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∑ ∑
=
=
∞ =
= → ∆
=
=
= ∆ = ∆ ≈
2
0
1 0 1
) ( ) ( ) (
lim
t t
t
i
i t
n i
i
dt t F t t F t t F
t ∆
F(t)
t
F(t)
D y n a D E n
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7  49
Rectilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration
• Consider particle with motion given by
3 2
6 t t x − =
2
3 12 t t
dt
dx
v − = =
t
dt
x d
dt
dv
a 6 12
2
2
− = = =
• at t = 0, x = 0, v = 0, a = 12 m/s
2
• at t = 2 s, x = 16 m, v = v
max
= 12 m/s, a = 0
• at t = 4 s, x = x
max
= 32 m, v = 0, a = 12 m/s
2
• at t = 6 s, x = 0, v = 36 m/s, a = 24 m/s
2
D y n a D E n
A=const
V=at+v
0
X=1/2at
2
+v
0
t+x
0
V
2
 v
0
2
=2as, s=x  x
0
Phisical Meaning
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
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11  49
Sample Problem 11.2
Determine:
• velocity and elevation above ground at
time t,
• highest elevation reached by ball and
corresponding time, and
• time when ball will hit the ground and
corresponding velocity.
Ball tossed with 10 m/s vertical velocity
from window 20 m above ground.
SOLUTION:
• Integrate twice to find v(t) and y(t).
• Solve for t at which velocity equals
zero (time for maximum elevation)
and evaluate corresponding altitude.
• Solve for t at which altitude equals
zero (time for ground impact) and
evaluate corresponding velocity.
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12  49
Sample Problem 11.2
( )
( ) t v t v dt dv
a
dt
dv
t t v
v
81 . 9 81 . 9
s m 81 . 9
0
0
2
0
− = − − =
− = =
∫ ∫
( ) t t v

.

\

− =
2
s
m
81 . 9
s
m
10
( )
( ) ( )
2
2
1
0
0
81 . 9 10 81 . 9 10
81 . 9 10
0
t t y t y dt t dy
t v
dt
dy
t
t y
y
− = − − =
− = =
∫ ∫
( )
2
2
s
m
905 . 4
s
m
10 m 20 t t t y

.

\

−

.

\

+ =
SOLUTION:
• Integrate twice to find v(t) and y(t).
D y n a D E n
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13  49
Sample Problem 11.2
• Solve for t at which velocity equals zero and evaluate
corresponding altitude.
( ) 0
s
m
81 . 9
s
m
10
2
=

.

\

− = t t v
s 019 . 1 = t
• Solve for t at which altitude equals zero and evaluate
corresponding velocity.
( )
( ) ( )
2
2
2
2
s 019 . 1
s
m
905 . 4 s 019 . 1
s
m
10 m 20
s
m
905 . 4
s
m
10 m 20

.

\

−

.

\

+ =

.

\

−

.

\

+ =
y
t t t y
m 1 . 25 = y
D y n a D E n
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14  49
Sample Problem 11.2
• Solve for t at which altitude equals zero and
evaluate corresponding velocity.
( ) 0
s
m
905 . 4
s
m
10 m 20
2
2
=

.

\

−

.

\

+ = t t t y
( )
s 28 . 3
s meaningles s 243 . 1
=
− =
t
t
( )
( ) ( ) s 28 . 3
s
m
81 . 9
s
m
10 s 28 . 3
s
m
81 . 9
s
m
10
2
2

.

\

− =

.

\

− =
v
t t v
s
m
2 . 22 − = v
D y n a D E n
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15  49
Sample Problem 11.3
Brake mechanism used to reduce gun
recoil consists of piston attached to barrel
moving in fixed cylinder filled with oil.
As barrel recoils with initial velocity v
0
,
piston moves and oil is forced through
orifices in piston, causing piston and
cylinder to decelerate at rate proportional
to their velocity.
Determine v(t), x(t), and v(x).
kv a − =
SOLUTION:
• Integrate a = dv/dt = kv to find v(t).
• Integrate v(t) = dx/dt to find x(t).
• Integrate a = v dv/dx = kv to find
v(x).
D y n a D E n
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16  49
Sample Problem 11.3
SOLUTION:
• Integrate a = dv/dt = kv to find v(t).
( )
( )
kt
v
t v
dt k
v
dv
kv
dt
dv
a
t t v
v
− = − = − = =
∫ ∫
0
0
ln
0
( )
kt
e v t v
−
=
0
• Integrate v(t) = dx/dt to find x(t).
( )
( )
( )
t
kt
t
kt
t x
kt
e
k
v t x dt e v dx
e v
dt
dx
t v
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
− = =
= =
− −
−
∫ ∫
( ) ( )
kt
e
k
v
t x
−
− = 1
0
D y n a D E n
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17  49
Sample Problem 11.3
• Integrate a = v dv/dx = kv to find v(x).
kx v v
dx k dv dx k dv kv
dx
dv
v a
x v
v
− = −
− = − = − = =
∫ ∫
0
0
0
kx v v − =
0
• Alternatively,
( )
( )


