Functioning of a hydroelectric power plant
Hydroelectricity is one of the main forms of energy in use today. Its use is being promoted in many countries of the world as a renewable and non-polluting source of energy. The industrialized nations of the world have drawn flak in recent times for releasing high concentrations of green house gases into the atmosphere. The regulations of the Kyoto Protocol are making things tougher. Hence greater interest is being shown in making use of non-polluting energy sources. Hydroelectricity is produced in a hydroelectric power plant. In this plant, the water is released from a high location. The potential energy present in the water is converted into kinetic energy, which is then used to rotate the blades of a turbine. The turbine is hooked to the generator which produces electricity. The main components of hydroelectric power plant are: a) The reservoir: Water from a natural water body like a river is stored in the reservoir. This reservoir is built at a level higher than the turbine. b) The dam: The flow of water stored in the reservoir is obstructed by huge walls of the dam. This prevents the water from flowing and helps us harness the energy present in it. The dam consists of gates present at its bottom, which can be lifted to allow the flow of water through them. c) The penstock: This connects the reservoir with the turbine propeller and runs in a downward inclined manner. When the gates of the dam are lifted, the force of gravity makes the water flow down the penstock and reach the blades of the turbine. As the water flows through the penstock, the potential energy of water stored in the dam is converted into kinetic energy. d) The turbine: The kinetic energy of the running water turns the blades of the turbine. The turbine can be either a Pelton Wheel Model or a Centrifugal type. The turbine has a shaft connected to the generator. e) The generator: A shaft runs from the turbine to the generator. When the blades of the turbine rotate, the shaft turns a motor which produces electric current in the generator.
f) Power lines: The power produced in the generator is sent to various power distribution stations through the power lines. the water flows through an outlet pipe called the tailrace and is released into the river downstream of the power plant. After passing through the turbine.
The main component of hydro power project is dam. earthen or combination of some of above types. Earthen dams differ from masonry and concrete dams due to relatively greater deformability and higher permeability of earth masses (excluding plastic clay hearting).1 Dams
The most important aspect of hydro power generation is to ensure that the plant continue to function continuously. The floor of the structure is suitably designed either as a raft of gravity section to be safe against the uplift pressures created. 1. rock filled.1 Barrage The diversion structure like barrage and weir are generally designed on the principle governing the percolating of water below the foundation of the structure.)
Water conductor system (broadly civil structures
Major components of a hydro electric project
1. which may be concrete gravity.2 Water intake structure
. The safety of the dams is most vital for the unhindered performance of the power plant. As these dams are big in general. 1.
1. It acts as a balancing reservoir to supply/ store additional water during starting/ closure of the gates/ valves. 1. penstock directly to turbine depending on the structure of the project. the penstock is simply a passage through the upstream portion of the dam.4 Surge shaft Surge tank is provided into water conducting system primarily to reduce the surge pressure to be considered in the designed penstock/ pressure shaft.A structure to divert the water to waterway. Sometimes a desilting chamber precedes the head race tunnel. Where the power house is an integrated part of the dam. 1. This economizes the design of penstock/ pressure shaft justifying the extra cost for the provision of the surge tank. It act as a pressure relief opening to absorb surplus kinetic energy. These valves are butterfly valves. which includes trash racks. The are butterfly valves are operated hydraulically with provision of pressure accumulated in case of power failure. The provision of the surge tank has following advantages:
y y y
The length of the column of water gets reduce by placing a free water surface close to the turbine. which remove the larger size sediments from entering into the tunnel.3 Head race tunnel/Power channel A canal.6 Penstock/ pressure shaft The penstock convey the water to the power house and can take many configurations. In case of project having long head race tunnel terminating in the surge tank.5 Penstock/ protection valves The penstock valves are provided after the surge shaft to facilitate maintenance of the penstock. the penstock from the surge tank. a gate and an entrance to a canal. 1.
