INTRODUCTION

1.1. OVERVIEW - INDIAN AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY

Over a period of more than two decades the Indian Automobile industry has been driving its own growth through phases. The entry of Suzuki Corporation in Indian passenger car manufacturing is often pointed as the first sign of India turning to a market economy. Since then the automobile sector witnessed rapid growth year after year. By late-90's the industry reached self reliance in engine and component manufacturing from the status of large scale importer. With comparatively higher rate of economic growth rate index against that of great global powers, India has become a hub of domestic and exports business. The automobile sector has been contributing its share to the shining economic performance of India in the recent years. With the Indian middle class earning higher per capita income, more people are ready to own private vehicles including cars and two-wheelers. Product movements and manned services have boosted in the sales of medium and sized commercial vehicles for passenger and goods transport. Side by side with fresh vehicle sales growth, the automotive components sector has witnessed big growth. The domestic auto components consumption has crossed rupees 9000 crores and an export of one half size of this figure. Overview Of Automobile Industry The Indian automobile industry is going through a technological change where each firm is engaged in changing its processes and technologies to sustain the competitive advantage and provide customers with the optimized products and services. Starting from the two wheelers, trucks, and tractors to the multi utility vehicles, commercial vehicles and the luxury vehicles, the Indian automobile industry has achieved tremendous amount of success in the recent years.

1

As per Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers (SIAM) the market share of each segment of the industry is as follows:. The market shares of the segments of the automobile industry

The automobile industry had a growth of 15.4 % during April-January 2007, with the average annual growth of 10-15% over the last decade or so. With the incremental investment of $35-40 billion, the growth is expected to double in the next 10 years. Consistent growth and dedication have made the Indian automobile industry the secondlargest tractor and two-wheeler manufacturer in the world. It is also the fifth-largest commercial vehicle manufacturer in the world. The Indian automobile market is among the largest in Asia. The key players like Hindustan Motors, Maruti Udyog, Fiat India Private Ltd, Tata Motors, Bajaj Motors, Hero Motors, Ashok Leyland, Mahindra & Mahindra have been 2

dominating the vehicle industry. A few of the foreign players like Toyota Kirloskar Motor Ltd., Skoda India Private Ltd., Honda Siel Cars India Ltd. have also entered the market and have catered to the customers’ needs to a large extent.

Not only the Indian companies but also the international car manufacturing companies are focusing on compact cars to be delivered in the Indian market at a much smaller price. Moreover, the automobile companies are coming up with financial schemes such as easy EMI repayment systems to boost sales. There have been exhibitions like Auto-expo at Pragati Maidan, New Delhi to share the technological advancements. Besides, there are many new projects coming up in the automobile industry leading to the growth of the sector. The Government of India has liberalized the foreign exchange and equity regulations and has also reduced the tariff on imports, contributing significantly to the growth of the sector. Having firmly established its presence in the domestic markets, the Indian automobile sector is now penetrating the international arena. Vehicle exports from India are at their highest levels. The leaders of the Indian automobile sector, such as Tata Motors, Maruti and Mahindra and Mahindra are leading the exports to Europe, Middle East and African and Asian markets. The Ministry of Heavy Industries has released the Automotive Plan 2006-2016, with the motive of making India the most popular manufacturing hub for automobiles and its components in Asia. The plan focuses on the removal of all the bottlenecks that are inhibiting its growth in the domestic as well as international arena.

3

Top Ten Players in Indian Automobile Sector The domestic players as well as the foreign players dominate the Indian automobile sector. The key players contributing to the growth of the sector are discussed below. Top Ten Players in Indian Automobile Sector • • • • • • • • • • Maruti Suzuki India Hero Motors Limited Hero Motors Limited Tata Group Bajaj Auto Limited Mahindra Group Ashok Leyland Yamaha Motor India Hyundai Motors India Limited Toyota Kirloskar Motor Private Limited Honda Siel Cars India Limited 4 .

was established as an independent company in 1937. Toyota Motor Co. the company name was changed to:    Signify the separation of the founders' work life from home life. which was used in the first Model A1 passenger car in May 1935 and the G1 truck in August 1935. the division produced its first Type A Engine in 1934. and Give the company an auspicious beginning. Although the Toyota Group is most well known today for its cars. and electric sewing machines which are available worldwide. Toyota is considered luckier than Toyoda in Japan.1. COMPANY PROFILE The story of Toyota Motor Corporation began in September 1933 when Toyota Automatic Loom created a new division devoted to the production of automobiles under the direction of the founder's son.2. where eight is regarded as a lucky number. it is still in the textile business and still makes automatic looms (fully computerized. Soon thereafter. Kiichiro Toyota. Production of the Model AA passenger car started in 1936. and eight is the number of strokes it takes to write Toyota in Katakana. Simplify the pronunciation. Although the founding family name is Toyoda. of course). 5 .

Commercial passenger car production started in 1947 with the model SA.During the Pacific War the company was dedicated to truck production for the Imperial Army. Because of severe shortages in Japan. For example. military trucks were kept as simple as possible. was established (which lasted until July 1982). the trucks had only one headlight on the center of the hood. In April 1956 the Toyota dealer chain was established. In 1950 a separate sales company Toyota Motor Sales Co. the first production model of Toyota in 1936 6 . Replica of the Toyota Model AA.

Toyota has manufacturing or assembly plants in the United States. the United Kingdom. Toyota New Zealand assembled vehicles until 1998. Indonesia. including its most popular model. France. Canada. and more recently India. Toyota also builds and sells cars in China in a joint venture with Tianjin Xiali. Poland. JAPAN ASSEMBLY PLANTS OVER THE WORLD Toyota has factories all over the world. the Corolla. Cars from these plants are often exported to other countries. 7 . Brazil. Argentina and Czech Republic. Turkey.ORGANISTION STUCTURE OF THE COMPANY HEADQUARTERS: TOYOTA CITY. South Africa. when it switched to importing cars from Japan and Australia. manufacturing or assembling vehicles for local markets. Australia.

Toyota Car Model: Innova Camry Avalon Matrix Corolla 8 .

