde-Sarmi, Noemfoor, and Sansapor — fighting was still in progress. Highly train­ ed and battle-hardened combat units completing their assignments in the New Guinea and Netherlands East Indies operations hastily staged for new assaults on the Philippines, one thousand miles closer to the Japanese homeland ; long range bombers of the 5th Air Force based on Biak in the Schouten Islands, were delivering heavy strikes on the Philippine Islands to soften up Japanese positions there; the stage was set and the Eighth Army was ready for its subsequent role in the drama of the Pacific War.

MAPIA-ASIA
The first amphibious assaults exclusively under the control of Eighth Army were the MapiaAsia landings : the objectives were to take bases suitable for the establishment of LORAN (long range navigation by radar) stations, and to close the communication gap between the Biak airbase and the advance lines in the Philippines. Committed to this mission were units of the veteran 31st Division which was still engaged in the struggle on M o r o t a i ; the 2d Bat­ talion of the 167th Infantry was assigned the Mapia landings, while Company F of the 124th Infantry was designated to make the landings on the Asia Islands. The landings began on November 15, 1944, with the assault on Pegun Island of the Mapia g r o u p ; five days later the Mapia-Asia Islands were secured, signalling the comple­ ion of the first assault mission of the Eighth Army.

^v

D

H

DD

NES

• •
t

LEYTE-SAMAR
Eighth Army entered the Philippine Campaign when General Eichelberger, with the advance elements of his staff, arrived at Tacloban airstrip on November 2 1 , 1944. The Eighth Army rook over the Leyte-Samar Operation officially on December 26, 1944. Under its control during this operation were two corps (the X and XXIV), ten divisions (1st Cavalry, 11th Air­ borne, Americal, 7th, 24th, 32nd, 38th, 77th, 81st, and 96th Infantry Divisions), and the 112th Cavalry Regimental Combat Team. Although it was designated as a mop-up operation and the planning was based on an estimated Japanese strength of 5,000-8,000, the divisions of the Eighth Army were to spend many months in the difficult and hazardous task of disposing of a far greater enemy force, numbering more than 25,000. The ability of the fighting men of these divisions and the quality of their leadership was attested by the efficiency with which rhis task was accomplished and by the low number of American casualties. This accom­ plishment was even more remarkable in the light of the dual mission of Eighth Army-the elimi­ nation of Japanese resistance on Leyte, and the staging and supplying of units engaged in other operations in the Philippines. While actively engaged in combat operations the Eighth Army unloaded, staged, and reloaded a convoy of over 40 ships carrying the XXIV Corps for the Okinawa Operation. All of this activity was concurrent with the staging and supplying of Sixth Army units. With Leyte secured it became a major supply base. From its headquarters at Telegrafo the Eighth Army Staff directed the operations in the Philippine Campaign.

MINDORO-MARINDUQUE
The concept of the Mindoro-Marinduque operation was initially to confuse the Japanese as to the American intentions in southern Luzon by diversionary action, and later to establish air fields on Mindoro to permit close fighter support of the American units engaged in Luzon. The Western Visayan Task Force, created especially for this purpose, launched its assault on December 15 1944 Responsibility for this operation passed to Eighth Army on January 1, 1945 The combat units committed were the 19th and the 21st Regimental Combat Teams of the 24th Infantry Division and the 503rd Parachute Regimental Combat Team. Their smooth co­ operation was to a large extent, responsible for the rapid completion of the operat.on.

t

, SUBIC BAY-NASUGBU
The briefest of the Eighth Army operations was the assault on Subic Bay in Zambales Province. This was a three-fold mission: to protect the exposed right flank of XIV Corps, to regain the pre-war naval base at Olongapo, and to blockade the Bataan Peninsula. The mission was assigned to the XI Corps, consisting of the 38th Division and the 34th Regimental Combat Team of the 24th Division. The initial penetration was made on the Zambales coast about 15 miles northwest of Subic Bay on January 29, 1945. This surprise maneuver made possible an unopposed landing and the operation was so successful that General Eichelberger was able to hand the force over to the Sixth Army 24 hours after the landing. The plan of rhe Nasugbu Beach Operation was originated at a conference between General Douglas MacArthur and General Eichelberger in November 1944 at the Army Headquarters on Leyte. The Eighth Army was to land an assault force on southwestern Luzon with the mission of diverting Japanese combat units from the engagements in northern Luzon, disrupting the Japanese lines of communications, and advancing on Manila. This mission was to be under the personal direction of General Eichelberger. The landing was made on the 31st of January, 1945, by the 11th Airborne Division reinforced with two battalions of the 19th Infantry, 24th Division. The entire operation, from the Nasugbu beachhead and the parachute jump on Tagayfay Ridge to the swift drive into the outskirts of Manila, an advance of over 50 miles in four days, was characterized by rapid exploitation and dynamic forward movement. 58 The 1 lth Airborne received an earned "well-done" when Eighth Army relinquished control of the operation on the 10th of February.

VISAYAN PASSAGES
The one operation which contributed more than any other to the amazing total of amphibious landings made by units of the Eighth Army was the "Clearance of the Visayan Passages." Although Mindoro and Marinduque belong to the Visayan Island Group and it might be assumed that the landings on these islands in December and January initiated the operation, such was not the case. The concept was first presented in a letter from General MacArthur dated February 5, 1945, on the progress of the Luzon Campaign, in which he called on the Eighth Army to institute operations at the earliest practicable date to clear the islands bordering the passages. The commanders of the Allied Naval and Air Forces were to synchronize their efforts in these areas in accordance with the plans and requests of General Eichelberger. The first landing was made February 19th on the island of Biri and the last was made on the 3rd of April on Masbate Island. Units engaged included elements of the X Corps, the 24th, Americal, and 40th Divisions.

, PALAWAN
Victor III, the first of five operations bearing the code name "Victor," was launched against the Palawan Group which forms the western boundary of the Philippines. This group which stretches in a southwesterly direction from Mindoro to Borneo afforded an excellent potential base for aircraft patrolling the South China Seas. The task of taking Palawan was given to the 186th Regimental Combat Team of the veteran 41st Division. The regiment staged at Mindoro and embarked at San Jose on the 26th of February. The landing was made at Puerto Princesa on the 28th. The pre-landing bombardment demoralized the enemy garrison and the preliminary objectives were taken by noon of H-day. The Japanese showed little inclination to fight and the entire Puerto Princesa area was soon taken. The other islands of the group (Busuanga, Dumaran, Balabac, and Bugsuk) were then cleared, the last of these being taken on April 16th.

60

I
ZAMBOANGA-SULU:
VICTOR IV

The Victor IV operation was rhe last major combat assignment for the 41st Division. The iniMal landing was aimed at rhe port of Zamboanga which was raken on March 11th, D-day plus one. 1 he rroops then took the entire coastal area in the vicinity of Zamboanga before continuing rheir drive down rhe Sulu Archipelago. Many minor landings were made in the island chain before rhe operation was completed. The landing on Sanga Sanga brought rhe unit ro within 35 miles of Borneo. The landing on Jolo, tradiMonal seal- of the Sultans of Sulu was second only in imporfance ro rhe main landing at Zamboanga. The guerrillas on rhis island were the fierce Moros conquered by General Pershing during rhe Philippine Insurrection. They helped considerably to bring this operation to an early and successful conclusion by fheir ruthless attacks on [he Japanese.

VICTOR I :

PANAY-NEGROS

The 40th Division, with the 503rd Parachute Regimental Combat Team attached, was assigned the mission of taking Panay and Negros Occidental. Most of the Japanese units originally stationed on Panay had been transferred to Leyte during the early phase of the Leyte Campaign. The ones remaining were restricted to the city areas by guerrilla pressure. The initial landing was made on the 18th of March at Tigbauan, on Panay. The small force defending the beach was annihilated. The division advanced quickly on lloilo utilizing tanks for the spearhead. The city was captured the next day and the remnants of the Japanese force were driven into the hills. With the completion of this phase of the opera­ tion, the 185th Regimental Combat Team landed on Negros Occidental on the 29th of March. Before this action was terminated, both the 160th Regimental Combat Team and the 503rd Parachute Regimental Combat Team were committed. The action was completed and civil government was restored by the 9th of May.

62

CEBU-NEGROS: V,CTOR
Cebu and Bohol and the Dumaguete area of Negros Oriental were the last areas in the Visayas sMll in Japanese hands. Cebu was the best fortified and defended island remaining to them. Eighth Army Headquarters estimated that in Cebu City alone there were over 8,500 troops. The Americal Division, only American division to be activated in the Pacific combat zone, utilized tracked landing vehicles for the initial penetration at Talisay, southwest of Cebu City, on the 26th of March, 1945. The beach defenses were so elaborate and effective that eight of these vehicles were knocked out before the units were able to cross the beach. It took almost a month to break the Japanese resistance in the Cebu City area but the operation progressed rapidly after this had been accomplished. The landing on Bohol was made by the 3rd Battalion of the 164th Infantry on the 10th of April and the island was completely cleared of Japanese by the end of April. The final phase of the Victor II operation was the taking of Negros Oriental by the 1st and 2nd Battalions of the 164th Infantry. This landing was made on the 26th of April and within one month the area was under American control.

'• V

\

V,CTORV;

MINDANAO

Victor V, with Mindanao as its target, was the most important operation exclusively under Eighth Army control. The island had been isolated from the rest of the Philippines by the earlier Victor operations. The most noteworthy tactical maneuver of this operation was the drive to the Davao Gulf, an advance of over 100 miles which was accomplished within nine days after the landing at Parang on April the 17th. The Japanese had the advantage of terrain and much of the fighting occurred in country which was impassable to vehicular traffic ; how well the foot-slogging infantrymen and the engineers carried out their mission was indicated by the speed with which they took their successive ob|ectives. The tactical force of Victor V was the X Corps which consisted of the 24th and 31st Divisions supported by the 108th Regimental Combat Team of the 40th Division, the 162nd Regimental Combat Team and the 3rd Battalion of the 163rd Infantry of the 41st Division, and the 3rd Battalion of the 164th Infantry, Americal Division.

