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These three basic arithmetic operations occur exactly once each: addition, multiplication, and exponentiation. The identity also links five fundamental mat hematical constants: The number 0, the additive identity. * The number 1, the multiplicative identity. * The number ?, which is ubiquitous in trigonometry, the geometry of Euclidean s pace, and analytical mathematics (? = 3.14159265...) * The number e, the base of natural logarithms, which occurs widely in mathemati cal and scientific analysis (e = 2.718281828...). Both ? and e are transcendenta l numbers. * The number i, the imaginary unit of the complex numbers, a field of numbers th at contains the roots of all polynomials (that are not constants), and whose stu dy leads to deeper insights into many areas of algebra and calculus, such as int egration in calculus. Stigler's law of eponymy: "Stigler s law of eponymy", in its simplest and strongest form says: "No scientifi c discovery is named after its original discoverer." Stigler named the sociologi st Robert K. Merton as the discoverer of "Stigler's law", consciously making "St igler's law" exemplify Stigler's law Some examples of this: * Alzheimer's disease, though named after Alois Alzheimer, had been previously d escribed by at least half a dozen others before Alzheimer's 1906 report which is often (wrongly) regarded as the first description of the disorder. * Arabic Numerals, which were invented in India. * Euler's number: the "discovery" of the constant itself is credited to Jacob Be rnoulli, but it is named after Leonhard Euler. * Euler's formula: an equivalent formula was proved by Roger Cotes 30 years befo re Euler published his proof. * "Darwinian evolution" is an often-used name for evolution by natural selection . Yet Charles Darwin mentioned, in an annex to "The Origin of Species", eighteen people who had previously expounded the idea, including Lamark, Saint-Hilaire, Herbert, Grant, Matthew, Haldeman and of course Wallace. * Gauss's Theorem: first proved by Ostrogradsky in 1831. * Snell's law of refraction was discovered by Ibn Sahl

He gave this elaboration to Einstei n as a present for his 70th birthday. J. mathematicia n and philosopher. a time when many. defined infinite and well-ordered sets. In her absence. Kurt Gödel April 28. Cantor's theory of transfinite numbers was originally regarded as so counter-int uitive even shocking that it encountered resistance from mathematical contemporaries such as Leopold Kronecker and Henri Poincaré and later from Hermann Weyl and L. published in 1931 when h e was 25 years of age. eventually starving t o death. Cantor established the importance of one-to-one correspondence between sets. A. N. In later life. Some Ch ristian theologians (particularly neo-Scholastics) saw Cantor's work as a challe nge to the uniqueness of the absolute infinity in the nature of God. Whitehead and Davi d Hilbert. January 14. In 1951. Adele was hospitalized for six months and could not m ake Gödel's food anymore. there are true propositions about the nat urals that cannot be proved from the axioms. which has become a fu ndamental theory in mathematics. He also showed that the continuum hypothesis cannot be disproved from the accept ed axioms of set theory. Gödel is best known for his two incompleteness theorems. He defined the cardinal and ordinal numbers and their arithmetic. while Ludwig Wittgenstein raised philosophical objections. His death cert ificate reported that he died of "malnutrition and inanition caused by personali ty disturbance" in Princeton Hospital on January 14. he would only eat food his wife. Later in his life he emigrated to the United States to escape the effects of World War II. best known as the inventor of set theory. 1918) was a Germa n mathematician. on one occa sion equating the theory of transfinite numbers with pantheism. he refused to eat. In fact. were pioneering the use of logic and set theory to understand the fou ndations of mathematics. One of the most significant logicians of all time. Ca ntor's theorem implies the existence of an "infinity of infinities". prepa red for him. such as Bertrand Russell. one year after finishing his doctorate at the University of Vienna. Gödel demonstrated the existence of paradoxical solutions to Albert Einst ein's field equations in general relativity. if those axioms are consistent. Gödel suffered periods of mental instability and illness. He weighed 65 pounds (approximately 30 kg) when he died. a fact of which he was well aware. and proved that the real numbers are "more numerous" than the natural numbers. 1978. His solutions are known as the Gödel metric. Gödel made an immense impact upon scientific and philosophical thinking in the 20 th century. Late in 1977. 1906.Georg Ferdinand Ludwig Philipp Cantor (March 3 1845 January 6. The more famous incompleteness theorem states that for any self-consi stent recursive axiomatic system powerful enough to describe the arithmetic of t he natural numbers (Peano arithmetic). Brouwer. These "rotating universes" would allow tim e travel and caused Einstein to have doubts about his own theory. He had an obsessive fear of being poisoned. E . 1978) was an Austrian logician. . Adele. Cantor's work is of great philosophical interest.

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