Prius TRUCKS: Tacoma Tundra SPORTS UTILITY VEHICLES( SUVs): 4runner 9 .

In May. began full-scale operations at its engine factory. in February. several new projects were started around the world. with trainees passing on what they learn to team members on their return to their plants. the Camry Hybrid. In human resources development. Toyota established the North American Production Center in the U. In Japan. Ltd. while in the United States. which in October celebrated 20 years of production. and the European Global Production Center in the United Kingdom in March. and the new global Camry went on sale. increased its manufacturing capacity. On the product front. The centers educate trainers for local manufacturing plants in all regions. Inc. a new Corolla range was introduced. manufacture of the Camry began in Guangzhou. In manufacturing. these were created to spread Toyota’s manufacturing knowledge and skills throughout the world in pace with the rapid growth of Toyota’s overseas manufacturing. Lexus launched its new flagship model. Established as branches of the Global Production Center in Japan.. the LS. following the establishment of the Asia Pacific Global Production Center in Thailand in August 2005. the Kentucky plant. while Toyota Motor Tohoku Co. started manufacturing the first Toyota hybrid vehicle to be made in North America. China.S. emphasizing the importance of this best-selling car. In November. a key vehicle in Toyota’s North American lineup. In Japan. Toyota Motor Kyushu. 10 . the Texas plant began producing the new Tundra truck.Land cruiser OVERVIEW In 2006. Toyota was engaged in a variety of projects designed to solidify its foundations while continuing to grow.

” and in accordance with the infrastructure and customer needs of each region. and has worked on R&D relating to plug-in hybrid. in the right place. in 2007 Toyota introduced a flex fuel vehicle* in the Brazilian market that will run on 100% bio-ethanol fuel.In R&D. 11 . in faithfully fulfilling your duties. while keeping ourselves open to new partnerships. PERCEPTS  Be contributive to the development and welfare of the country by working together. In addition.  Create and develop advanced technologies and provide outstanding products and services that fulfill the needs of customers worldwide.  Work with business partners in research and creation to achieve stable. based on the philosophy of providing “the right car. Toyota focused its efforts on three key areas: environment.  Foster a corporate culture that enhances individual creativity and teamwork value. safety and energy.  Respect the culture and customs of every nation and contribute to economic and social development through corporate activities in the communities.  Pursue growth in harmony with the global community through innovative management. From this point on. while honoring mutual trust and respect between labor and management. long-term growth and mutual benefits. Toyota will continue to promote efforts to develop environmentally friendly technology and vehicles. GUIDING PRINCIPLES  Honor the language and spirit of the law of every nation and undertake open and fair corporate activities to be a good corporate citizen of the world. regardless of position. at the right time.  Dedicate ourselves to providing clean and safe products and to enhancing the quality of life everywhere through all our activities. as part of Toyota’s efforts to respond to the diversification of energy. It made a special effort in the area of the environment by expanding its lineup of hybrid vehicles.

homelike atmosphere. inquisitiveness and pursuit of improvement. Member of the Board 1) Domestic Sales Operations Group and Overseas Planning Operations Group 12 . and show gratitude for things great and small in thought and deed MANAGERIAL INFORMATION Executives Board of Directors NAME Fujio Cho* Katsuhiro Nakagawa Katsuaki Watanabe Tokuichi Uranishi Kazuo Okamoto Takeshi Uchiyamada Akio Toyoda Takeshi Suzuki Hiroshi Takada Shinichi Sasaki Shin Kanada Shoichiro Toyoda Hiroshi Okuda** *Promoted. strive to create a warm.  Be practical and avoid frivolity. Be at the vanguard of the times through endless creativity. **Changed Organizational Changes Chairman Vice Chairman President TITLE Executive Vice President Executive Vice President Executive Vice President Executive Vice President Senior Managing Director Senior Managing Director Senior Managing Director Senior Managing Director Honorary Chairman Senior Advisor.  Be kind and generous. Be reverent.

(transfer) • Tokyo Secretarial Div. • Tokyo General Administration Div. including Japan.e. which were divided by region. (transfer) 13 . (transfer) • Tokyo General Administration Div. After Changes • Government & Public Affairs Group • Public Affairs Administration Dept. and to implement the "most-suitable growth strategy from a global perspective" though product.The Domestic Sales Operations Group and the Overseas Planning Operations Group have been reorganized. have been integrated. price and supply-and-demand strategies 2) Government & Public Affairs Group / General Administration & Human Resources Group The transfer of some divisions/departments of the General Administration & Human Resources Group to the Government & Public Affairs Group. i. • Tokyo Secretarial Div. to allow close coordination between TMC and various regions. have taken place as follows: Before Changes • General Administration & Human Resources Group • Public Affairs Administration Dept. domestic and overseas. Sales and planning functions. Purpose As a global business management function of Toyota's global headquarters.

Asia. Oceania & Middle East Operations Group. Oceania & Middle East Operations Group • Taiwan Office (transfer) • China Office (transfer) 14 . Before Changes • Divisions/departments not belonging to a Group • Taiwan Office • China Office After Changes • Asia. China Operations Group The transfer of some divisions/departments to relevant groups. Before Change • Housing Group (Housing Company) After Change • Housing Group (name changed) Purpose To reflect the achievement of the original objective to reinforce operational structures through the introduction of the "company" system 5) Divisions/departments not belonging to a group.Purpose To optimize the structural organization and distribution of human resources by consolidating the divisions and departments relevant to government & public affairs 3) Production Control & Logistics Group Before Change • Production Control & Logistics Group After Change • Strategic Production Planning Group (name changed) Purpose To create a name that reflects a strengthened stance toward planning that considers the actual situation of global production activities 4) Housing Group (Housing Company) The name of the Housing Group (Housing Company) has changed.