64

LUZON
The Eighth Army assumed control of the entire Philippines when, on July 1, 1945, it was directed to take over the Luzon operations. Although organized resistance had been declared broken, the remaining armed troops had to be hunted down, dug out of holes and caves, and destroyed in order to complete the liberation of the island. The actual strength of the Japanese, as indicated by later figures on casualties and surrenders, was well over 50,000. Leading this force was the notorious "Tiger of Malaya," General Tomoyuki Yamashita. The XIV Corps assumed the tactical control of the operation and, under its command were the 6th, 32nd, 37th, and 38th Divisions and elements of the 43rd Infantry Division, the 11th Airborne Division, the 1st Cavalry Division, and the 158th Regimental Combat Team. The mopping-up was handled aggressively by all units and the enemy force had become tactically impotent by the 15th of August when General Eichelberger directed that all offensive action cease.

JAPAN
The Japanese surrender ended the feverish preparations of the Eighth Army Staff for the contemplated attack against the heart of Japan— the Kanto plain — the Tokyo-Yokohama area. The grim outlook of an amphibious assault against an army of millions was altered to one of occupying the homeland of a conquered enemy. The staff sections worked night and day on " Blacklist," the top secret plan which had been evolved months before to take care of jusr such an eventuality. Members of the staff landed with the earliest combat troops on the 30th of August; the 11th Airborne and the 1st Cavalry began their initial reconnaissances of the metropolitan area of Tokyo-Yokohama. Two days later the staff members joined the other military leaders aboard the battleship " M i s s o u r i " to witness the signing of the surrender documents by the Japanese representatives. On the same day the Eighth Army Headquarters convoy steamed out of Leyte on its way towards Yokohama to join the advance command post. The Eighth Army Zone of Responsibility was northern Honshu and Hokkaido. This was extended January 1946 to include southern Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu. At its peak strength the Eighth Army controlled six corps. Of this force the I Corps with the 24th and 25th Divisions and the IX Corps with the 1st Cavalry and 11th Airborne remain.

T H O S E

W H O

S E R V E D

T H E I R

C O U N T R Y

E Y O N D

T H E

CALL

OF

D U T Y

FOR VALOR AND SERVIC

FOR CONSPICUOUS GALLANTRY AND INTREPIDITY AT THE RISK OF HIS LIFE

THE MEDAL OF HONOR

JAMES H. DIAMOND Private First Class JAMES H. DIAMOND (Army Serial No. 34872309), as a member of a machine-gun secMon, Company D, 21 sr Infantry Regiment, Army of me United States, displayed extreme gallantry and intrepidit/ on 8, ' , 10, and ?45, at Mintal, Mindanao, Philippine Islands. When a Japanese sniper rose from his fox hole to throw a grenade into their midst, this valiant soldier led the enemy with a burst from his submachine gun and simultaneously directing the fire of 105mm and .50 caliber weapons upon the enemy pillboxes immobilizing his and another machinegun section, he enabled them to put their guns into action. When two infantry companies established a bridgehead, he voluntarily assisted in evacuating the wounded under heavy fire and, securing an transported casualties to the rear through mortar and artillery fire so intense as to render the vehicle inoperative, despite the fact he was suffering from a painful wound. The : again volunteered, this time for the hazardous job of repairing a bridge under heavy enemy fire. On 14 May 1945, when leading a patrol to evacuate casualties from his battalion, rough a virtual hail of Japanese fire to secure an abandoned machine ied as he reached the gun, he succeeded in drawing sufficient fire upon the patrol could reach safety. Private DIAMOND'S disregard of danger, and eagerness to assist his comrades will ever heroic sacrifice to those for whom he gave his life. Posthumous Award-War Department General Order No. 23 dated 6 March 1946

HARRY R. HARR Corporal HARRY R. HARR (Army Serial No. 33256924), an acting squad leader of Company D, 124m Infantry Regiment, Army of me United States, displayed conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity near Maglamin, Mindanao, Philippine Islands, on 5 June 1945. In a fierce counterattack, the Japanese closed in on his machine-gun emplacement hurling grenades, one of which exploded under the gun, puffing it out of action and wounding two of the crew. While the remaining gunners were desperately t attempting to repair their weapon, another grenade landed squarely in the emplacement. Quickly realizing he could not safely throw the unexploded missile from the crowded position, Corporal HARR unhesitatingly covered it with his body to smother the blast. His supremely courageous act, which cost him his life, saved four of his comrades and enabled them to continue their mission. Posthumous Award-War Department General Order No. 28 dated 28 March 1946 MELVIN MAYFIELD Corporal MELVIN MAYFIELD (Army Serial No. 35003011) Company D, 20th Infantry Regiment, Army of the United States, on 29 July 1945, displayed conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity while fighting in the Cordillera Mountains, Luzon, Philippine Islands. When two Filipino companies were pinned down under a torrent of enemy fire which converged on them from a circular ridge commanding their position, Corporal MAYFIELD, in a gallant single-handed effort to aid them, rushed from shell hole to shell hole until he reached four enemy caves atop the barren fire-swept hill. With grenades and his carbine, he assaulted each of the caves while enemy fire pounded about him. However, before he had annihilated the last hostile redoubt, a machine-gun bullet destroyed his weapon and slashed his left hand. Disregarding his wound, he secured more grenades and dauntlessly charged again into the face of point-blank fire to help destroy a hostile observation post. By his gallant determination and heroic leadership, Corporal MAYFIELD inspired the men to eliminate all remaining pockets of resistance in the area and to press the advance against the enemy. War Department General Order No. 49 dated 31 May 1946 ' 69

THE MEDAL OF HONOR
JOHN C. SJOGREN Staff Sergeant JOHN C. SJOGREN (Army Serial No. 36421567), Company I, 160th Infantry Regi­ ment, Army of the United States, led an attack on 23 May 1945 near San Jose Hacienda, Negros, Philippine Islands, against a high, precipitous ridge defended by a company of enemy riflemen, who • were intrenched in spider holes and supported by well-sealed pillboxes housing automatic weapons with interlocking bands of fire. The terrain was such that only one squad could advance at a time, and from a knoll atop the ridge a pillbox covered the only approach with automatic fire. Against this enemy stronghold, Sergeant Sjogren led the first squad to open the assault. Deploying his men he moved forward and was hurling grenades when he saw that his next in command, at the opposite flank, was gravely wounded. Without hesitation, he crossed 20 yards of exposed terrain in the face of enemy fire and exploding dynamite charges, moved the man to cover, and administered first aid. He then worked his way forward and, advancing directiy into the enemy fire, killed eight Japanese in spider holes guarding the approach to the pillbox. Crawling to within a few feet of the pillbox while his men concentrated their bullets on the fire port, he began dropping grenades through the narrow firing slit. The enemy immediately threw two or three of these unexploded grenades out, and fragments from one wounded him in the hand and back. However, by hurling grenades through the embrasure faster than the enemy could return them, he succeeded in destroying the occupants. Despite his wounds, he directed his squad to follow him in a systematic attack on the remaining positions, which he eliminated in like manner, taking tremendous risks, overcoming bitter resistance, and never hesitating in his relentless advance. To silence one of the pillboxes, he wrenched a light machine gun out through the embrasure as it was firing before blowing up the occupants with hand grenades. During this action, Sergeant SJOGREN, by his heroic bravery, aggressiveness, and skill as a soldier, single handedly killed 43 enemy soldiers and destroyed nine pillboxes, thereby paving the way for his company's successful advance. 70 War Department General Order No. 97 dated 1 November 1945

EXTRAORDINARY HEROISM IN A MILITARY OPERATION AGAINST THE ENEMY

" '

DISTINGUISHED SERVICE CROSS
Achille, John J. Bjorkland, Robert J.

Corporal
1st Lieutenant Technical Sergeant Private First Class Colonel Chaplain (Captain) Captain Lieutenant Colonel Private First Class Major Staff Sergeant Technician 5th Grade Sergeant Private First Class Private First Class Private First Class Private First Class Private First Class Captain Private First Class 1st Lieutenant Private First Class Technical Sergeant

Braswell, William W.
Bridger, James R. Clifford, Thomas E. Colgan, Aquinal T. Crouch, Theodore Cushing, James M. Dalton, Ellis C. Edwards, Robert J. Evans, Winford A. Fell-, Leon G. Finney, Harold L. Fiori, Angelo M. Flaherty, David K. Flint, Donald H. Graham, Lawron O. Grotto, Anthony F. Haffenreffer, Adolf F. Hansen, Glen J. Harper, Robert D. Hendershott, Robert I. Herauf, Peter A.