.

\

− =
0
0
1
v
t v
k
v
t x
kx v v − =
0
( )
( )
0
0
or
v
t v
e e v t v
kt kt
= =
− −
( ) ( )
kt
e
k
v
t x
−
− = 1
0
with
and
then
D y n a D E n
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18  49
Uniform Rectilinear Motion
For particle in uniform rectilinear motion, the acceleration is zero and
the velocity is constant.
vt x x
vt x x
dt v dx
v
dt
dx
t x
x
+ =
= −
=
= =
∫ ∫
0
0
0
0
constant
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19  49
Uniformly Accelerated Rectilinear Motion
For particle in uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion, the acceleration of
the particle is constant.
at v v
at v v dt a dv a
dt
dv
t v
v
+ =
= − = = =
∫ ∫
0
0
0
0
constant
( )
2
2
1
0 0
2
2
1
0 0
0
0 0
0
at t v x x
at t v x x dt at v dx at v
dt
dx
t x
x
+ + =
+ = − + = + =
∫ ∫
( ) ( )
( )
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
2
1
2
constant
0 0
x x a v v
x x a v v dx a dv v a
dx
dv
v
x
x
v
v
− + =
− = − = = =
∫ ∫
α αβ
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20  49
Motion of Several Particles: Relative Motion
• For particles moving along the same line, time
should be recorded from the same starting
instant and displacements should be measured
from the same origin in the same direction.
= − =
A B A B
x x x relative position of B
with respect to A
A B A B
x x x + =
= − =
A B A B
v v v relative velocity of B
with respect to A
A B A B
v v v + =
= − =
A B A B
a a a relative acceleration of B
with respect to A
A B A B
a a a + =
α αβ
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21  49
Sample Problem 11.4
Ball thrown vertically from 12 m level
in elevator shaft with initial velocity of
18 m/s. At same instant, openplatform
elevator passes 5 m level moving
upward at 2 m/s.
Determine (a) when and where ball hits
elevator and (b) relative velocity of ball
and elevator at contact.
SOLUTION:
• Substitute initial position and velocity
and constant acceleration of ball into
general equations for uniformly
accelerated rectilinear motion.
• Substitute initial position and constant
velocity of elevator into equation for
uniform rectilinear motion.
• Write equation for relative position of
ball with respect to elevator and solve
for zero relative position, i.e., impact.
• Substitute impact time into equation
for position of elevator and relative
velocity of ball with respect to
elevator.
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22  49
Sample Problem 11.4
SOLUTION:
• Substitute initial position and velocity and constant
acceleration of ball into general equations for
uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion.
2
2
2
2
1
0 0
2
0
s
m
905 . 4
s
m
18 m 12
s
m
81 . 9
s
m
18
t t at t v y y
t at v v
B
B

.

\

−

.

\

+ = + + =

.

\

− = + =
• Substitute initial position and constant velocity of
elevator into equation for uniform rectilinear motion.
t t v y y
v
E E
E

.