GROWTH Lasting growth for Toyota will depend on aligning our interests with the larger interests of customers and the community. the value of its potential fuel savings could prove greater than its cost premium over conventional vehicles. We must be a company where people think seriously about the role and responsibility of their company in the world. for example. it actually could save money for car owners. Photos and text on the following pages introduce some of the technologies we are developing to position Toyota as an environmental leader. By the end of 1997. Our economic and industrial contribution in each region grows. Equally important. as we globalize our operations. So. 15 . the number of divisions has increased from 228 to 229.Purpose To clarify the chain of command and to optimize the structural organization and distribution of human resources As a result of the above changes. It is twice as fuel-efficient as conventionally powered vehicles of comparable size and performance. Our hybrid-electric car will have a gasoline engine to generate electricity or provide supplementary power to the wheels. That is when we will put a hybrid-electric passenger car onto the market in Japan. we will introduce the world's first new-energy transport that is commercially competitive with conventional automobiles. Survival and growth in our industry will hinge on developing technologies for reducing environmental impact of our products and operations. as well as improving vehicular safety. Another way to align our interests with the larger interests of the community is through technology.

. retail market share a year earlier.S. in early November and it was less than one share point behind General Motors Corp. Those technologies include.. retail market share than Ford Motor Co. Toyota.. Japan's largest automaker. We have introduced or demonstrated new power train technologies in the past year that will make Toyotas run cleaner and greener than ever. "zero emission" vehicles that alleviate urban pollution Fuel-cell systems that could transform the automobile in the 21st century.   A direct-injection system that makes gasoline engines more efficient Hybrid-electric systems that double fuel efficiency and reduce noxious emissions Pure electric. grabbed more U. had a 15.PRIORITIES OF TOYOTA IN GROWTH STRATEGY      Fortifying our product line Asserting a competitive edge in technology Accelerating globalization Reclaiming market share in Japan Cultivating demand in new business sectors Measures for asserting a competitive edge in technology have centered on environmental themes.S. Toyota plans to enter small car segment in India 16 .4 percent U.   MARKET SHARE OF TOYOTA Toyota Motor Corp.

World’s second largest automaker wants to get offensive in the Indian domestic auto market. Toyota is very much interested in launching a small car here in the segment currently dominated by Maruti Suzuki and Hyundai. Tata also has a decent presence in the market with their Indica range of diesel vehicles. Toyota is at the moment carrying out a feasibility study for launching such a vehicle in the domestic market where it has models like the Innova and Camry amongst others. They have had an incredible success with their stopped Qualis model and are selling Toyota Innova in large numbers. T Ino, director (marketing), Toyota Kirloskar Motor Pvt Limited has expressed that the Indian auto market is a huge one and has the capacity to involve more players in the small car segment. Toyota has a variety of interesting models in its global lineup, which it can consider to launch in the Indian market. Some of these are Vios, Platz, and Passo. The company also expects to break even here in India this year with all the accumulated losses were expected to be wiped out during 2005. They also plan to invest around Rs 130 crores during the current year to enhance efficiency.

PRODUCTS (GLOBAL):
1. AVALON 2. CAMRY 3. CAMRY SALORA 4. COROLLA ALTIS 5. MATRIX 6. PRIUS 7. 4RUNNER 8. HIGH RUNNER 9. LAND CRUISER 10. SEQUOIA 11. SIENNA

17

PRICE:As far as pricing strategy of Toyota is concerned. They are focusing on the very segment of the market not only particular segment. Basically they are focusing on official and business class people

CAR MODELS (INDIA) INNOVA

EX- SHOWROOM (MUMBAI) AMOUNT IN INR. 8,01,738

COROLLA ALTIS

11,31,900

CAMRY

22,84,800

PRADO

42,27,300

Table 1.1

18

FUTURE PLANS
India's car population may be growing but the growth is mainly concentrated in the small car sector, and not without reason. With increasing interest rates making buying cars costlier and the government slapping new duties on larger vehicles in addition to the existing favorable tax regime for smaller cars, even premium players are wading into the small-car scene. Indian passenger car sales rose by 11.79 per cent between April 2007 and March 2008 to 1.2 million units. Competition in the small car segment is set to increase in 2009, with planned launches by Maruti Suzuki (A-Star and Splash), Honda (Jazz) and as yet unnamed models from Ford, GM and Volkswagen. Japanese carmaker Toyota, all set to surpass General Motors as the world's largest, is the latest entrant when it made its intentions clear on the occasion of the laying of the foundation stone for its second factory in India. The decade-old Indian joint venture of the Japanese automaker, Toyota Kirloskar, is building its second plant at Bidadi, about 40 kilometers from India's IT hub of Bangalore, with an upfront investment of Rs14,000 crore ($329 million) to manufacture a range of passenger cars and multi-utility vehicles. Toyota is the majority partner with an 89-per cent stake with Kirloskar owning the rest. Karnataka chief minister B S Yeddyurappa unveiled the foundation stone for the new plant that will have a test track and additional space for suppliers and other vendors. The ceremony was attended by Toyota senior managing director Akira Okabe, chairman Ryoichi Sasaki, vice-chairman Vikram Kirloskar and managing director Hiroshi Nakagawa.

19

the initial design features indicate that it can be exported to other markets in Asia. However. The factory will be ready by mid-2010 and we are yet to finalize the launch date of the new car. But this initial investment won't include certain other costs like installing robots and other automation equipment. Vikram Kirloskar said as much when he commented. A new test track will be included in the second plant. ''We are working on the new design. Daihatsu. indications are that it maybe priced higher than its Indian competitors.The modular plant. The arrangement of this additional amount required for the plant would be worked out later. The small car will not compete with the upcoming Nano of Tata Motors. though it may be included in future plans. which is expected to be spread over 130 acres of land. will have an installed capacity of 100. We have basic concept of the new car ready and very shortly we will finalize the design of the car.400 people.'' The plant which is being set up will see an initial investment of Rs1400 crore. We plan to have petrol as well as diesel versions. Tata Motors and Bajaj Auto can rest easy for the time being. The model is yet to be finalized. to be commissioned by 2010. Top officials confirmed that the company will soon be introducing its newly designed compact car in the Indian market. will not be involved in designing the compact new car. Though the new compact car has been designed for the Indian market.'' 20 . touted to be the world's cheapest car. Toyota's group company. Although Okabe confirmed that the new product will be the cheapest in the Toyota stable.000 units annually and will employ about 2.

does the company target a wide market. or are they the lowest cost producer in an industry? Competitive scope of the market . and seem to be even more popular today. They outline the three main strategic options open to organization that wish to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage.are the products differentiated in any way. Each of the three options are considered within the context of two aspects of the competitive environment: Sources of competitive advantage . niche market? Figure 1.GENERIC STRATEGIES Generic strategies were used initially in the early 1980s. or does it focus on a very narrow.1 The generic strategies are: 21 .