1 lth Airborne Division 31st Infantry Division 24th Infantry Division 40th Infantry Division
24th Infantry Division
31st Infantry Division
24th Infantry Division
82nd Division; P.A.
6th Infantry Division
7th Infantry Division 6th Infantry Division
1st Cavalry Division
1st Cavalry Division
Americal Infantry Division
24th Infantry Division
40th Infantry Division
Americal Infantry Division
Americal Infantry Division
Americal Infantry Division
41st Infantry Division 503rd Parachute Infantry Regiment Americal Infantry Division 6th Infantry Division

71

Hinds, Ervin M. Hughes, Ray N. Jackman, Sail E. Jarosz, Emil W. Jepma, Samuel Jordon, William O. Jr. Kersten, Marvin G. Kinder, Wendell B. Langham, Albert J. Laule, Walter F. Lear, George A. Lott, Malcolm E. Martin, William R. Mclnnis, John L. Mendoza, Henry R. Miklovic, Frank Murray, John J. Newman, Aubrey S. Nokes, William A. Obermayer, Charles R. O'Dea, Michael J. Patterson, John F. Petrisek, Edgar Postlethwait, Edward M. Quarles, William R. Richards, William H. Richmond, John R. Robbins, Joseph Rodgers, William J. Schimmelpfenning, Irvin R. Serrano, Conrado N. Smart, Marvin L. Solley, Charles M. Jr. Soule, Robert H. Spragins, Robert B. Stokes, Wilmer E. Swing, Joseph M. Szymanski, Teddy Szymko, Michael Torres, Joseph R. Warren, Richard A. Warkins, Otis H. Whifaker, Donald J. Williams, George D. Wilson, James Woehl, Herbert J. Wollard, J. C.

Private First Class Private First Class Staff Sergeant 2nd Lieutenant Sergeant Private Private First Class Technical Sergeant • Private First Class Private First Class Private First Class Private First Class Private Private First Class Private First Class Private First Class Staff Sergeant Colonel Sergeant 1st Lieutenant Captain Private First Class Technical Sergeant Lieutenant Colonel Private First Class 1 st Lieutenant Captain Staff Sergeant 1 st Lieutenant Colonel Private Staff Sergeant Private First Class Colonel Lieutenant Colonel Technical Sergeant Major General Private First Class Technical Sergeant Private First Class 1 st Lieutenant St-aff Sergeant Staff Sergeant Lieutenant Colonel Private First Class Staff Sergeant Captain

40th Infantry Division 40rh Infantry Division Americal Infantry Division 24th Infantry Division 24th Infantry Division 24th Infantry Division 40th Infantry Division Americal Infantry Division 41st Infantry Division 24th Infantry Division 7th Infantry Division 1st Cavalry Division 7th Infantry Division XI. Corps 7th Infantry Division 40th Infantry Division 31st Infantry Division 24th Infantry Division Americal Infantry Division 31st Infantry Division Americal Infantry Division 503rd Parachute Infantry Regiment Americal Infantry Division 24th Infantry Division 24th Infantry Division 32nd Infantry, Division 503rd Parachute Infantry Regiment 40th Infantry Division 222nd AAA Searchlight Battalion 1 1 th Airborne Division 503rd Parachute Infantry Regiment 32nd Infantry Division 41 st Infantry Division 1 1 th Airborne Division 24th Infantry Division 24th Infantry Division 1 1 th Airborne Division 24th Infantry Division 24th Infantry, Division Americal Infantry Division 40th Infantry Division 37th Infantry Division 6th Infantry Division 31 st Infantry, Division 503rd Parachute Infantry Regiment 40th Infantry Division Americal Infantry Division

72

Bold Face type indicates Posthumous Award

FOR EXCEPTIONALLY MERITORIOUS SERVICE I N A DUTY OF GREAT RESPONSIBILITY

DISTINGUISHED SERVICE MEDAL
Lieutenant General Charles P. Hall Major General Rapp Brush Major General Clovis E. Byers Major General William C. Chase Major General Percy W. Clarkson Major General Jens A. Doe Major General Paul J. Mueller Major General Innis P. Swift Brigadier General Thomas F. Hickey Brigadier General Hugh F. T. Hoffman Brigadier General Eugene McGinley Colonel Frank S. Bowen, Jr. Colonel Henry C. Burgess Colonel Rex V.D. Corput Colonel David M. Dunne Colonel George A. A. Jones Colonel August E. Schanze Colonel Arthur P. Thayer XI Corps 40th Infantry Division Headquarters, Eighth Army 1st Cavalry Division 33d Infantry Division 4 1 st Infantry Division 81st Infantry Division 1st Cavalry Division 31st Infantry Division 1st Cavalry Division Headquarters, Eighth Army Headquarters, Eighth Army Headquarters, Eighth Army Headquarters, Eighth Army Headquarters, Eighth Army Headquarters, Eighth Army Headquarters, Eighth Army Headquarters, Eighth Army

73

GALLANTRY, DETERMINATION, ESPRIT DE CORPS

DISTINGUISHED UNIT CITATION
11 rh Airborne Division, Headquarters and Headquarters Company 20m Infantry Regiment, 3rd Battalion 21st Infantry Regiment, Cannon Company 40th Cavalry Reconnaissance Troop (Mechanized) 117th Engineer Construction Battalion 151st Infantry Regiment, Company E 158th Infantry Regiment, Company G 161st Infantry Regiment, Cannon Company 185th Infantry Regiment, 3rd Platoon, Company F 187th Glider Infantry Regiment, 1st Battalion 188th Glider Infantry Regiment, Headquarters and Headquarters Company 188th Glider Infantry Regiment, 1st Battalion 188th Glider Infantry Regiment, 2nd Battalion 457th Parachute Field Artillery Battalion, Air Section 457th Parachute Field Artillery Battalion, Batiery Division 511th Airborne Signal Company 511th Parachute Infantry Regiment, 1st Battalion 511th Parachute Infantry Regiment, 2nd Battalion 511th Parachute Infantry Regiment, 3rd Battalion 674th Glider Field Artillery Battalion 161st Infantry Regiment, Company E

GHTING FORCES O H GHTH

I CORPS

CORPS
Major General Roscoe B. Woodruff, Commanding Brought to the Southwest Pacific by General Eichleberger who commanded it during the Papuan and New Guinea Campaigns. Fought throughout the entire Luzon Campaign. With head­ quarters in Kyoto, I Corps occupies the southern part of Honshu and all of Kyushu with the 24th and 25th Infantry Divisions.

IX CORPS
Major General Charles W. Ryder, Commanding Served in Hawaii and on Leyte in the Philippines. Came under Eighth Army control in August 1945. With the 1st Cavalry and the 11th Airborne Divisions it performs occupational duties in northern Honshu and Hokkaido with headquarters at Sendai.

X CORPS
Major General Franklin C. Siberr, Commanding Hit Leyte on D-Day in the invasion of the Philippines. Executed the, Mindanao Operation. With the 24th and 41st Infantry Divisions was assigned occupational duties in Shikoku and the sector of Honshu later occupied by the British Commonwealth Occupation Forces. Relieved of occupational duties and inactivated in January 1946.

76

XXIV CORPS

XI CORPS
Lieutenant General Charles P. Hall, Commanding Fought through the jungles of New Guinea. Participated in the Luzon Campaign. The 112th Cavalry and 158th Regimental Combat Teams, the Americal and the 43rd Infantry Divisions and the 1st Cavalry and 97th Infantry Divisions served under this Corps in the occupation of the vital Kanto Plain area of Japan until relieved in February 1946, to prepare for inactivation.

XIV CORPS
Lieutenant General Oscar W. Griswold, Commanding Earned the nickname of "King of the Solomons" in a campaign through those islands. Thrust southward through Luzon to become the "Liberators of Manila" With the 11th Airborne and the 27th Infantry Divisions occupied six prefectures in northern Japan until relieved 1 December 1945, for movement to the United States.

XXIV CORPS
Lieutenant General John R. Hodge, Commanding Saw hard fighting in the Philippines throughout the Leyte-Samar Operation. Invaded Okinawa and was instrumental in cracking the last-ditch stand of the enemy. With the 6th and 7th W Infantry Divisions occupies the American Zone in Korea.

77

1 CAVALRY

7 INFANTRY

6 INFANTRY

AMERICAL DIVISION
Activated in N e w Caledonia, the only unnumbered division in [he American Army, this division has one of the longest combat records in the Pacific War. It had its baptism of fire in Guadalcanal, fought on Bougainville, and in the Philippines on leyfe, Samar, Cebu, Bohol, Negros, and other islands. It was one of the first divisions to occupy Japan.

1ST CAVALRY DIVISION
Hell for Leather. This old Regular Army outfit has an imposing record in the Pacific fighting of World War II. It won the tough Admiralty Islands invasion, was among the first troops to land on Leyte, fought its way into Manila on Luzon, and was the first outfit to march into Tokyo. "First in Manila—First in Tokyo."

6TH INFANTRY DIVISION
78
Sight Seeing. Units of this Regular Army Division have fought in every war of the United States from the Revolution down to the present. In World War II they served on Hawaii, fought at Toem-Maffin Bay and cleaned out Sansapor in New Guinea, were in on the original invasion of Luzon and helped mop up the Cagayan Valley on that island.

24 INFANTRY

7TH INFANTRY DIVISION
Hourglass. This divison was in the early fighting of the Pacific war at Attu. Later they fought at Kwajalein in the Marshalls, saw a rough time in Leyte, and wound up a fine combat record by turning the left flank of the enemy's Shuri defense after helping to invade Okinawa.

11TH AIRBORNE DIVISION
The only Airborne division in the Pacific, it proved the effectiveness of its type of warfare. After fighting on Leyte it made a combined landing-drop on Luzon south of Manila and made a spectacular forced march on that city taking Cavite in the same operation. Later a drop near Aparri put the final squeeze on the enemy in the Cagayan Valley. Finally, it led the critical "D-Day" landing in the occupation of Japan.

24TH INFANTRY DIVISION
Victory Division. Units of this Regular Army outfit have an enviable record of participa­ tion in other wars of the United States. In World War II it saw action in New Guinea and Biak. On Leyte they made a landing and were in the thick of the fighting. Elements landed at Subic Bay to help free Bataan, fought in the retaking of Corregidor, Mindoro, and other Philippine islands. The division spearheaded the invasion at Mindanao, the last Japanese stronghold in the Philippines.