\

+ = + =
=
s
m
2 m 5
s
m
2
0
D y n a D E n
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23  49
Sample Problem 11.4
• Write equation for relative position of ball with respect to
elevator and solve for zero relative position, i.e., impact.
( ) ( ) 0 2 5 905 . 4 18 12
2
= + − − + = t t t y
E B
( )
s 65 . 3
s meaningles s 39 . 0
=
− =
t
t
• Substitute impact time into equations for position of elevator
and relative velocity of ball with respect to elevator.
( ) 65 . 3 2 5+ =
E
y
m 3 . 12 =
E
y
( )
( ) 65 . 3 81 . 9 16
2 81 . 9 18
− =
− − = t v
E B
s
m
81 . 19 − =
E B
v
D y n a D E n
PROBLEM 11.14
The acceleration of a particle is defined by the relation
2
0.15 m/s . a =
Knowing that 10 x = − m when 0 t = and 0.15 = − υ m/s when 2 t = s,
determine the velocity, the position, and the total distance traveled when
5 t = s.
SOLUTION
Determine velocity.
0.15 2 2
0.15
v t t
dv adt dt
−
= =
∫ ∫ ∫
( ) ( )( ) 15 0.15 0.15 2 v t − − = −
0.15 0.45 m/s v t = −
At
5 s, t =
( )( )
5
0.15 5 0.45 v = −
5
0.300 m/s v = W
When 0, v =
0.15 0.45 0 3.00 s t t − = =
For 0 3.00 s, t ≤ ≤
0, is decreasing. v x ≤
For 3.00 5 s, t ≤ ≤
0, is increasing. v x ≥
Determine position.
( )
10 0 0
0.15 0.45
x t t
dx v dt t dt
−
= = −
∫ ∫ ∫
( )
( )
2 2
0
10 0.075 0.45 0.075 0.45
t
x t t t t − − = − = −
2
0.075 0.45 10 m x t t = − −
At 5 s, t =
( )( ) ( )( )
2
5
0.075 5 0.45 5 10 10.375 m x = − − = −
5
10.38 m x = − W
At 0, t =
0
10 m (given) x = −
At 3.00 s, t =
( )( ) ( )( )
2
3 min
0.075 3.00 0.45 3.00 10 10.675 mm x x = = − − = −
Distances traveled:
Over 0 3.00 s, t ≤ ≤
1 0 min
0.675 m d x x = − =
Over 3.00 s 5 s, t < <
2 5 min
0.300 m d x x = − =
Total distance traveled:
1 2
0.975 m d d d = + = W
DynaDEn
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20  49
Motion of Several Particles: Relative Motion
• For particles moving along the same line, time
should be recorded from the same starting
instant and displacements should be measured
from the same origin in the same direction.
= − =
A B A B
x x x relative position of B
with respect to A
A B A B
x x x + =
= − =
A B A B
v v v relative velocity of B
with respect to A
A B A B
v v v + =
= − =
A B A B
a a a relative acceleration of B
with respect to A
A B A B
a a a + =
α αβ
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21  49
Sample Problem 11.4
Ball thrown vertically from 12 m level
in elevator shaft with initial velocity of
18 m/s. At same instant, openplatform
elevator passes 5 m level moving
upward at 2 m/s.
Determine (a) when and where ball hits
elevator and (b) relative velocity of ball
and elevator at contact.
SOLUTION:
• Substitute initial position and velocity
and constant acceleration of ball into
general equations for uniformly
accelerated rectilinear motion.
• Substitute initial position and constant
velocity of elevator into equation for
uniform rectilinear motion.
• Write equation for relative position of
ball with respect to elevator and solve
for zero relative position, i.e., impact.
• Substitute impact time into equation
for position of elevator and relative
velocity of ball with respect to
elevator.
D y n a D E n
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22  49
Sample Problem 11.4
SOLUTION:
• Substitute initial position and velocity and constant
acceleration of ball into general equations for
uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion.
2
2
2
2
1
0 0
2
0
s
m
905 . 4
s
m
18 m 12
s
m
81 . 9
s
m
18
t t at t v y y
t at v v
B
B

.

\

−

.

\

+ = + + =

.

\

− = + =
• Substitute initial position and constant velocity of
elevator into equation for uniform rectilinear motion.
t t v y y
v
E E
E

.