Cost leadership 2. generating a higher than average price. Producers could price at competitive parity. Focus. exploiting the benefits of a bigger margin than competitors. Differentiation Differentiated goods and services satisfy the needs of customers through a sustainable competitive advantage. low cost does not always lead to low price. 3. 2. Therefore there is always an incentive to innovated and continuously improve. Factories are built and maintained. such as Toyota. Costs must be recovered. 1. There is also the chance that any differentiation could be copied by competitors.' However. Some organization. These costs must be offset by the increase in revenue generated by sales. are very good not only at producing high quality autos at a low price. The differentiating organization will incur additional costs in creating their competitive advantage. Cost Leadership The low cost leader in any market gains competitive advantage from being able to many to produce at the lowest cost. Toyota differentiates its product and service. 'cost advantage' is the focus. Differentiation 3. Products tend to be 'no frills. For example.1. Focus or Niche Strategy 22 . The benefits of differentiation require producers to segment markets in order to target goods and services at specific segments. Costs are shaved off every element of the value chain. This allows companies to desensitize prices and focus on value that generates a comparatively higher price and a better margin. labor is recruited and trained to deliver the lowest possible costs of production. but have the brand and marketing skills to use a premium pricing policy.

The company makes a large range of vehicles for both private customers and commercial organisations.78 million units.55 trillion yen.g. There are potentially problems with the niche approach. Commentators argue that this is because the company has the right mix of products for the markets that it serves. The company uses marketing techniques to identify and satisfy 23 . £5. telecommunications. Small. specialist niches could disappear in the long term. Cost focus is unachievable with an industry depending upon economies of scale e. defined segment of a market. With a cost focus a firm aims at being the lowest cost producer in that niche or segment. a niche strategy could be more suitable. from the small Yaris to large trucks.The focus strategy is also known as a 'niche' strategy.3% higher at 18. A company could use either a cost focus or a differentiation focus. Here an organization focuses effort and resources on a narrow. Where an organization can afford neither a wide scope cost leadership nor a wide scope differentiation strategy.59 million units in the same period. 1. Competitive advantage is generated specifically for the niche. A niche strategy is often used by smaller firms. The company is still behind rivals General Motors with 8.17 trillion yen ($11bn.4 S. while sales were 7. This is an example of very focused segmentation. against the worldwide motor industry trend. Its strong industry position is based upon a number of factors including a diversified product range. In 2003 Toyota knocked its rivals Ford into third spot.W. highly targeted marketing and a commitment to lean manufacturing and quality.85bn).T ANALYSIS Strengths New investment by Toyota in factories in the US and China saw 2005 profits rise.8% to 1.O. to become the World's second largest carmaker with 6. targeting and positioning in a number of countries. Net profits rose 0. With a differentiation focus a firm creates competitive advantage through differentiation within the niche or segment.

OPPURTUNITIES Lexus and Toyota now have a reputation for manufacturing environmentally friendly vehicles. The company needs to keep producing cars in order to retain its operational efficiency. Toyota markets most of its products in the US and in Japan. Its brand is a household name. Rocketing oil prices have seen sales of the new hybrid vehicles increase. Total Quality Management). WEAKNESS Being big has its own problems. Perhaps that is why the company is beginning to shift its attentions to the emerging Chinese market. Therefore it is exposed to fluctuating economic and political conditions those markets. Car plants represent a huge investment in expensive fixed costs.customer needs.e. as well as the high costs of training and retaining labour. Toyota has also sold on its technology to other motor manufacturers. The World market for cars is in a condition of over supply and so car manufacturers need to make sure that it is their models that consumers want. The company also maximizes profit through efficient manufacturing approaches (e.g. it takes time to accommodate. Movements in exchange rates could see the already narrow margins in the car market being reduced. then the company may miss out on potential sales due to under capacity i. So if the car market experiences a down turn. Lexus has RX 400h hybrid. This is a typical problem with high volume car manufacturing. the company could see over capapacity. Both are based upon advance technologies developed by the organization. and Toyota has it Prius. for example Ford has bought into the technology for its new Explorer 24 . If on the other hand the car market experiences an upturn.

65. MUL rolled out its first car. Such moves can only firm up Toyota's interest and investment in hybrid R&D. The vehicle itself is a unique convertible. Toyota faces tremendous competitive rivalry in the car market. THREATS Product recalls are always a problem for vehicle manufacturers. steel and fuel.O.5bhp at an affordable price of Rs. The company is also exposed to any movement in the price of raw materials such as rubber. The first vehicle was released for sale in December 1983. with models extending at their rear! The narrow segment is notorious for it narrow margins and difficulties for branding. The majority of affected vehicles were sold in the US.5 COMPETITVE S. Initially.W. which is targeted at the streetwise youth market and captures (or attempts to) the nature of dance and DJ culture in a very competitive segment. the car was criticized for its diminutive size. but it proved to be spacious enough to carry four adults. As with any car manufacturer. Competition is increasing almost daily. 1. Europe and Australia. Toyota is to target the 'urban youth' market.SUV Hybrid.000. In 2005 the company had to recall 880. Better 25 .T ANALYSIS STRENGTH In an era when owning a car was a distant dream for a vast majority of Indians. South Korea and new plants in Eastern Europe.00 sports utility vehicles and pick up trucks due to faulty front suspension systems. The company has launched its new Aygo. the M800. The company labeled it a people's car. with a 796cc 3cylinder engine that delivered 39. with new entrants coming into the market from China. while the rest were sold in Japan. Toyota did not give details of how much the recall would cost.