79

27 INFANTRY

25 INFANTRY

31 INFANTRY

25TH INFANTRY DIVISION
Tropic Lightning. Activated from units of the old Hawaiian Division. Its first contact with the Japanese was at Guadalcanal in 1943. After this action it participated in many other Southwest Pacific Island operations. Its final wartime action was in Luzon. The divison is now part of the occupation force under I Corps.

27TH INFANTRY DIVISION
Galla Vanter. This National Guard division from New York saw action at Makin Island in the Gilberts, Eniwetok Island in the Marshalls, Saipan in the Marianas, and helped to invade Okinawa. Those spots were among the toughest assignments in the Pacific War. The 27th landed on "D-Day" after playing a prominent part in the "March to Tokyo."

31ST INFANTRY DIVISION
80
Dixie. This hard fighting National Guard outfit from the Deep South was in the ugly Druiniumor River battle at Aitape, New Guinea, and made the initial landing on Morotai in the sweep toward in Philippines. On Mindanao it made a brilliant sweep up the Sayre Highway to clean the enemy out of the central Bukidnon Province.

33 INF/.. I7RV 17 INFANTRY

32ND INFANTRY DIVISION
Red Arrow. Often called "Les Terribles", this Wisconsin and Michigan National Guard
division was one of the first divisions in the Pacific and saw acMon at Buna and Aitape in
New Guinea, and on Morotai. In the Philippines they were in combat on Leyte and in the
difficult mountain areas of Luzon such as the Villa Verde Trail.

33RD INFANTRY DIVISION
Prairie. This National Guard outfit from Illinois served [or a while as Hawaiian Island defense troops. The division moved to Dutch New Guinea for mop-up operations in the Wadke-Sarmi area and from there to- action on Morofai. In the Philippines on Luzon, after action at Rosario, the "Prairie" boys saw plenty of mountains in the drive on Baguio.

37TH INFANTRY DIVISION
Buckeye. This Ohio National Guard division first saw action on New Georgia, then af Bougainville in the Solomons. Later, on Luzon, they were in the bitter street fighting in Manila, went north and helped capture Baguio. From mere they launched their sensational drive that liberated the Cagayan Valley.

81

40 INFANTRY

43 INFANTRY

38 INFANTRY

41 INFANTRY

38TH INFANTRY DIVISION
Cyclone. "The Avengers of Bataan." This National Guard unit from Indiana, Kentucky, and West Virginia served in the defense of Hawaii and conducted mop-up operations on N e w Guinea and Leyte. Landing at Subic Bay on Luzon they recaptured the " h a l l o w e d " ground of Bataan. Later they saw action in the Bamban Hills and took Montalban Dam east of Manila.

40TH INFANTRY DIVISION
Sunshine. After serving as Hawaiian defense troops this National Guard division from the Southwest States saw its initial action in the jungles of N e w Britain. In the Philippines they made invasions and fought on an impressive number of islands including Luzon, Mindanao, Panay, Negros, and Masbafe.

41ST INFANTRY DIVISION
SunseL One of the veteran outfits in the Pacific, this National Guard division from the Northwestern States was the first complete American division to land in Australia. From there they fought north through British and Dutch New Guinea, and Wadke, Biak, and Noemfoor Islands. In the Philippines they made invasions on Palawan, Mindanao, and on islands of the Sulu Archipelago.

82

81 INFANTRY 77 INFANTRY

43RD INFANTRY DIVISION
Winged Victory. Another veteran jungle fighting unit this New England National Guard division fought at New Georgia, including Munda Airfield, and other islands in the Solomons. In New Guinea they were in the bitter jungle fighting at Aitape. Landing on D-Day in Luzon they saw fierce fighting from the Lingayen Gulf to Ipo Dam. It was among the first divisions to occupy Japan.

77TH INFANTRY DIVISION
Statue of Liberty. This division won high praise for its brilliant invasion of Guam. In the Philippines they made a landing near Ormoc which was of vital importance in ending resistance on Leyre. Later they saw fighting in the invasion of Okinawa and le Shima. It was among the divisions chosen to occupy Japan.

81ST INFANTRY DIVISION
Wildcar. In World War I the "Wildcats" hung up a fine combat record and innovated the shoulder patch as a division insignia. In World War II they continued their record as a fighting division by invading and capturing Anguar and Peleliu in the Palaus. It was among the first occupation troops in Japan.

83

96 INFANTRY

7 I I - <• ­

93RD INFANTRY DIVISION
The only N e g r o combat division in the Pacific, there they went to N e w Guinea and to division garrisoned Z a m b o a n g a on. M i n d a n a o this outfit savvaction on Bougainville. operations. Elements o[ From the M o r o t a i [or mop-up and other islands in the Philippines.

96TH INFANTRY DIVISION
Deadeye. This unit was activated in Oregon in 1942, completed its training in Hawaii, and saw its first action during the Leyte landing. Although engaged in only two campaigns — Leyfe and Okinawa — it suffered more casualties than any other Army division fighting in the Pacific Theatre. The division took two of the toughest defense positions on the island of Okinawa, Yonabaru Airfield and Conical Hill.

97TH INFANTRY DIVISION
The Trident. The 97th is the only Eighth Army division that also served in the European Theatre of Operations. In the closing months of the war against Germany they fought from the west bank of the Rhine, into the Ruhr pocket, through central Germany, to end their part of the campaign in Czecho-Slovakia. Japan's surrender found them in the States preparing for operations in the Pacific. They embarked at once and soon larded in Japan to take their place in the Army of Occupation.

84

158 INF RCT

503 PARA RCT

98TH INFANTRY DIVISION
Iroquois. This division, activated at Camp Breckinridge, Kentucky, in 1942, was responsible for the defense of the Hawaiian Islands. Additionally, it supplied a large number of trained fighting men to combat divisions at the various Pacific Fronts. In September 1945 it assumed occupational duties in Japan and was inactivated five months later. The Eighth Army pays tribute to its fighting units smaller than divisions which made vital contributions to victory in the Pacific. Among the many units deserving of recognition are the 112th Cavalry Regimental Combat Team, the 158th Infantry Regimental Combat Team, the 503rd Parachute Infantry Regiment, and the 2nd and 3rd Engineer Special Brigades. The Army, the Navy and the Air Corps combined to win the battle of the Pacific. Eighrh Army is proud to have fought and worked with the following units : The

85

3RD AMPHIBIOUS FORCE

FAR EAST AIR FORCE

7TH FLEET

SEVENTH FLEET, UNITED STATES NAVY
Admiral Thomas C. KinjCaid, Commanding. Scourge of fhe Japanese Navy, fhe Sevenfh Fleef played a major role in fhe co.nquesf of fhe Pacific. If successfully conducfed fhe complex and hazardous amphibious operaHons in esfa­ blishing Eighfh Army beachheads on more fhan a score of Pacific islands. The Fleef high­ lighfed ifs long fighfing record in fhe Surigao Sfraifs naval baffle.

THIRD AMPHIBIOUS FORCE
Vice Admiral Theodore S. Wilkinson, Commanding. A veferan unir in fhe conquesf of fhe Pacific, fhe Third Amphibious Force was activated in fhe summer of 1942. Beginning wifh fhe landings on Guadalcanal, Bougainville and ofher landings in fhe Solomons, if carried fhe war norfh and wesf fhrough fhe Green Islands and fhe Palaus fo Leyfe and fhe Lingayen Gulf in fhe Philippines. Finally, if landed fhe Eighfh Army froops in Japan, wifh fhe firsf landing faking place before fhe acfual signing of fhe sur­ render documenfs.

FAR EASTERN AIR FORCE
86
General George C. Kenney, Commanding. Coordinafing fhe American air forces fighfing in fhe Pacific, fhe famous "FEAf/' smashed, fhe once powerful Japanese air force. Acfivafed in Ausfralia in fhe summer -of 1942, Far Easfern Air Force moved norfh fhrough New (Guinea fo fhe Philippines and participated in fhe occupation of Japan.

USASCOMC

13TH AIR FORCE

FIFTH AIRFORGE
Lieutenant General Ennis C. Whitehead, Commanding. The Fifth Air Force fought the Japanese in the air and bombed and sfrafed fhem on the ground from southern New Guinea to the Philippines; and then became a part of fhe occupation force in Japan.

THIRTEENTH AIR FORCE
Major General St. Clair Street Commanding. Known as "The Jungle Air Force", this veteran Pacific ourfif is famous for its long-range bombing missions. It fought north from New Caledonia, through the Solomons, the Admiral­ ties and Morotai to the Philippines; and bombed distant targets in the Netherlands East Indies.

USASCOMC

M. r

M

, F . t r . A.

Major General James L. Frink, Commanding. This unit was activated in the Philippines in the summer of 1945. Its purpose was to coor­ dinate the services of supply for the invasion of Japan. Forward elements of United States Army Service Command-Coronet landed with the first troops at Yokohama. Operating under direct control of Eighth Army, it coordinated the many services and efficiently supplied all Eighth Army troops in Japan. The Eighth Army also owes tribute to the 12th, the 24th and the 32nd Marine Air Groups that fought with it in the battle for Mindanao and Zamboanga.