\

+ = + =
=
s
m
2 m 5
s
m
2
0
D y n a D E n
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23  49
Sample Problem 11.4
• Write equation for relative position of ball with respect to
elevator and solve for zero relative position, i.e., impact.
( ) ( ) 0 2 5 905 . 4 18 12
2
= + − − + = t t t y
E B
( )
s 65 . 3
s meaningles s 39 . 0
=
− =
t
t
• Substitute impact time into equations for position of elevator
and relative velocity of ball with respect to elevator.
( ) 65 . 3 2 5+ =
E
y
m 3 . 12 =
E
y
( )
( ) 65 . 3 81 . 9 16
2 81 . 9 18
− =
− − = t v
E B
s
m
81 . 19 − =
E B
v
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11  25
Sample Problem 11.5
Pulley D is attached to a collar which
is pulled down at 75 mm/s. At t = 0,
collar A starts moving down from K
with constant acceleration and zero
initial velocity. Knowing that
velocity of collar A is 300 mm/s as it
passes L, determine the change in
elevation, velocity, and acceleration
of block B when block A is at L.
SOLUTION:
• Define origin at upper horizontal surface
with positive displacement downward.
• Collar A has uniformly accelerated
rectilinear motion. Solve for acceleration
and time t to reach L.
• Pulley D has uniform rectilinear motion.
Calculate change of position at time t.
• Block B motion is dependent on motions
of collar A and pulley D. Write motion
relationship and solve for change of block
B position at time t.
• Differentiate motion relation twice to
develop equations for velocity and
acceleration of block B.
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11  26
Sample Problem 11.5
SOLUTION:
• Define origin at upper horizontal surface with
positive displacement downward.
• Collar A has uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion.
Solve for acceleration and time t to reach L.
( ) ( ) [ ]
( ) ( )
2
2
0
2
0
2
s / mm 225 mm 200 2 mm 300
2
= =
− + =
A A
A A A A A
a a
x x a v v
( )
s 333 . 1 s / mm 225 mm 300
2
0
= =
+ =
t
t a v v
A A A
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11  27
Sample Problem 11.5
• Pulley D has uniform rectilinear motion. Calculate
change of position at time t.
( )
( ) ( )( ) mm 100 s 333 . 1 s / mm 75
0
0
= = −
+ =
D D
D D D
x x
t v x x
• Block B motion is dependent on motions of collar
A and pulley D. Write motion relationship and
solve for change of block B position at time t.
Total length of cable remains constant,
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) [ ] ( ) [ ] ( ) [ ]
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ] 0 mm 100 2 mm 200
0 2
2 2
0
0 0 0
0 0 0
= − + +
= − + − + −
+ + = + +
B B
B B D D A A
B D A B D A
x x
x x x x x x
x x x x x x
( ) mm 400
0
− = −
B B
x x
D y n a D E n
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11  28
Sample Problem 11.5
• Differentiate motion relation twice to develop
equations for velocity and acceleration of block B.
( ) ( ) 0 mm 75 2 mm 300
0 2
constant 2
= + +
= + +
= + +
B
B D A
B D A
v
v v v
x x x
s / mm 450 =
B
v
( ) 0 s / mm 225
0 2
= +
= + +
B
B D A
v
a a a
2
s / mm 225 − =
B
a
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Fig. P11.47 and P11.48
DynaDEn
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Fig. P11.49 and P11.50
DynaDEn
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Fig. P11.51 and P11.52
DynaDEn
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Fig. P11.53 and P11.54
DynaDEn
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Fig. P11.55 and P11.56
DynaDEn
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Fig. P11.57 and P11.58
DynaDEn
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Fig. P11.59 and P11.60
DynaDEn
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Fig. P11.127
DynaDEn
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Fig. P11.128
DynaDEn
PROBLEM 11.49
Block C starts from rest and moves downward with a constant
acceleration. Knowing that after 12 s the velocity of block A is 456 mm/s,