is the lack of product design capability. its sales increased to 9. slightly over M800's sales of 10.23 mn in the first week of April 2004.technology and an affordable price due to a higher level of indigenization helped MUL achieve a dominant position in the Indian passenger car market WEAKNESS MARUTI SUZUKI’s biggest weakness. 8. In April. Alto For the first few months of 2004. Alto reported sales of 8. another MUL product. THREAT M800 had ruled the passenger car market as the only car in the entry-level segment in the Indian automobile industry and was now facing the danger of cannibalization from one of its own family members. Analysts felt that Alto had taken the top spot because of its price reduction in September 2003 by Rs.518 units in February and 15. selling 15.016 units. In the coming years. M800 performed well. 23.324 and 9.301 units in January. Maruti Suzuki also needs to invest in capacity and research and development in India to stay abreast of competition.011 units in January. Also the Research and developments headquarters for engine development of Maruti Suzuki are in Japan which is a major weak point. February and March respectively. began eating into M800's share.399 units. 26 .373 units.540 in March. 0. they should focus on acquiring product design and lean production knowhow (as the Korean firms did in the eighties and early nineties. Alto took over M800's position as the largest selling car with sale of 10.000 followed by the launch of the non-AC Alto for Rs. But gradually Alto.350 units and in May 2004. 13.

" "In the last one year. With a change of guard at Toyota Kirloskar Motor Ltd.OBJECTIVE AND METHODOLOGY 2.. Executive Vice-President. Toyota has taken many initiatives. "Competition is intense in the Indian market for domestic and foreign companies. In India.8 million units overseas.1 SIGNIFICANCE Toyota's believes in putting the customer first and aims to provide the best levels of customer satisfaction as its main marketing strategy. the Indian market would touch annual sales of 1. replacing Sachio Yamazaki. Toyota sold 3. the Toyota Quails notched sales of 25.2 million units by 2005. According to analysts.000 units since its launch last year. Atsushi Toyoshima has been appointed Managing Director of the company. Innova has successfully become a category creator. In this 27 . We will continue to meet the ever-challenging customer expectations and will come out with innovative marketing strategies. Their dealers have also worked hard to provide their high levels of customer support. which has made Innova the most successful product." Yoshio Ishizaka. The Indian market is important for Toyota with potential to aid its growth strategy. Toyota's strategy to corner a significant chunk of the Indian market involves "superior product offering and dedicated technology". Last year. Effective from January 1. Toyota Motor Corporation. the company has evolved a new strategy to capture 15 per cent market share in the Indian automotive segment. he said. said. manufacturing six million vehicles at 56 plants in 25 countries.

First. Second. also give a proper shape to company's target profit and growth. This report helps the marketing department in taking decisions to what change in distribution channels and what should be done so that marketing problem could be sorted out and how to sell their range of product in the competitive market. including auto components. over the last five years. indicating a more important role for the company's manufacturing base in Bangalore. Third. "Bangalore is an ideal location to meet all of Toyota's needs. the C. the decision to introduce Innova here (India) was based on three factors. Atsushi Toyoshima. skills and resources and its changing market opportunities. The multi utility vehicle segment has also grown at doubledigit levels.segment (between Rs 5 lakh to Rs 10 lakh) of the car market has grown by 20 per cent every year. to seek attributes like greater interior space and overloading ability. Toyota Kirloskar Motor has described it as the first three-row seating passenger car in the Indian market 2.2 MANAGERIAL USEFULLNESS The marketing department can use this study to enhance their marketing strategies for better sales. the Indian consumer wants to take his vehicle for long drives with friends and family. agility and power of a sedan. every market research provides useful suggestions to the 28 . including those owning MPVs." Mr. so that they can maintain a viable fit between the organizational objectives.context. the change of leadership in Toyota's Indian division is important. The very essence of every project related to marketing is providing a view to management for chalk out the organization. while passenger car buyers look for better styling and improved riding comfort. there is a latent desire of customers. it provides feedback to the organization about their sales. with an improving lifestyle and better roads. sales schemes and what impact does it has on the dealers and consumers. Innova brings together the space and fuel economy of an MPV with the style. Toyoshima said According to the managing director of Toyota Kirloskar Motor.

 To find out the market share of Toyota. it also aids the formulation of the marketing mix. These are as follows. Marketing research helps the firm in every component of total marketing task.3 OBJECTIVES OF STUDY The object of report is not only to focus on competitors but also to get the competitive position in the national as well as international market through customer satisfaction. 2. the study reveals the fact that may have come up during the project and these facts can either be used a opportunities in exploring and expanding the business as well as can be used as safeguard against threats by competitors to prepare an effective marketing strategy.  To know about the marketing strategies used by Toyota. marketing research helps the firm in every component of the total marketing task. Every market research proves useful to the organization.  To face the keen competition. the competition and the marketing environment. distribution and pricing needs.  To serve the customer through channel of distribution.  To discover and translate the needs and desire of customer into products and services so as to create the demand of the product (through planning and producing planned product).  To know about the marketing strategies of the competitors of Toyota. 29 .organization. it helps the firm acquire a better understanding of the buyer. it also helps in taking the information of competitor's strategies and their impact on the buyer. product.  To know where Toyota stands as far as the BCG –matrix models concerned.

The present study can be extended to access the present marketing condition of Indian automobile sector. 2.5 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This project depends upon the primary as well as secondary sources which are as follows. This study can be applied to find out an effective distribution channel to enhance the sale of various products of Toyota motors. Primary Source:  Observation  Experiment  Talking with consumers.2. 2. The result of marketing success can be interpreted to assess the rate of employee satisfaction in various departments. The study can be used to design a proper product. place and promotional strategy for the market. 3.retailers and distributors. 30 .4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY These are some of the scope of the study : 1. 5. 4. price. From the present study we can know the market share of different products and accordingly formulated strategy to enhance it.