87

L E A D E R S

O F

T H E

E I G H T H ' S

F I G H T I N G

F O R C E S

I N

T H E

M A R C H

T O

J A P A N

COMMANDERS O H GHTH

MAJ GEN ROSCOE B. WOODRUFF

I CORPS

MAJ GEN CHARLES W . RYDER

IX CORPS

LT GEN JOHN R. HODGE

XXIV CORPS

MAJ GEN WILLIAM H. ARNOLD

AMERICAL DIV

90

MAJ GEN FRANKLIN C • SIBERT

X CORPS

LT GEN CHARLES P. HALL

XI CORPS

LT GEN OSCAR W . GRISWOLD

XIV CORPS

MAJ GEN VERNE D. MUDGE

1 C A V DIV

MAJ GEN CHARLES E. HURDIS

6 INF DIV

MAJ GEN ARCHIBALD V. ARNOLD

7 INF DIV

MAJ GEN JOSEPH M. SWING

1 1 AB DIV

MAJ GEN JAMES A. LESTER 24 INF DIV

MAJ GEN CHARLES L. MULLINS, JR 25 INF DIV

MAJ GEN PERCY W. CLARKSON 33 INF DIV

92

MAJ GEN GEORGE W . GRINER

27 INF DIV

MAJ GEN CLARENCE A. MARTIN

31 INF DIV

MAJ GEN WILLIAM H. GILL

32 INF DIV

MAJ GEN ROBERT S. BEIGHTLER

37 INF DIV

MAJ GEN WILLIAM C. CHASE

38 INF DIV

MAJ GEN RAPP BRUSH

40 INF DIV

MAJ GEN JENS A DOE

41 INF DIV

MAJ GEN LEONARD F. WING

43 INF DIV

MAJ GEN ANDREW D. BRUCE 77 INF DIV

MAJ GEN HERMAN F. KRAMER 97 INF DIV

MAJ GEN ARTHUR M HARPER 98 INF DIV

94

MAJ GEN PAUL J. MUELLER

81 INF DIV

MAJ GEN HARRY H JOHNSON

93 INF DIV

MAJ GEN JAMES L. BRADLEY

96 INF DIV

MAJ GEN FREDERICK A. IRVING

EIGHTH ARMY AREA C O M D

BRIG GEN JULIAN W. C U N N I N G H A M

112CAVRCT

BRIG GEN HANFORD B. McNIDER

158 INF RCT

CHIEF OF STAFF
Major General Clovis E. Byers, Eighth Army's Chief of Staff, has served in this capacity since the Army's arrival at Hollandia, New Guinea, in 1944 shortly after its activation. That was not, however, the beginning of his association with General Eichelberger. The initial relationship, which was later to prove so successful, was established at West Point in the early 1930's when General Eichelberger, as a major, served as adjutant and secretary of the Academic Board, and General Byers, then a first lieutenant, performed the duties of tactical officer and assistant adjutant. The efficiency and military knowledge of the clean-cut lieutenant impressed the older officer and, in 1942, when the famous Statue of Liberty Division, the 77th, was reactivated under his command, General Eichelberger called on the former Lieutenant Byers, now a lieutenant colonel, to become his Chief of Staff. His administrative ability and tactful handling of both subordinate and higher head­ quarters convinced General Eichelberger of the soundness of his choice and, when he took command of the I Corps in June of 1 942, Colonel Byers again accompanied him as Chief of Staff, an official relationship they were to maintain to the present time. General Byers was born in Columbus, Ohio, on November 5th, 1 899. He attended the same university as did General Eichelberger, Ohio State, and became a member of the same fraternity, Phi Gamma Delta. Receiving his appointment to the United States Military Academy in 1918, he left the university and attended West Point for two years, receiving his commission as second lieutenant in the Cavalry on July 2d, 1920. He married Miss Marie Richards, a hometown girl, the following year. 96 After completing the Basic Course at the Cavalry School at Fort Riley he was given his first as­

MAJ GEN CLOVIS E. BYERS CHIEF OF STAFF

sigment with troops, that of commanding Troop F of me 4m Cavalry at Fort Mclntosh, Texas. Al­ though me squadron was inactivated in 1 9 2 1 , he continued to serve on duty with troops at that post until September, 1 9 2 3 , when he was assigned to the Signal School. Upon completion of the course he became Regimental Communications Officer of the 3d Cavalry at Fort Myer, Virginia. While a student at the "Point," General Byers had won his letter in football and, in 1 9 2 6 , his ability, both as an athlete and as an executive, was recognized by his appointment as Assistant to the Master of the Sword and in addition to the coaching staff of the Military Academy Upon com­ pletion of this tour of duty in 1 9 3 0 , he was assigned as a student in the Special Advanced Equitation Class at the Cavalry School, Fort Riley, Kansas. After a brief period with the 1st Cavalry Division, he again reported to West Point in 1 9 3 2 as an instructor and first made the acquaintance of General Eichelberger. He left the Academy to at­ tend the Command and General Staff School, Fort Leavenworfh, Kansas, in 1934 and, upon comple­ tion of the course in 1 9 3 6 , joined the staff of the 2d Division and shortly thereafter the staff of the Eighth Corps Area at Fort Sam Houston, Texas. Following an assignment with the 5th Cavalry, during which he commanded successively Troop A and the 1 st Squadron, he went on a tour of the important military schools in England, France, and Germany. In 1 9 3 9 he reported to the Army War College as a student and was graduated in 1940. His many years devoted to the study of military science, coupled with his pronounced native ability, were now to pay dividends. His years as a student were over, the time was rapidly approaching when he would apply the lessons he had learned.

97

From 1940 unMI 1942 he served wirh the War Department General Slaff in Hie G-l Division. In February 1942, at General Eichelberger's request, he came to fhe 77th Division as its Chief of Staff. Before that year was up, he was to find himself in rhe steaming jungles of New Guinea serving borh as Chief of Staff of I Corps and, unMI he was wounded and evacuated, as Commanding General of rhe 32nd Division. The many consequent operations of the I Corps and the Eighth Army in New Guinea, rhe Netherlands East Indies, and rhe Philippines are being written in today's history books and will undoubtedly be used by furure instructors at West Point as models of well executed amphibious operations. General Byers has earned the thanks of the nation and the respect of rhe men who fought with him. Today, the General has a happier rask buf one which is, if anyrhing, even more difficult than the combat operations of 1942-—1945. In his new mission he is concerned with the final phase of any decisive war—thar of occupying and administering the defeated nation. His new duty requires the utmost tact and insight to effect complete and successful coordination and teamwork, not merely between the units of the Eighrh Army, but also between the many foreign headquarters vitally interested in the conduct of the occupation. The supervision of this most important of staff functions is General Byers' main responsibility. Over the period of years in which General Byers has been serving his country and the Army so ably and well fhe United States and the Allied Nations have deemed it only proper thar his services be acknowledged officially. In so doing they have awarded him rhe decorations indicated :
DISTINGUISHED SERVICE CROSS: For extraordinary heroism in action, 15 December 1942, when while serving as Commanding General of the 32nd Division, he continued to observe and direct the attack although wounded by a sniper. DISTINGUISHED SERVICE MEDAL: For distinguished service in the Southwest Pacific Area and Japan from January to October 1945. SILVER STAR: For gallantry in action during the Buna engagement when General Byers by his example of fearless gallantry under enemy fire served as an inspiration to his command. OAK-LEAF CLUSTER TO THE SILVER STAR: For gallantry in action at Biak, Netherlands East Indies, on 17 June 1944. LEGION OF MERIT: For exceptionally meritorious conduct during the planning phase of the Papuan and New Guinea Campaigns. BRONZE STAR MEDAL: For meritorious service at Goodenough Island and Hollandia. OAK-LEAF CLUSTER TO BRONZE STAR MEDAL: For meritorious achievement in connection with military operations
against the enem 2 N D

V at Biak lslandOAK-LEAF CLUSTER TO BRONZE STAR MEDAL: f ° r t n e performance of outstanding and meritorious service in supervising and coordinating the plans for the Eighth Army phase °f t h e L u z o n Operation. AIR MEDAL: For meritorious achievement while participating in aerial flights in the Philippine islands from 20 October 1944
fo 27 A

Pril 1945­ PURPLE HEART: For wounds received during the Buna Campaign. DISTINGUISHED UNIT CITATION: Presented to Headquarters, I Corps, for Buna Campaign, 1943. OAK-LEAF CLUSTER FOR THE DISTINGUISHED UNIT CITATION: For the 11th Airborne Division Operation south of Manila, February 1945. COMMANDER BRITISH EMPIRE: In recognition of meritorious and invaluable work with the Australian Forces in the Pracific. MILITARY MERIT MEDAL (PHILIPPINES): For meritorious service in the Liberation of the Philippines.

98

COLONEL ARTHUR P. THAYER DEPUTY CHIEF OF STAFF

COLONEL GERALD J. GREEVE GENERAL STAFF SECRETARY

COLONEL AUGUST E. SCHANZE G-l

THE EIGHTH'S WAR-TIME SECTION CHIEFS
ARTHUR P. THAYER DEPUTY CHIEF OF STAFF

Colonel, GSC, (RA). Born West Point, N e w York, 30 April 1893. Home in Brownsville, Texas. Previous service as instructor and Assistant Secretary at rhe Command and General Staff School also as Deputy Chief of Staff, Second Army. Awarded DisMnguished Service Medal, Legion of Merit, Bronze Star Medal and Air Medal. GERALD J. GREEVE S C E A Y OF THE GENERAL S A F ERTR TF

Colonel, GSC, (AUS). Born Philadelphia, 21 M a y 1906. Home in Philadelphia. Previous service as Adjutant of Camp Croft, South Carolina, Executive Officer, G-l Section, Second Army. Awarded Bronze Star Medal.

AUGUST E. SCHANZE G-I
Colonel, GSC, (RA). Born 20 July 1900. Home in Battle Creek, Michigan. Previous service with W a r Department General Staff; G-4 of XI C o r p s ; G-l 4th Division,- G-l 5th Division; G-l Second Army. Awarded Distinguished Service Medal, Legion of Merit, Bronze Star Medal and Air Medal.