determine (a) the accelerations of A, B, and C, (b) the velocity and the
change in position of block B after 8 s.
SOLUTION
Let x be position relative to the fixed supports, taken positive if downward.
Constraint of cable on left: 2 3 constant
A B
x x + =
2 2
2 3 0, or , and
3 3
A B B A B A
v v v v a a + = = − = −
Constraint of cable on right: 2 constant
B C
x x + =
1 1 1
2 0, or , and
2 3 3
B C C B A C A
v v v v v a a + = = − = =
Block C moves downward; hence, block A also moves downward.
(a) Accelerations.
( )
( )
2 0
0
456 0
or 38.0 mm/s
12
A A
A A A A
v v
v v a T a
t
−
−
= + = = =
2
38.0 mm/s
A
= a W
( )
2
2 2
38.0 25.3 mm/s
3 3
B A
a a
= − = − = −
2
25.3 mm/s
B
= a W
( )
2
1 1
38.0 12.67 mm/s
3 3
C A
a a
= = =
2
12.67 mm/s
C
= a W
(b) Velocity and change in position of B after 8 s.
( ) ( )( )
0
0 25.3 8 203 mm/s
B B B
v v a t = + = + − = −
203 mm/s
B
= v W
( ) ( ) ( )( )
2
2
0 0
1 1
0 25.3 8 811 mm
2 2
B B B B
x x v t a t − = + = + − = −
811 mm
B
x ∆ = W
DynaDEn
unit vector:
²èÇ¼¡Ñ0
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
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Rectangular Components of Velocity & Acceleration
• Rectangular components particularly effective
when component accelerations can be integrated
independently, e.g., motion of a projectile,
0 0 = = − = = = = z a g y a x a
z y x
& & & & & &
with initial conditions,
( ) ( ) ( ) 0 , , 0
0
0
0
0 0 0
= = = =
z y x
v v v z y x
Integrating twice yields
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) 0
0
2
2
1
0
0
0
0
= − = =
= − = =
z gt y v y t v x
v gt v v v v
y x
z y y x x
• Motion in horizontal direction is uniform.
• Motion in vertical direction is uniformly accelerated.
• Motion of projectile could be replaced by two
independent rectilinear motions.
D y n a D E n
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Sample Problem 11.7a
DynaDEn
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Sample Problem 11.7b
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Sample Problem 11.7c
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Sample Problem 11.8a
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Sample Problem 11.8b
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Sample Problem 11.8c
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Sample Problem 11.8d
DynaDEn
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Fig. P11.97
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Fig. P11.98
DynaDEn
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Fig. P11.99
DynaDEn
landing:
physical meaning
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Fig. P11.101
DynaDEn
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Fig. P11.104
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Fig. P11.105
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Fig. P11.106
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Fig. P11.109
DynaDEn
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Fig. P11.111
DynaDEn
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Fig. P11.112
DynaDEn
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Fig. P11.114
DynaDEn
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Fig. P11.115
DynaDEn
PROBLEM 11.97
A baseball pitching machine “throws” baseballs with a horizontal
velocity
0
v . Knowing that height h varies between 788 mm and
1068 mm, determine (a) the range of values of
0
, v (b) the values of α
corresponding to 788 h = mm and 1068 h = mm.
SOLUTION
(a) Vertical motion:
0
1.5 m, y =
( )
0
0
y
v =
( )
( )
0 2
0
0
2
1
or
2
y
y y
y y v t gt t
g
−
= + − =
At point B,
( )
0
2
or
B
y h
y h t
g
−
= =
When 788 mm 0.788 m, h = =
( )( ) 2 1.5 0.788
0.3810 s
9.81
B
t
−
= =
When 1068 mm 1.068 m, h = =
( )( ) 2 1.5 1.068
0.2968 s
9.81
B
t
−
= =
Horizontal motion: ( )
0 0
0
0, ,
x
x v v = =
0 0
or
B
B
x x
x v t v
t t
= = =
With 12.2 m,
B
x =
0
12.2