STATISTICAL AND PRESENTATION TOOLS PRIMARY DATA is represented:  First classified i.Secondary Source:  Balance sheet of the company  Company website SAMPLE SIZE AND AREAS COVERED A customer-based survey was conducted in which 100 people were asked to fill the questionnaire in which 50 people belong to cities of Delhi and GURGAON. Because it was not possible to consider each and every person of those cities or of villages so. grouped qualitatively and quantitatively according to the situation or the type of the data which was collected.e. 31 .e. SECONDARY DATA is represented:  In the form of tables.  By the way of BAR GRAPHS and SUBDIVIDED BAR GRAPHS (Graphical presentation). PROBABILITY SAMPLE or RANDOM SAMPLE was taken. systematically arranged in columns and rows.  After classifying is represented in the form of tables i.  Some of the data is also graphically represented in the form of PIE DIAGRAM.

the study may lack accuracy. Co-  operation on the part of informants. So. 32 . in some cases. It is possible that the information supplied by the informants may be  incorrect. it was a time consuming method in which  continuous guidance was required.2.6 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY Since the road to improvement is never ending. Questionnaire method involves some uncertainty of response. Some of them are as follows: Because of illiteracy. was difficult to presume. so this study also suffers from certain limitations.

• Marketing is a business-wide function – it is not something that operates alone from 33 . they all are. They all try to embody the essence of marketing: • Marketing is about meeting the needs and wants of customers. anticipates and supplies customer requirements efficiently and profitably” “Marketing may be defined as a set of human activities directed at facilitating and consummating exchanges” Which definition is right? In short. Consider some of the following alternative definitions: “The all-embracing function that links the business with customer needs and wants in order to get the right product to the right place at the right time” “The achievement of corporate goals through meeting and exceeding customer needs better than the competition” “The management process that identifies.CONCEPTUAL DISCUSSION MARKETING What is marketing? There are many different definitions of marketing.

other business activities. • Marketing is about understanding customers and finding ways to provide products or services which customers demand To help put things into context. you may find it helpful to often refer to the following diagram which summarises the key elements of marketing and their relationships: 34 .

Success is dependent on satisfying customer needs. People have basic needs for food. What are customer needs and wants? A need is a basic requirement that an individual wishes to satisfy. affection. This matching process takes place in what is called the marketing environment.Figure 1. This important perspective is commonly known as the marketing concept. very broad. customer wants are usually quite narrow. esteem and self-development. social and technological environment. and changes in the political. Businesses do not undertake marketing activities alone. Whilst customer needs are broad. The marketing concept is about matching a company's capabilities with customer wants. An organisation that adopts the marketing concept accepts the needs of potential customers as the basis for its operations. 35 . Many of these needs are created from human biology and the nature of social relationships. economic. therefore. All these factors have to be taken into account as a business tries to match its capabilities with the needs and wants of its target customers. They face threats from competitors.2 MARKETING CONCEPT AND ORIENTATION It is a fundamental idea of marketing that organisations survive and prosper through meeting the needs and wants of customers. Customer needs are. shelter.

Some consumers are never satisfied unless their food comes served with a bottle of fine Chardonnay. Consider this example: Consumers need to eat when they are hungry.that of customer demand: Consumer demand is a want for a specific product supported by an ability and willingness to pay for it. businesses do try to influence demand by designing products and services that are • Attractive • Work well • Are affordable • Are available 36 . but they also have to make them affordable to a sufficient number to create profitable demand. eating at McDonalds satisfies the need to meet hunger. Businesses therefore have not only to make products that consumers want. For some.A want is a desire for a specific product or service to satisfy the underlying need. This leads onto another important concept . What they want to eat and in what kind of environment will vary enormously. Consumer wants are shaped by social and cultural forces. For example. many consumers around the globe want a Mercedes. For others a microwaved readymeal meets the need. However. But relatively few are able and willing to buy one. It is not McDonalds that makes people hungry. Businesses do not create customer needs or the social status in which customer needs are influenced. the media and marketing activities of businesses.

Jerome McCarthy. in his American Marketing Association presidential address. The four Ps concept is explained in most marketing textbooks and classes. A typical example of a mass produced service is the hotel industry. such as personnel and packaging. Price – The price is the amount a customer pays for the product. took the recipe idea one step further and coined the term 'Marketing-Mix'. proposed a 4 P classification in 1960. A prominent marketer. E. This version continued in 1953 when Neil Borden. the fundamentals of marketing typically identifies the four Ps of the marketing mix as referring to: Product -An object or a service that is mass produced or manufactured on a large scale with a specific volume of units. It is determined by a number of factors including market share. competition. which would see wide popularity.Businesses also try to communicate the relevant features of their products through advertising and other marketing promotion. product identity 37 . A less obvious but ubiquitous mass produced service is a computer operating system. material costs. MARKETING MIX The marketing mix is generally accepted as the use and specification of the four Ps describing the strategic position of a product in the marketplace. DEFINITION Although some marketers[who?] have added other Ps. Typical examples of a mass produced objects are the motor car and the disposable razor. One version of the origins of the marketing mix starts in 1948 when James Culliton said that a marketing decision should be a result of something similar to a recipe.

Advertising covers any communication that is paid for.00 would be considered a strategic change in the position of the product. a large change in the price.99 would be considered a tactical change. satisfied customers or people specifically engaged to create word of mouth momentum. which is common in film promotion. radio and Internet adverts through print media and billboards. This category has grown each year for the past decade while most other forms have suffered. say from $19. Public relations are where the communication is not directly paid for and includes press releases. Promotion – Promotion represents all of the communications that a marketer may use in the marketplace. It can include any physical store as well as virtual stores on the Internet. seminars or trade fairs and events. word of mouth and point of sale. It is the only form of advertising that targets all five senses and has the recipient thanking the giver. as in useful items distributed to targeted audiences with no obligation attached. Broadly defined. Promotion has four distinct elements .00 to $39. However a change of $131 to $130. from television and cinema commercials. A certain amount of crossover occurs when promotion uses the four principal elements together. Place – Place represents the location where a product can be purchased.and the customer's perceived value of the product. 38 . exhibitions. conferences. potentially related to a promotional offer. Sales staff often plays an important role in word of mouth and Public Relations (see Product above). Making large changes in any of the four Ps can be considered strategic.advertising. public relations. The business may increase or decrease the price of product if other stores have the same product. One of the most notable means of promotion today is the Promotional Product. Making small changes in the marketing mix is typically considered to be a tactical change. optimizing the marketing mix is the primary responsibility of marketing. By offering the product with the right combination of the four Ps marketers can improve their results and marketing effectiveness. For example. sponsorship deals. It is often referred to as the distribution channel. Word of mouth is any apparently informal communication about the product by ordinary individuals.

