PROJECT REPORT ON Training and Development By Thoudam Ananta Singh Enrollment number-303091112
A report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of MBA Program of Institute of Management & Development, New Delhi.
Prof : Simran kaur
Contents : Introduction Objectives of training and development Inputs in training and development Benefits of employee training Purpose of training and development Types of training Identifying training needs Training process Evaluation of training Conclusion ... . . . ... . ..3 4 ..5 7 ..10 .11 .13 ...13 14 .....15
Introduction : After liberalization, there is focus on developing creativity and evolving quality culture among employees through training in corporate India. In today s rapidly changing technologies, societies, organizations are increasingly recognizing the need for training their employees to enable them to keep abreast of new information and to develop new skills. This is especially true at managerial and professional levels, where personnel are often faced with new problems arising from computerization, automation, rapid new product development, etc. in addition to on-the-job training and development , many firms, for example, have run in company training conference and seminars p help finance provided tuition-refund plans to help finance employees taking job related university courses, and sent managers to outside training programs by universities and such organization as management associations. The content of today s training and development efforts is, of course extremely diverse, depending on the specific needs of the individuals involved. The effectiveness of career planning in an organization system will be largely depend on to the extent to which the training and development opportunities are made available to employees to unable them to realize their growth potential and to make contribution towards achievement of organizational objectives training and development activities are the main mechanisms through which individual s goal and aspiration can be integrated with organizational goal and requirements. Such integration can be only achieved only when training and development efforts are linked with the organizational requirements and are carried out in a systematic manner throughout the organization. In change economic set-up with fierce competition, companies are relying on their strategy of beating rivals with new products, new designs, and new methods of selling, will now have to teach team work and stream lined production technique to their employees. On the quality platform, companies will have to train their workers in developing the mindset and culture for quality without which the whole efforts will fail. Those companies, which
choose to compete on the strength on their innovation, to cut cost will be compelled to train their employees in problem solving techniques. And companies that globalize in order to expand their markets will find cross cultural training for their managers a vital imperative.
Objectives of Training and Development : After training needs have been determined, objectives must be establishes for meeting those needs. Unfortunately, many organizational training programs have no objectives. training for training s sake appears to be the maxim. This philosophy makes virtually impossible to evaluate the strengths and weakness of a training program. Effective training objectives should state what would be the result for the organization, department, or individual when the training is completed. The out comes should be described in writing. keeping in view the company s goal and objectives, the training objectives are laid down. Generally the lined managers ask the personal/HR managers to formulate the training policies or sometimes, the HR managers themselves prepare the policies based on their exposure considering the changes that are taking place and have a discussion with the concerned managers and finalize the training policies. Some of the important objectives for a training are :y To enhance the existing knowledge, skills and performance capabilities of the employee. y To keep abreast of developments in technical and management fields. y To develop capabilities and competence to assume higher responsibilities and promote skills in supervisory, inter-personal and team building. y To promote individual development and create conditions for a higher level of work enjoyment. y To promote the quality and quantity of output, to lower cost of waste. y To inducts new recruits into the organization.
INPUTS IN TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTS Any training and development programme must contain inputs which enable the participants to gain skills, learn theoretical concepts and help acquire vision to look into distant future. In addition to these, there is a need to impart ethical orientation, emphasize on attitudinal changes and stress upon decision-making and problem-solving abilities. Skills Training, as was stated earlier, is imparting skills to employees. A worker needs skills to operate machines, and use other equipments with least damage or scrap. This is a basic skill without which the operator will not be able to function. There is also the need for motor skills. Motor skills refer to performance of specific physical activities. These skills involve training to move various parts of one s body in response to certain external and internal stimuli. Common motor skills include walking, riding a bicycle, tying a shoelace, throwing a ball and driving a car. Motor skills are needed for all employees from the clerk to the general manager. Employees, particularly supervisors and executives, need interpersonal skills popular known as the people skills. Interpersonal skills are needed to understand one self and others better, and act accordingly. Examples of interpersonal skills include listening, persuading, and showing an understanding of others feelings.
Education The purpose of education is to teach theoretical concepts and develop a sense of reasoning and judgment. That any training and development programmed must contain an element of education is well understood by HR specialist. Any such programmed has university professors as resource persons to enlighten participants about theoretical knowledge of the topic proposed to be discussed. In fact organizations depute or encourage employees to do courses on a part time basis. Chief Executive Officers (CEO s) are known to attend refresher courses conducted by business schools. Education is important for managers and executives than for lower-cadre workers.
Development Another component of a training and development is development which is less skill oriented but stressed on knowledge. Knowledge about business environment, management principles and techniques, human relations, specific industry analysis and the like is useful for better management of the company.