99

COLONEL GEORGE A.A- JONES G-2

BRIG GEN FRANK S. BOWEN G-3

COLONEL HENRY C. BURGESS G-4

COLONEL WARD W . CONQUEST ADJUTANT GENERAL

THE EIGHTH'S WAR-TIME SECTION CHIEFS

G-2 GEORGE A. A. JONES
Colonel, GSC, (RA). Born Albion, Iowa, 26 December 1898. Home in Marfa, Texas. Previous service as G-2, Iceland Base Command and AC of S, G-2 Second Army. Awarded Distinguished Service Medal, Silver Star, Legion of Merit with oak leaf cluster, Bronze Star Medal, Air Medal and Purple Heart.

G-3

FRANK S. BOWEN, JR.

Brigadier General, GSC, (RA). Born Ft. McKinley, Rizal, Philippine Islands, 4 March 1905. Home in San Francisco. Previous service as G-l, 77th Division; G-3; I Corps. Awarded DSC for "extraordinary heroism in action" near Buna; Distinguished Service Medal, Silver Star with two oak leaf clusters, Legion of Merit, Bronze Star Medal, Air Medal, and Distinguished Unit Citation, Hq I Corps.

G-4

HENRY C. BURGESS

00

Colonel, GSC, (RA). Born San Francisco, California, 11 June 1902. Home in Dallas, Texas. Previous service as Battalion Commander, 23rd Infantry ; Office of AC of S, A-4, AAF, Chief of Planning Division, Directorate of Base Service AAF; AC of S, G-4, Second Army. Awarded Distinguished Service Medal, Legion of Merit, Bronze Star Medal and Air Medal.

COLONEL MELTON A . HATCH ANTIAIRCRAFT OFFICER

BRIG GEN EUGENE McGINLEY ARTILLERY OFFICER

W A R D E. CONQUEST

ADJUTANT GENERAL

Colonel, AGD, (NG). Born Atwood, Kansas, 7 October 1904. Home in Topeka, Kansas. Previous service Assistant Adjutant General Second Army; Staff of Kansas National Guard. Awarded Bronze Srar Medal.

MELTON A. HATCH

ANTI-AIRCRAFT

Colonel, CAC, (RA). Born Arkansas City, Kansas, 28 February 1897. Home in Henders­ ville, North Carolina. Previous service as Executive Officer Harbor Defense and AA Regi­ ments, Executive Officer Western Gulf Sub-sector, AA Officer XII Corps; AA Officer Second Army. Awarded Legion of Merit Bronze Star Medal, and Air Medal.

EUGENE McGINLEY

ARTILLERY

Brigadier General, FA, (RA) Born Hamilton, Ohio, 28 January 1900. Home in Hamilton, Ohio. Previous service on War Department General Staff; Operations Division, Army Service Forces; Artillery Officer Second Army. Awarded Distinguished Service Medal and Air Medal.

COLONEL YANDELL S. BEANS CHAPLAIN

COLONEL RALPH C. BENNER CHEMICAL

THE EIGHTH'S WAR-TIME SECTION CHIEFS
YANDELL S. BEANS

CHAPLAIN

Colonel, Ch., (AUS). Born Lexington, Nebraska, 10 August 1898. Home in Little Rock, Arkansas. Previous service as Division Chaplain, 35th Division and Chaplain XXI Corps. Awarded Bronze Star Medal.

CHEMICAL

RALPH C. BENNER

Colonel, CWS, (RA). Born McArrhur, Ohio, 11 May 1894. Home in McArthur, Ohio. Previous service Chemical Officer I Corps; Chemical Officer 4th Motorized Division; Chemical Officer Second Army. Awarded Bronze Star Medal.

ENGINEER

DAVID M. DUNNE

102

Colonel, CE, (RA). Born Portland, Oregon, 3 January 1900. Home in Carlsbad, California. Previous service as Division Engineer, 1st Cavalry Division; Assistant Engineer GHQ; Assistant G-3 AGF; Engineer, Second Army. Awarded Distinguished Service Medal, Legion of Merit, Bronze Star Medal with oak leaf cluster, and Air Medal.

COLONEL DAVID M. DUNNE ENGINEER

COLONEL JOSEPH CHARLES KOVARIK FINANCE

COLONEL LAWRENCE H. CARUTHERS HEADQUARTERS C O M M A N D A N T

LT COL WILLIAM H. BRUNKE HISTORIAN

JOSEPH CHARLES KOVARIK

FINANCE

Colonel, FD, (RA). Born Forf Riley, Kansas, 8 September 1893. Home in Chattanooga, Tennessee. Previous service as Executive Officer, Theater Fiscal Office, SWPA; Finance Officer X Corps. Awarded Bronze Srar Medal.
LAWRENCE H. CARUTHERS HEADQUARTERS COMMANDANT

Colonel, FA (RA). Born Alpine, Texas, 9 October 1891. Home in Santa Ana, California. Previous service as Executive Officer of Second Army Artillery Section. Awarded Bronze Star Medal.

WILLIAM H. BRUNKE

HISTORIAN

Lieutenant Colonel, INF, (RA). Born Hartford, Connecticut, 24 April 1900. Home in New York City, N e w York. Previous service on W a r Department Staff, G-l Section European Theater of Operations.

103

CCXONEL EDWARD J. D W A N INSPECTOR GENERAL

COLONEL ROBERT V. LAUGHLIN JUDGE ADVOCATE

COLONEL WARD E. BECKER ORDNANCE

COLONEL C.V. CADWELL PROVOST MARSHAL

THE EIGHTH'S WAR-TIME SECTION CHIEFS
I SE T RGNRL NPCO E E A E D W A R D J. DWAN

Colonel, IGD, (RA). Born Lynn, Massachusetts, 25 April 1892. Home in Laredo, Texas. Previous service as ExecuHve Officer United States Disciplinary Barracks, Leavenworfh, Kansas; Inspector General of Second Army. Awarded Legion of Merit and Bronze Star Medal.
JUDGE ADVOCATE ROBERT V . LAUGHLIN

Colonel, JAGD (RA). Born Blunt Hughes Country, South Dakota, 10 February 1891. Home in Seattle, Washington. Previous service as Judge Advocate Second Army, IX Corps and 3rd Division. Awarded Bronze Star Medal and Air Medal.

ORDNANCE

WARD E. BECKER

104

Colonel, O r d (RA). Born Manistee, Michigan, 8 January 1894. Home in Washington, D. C. Previous service as Division Ordnance Officer, 3rd Division; Chief, Purchase Policy Branch, Headquarters ASF; Chief, Program and Assignments Branch, G-4 Section, W a r Department General Staff; Ordnance Officer, Eastern Base Section, North African Theater. Awarded Legion of Merit, with oak leaf cluster, Bronze Star Medal and Air Medal.

COLONEL HARRY L. HART QUARTERMASTER

COLONEL REX V.D. CORPUT, JR SIGNAL

C. V. CADWELL

PROVOST MARSHAL

Colonel, CMP, (Res). Born Spokane, Washington, 10 August 1898. Home in Arcadia, Cali­ fornia. Provost Marshal Second Army Tennessee Maneuver Area. Awarded Bronze Star Medal.

HARRY L. HART

QUARTERMASTER

Colonel, Q M , (RA). Born Utica, N e w York, 23 December 1893. Home in North Holly­ w o o d , California. Previous service as Quartermaster IX Corps and Quartermaster Second Army. Awarded Bronze Star Medal.

REX V. D. CORPUT JR.

SIGNAL

Colonel, Sig C (RA). Born Atlanta, Georgia, 28 September 1900. Home in Red Bank, N e w Jersey. Previous Service, Director, Signal Corps Laboratories,- Director, Signal Corps Radar Laboratory; Commanding Officer, Signal Corps Ground Signal Agency. Awarded Distinguished Service Medal and Legion of Merit.

105

COLONEL PHILIP WILSON SPECIAL SERVICE

BRIG GEN GEORGE W . RICE SURGEON

COLONEL REEFORD P. SHEA TRANSPORTATION

THE EIGHTH'S WAR-TIME SECTION CHIEFS

SPECIAL S R I E E VC

PHILIP W I L S O N

Colonel, INF, ( N G ) . Born Dallas, Oregon, 21 October 1901. Home in Fresno, California. Previous service as Staff Officer Headquarters 40th Division; Special Service Officer 3rd Corps; Special Service Officer Second Army. Awarded Bronze Star Medal.

SURGEON

GEORGE W. RICE

Brigadier General, M C . (RA). Born Cumberland, Maryland, 1 October 1892. Home in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. Previous service Assistant Commandant, Medical Field School, Carlisle, Pennsyl­ vania,- Surgeon, G H Q , SWPA. Awarded Legion of Merit, Bronze Star Medal, and Air Medal.

TRANSPORTATION

REEFORD P. SHEA

06

Colonel, GSC, (AUS) Born Riverside, California, 8 February 1909. Home in San Francisco, California. Previous service as Port Commander, Base 3, 7, A, D, and G ; Transportation Officer, U. S. Advanced Base, N e w Guinea; Transportation Officer I Corps and Hollandia Task Force. Awarded Legion of Merit; Bronze Star with oak leaf cluster, Air Medal and Distinguished Unit Citation.