A surge tank absorb the water hammer effects due to rapid start or closure of the turbine. where most of drop in elevation
. tunnel and/or penstock carries the water to the power house. depending upon the project layout.
. excitation system. bus duct. 2. main inlet valves. step down transformers. 3. The important criteria of designing the tail race tunnel/ channel is kind of draft tube. governor.2 Minimum Head ( Hmin ) The net head resulting from the difference in elevation between the minimum head water level and the tail level minus losses with all turbines operating at a specified gate opening. would be a pressurerized tunnel or pipe. and manifolds or bifurcation structures are provided to direct the flow to individual units. 1.7 Main inlet valves (MIV) These are spherical valves just provided before the water enter into the spiral casing of the turbine. the gross head and geographical situation of the area. transformers. For multi unit installation.1 Maximum Net Head The gross head difference in elevation between the maximum head water level and the tail water level with one unit operating at no load speed minus losses. 1. Switchyard. Generator. step up transformers. This is provided to stop the water for small maintenance purpose In turbine hall. Tail race is designed in such a way that water hammer is minimizes when water leaves the draft tube. high voltages switch gears. it is often desirable to surve several units with a single penstock.occurs.
Terminology related to small hydro project 3. hydro power turbine.e. DC systems. control metering the protection systems.8 Power House Power house contains the electro mechanical equipment i.0 Tail race (Tunnel/ channel) The tail race tunnel or channel are provided to direct the used water coming out of draft tube back to the river.
following classification is adopted as regards hydraulic head under which the turbine will operate Medium/High head Above 40 metres Low head Less than 40 metres Ultra low head Below 3 metres 3.fied gate opening.3.6 Rated Turbine Output The mechanical power delivered by the turbine shaft to generate rated output at generator terminals. It is given by: Micro Up to 100 kW Mini 101 to 1 OOOkW Small 1001 to 5 000 kW ´
. 3.1 The small hydroelectric power stations are generally classified into the following types: Size Unit Size 4.5 Rated Turbine Efficiency The etficiency obtained at the rated head and rated discharge to obtain rated output.
4 TYPE OF SMALL HYDROELECTRIC POWER STATIONS . 3.3 Rated Discharge It is the volume in ms/second of water required by the turbine to ~generate rated output while operating at rated head and speed.4 Rated Speed The speed in revolutions per minute at which the turbine operate to generate the rated output under the rated head and discharge at a speci. 4.2 Head For the purpose of this standard.
-For calculating the output at generator terminal efficiency of generator and speed increaser. 5. Qr = rated discharge in ms/sec. nt. if used.2 Reaction Turbine It is classified as Francis (mixed flow) or Prope-ller ( axial flow ). 5. Hr = rated head in metres.
. bulb and rim type.1. Additionally.1.¶ turbine dictates the selection of type of turbine suitable for use at a particular site. Turgo Impulse and Cross-flow.1 Impulse Turbine It is classified as Pelton. Pelton turbine . = rated turbine efficiency.1 General The net head available to the. shall be taken into account 5 CLASSIFICATION OF TURBINES 5. and n8 = efficiency of speed increaser. Both propeller and Francis turbines may be mounted either horiiontally or vertically.in kilowatt -where yw = specific weight of water in N/ms. if applicable. propeller turbine are designed as tube. The iate of flow determines the capacity of the turbine. Propeller¶ turbines are with both fixed blades and variable pitch blades ( Kaplan ). Hydraulic turbines have two generaclassifications ( impulse and reaction ).may be µmounted either horizontally or verticaljy.
2. 5. the jet impinges on several buckets continuously. These are equipped with fixed or variable pitch runners and with or without gates assemblies.5. 5. The conventional propeller of Kaplan ( variable pitch blade ) turbine are mounted with a vertical..2. Steel plate/concrete water supply case or open flume are used.