Ethics There is need for imparting greater ethical orientation to a training and development programmed. There is no denial of the fact that ethics are largely ignored in businesses. Unethical practices abound in marketing, finance and production function in an organization. They are less see and talked about in the personnel function. If the production, finance and marketing personnel indulge in unethical practices the fault rests on the HR manager. It is his/her duty to enlighten all the employees in the organization about the need of ethical behavior
Attitudinal Changes Attitudes represent feeling and beliefs of individuals towards others. Attitude affects motivation, satisfaction and job commitment. Negative attitudes need to be converted into positive attitudes. Changing negative attitudes is difficult because 1. Employees refuse to changes. 2. They have prior commitments. 3. And information needed to change attitudes may not be sufficient.
Decision making and problem solving skills. Decision making skill and problem solving skills focus on method and techniques for making organizational decisions and solving work-related problems. Learning related to decision- making and problem-solving skills seeks to improve trainees abilities to define structure problems, collect and analysis information, generate alternative solution and make an optimal decision among alternatives. Training of this type is typically provided to potential managers, supervisors and professionals.
The Benefits of Employee Training : How Training Benefits the Organization y Leads to improved profitability and/or more positive attitudes towards profit orientation. Improves the job knowledge and skills at all levels of the organization y Improves the morale of the workforce y Helps people identify with organizational goals y Helps create a better corporate image y Fosters authenticity, openness and trust y Improves relationship between boss and subordinate y Aids in organizational development y learns from the trainee y Helps prepare guidelines for work y Aids in understanding and carrying out organizational policies.
y Provides information for future needs in all areas of the organization y Organization gets more effective decision-making and problem-solving skills y Aids in development for promotion from within y Aids in developing leadership skills, motivation, loyalty, better attitudes, and other aspects that successful workers and managers usually display y Aids in increasing productivity and/or quality of work y Helps keep costs down in many areas, e.g. production, personnel, administration, etc. y Develops a sense of responsibility to the organization for being competent and knowledgeable y Improves Labor-management relations y Reduces outside consulting costs by utilizing competent internal consultation y Stimulates preventive management as opposed to putting out fires y Eliminates suboptimal behavior (such as hiding tools) y Creates an appropriate climate for growth, communication y Aids in improving organizational communication y Helps employees adjust to change y Aids in handling conflict, thereby helping to prevent stress and tension
Benefits to the Individual Which in Turn Ultimately Should Benefit the Organization y Helps the individual in making better decisions and effective problem solving y Through training and development, motivational variables of recognition, achievement, growth, responsibility and advancement are internalized and operationalised y Aids in encouraging and achieving self-development and self-confidence Helps a person handle stress, tension, frustration and conflict y Provides information for improving leadership, knowledge, communication skills and attitudes y Increases job satisfaction and recognition y Moves a person towards personal goals while improving interactive skills y Satisfies personal needs of the trainer (and trainee) y Provides the trainee an avenue for growth and a say in his/her own future y Develops a sense of growth in learning y Helps a person develop speaking and listening skills; also writing skills when exercises are required. Helps eliminate fear in attempting new task
Benefits in Personnel and Human Relations, Intra-group & Inter-group Relations and Policy Implementation: y Improves communication between groups and individuals: y Aids in orientation for new employee and those taking new jobs through transfer or promotion y Provides information on equal opportunity and affirmative action y Provides information on other government laws and administrative policies y Improves interpersonal skills. y Makes organizational policies, rules and regulations viable. y Improves morale y Builds cohesiveness in groups y Provides a good climate for learning, growth, and co-ordination y Makes the organization a better place to work and live
Purpose of Training and Development Reasons for emphasizing the growth and development of personnel include
Creating a pool of readily available and adequate replacements for personnel who may leave or move up in the organization. Enhancing the company's ability to adopt and use advances in technology because of a sufficiently knowledgeable staff.
Building a more efficient, effective and highly motivated team, which enhances the company's competitive position and improves employee morale. Ensuring adequate human resources for expansion into new programs.
Types of training : 1.On-the-job Training and Lectures The two most frequently used kinds of training are on-the-job training and lectures, although little research exists as to the effectiveness of either. It is usually impossible to teach someone everything she needs to know at a location away from the workplace. Thus on-the-job training often supplements other kinds of training, e.g., classroom or off-site training; but on-the-job training is frequently the only form of training. It is usually informal, which means, unfortunately, that the trainer does not concentrate on the training as much as she should, and the trainer may not have a wellarticulated picture of what the novice needs to learn. On-the-job training is not successful when used to avoid developing a training program, though it can be an effective part of a well-coordinated training program. Lectures are used because of their low cost and their capacity to reach many people. Lectures, which use one-way communication as opposed to interactive learning techniques, are much criticized as a training device. 2. Programmed Instruction (PI) These devices systematically present information to the learner and elicit a response; they use reinforcement principles to promote appropriate responses. When PI was originally developed in the 1950s, it was thought to be useful only for basic subjects. Today the method is used for skills as diverse as air traffic control, blueprint reading, and the analysis of tax returns.
3. Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) With CAI, students can learn at their own pace, as with PI. Because the student interacts with the computer, it is believed by many to be a more dynamic learning device. Educational alternatives can be quickly selected to suit the student's capabilities, and performance can be monitored continuously. As instruction proceeds, data are gathered for monitoring and improving performance. 4. Audiovisual Techniques Both television and film extend the range of skills that can be taught and the way information may be presented. Many systems have electronic blackboards and slide projection equipment. The use of techniques that combine audiovisual systems such as closed circuit television and telephones has spawned a new term for this type of training, teletraining. The feature on " Sesame Street " illustrates the design and evaluation of one of television's favorite children's program as a training device. 5. Simulations Training simulations replicate the essential characteristics of the real world that are necessary to produce both learning and the transfer of new knowledge and skills to application settings. Both machine and other forms of simulators exist. Machine simulators often have substantial degrees of. physical fidelity; that is, they represent the real world's operational equipment. The main purpose of simulation, however, is to produce psychological fidelity, that is, to reproduce in the training those processes that will be required on the job. We simulate for a number of reasons, including to control the training environment, for safety, to introduce feedback and other learning principles, and to reduce cost. 6. Business games They are the direct progeny of war games that have been used to train officers in combat techniques for hundreds of years. Almost all early business games were designed to teach basic business skills, but more recent games also include interpersonal skills. Monopoly might be considered the quintessential business game for young capitalists. It is probably the first place youngsters learned the words mortgage, taxes, and go to jail.
Identifying Training Needs : Training needs can be assessed by analyzing three major human resource areas: the organization as a whole, the job characteristics and the needs of the individuals. This analysis will provide answers to the following quest ions :
y y y
Where is training needed? What specifically must an employee learn in order to be more productive? Who needs to be trained?
Begin by assessing the current status of the company how it does what it does best and the abilities of your employees to do these tasks. This analysis will provide some benchmarks against which the effectiveness of a training program can be evaluated. Your firm should know where it wants to be in five years from its long-range strategic plan. What you need is a training program to take your firm from here to there. Second, consider whether the organization is financially committed to supporting the training efforts. If not, any attempt to develop a solid training program will fail. Next, determine exactly where training is needed. It is foolish to implement a companywide training effort without concentrating resources where they are needed most. An internal audit will help point out areas that may benefit from training. Also, a skills inventory can help determine the skills possessed by the employees in general. This inventory will help the organization determine what skills are available now and what skills are needed for future development.
The Training Process : The model below traces the steps necessary in the training process:
Organizational Objectives Needs Assessment
y y y y y y y
Is There a Gap? Training Objectives Select the Trainees Select the Training Methods and Mode Choose a Means of Evaluating Administer Training Evaluate the Training
Business should have a clearly defined strategy and set of objectives that direct and drive all the decisions made especially for training decisions. Firms that plan their training process are more successful than those that do not. Most business owners want to succeed, but do not engage in training designs that promise to improve their chances of success. Training Goals : The goals of the training program should relate directly to the needs determined by the assessment process outlined above. Course objectives should clearly state what behavior or skill will be changed as a result of the training and should relate to the mission and strategic plan of the company. Goals should include milestones to help take the employee from where he or she is today to where the firm wants him or her in the future. Setting goals helps to evaluate the training program and also to motivate employees. Allowing employees to participate in setting goals increases the probability of success.
Evaluation of training : Training should be evaluated several times during the process. Determine these milestones when you develop the training. Employees should be evaluated by comparing their newly acquired skills with the skills defined by the goals of the training program. Any discrepancies should be noted and adjustments made to the training program to enable it to meet specified goals. Many training programs fall short of their expectations simply because the administrator failed to evaluate its progress until it was too late. Timely evaluation will prevent the training from straying from its goals.
Conclusion : Training programs should focused more on behavioral modifications rather than skill building, and should be geared towards adding value to the organization s competitiveness. Skill building is easier than behavioral modification. It takes time to have employees who are highly motivated and are attuned to the positive corporate culture that company is trying to foster. I am seeing more organizations who are placing more importance on this in their agenda and are reaping positive results. Even in hiring, attitude and values are given more premium over skills and knowledge on the premise that the latter can easily be acquired. Training is becoming participative. Meaning, trainees are now involve in the planning and development stages of the entire human resource program. This way, their training needs are accurately addressed. Moreover, it lessens the burden on the part of the training facilitator in terms of getting interests on the training program. Lastly, employees involvement in the preparation of the program shares the burden of making it meaningful and effective. The role of the HRM now in this trend is more of a coach and a guide, rather than the provider of training itself. Training and development programs, however the methods and trends are, will continue to remain the most effective means of producing and maintaining a highly competitive workforce. The HRM must endeavor to put more efforts towards effective implementations.