\
BRIG GEN GEORGE D. SHEA G-3 COLONEL JOSEPH M. GLASGOW ADJUTANT GENERAL COLONEL HARRY C. CHAPLAIN FRASER

THE EIGHTH'S SECTION CHIEFS TODAY

The second anniversary of V-J Day found only seven of Eighth Army's war-time staff still at their posts. The others, their tours of overseas duty completed, had returned to the United States and had been replaced by new officers who have carried on the complex activities of the Headquarters with the same smoothness and efficiency that characterized the old staff. Under the guidance of Ma|or General Byers, Chief of Staff, the General Staff continued to benefit from the seasoned leadership of three of the four war-time Assistant Chiefs of Staff: Colonel Schanze, G - l , Colonel Jones, G-2, and Colonel Burgess, G-4. Colonel Thayer, Deputy Chief of Staff, and Colonel Greeve, Secretary of the General Staff, remained on the job coordinating the activities and effectively handling the problems that arise in the office of the Chief of Staff. The greatly expanded activities of the Headquarters Commandant were still under the capable supervision of Colonel Caruthers, and the work of the Historical Section continued under the experienced guidance of Army Historian, Lieutenant Colonel Brunke. The only major change in the General Staff took place in May 1947 when Colonel Bowen, G-3, was relumed to the United States for reassignment. His duties were taken over by Brigadier General George D. Shea who came to Eighth Army with an impressive record of

07

COLONEL JOHN H. GIBSON CIVILIAN PERSONNEL

COLONEL EARL E. GESLER ENGINEER

COLONEL ROBERT E. ODELL
FINANCE

COLONEL BURTON F. HOOD INSPECTOR GENERAL

THE EIGHTH'S SECTION CHIEFS TODAY

achievement with the 8th and 90th Infantry during the war.

Divisions

and as Artillery

Officer of XIX Corps

Colonel Joseph M. Glasgow, who had served through most of the war as Adjutant General of the South Pacific Theater, became Adjutant General in June 1946. Colonel Harry C. Fraser, the Army Chaplain, had for five years served in the office of the Chief of Chaplains in Washington before joining Eighth Army in October 1946. Colonel Earl E. Gesler served as Division Engineer of the Middle Atlantic Division prior to becoming Chief of the Engineer Section in January 1947. Colonel Robert E. O'Dell was Fiscal Director of the Africa-Middle East Theater of Operations throughout the war. He assumed ihe duties of Eighth Army Fiscal Officer in August 1947. Colonel Burton F. Hood, who had been in the Office of the Inspector General in the War Department since 1942, took over the post of Inspector General with Eighth Army in February 1947.

08

LT. COL ALLAN R. BROWNE JUDGE ADVOCATE

COLONEL REX W . BEASLEY MILITARY GOVERNMENT

COLONEL WILLIAM F. SADTLER ORDNANCE

Lieutenant Colonel Allan R. Browne, Judge Advocate since May 1946, had been on the Board of Review in fhe Branch Office of fhe Judge Advocate General in Manila prior to joining this Headquarters. Colonel Philip L. Cook came from his position as Commanding Officer of the Staten Island Area Station Hospital \o become the Army Surgeon in April 1946. Colonel William F. SadHer had been Commanding Officer of the Kobe Base Ordnance Depot before his assignment as Chief of the Ordnance Section in March 1946. Colonel John F. Roehm, formerly the Director of the Department of Communications at the Field Artillery School, Fort Sill, Oklahoma, became the Eighth Army Provost Marshal in July 1947. Lieutenant Colonel Bruce E. Kendall became Chief of the Quartermaster Section in September 1946, bringing with him wide experience gained as Commander of the QM Section of "the Utah and fhe San Antonio General Depots and as Chief of Depot Operations in the Quartermaster General's office in Washington.

09

COLONEL JOHN F. ROEHM PROVOST MARSHAL

COLONEL WILLIAM B. FORSE PUBLIC INFORMATION

THE EIGHTH'S SECTION CHIEFS TODAY

Colonel James D. O'Connel, who joined Eighth Army as Signal Officer in May 1947, had been Commanding Officer of the Signal Corps Engineering laboratories at Fort Monmouth, New Jersey. Colonel Albert S. J. Srovall, Jr. Chief of the Special Service Section, was Provost Marshal of VI Corps prior to taking up his present duties in January 1946. Colonel Bernhard A. Johnson assumed his duties as the Army Transportation Officer in April 1947. During the war he had been Commanding Officer of the 9th Major Port in the Persian Gulf. Colonel William B. Forse, former Commanding Officer of the 303d Infantry Regiment, became Chief of the Public Relations (now Public Information) Office in March 1946. Eighth Army has undergone a number of administrative and organizational changes in the process of adapting itself of carry out an occupational rather than a combat mission. Several new sections have been added to the Special Staff and others reduced to the status of sub­ sections under the General Staff.

10

LT COL BRUCE E. KENDALL QUARTERMASTER

COLONEL BENJAMIN F. HOGE SAFETY

COLONEL JAMES D. O'CONNELL SIGNAL

COLONEL ALBERT S. J. STOVALL SPECIAL SERVICE

In June 1947 [he Artillery, Anti-Aircraft, and Chemical Special Staff Sections lost their identity as such, and their functions integrated with the activities of the G-3 Section. Military Government assumed an immediate importance at the beginning of the occupa­ ton. In October 1945 the Military Government Special Staff Section came into being headed by Colonel Rex W . Beasley, former Commanding General of the 81st Division Artillery. Information and Education activities expanded greatly as Eighth Army settled down to its occupational duties. The I and E sub-section of G-3 was given the status of a Special Staff Section in July 1946 and Lieutenant Colonel Floyd W . Goates was its chief during the trying days of early organization. Lieutenant Colonel Morris K. Henderson, who joined Eighth Army in 1945 following a tour of duty as Batflion Commander of the Department of Tactics in the United States Military Academy, became Chief of this section in May 1947. The special problems imposed on the army by its occupational mission have made it necessary to bring to Japan many civilians who, as skilled clerks, technicians, or professionally trained personnel, have expedited army administration. Civilian personnel problems were first handled by a division in the Adjutant General's Section. In June 1946 the Office of Civilian

1 1

COLONEL PHILIP L. COOK SURGEON

COLONEL BERNHARD A. JOHNSON TRANSPORTATION

LT COL MORRIS K. HENDERSON TROOP I and E

COLONEL CHARLES F. IVINS ARMY EXCHANGE

THE EIGHTH'S SECTION CHIEFS TODAY

Personnel was made a Special Staff Section headed by Colonel John H. Gibson who had come to this new post from ihe Office of the Chief of Staff in Washington where he had been on the Manpower Board. A Special Staff Section known as the Safety Section was created in September 1946 in order to coordinate more effectively the efforts to reduce loss of life and equipment through accidents, fires, improper maintenance, poor safety planning, and carelessness. Colonel Benjamin F. Hoge, former Executive Officer of Fort Monroe, Virginia, was appointed Safety Director. Supplying the troops with post exchange items has become " b i g business" in the oc­ cupation army with the Army Exchange providing numerous services including PX Trains which visit outlying units, department stores in Tokyo and Yokohama, and a vastly increased inventory to supply the needs of dependents and civilians. The Army Exchange became en Eighth Army Special Section in February 1946. Colonel Charles F. Ivins, who as acting G-3 of the Re­ placement and School Command once had general supervision over Ground Force Service Schools in Replacement Training Centers, was appointed Army Exchange Officer in July 1947.

1 12

THE USS POPE, HEADQUARTERS O N THE PACIFIC

ADMINISTRATION BUILDINGS AT

HEADQUARTERS EIGHTH ARMY

14

EIGHTH HEADQUARTERS AT LEYTE

HEADQUARTERS IN YOKOHAMA

Although many of me familiar forces ere gone and " o l d timers" are leaving every day, there is that indefinable something about Eighth Army Headquarters which will always remain. It's not just esprit de corps, nor the old college try, but simply the fact that in future years it might be recognized as something akin to "one big happy family" . . . a status which made life for all of us as pleasur­ able as the conditions would allow. And except for those days when everyone at every turn was just "sweating it out," time did pass comparatively quickly because of these close associations and relationships. The story of Eighth Army Headquarters is a story of individuals who made the most of their ups and downs in lands on the other side of the world from the American homes from which each had come. Yes, reminiscences in the future surely will recall all those little things which, when combined over a span of many months, made up that bigger and better something which lead to hundreds of lasting friendships. A brand new and anxious Eighth Army Headquarters gang clambered down off the huge USS Pope at Pirn Jetty, Hollandia, N e w Guinea, on 7 September 1944. They found their first overseas home nestled in the mountains on the shores of sprawling Lake Sentani. Remember the long queues of waiting hot coffee patrons at the Red Cross canteen, and your hostess, Miss Maxine Williams . . . the handicraft shop where everyone was busy making wrist watch bands from scrapped Zeros . cat's eye necklaces . . . policing the movie area . . . the mud . . . the fuzzy-wuzzys' saluting . Then Jim Duffy's " O c t a g r a m " came out with its first extra : "Philippines Invaded". Routine living was forgotten, victory gardens washed away in the jungle floods, the Eighth was on the march to "set

1 15

COLD DRINK MACHINE WAS CENTER OF ATTRACTION NEW GUINEA

— ' * 1 1 6

/*

V

> • * « * • *
RED CROSS HUT-HOLLANDIA THE DANCE FLOOR ZAMBOANGA BEACH CLUB

the rising sun." The Sentani lake area was a beautiful place to leave behind. That was the same body of water memorialized by the formation of "Sentani Swingtet". Not to be outdone the boys from G-2 formed their own quartet and the battle of voices was on in earnest. They were still at it a year later at the opening of the " N e w Octagon" Theatre in downtown Yokohama but that time the G-2 boys had a ringer, Lanny Ross, in the lineup. The quartet and swingtet were offspring of the 50 voice Eighth Army Choristers, organized and directed by Don Bortfeld. In his spare time, Don wrote and introduced the marching song, "Eighth Army Marches On." On Memorial Day. 1945, on Leyte the men of headquarters heard their march for the first time. A few minutes later they were listening to the chief himself, Lt. Gen. Robert L. Eichelberger, who keynoted one of his infrequent addresses with the words, "The firm structure of world peace is the only memorial acceptable to our conscience." Oh yes, Eighth Army Headquarters had its more sober moments. That was one of them. Another easily recalled was Easter morning 1945 on Leyte, when thousands of Yanks overflowed Eighth Army Chapel and the need for an enlarged house of worship became apparent. This wish turned into reality on 13 May, when Roosevelt Memorial Chapel was dedicated. It was Mother's Day then, and Day of Prayer for the victory in Europe. Of the new chapel, Chaplain William F. Nern wrote: "The finest Army chapel in the Philippines, which, incidentally, is the talk and envy of every chaplain in the theater." And Chaplains Yandell S. Beans and Robert T. Becket echoed his sentiments and those of