. horizontal or slant shaft.3. These may be mounted horizontally or vertically. 5.3 Tubular Turbine .4 Bulb Turbine.1 Francis Turbine It has a runner with fixed vanes to which the water enters the turbine in a radial direction with respect to the shaft and is discharged in an axial direction.Francis -turbines may be mounted with vertical or horizontal shafts.2 Cross Flow Turbine It is an impulse turbine with partial air admission. 5.2 Propeller Turbine It has a runner with blades in which water passes through the runner in an axial direction with respect to the shaft. The generator is located ¶ outside of the water passageway.3. In Turgo impulse.1 Turgo Impulse~Pelton Turbine It has one or more free jets discharging into an aerated space and impinging on the buckets of a runner. It is hdrizontal or slant mounted with propeller runner.2 Impulse Turbine 5..3.wliereas only single bucket per jet is effective at any instant in Pelton wheel. 5.3. The pitch of the blades may be fixed or movable. These are also called Banki turbines.3 Reaction Turbine 5.
which houses the bearing. it is a small bulb upstream.8 shall determine the type of turbine to be used for any site conditions. This is available with fixed or variable pitch blades and with or without a wicket gate.rator. Normal range of maximum net head with respect to power output for each of the type of turbines is given in Fig.3. Most of the manufacturers have developed standardized turbine designs which may be effectively employed. 6 CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OF HYDRAULIC TURBINE 6.5 Rim Type Turbine It is the one in which generator rotor is mounted on the periphery of the turbine runner blades.3 Head Variations Performance -of the. 6. In overlapping head ranges more detailed analysis need to be carried out with a view to optimize costs for selecting exact type of turbine. Turbine efficiency falls at head higher and lower than the design head. It is a horizontal unit. Standard design may lead to cheaper and quicker construction.It is a horizantal unit which have propeller runners generally directly connected to the gene. 1.turbine is ideal at design head. The factors given in 6.2 to 6. power house cost and relative advantages of power generation. Normal range of head variations for various type of turbines is given in Table 1.1 Standardized Turbine Type of turbines is selected from techno-economic considerations of generating equipment.4 Load Variations
. 5. The generator is enclosed in a water tight enclosure ( bulb ) located m the turbine water passageway. 6. lt is known as striaght flow turbine also.2 Head Maximum net head acting on the turbine is one of the most important criteria dictating type of turbine to be used for the power station under consideration. 6.
Necessity of operating turbine at part loads influences choice of turbines in the overlapping head ranges. 1 SUMMARY CHART OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLB TURBINES
.Turbine efficiency varies with load.
FIG. Minimum load upto which the turbine may be operated without undue cavitation and vibration is dictated by type of turbine and is given in Table 1.
Max. 2. Impulse turbine are installed above maximum tail water level thus cavitation free and requiring minimum excavation costs.Table 1: VARIOUS TURBINES AVAILABLE WITH THEIR SPECIFIC SPEED S. 4. 3. Pelton wheel Turgo Impulse (inclined pelton) Cross flow Francis Propeller and Kaplan 12-30 100 500
20-70 20-80 80-400 340-1000
40 1 10 2
200 200 250 25
. Type of Turbine Specific Speed Head Application (m) Min. In general cavitation coefficient for <Francis turbines is much lesser than that for propeller turbines necessitating_relatively lesser submergence and excavations for Francis turbine. 5. No.6 Turbine Setting and Excavation Requirement Setting of reaction turbine with reference to minimum tail water is dictated by requirement from cavitational considerations. 1.
in metre.7 Specific Speed Higher specific speed of turbine results in higher speed of rotation for generator with consequent reduction in cost of generator.e. 6. at plant location temperature.PHs where Ha = atmospheric pressure head. and
Where ns is specific speed.Hv . ns = specific speed of turbine.
. The range of ratio of speed and specific speed for various types of commercially available turbines as given by the following equation:
where n . at plant elevation..rotational speed of turbine in revolutions per minute. b= thoma coefficient also known as plant sigma. i. This criteria is very important for dictating type of turbines from cost consideration in the overlapping head ranges. draft head (z) is given as: Z= Ha.