He also claims that pursuing a ROI approach while ignoring marketing objectives is just as problematic. Promotion. He argues that a net present value approach maximizing shareholder value provides a "rational framework" for managing the marketing mix. Product. People. Some people claim the four Ps are too strongly oriented towards consumer markets and do not offer an appropriate model for industrial product marketing. Doyle claims that developing marketing based objectives while ignoring profitability has resulted in the dot-com crash and the Japanese economic collapse. Process. Objectives such as providing solutions for customers at low cost have not generated adequate profit margins. Price. Others claim it has too strong of a product market perspective and is not appropriate for the marketing of services.CRITICISMS Peter Doyle claims that the marketing mix approach leads to unprofitable decisions because it is not grounded in financial objectives such as increasing shareholder value. An expanded system based on Seven Ps stresses the importance of Place. and Physical evidence 39 . According to Doyle it has never been clear what criteria to use in determining an optimum marketing mix.

MR-Anywhere is a very good platform for market research and analysis For starting up a business there are a few things that are important: Market information Market information is making known the prices of the different commodities in the market. personality differences. Once that research is complete it can be used to determine how to market your specific product.MARKET RESEARCH Market research is for discovering what people want. need. Examples of market information questions are: Who are the customers? Where are they located and how can they be contacted? What quantity and quality do they want? When is the best time to sell? Market segmentation Market segmentation is the division of the market or population into subgroups with similar motivations. Widely used bases for segmenting include geographic differences. demographic differences. Market trends 40 . and psychographic differences. Information about the markets can be obtained in several different varieties and formats. the supply and the demand. It can also involve discovering how they act. use of product differences. or believe.

The market size is more difficult to estimate if you are starting with something completely new. A few techniques are: Customer analysis Choice Modelling Competitor analysis Risk analysis Product research Advertising research 41 . during a period of time. your customers.The upward or downward movements of a market. products etc. In this case. [Ilar 1998] But besides information about the target market you also need information about your competitor. you will have to derive the figures from the number of potential customers or customer segments.

DATA ANALYSIS 4. Tata. Maruti Suzuki.3 INFERENCE:  24% of the respondents were owners of Toyota  76% of the respondents were owners of Honda. etc 42 .1 PERCENTAGE OF TOYOTA OWNERS OW NERS OF TOYOTA YES 24% NO 76% YES NO Figure 1.

4. 43 .2 CUSTOMER SATISFACTION RATING CUSTOMER SATISFACTION 17% SATISFIED DISSATISFIED 83% Figure 1.4 INFERENCE:  83% of the Respondents were satisfied with their cars and the services of TOYOTA  However 17% of the Respondents were dissatisfied at the same time.

 19% and 24% respectively preferred for Hyundai & Honda.4.3 PREFERENCES OF BUYING A NEW CAR PREFERENCES OF BUYING A NEW CAR 40 30 20 10 0 TOYOTA HYUNDAI MARUTI HONDA Figure 1.  38% of respondents preferred for Maruti.5 INFERENCE:  19% of the respondents would prefer to buy a Toyota car against its competitors. 44 .

V. and Dealers for providing the information.4 WHERE DO YOU MANAGE TO FIND INFORMATION ABOUT TOYOTA INFORMATION ABOUT TOYOTA 12% 20% 55% 13% DEALERS PRINT MEDIA T. 45 .V.  Rest 25% was shared by T.4. INTERNET Figure 1.6 INFERENCE:  Information through Internet and Print media accounts for more than half or 75% of the information shared with the masses.

5 TOYOTA CARS HAS THE MOST FUEL EFFICIENCY F UE L E F F IC IE NC Y O F T O YO T A 100 80 60 40 20 0 78 22 Y ES NO Figure 1. 46 .4.7 INFERENCE:  78% of the respondents felt that Toyota has the most fuel efficiency.  While 22% felt it isn’t the most fuel efficient.

10% thought it was very good and 12% felt satisfactory about the features.8 INFERENCE: • • 70% of the respondents felt that the features of the Toyota are good.6 THE FEATURES OF TOYOTA AS COMPARED TO OTHER CARS FEATURES OF TOYOTA 12% 8% GOOD 10% VERY GOOD 70% NOT SO GOOD SATISFACTORY Figure 1. 47 . While 8% of respondents thought it was not so good.4.

 Then comes Handling and Fuel Efficiency.7 THE QUALITIES THAT BEST DESCRIBES TOYOTA FEATURES THAT BEST DESCRIBES TOYOTA 40 30 20 10 0 HANDLING FUEL EFFICIENCY DESIGN COM FORT 15 18 38 29 Figure 1.9 INFERENCE:  Toyota is best known for its design & comfort. 48 .4.

7% said it was satisfactory and 3% felt it was not so good.4.8 HOW DO YOU FIND THE INTERIORS OF TOYOTA INTERIORS OF TOYOTA 3% 16% 7% GOOD VERY GOOD NOT SO GOOD 74% SATISFACTORY Figure 1.10 INFERENCE: • • The interiors of Toyota are very good according to 74% of the respondents. 16% said it was very good. 49 .

4. 50 .9 WHAT SHOULD BE DONE TO IMPROVE TOYOTA ? WHAT SHOULD BE DONE TO IMPROVE TOYOTA 13% 15% 72% MAKE IT MORE AFFORDABLE CHEAPER SPARE PARTS MORE SERVICE STATIONS Figure 1.11 INFERENCE:  If Toyota is made more affordable then it would win more customers. a theory which was backed by 72% of the respondents.  15% and 13% respectively want cheaper spare parts and more service stations.