1 1 7

HQ KITCHEN SERVES FIRST MEAL-LEYTE

118

t

THE KAY KYSER SHOW-LEYTE

THE CHAPEL-TELEGRAFO

the congregations of all faiths. It was a beautiful chapel, simply done in the native materiel of nipa, palm fronds and rustic lumber—of which the first Octagon Theater, the post exchange and enlisted men's club and officer's beach mess had been constructed. Remember, too, the night that EM Club President (and 1st Sergeant) Paul J. Mummert opened the doors to the Z A M B O A N G A CLUB on the beach of Leyte and bade everyone make merry 2 Civili­ zation (and W A C ' s ) came to our area that night. And so did news of a coincidental Eighth Army landing at Zamboanga, conveyed by Chief-of-Staff Major General Clovis E. Byers as he announced the new operation in his dedicatory message. There had been good stage shows and bad at Eighth Army's jungle version of the "theatah," but when Special Service learned that Irving Berlin and his "This is the Army" were heading our way, something had to be done. Carpenters got busy and put up a big Octagon Theater just in time. Thai was on 11 March 1945. Well it was, too, that the enlarged stage was built when it was, for in the ensuing months its footlights played on any number, of big hits . . . the nostalgic "Oklahoma," gay "Mexican Hayride," Olsen and Johnson's " H e l l z a p o p p i n ' , " Kay Kyser and his "College of Musical Knowledge" . . . among others. As the veteran M . C , Speert, would say, "That was living, Jack!" And then every Sunday afternoon in N e w Guinea and on Leyte, the boys would gather up their

19

THE ORIGINAL UNDEFEATED EIGHTH ARMY CHICKS

20

THE G-2 QUARTET-LEYTE

LEYTE BEACH

chairs and head out to the ball field, for they were always assured of a good game. The Eighth Army Chicks began to be a legend in the Southwest Pacific. On N e w Guinea, Leyre, Luzon and Samar, the Chicks racked up 46 consecutive victories. All in all, from the days of their formation back in Memphis, Tenn., the team won 126 times out of 133 starts. That was baseball at its best. Aided and abetted by baseball's clown, Al Schacht, the Chicks " m a d e " YANK, the army weekly, while at Hollandia. In the Philippines, big-mouthed, big hearted, Joe E. Brown himself started off their General Byers was the catcher that day. A season by fanning General Eichelberger on six strikes.

great amount of credit for the team's success goes to former playing pitcher-manager Hugh Mulcahy, first major leaguer to enter the armed forces and now back with his Philadelphia Phillies: of the Boston Red Sox. And while on the subject of pleasures derived from direct participation in the color and activities that made up Eighth Army Headquarters, no one will ever forget the night of 10 August 1945 on Leyte. That was the night that Japan said she was ready to toss in the towel. before. Receipt of the news in head­ quarters touched off an impromptu Times Square celebration the likes of which none had ever seen Most gathered along the shores of Leyte Gulf to watch the Navy toss up arsenals of fire­ Recent beer rations were Shouting, singing, back-slapping officers and enlisted men paraded among works, rockets, searchlights, flares and tracers in their victory celebration. quaffed in the wee hours. Catcher Ken Silvestri, late of the N e w York Yankees, who succeeded Mulcahy, and Big "Broadway A l " Flair,

121

REDEPLOYMENT

122

OCTAGON THEATER-YOKOHAMA

SPORTS

the palms and the tent ropes and cared nary a bit what happened next. W h a t d i d happen next w a s a sea v o y a g e to Japan. There, in battered and tattered N i p p o n , with n e w faces but its o l d traditions, Eighth A r m y H e a d ­ quarters carried on in its o w n inimitable w a y striving to help w i n the peace as it had helped to w i n the war. M e m o r i e s of many things will linger when the more cruel aspects of warfare have long been dimmed b y time. These w e r e the vignettes. The visit of A G F Chief General Joe Sfilwell . . . boat rides at the June 12th first birthday party mattress covers and " n o t o u c h " . . . stiff competition and stiff muscles in the headquarters v o l l e y b a l l and softball leagues . . . lithe and i o v e l y Candy Jones, just " s t a n d i n g " there . . . the wind and the rain in our hair . . . Christmas midnight mass at the little nipa chapel at Senfani . . . those souvenir trips to the rest of the 7 , 0 8 3 islands of the Philippines . . . the night shrapnel fell " s o m e ­ w h e r e " in the area . . . the w i d e grins of the high-pointers as they piled on trucks and left for home . . . the Lind Brothers . . . Jerry Day and his "Snake River O u t l a w s " . . . Buzzo . . . Betty . . . the fingered " V " signs d i s p l a y e d by the kids on Leyte . . . the dinner and dance music o f f e r e d b y the 236th A G F Band . . . the b r o a d b r i m m e d hats w h i c h marked the presence of our " A u s s i e " buddies. . . those t o o - t o o long " c o k e " lines . . . BUCKSLIPS.

123

POSTING ELECTION RESULTS • TOKYO

A N D THEN ... THE OCCUPATION

124

IKURA DES'KA?

"RIDE 'IM C O W B O Y / " - TOKYO RODEO

''Hey,

Joe,

think

they'll

give

us

any

trouble?" us

That

was

the

thought

that expressed our Shouldn't there have

feelings ds w e lined the rails of the LST's carrying us. We weren't afraid...much...but jusr like the we did

into Yokohama Harbor. Then, the "Look! at A dawn, we

been an aerial or naval b o m b a r d m e n t to soften up the enemy ? wonder. modern c i t y . . . h e a r d the far a w a y toot of a train whistle, civilization..."Sounds Podunk S p e c i a l ! "

Suppose these birds should turn on saw the outlines of a many months...a sign of first opportunity to g o

first in many,

street c a r ! " . . . t h e n the hundreds of

Japanese unloading ships and l o a d i n g t r u c k s . . . w e quit w o r r y i n g and took our out to e x p l o r e the t o w n .

Deserted streets, littered with d e b r i s . . . n o w o m e n . . . d i r t y , r a g g e d p e o p l e staring at us d e a d - e y e d from the murk of a makeshift h o v e l . . . l i k e city |usf recently unearthed. Rough! Those first f e w w e e k s . . . m o s q u i t o e s . . . n o The strangeness...that uneasy hot water...no b e d s . . . " T h e Japanese sleep on quiet. ..there's bound to be walking down the streets of some ancient, long deserted

the f l o o r , d o n ' t t h e y " s o m e trouble. Then the Japanese

feeling... it's

too

realization

that

we

were

not

to

institute

a

reign

of

terror...the Too

friendly much!"

o v e r t u r e s . . . the sidewalk v e n d o r s . . . t h e Learn the language...sufeki ne ? the canal.

souvenirs... " I

take this.

H o w much y o u w a n t ? "Throw that

Ikura deska ?

Benjo w a d o k o deska ?

phrase b o o k in

I'm learnin' the lingo off the p e o p l e . "

25

KABUKI DANCERS ENTERTAIN G.l.s

126

YOKOHAMA CHAPEL

WIVES A N D FAMILIES ARRIVE IN JAPAN

So much to see...so many places to go! The shrines...the temples.,.torii...altars...lanterns... screens...the honey bucket carts...the smells...crowded trains and street cars...kids all over...on the streets...on the backs of mothers, sisters and fathers. W e worked and we played and did both hard...we explored...we visited...we took pictures. H o w we took pictures!. Geisha houses...the top of Fuji..."It ain't worth it, pal. The top looks better from the bottom than the bottom does from the t o p . " Kamakura..."You oughta see that statue!" N i k k o . . . " W h a t a place!" The Japanese hotels...hot baths...take off your shoes...sleep on the floor...take your own water...don't eat their food...and then — OFF LIMITS ! The Geisha houses...the Japanese hotels. Legalized yen, ...cigarettes are for smoking, not trading...no fraternization...D.R.s. Instead...Rest hotels...Service Clubs...movies...USO shows...Japanese plays...organized athletics and Red Cross sightseeing trips. "Let's go H O M E ! " Inactivation...points..."48—49—50...Some Stuff!" "Look! I been over here

twenty-two months and just because some guy has a couple kids..." tearful Sayonara's. Japan is occupied intelligently about them. by the N E W Army, bright young

Rumors and more rumors... Fond farewells and

" I know a Sergeant up in G H Q , right near MacArthur's office, and he says..."

lads starting a Regular Army career or

serving their time to get a college

education...Noh

plays, Kabuki dramas...they attend and talk

It's all calm and orderly now, boys.

27

book design, layout, art by williem arthur patrick printing and binding by boonludo printing works

DATE DUE(DA Pamp 12-23)

|98B

DA FORM 1881, 1 JAN 57

OPO : 1957 O - 415619

MAIN 940.541273 U56ab
The Amphibious Eighth.
United States. Army. Eighth Army.

194­

73352

1 |1 111 | 3 1695 00079 202 8
s

.5^1273 U56ab c.l U. S. Array. Eighth Array. The amphibious Eighth.

10

USRA
COMMA AND

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