Hv = vapour pressure Ih metre.The recommended allowable turbine setting above tail water.
7.1. For estimating purposes following formula can be used.9863 horse power ) at full gate opening.Pt =rated turbme output in metric horse power ( equivalent to = 0.1.
s is the velocity ratio at discharge diameter of runner.3 Impulse turbine
where d = diameter of jet
.7.1 Runner Diameter The actual runner size is determined by the manufacturer in accordance with model tests and design criteria.7.2 Propeller turbine
and Runner dia. 6.
therefore. Speed regulation could also be improved installing a flywheel.
. 8 POWER PLANT AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT AND APPURTENANT FACILITIES 8. Cooling water system.1 Space is to be provided in a power house for the following auxiliary equipment and appurtenant facilities as required: Turbine governor and shut off valve. Neutral grounding cubicle and surge . Drainage and dewatering system. be limited to vary economic levels in case of Pelton turbines without increasing the cost of turbine.Practical values of
Normal diameter ratio is
6. Ventilation. Station battery. electronic controllers for speed regulation with phantom loads may be considered.protection. Control cubicle and relaying equipment. Pressure rise and speed rise may.8 Pressure Rise and Speed Regulation Considerations This aspect is more important in isolated system because inertia of small hydro machine is low. In units under micro range. Low governor closmg time for better speed regulation may be achieved by installing pressure relief valves. Unit and auxiliary power transformers. Generator breakers.
Isolators. used to lift the equipment of the power house viz. Generators and other accessories for operating the machines. Potential transformer.Valve used to isolate the turbine or machine from water incase non-availability of water for generation or maintenance Turbine. Electrical Component Generator. lighting arrestors etc)
.a casing or housing used to distribute the water equally all along the periphery of runner. machine used to convert the mechanical energy into electrical energy Transformers. rotor (heaviest component in the power station).Fire extinguishers. Components of Power House A. Spherical valve or Main Inlet Valve. a hydromachine used to convert the hydraulic energy to mechanical energy EOT Crane(Electric Overhead Crane).. runner and other equipment B. stator. shafts. to step up the generation voltage upto the capacity of grid Switchyard. Power House Power House is a building to house the turbines. Compressed air system. is the central protection and metering of the outgoing feeders after stepping up of system voltage using transformer (usually consist of Circuit Breakers. Mechanical Component Distributor/Spiral Casing. Current transformer. and Temporary or permanent crane. disconnect switch.
under voltage. Compressed Air System: used to supply compressed air to various turbine and generator auxiliaries for rotor lifting.. maintenance etc. Power House Auxiliaries Cooling Water system: used to supply the cooling water to Generator air coolers. penstock.watering System: used to de-water the powerhouse in case of seepage. Also. C. service air etc. over voltage. under frequency. Turbine bearing. Air conditioning and ventilation: used to maintain the normal working temperature inside the control room and powerhouse building for efficient working of equipment and operating staff. 400 kV. generator brakes. 132 kV. Generator bearing. Transmission lines: using transmission line tower the power is transferred from the generating station to the nearest grid (of desired capacity) General rating of the lines are 11kV . Fire protection and detection systems this system is used to protect each Generating equipment and its auxiliaries of the powerplant against the fire hazards. 66kV. distance faults etc Disconnect switch/Isolators: to open the circuit as & when desired to take up the system for maintenance Current Transformer: to step down the system current to the level of 1A/ 5A as the case may be. for insurance coverage this system is must and TAC (Terrific Advisory Committee) norms has to be follow for his approval..
.. transformer cooling etc. De.Circuit Breakers: to disconnect the system in case of faults vis-à-vis short circuit. 750/800 kV. 220 kV. Used for current measurement and power measurement Potential Transformer: for Power and voltage measurement Communication system: consist of wave trap and PLCC for data transfer through power lines. also used for de-watering the tunnel.33kV.
.Drainage system: used to drain water from powerhouse used for cleaning. drinking water etc. water close-let.