4.12 INFERENCE: 51 .10 WHAT SHOULD BE DONE TO MAKE TOYOTA THE BEST CAR WHAT SHOULD BE DONE TO MAKE TOYOTA THE BEST CAR 15 10 15 60 MAKE IT MORE FUTURISTIC MAKE IT MORE SPORTY GIVE IT A RETRO LOOK GIVE IT A CONCEPT CAR LOOK Figure 1.

 10% wanted it to have a retro look and 15% wanted to give it a concept car look. To make it the best car in its class it should be made more futuristic which was felt by 60% of the respondents. 4.13 INFERENCE: 52 .  15% of the respondents thought it should be made more sporty.11 ARE YOU HAPPY WITH THE AFTER SALES SERVICES PROVIDED BY TOYOTA HAPPY WITH AFTER SALES SERVICES PROVIDED BY TOYOTA 15% HAPPY UNHAPPY 85% Figure 1.

53 .  15% were unhappy with Toyota due to poor after sales services provided by them. Overall 85% of the respondents were happy with the after sales service provided by Toyota.

1 FINDINGS  76% of the respondents were owners of Toyota  83% of the Respondents were satisfied with their cars and the services of TOYOTA. a theory which was backed by 72% of the respondents. While 8% of respondents thought it was not so good.15% and 13% respectively want cheaper spare parts and more service stations. 54 . 10% thought it was very good and 12% felt satisfactory about the features  Toyota is best known for its design & comfort.V.  If Toyota is made more affordable then it would win more customers. Rest 25% was shared by T.FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5. However 17% of the Respondents were dissatisfied at the same time  18% of the respondents would prefer to buy a Toyota car against its competitors  Information through Internet and Print media accounts for more than half or 75% of the information shared with the masses. and Dealers for providing the information  78% of the respondents felt that Toyota has the most fuel efficiency  70% of the respondents felt that the features of the Toyota are good. Then comes Handling and Fuel Efficiency.

2 RECOMMENDATIONS  Toyota should adopt the defensive marketing strategy because as being the second largest car producer in the international market. To make it the best car in its class it should be made more futuristic which was felt by 60% of the respondents.  Toyota must at the moment carry out a feasibility study for launching a vehicle in the domestic market where it has models like the Innova and Camry amongst others.  Toyota must plan out an ideal marketing producing capacity . This market is dominated by Maruti Suzuki and Hyundai in the Indian domestic auto market.becaue it faces the problem of over and under capacity in case of upturn and downturn of the market. 5. 55 .  Toyota should conduct market survey in Indian market for quails in order to know the perception of Indian consumers.15% of the respondents thought it should be made more sporty.  Toyota should adopt an offensive marketing strategy for entering in the small car segment.10% wanted it to have a retro look and 15% wanted to give it a concept car look.

HOW SATISFIED ARE YOU WITH THE SERVICES OFFERED BY TOYOTA ? (i)SATISFIED (ii) DISSATISFIED 56 .000-25.000 _________Above 75.000 _________50. 000-50. DO YOU OWN A CAR? o YES NO IF YES.000 1.000 _________25. THEN WHICH ONE? (i)TOYOTA (ii) HYUNDAI (iii) MARUTI 2.000-75.ANNEXURE QUESTIONNAIRE FOR CONSUMER A) NAME B) ADDRESS C) CONTACT NUMBER D) INCOME GROUP _________15.

V. THEN ARE YOU HAPPY WITH THEIR CHARGES AND TIMELY DELIVERY THEY WERE OFFERING? (i)HAPPY (ii) UNHAPPY 4. IF SATISFIED. WHERE DO YOU MANAGE TO FIND INFORMATION ABOUT TOYOTA ? (i)DEALERS (iii)T. (ii) PRINT MEDIA (iv)INTERNET 6. WHICH COMPANY WOULD YOU CHOOSE? (i) TOYOTA (ii) MARUTI (iii) HYUNDAI 5. IF GIVEN A CHOICE TO CHOOSE A CAR COMPANY. DO YOU THINK TOYOTA HAS THE MOST FUEL EFFICIENCY (i)YES (ii) NO 7. HOW DO YOU FIND THE FEATURES OF TOYOTA AS COMPARED TO OTHER CARS? (i)GOOD (iii)NOT SO GOOD (ii) VERY GOOD (iv) SATISFACTORY 57 .3.

WHICH OF THESE QUALITIES DO YOU THINK BEST DESCRIBES TOYOTA ? (i)HANDLING (iii)DESIGN (ii) FUEL EFFICIENCY (iv)COMFORT 9. ACCORDING TO YOU WHAT SHOULD BE DONE TO MAKE TOYOTA THE BEST CAR? (i)MAKE IT MORE FUTURISTIC (ii)MAKE IT MORE SPORTY 58 . HOW DO YOU FIND THE INTERIORS OF TOYOTA ? (i)GOOD (iii)SATISFACTORY (ii) VERY GOOD (iv) NOT SO GOOD 10.8. ACCORDING TO YOU WHAT SHOULD BE DONE TO TOYOTA ? (i) MAKE IT MORE AFFORDABLE (ii) CHEAPER SPARE PARTS (iii)MORE SERVICE STATIONS IMPROVE 11.

B.N. Gupta. Marketing management 2006 Magazines Business standard Motoring May 2008 edition Internet: www.google. Marketing management 2005 C.(iii)GIVE IT A RETRO LOOK (iv)GIVE IT A CONCEPT CAR LOOK 12.com 59 .toyota .com www. Marketing Management: 30th Edition Chabra T.. ARE YOU HAPPY WITH THE AFTER SALES SERVICES PROVIDED BY TOYOTA ? (i)YES (ii) NO (iii) HAPPY BUT IT CAN BE BETTER BIBLIOGRAPHY Books: Kotler Philips.

yahoo.wikipedia.domain-b.www.com 60 .com www.com www.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.