we get 32.02 m/s
0.3810
v = =
0
12.2
and 41.11 m/s
0.2968
v = =
0
32.02 m/s 41.11 m/s v ≤ ≤ or
0
115.3 km/h 148.0 km/h v ≤ ≤ W
(b) Vertical motion:
( )
0
y y
v v gt gt = − = −
Horizontal motion:
0 x
v v =
( )
( )
0
tan
y
B B
x
B
v
dy gt
dx v v
α = − = − =
For 0.788 m, h =
( )( ) 9.81 0.3810
tan 0.11673,
32.02
α = = 6.66 α = ° W
For 1.068 m, h =
( )( ) 9.81 0.2968
tan 0.07082,
41.11
α = = 4.05 α = ° W
12.2 m
1.5 m
A
v
0
h
a
B
D y n a D E n
PROBLEM 11.98
While delivering newspapers, a girl throws a paper with a horizontal
velocity
0
. v Determine the range of values of
0
v if the newspaper is to
land between points B and C.
SOLUTION
Sketch the limiting trajectories.
0
0
Point : 0
0
A x x
y y
= =
= =
Point : 2.2 m
1.0 m
B
B
B x
y
=
= −
Point : 4.0 m
0.6 m
c
c
C x
y
=
= −
Vertical motion with
( ) ( )
2
0
0 0
1 2
0: or
2
y y
y
v y y v t gt t
g
−
= = + − = (1)
Horizontal motion with ( )
0 0 0
0
: or
x
x
v v x v t v
t
= = = (2)
Substituting equation (1) into equation (2) gives
0
2
g
v x
y
=
−
(3)
Applying equation (3):
at point B,
( ) ( )
0
9.81
2.2 4.87 m/s
2 1.0
v = =
− −
at point C,
( ) ( )
0
9.81
4.0 11.44 m/s
2 0.6
v = =
−
Range of
0
: v
0
4.87 m/s 11.44 m/s v ≤ ≤ W
0.4 m
1.2 m
1 m
0.2 m
0.2 m
0.2 m
2.2 m
B
C
A
v
0
D y n a D E n
PROBLEM 11.99
A ski jumper starts with a horizontal takeoff velocity of 25 m/s and lands
on a straight landing hill inclined at
o
30 . Determine (a) the time between
takeoff and landing, (b) the length d of the jump, (c) the maximum
vertical distance between the jumper and the landing hill.
SOLUTION
(a) At the landing point, tan30 y x = − °
Horizontal motion: ( )
0 0
0
x
x x v t v t = + =
Vertical motion:
( )
2 2
0
0
1 1
2 2
y
y y v t gt gt = + − = −
from which
2 0
2 2 tan 30 2 tan 30 y x v t
t
g g g
° °
= − = =
Rejecting the 0 t = solution gives
( )( )
0
2 25 tan30 2 tan30
9.81
v
t
g
° °
= = 2.94 s t = W
(b) Landing distance:
( )( )
0
25 2.94
cos30 cos30 cos30
x v t
d = = =
° ° °
84.9 m d = W
(c) Vertical distance: tan30 h x y = ° +
or
2
0
1
tan30
2
h v t gt = ° −
Differentiating and setting equal to zero,
0
tan30
tan30 0 or
o
dh v
v gt t
dt g
°
= ° − = =
Then,
( ) ( )
2
0 0
0
max
tan 30 tan 30
1 tan 30
2
v v
v
h g
g g
° ° °
= −
( ) ( )
( )( )
2 2
2 2
0
25 tan30 tan 30
2 2 9.81
v
g
° °
= =
max
10.6 m h = W
25 m/s
D y n a D E n
PROBLEM 11.100
A golfer aims his shot to clear the top of a tree by a distance h at the peak
of the trajectory and to miss the pond on the opposite side. Knowing that
the magnitude of
0
v is 25 m/s, determine the range of values of h which
must be avoided.
SOLUTION
Horizontal motion: ( )
0 0
0
0
, or
x
x
x x v t v t t
v
= + = =
Vertical motion:
( )
2
2 2
0 0 0
2
0
0
1 1
or
2 2 2
y
gx
y y v t gt y gt y y
v
= + − = − = −
At ground level, 0, y = so that
2
0
2
0
2
gx
y
v
=
At 45 m, x =
( ) ( )
( )( )
2
0
2
9.81 45
15.89 m
2 25
y = =
0
12 3.89 m h y = − =
At 48 m, x =
( )( )
( )( )
2
0
2
9.81 48
18.08 m
2 25
y = =
0
12 6.08 m h y = − =
Range to avoid: 3.89 m 6.08 m h < < W
h
12 m
45 m
3 m
Pond
v
0
D y n a D E n
PROBLEM 11.101
A golfer hits a golf ball with an initial velocity of 48 m/s at an angle of
25° with the horizontal. Knowing that the fairway slopes downward at an
average angle of 5 , ° determine the distance d between the golfer and
point B where the ball first lands.
SOLUTION
Horizontal motion:
0 0
cos 25 cos 25
A
x x v t v t = + ° = °
At point B,
0
cos5 cos 25
B B
x d v t = ° = °
Vertical motion:
2 2
0 0 0
1 1
sin 25 sin 25
2 2
y y v t gt v t gt = + ° − = ° −
0
1
sin5 sin 25
2
B B B
y d v gt t
= − ° = ° −
Ratio:
( )
1
0
2
0 0
0
sin 25
sin 5 1
or cos 25 tan 5 sin 25
cos 5 cos 25 2
B B
B
B
B B
v gt t
y
v v gt
x v t
° −
°
= − = − ° ° = ° −
° °
or ( )
( )( )
( )
0
2 48 2
cos 25 tan5 sin 25 cos 25 tan5 sin 25 4.912 s
9.81
B
v
t
g
= ° ° + ° = ° ° + ° =
Then,
( )( )( )
0
48 cos 25 4.912 cos 25
cos5 cos5 cos5
B B
x v t
d
° °
= = =
° ° °
215 m d = W
25°
d
A
B 5°
v
0
D y n a D E n
PROBLEM 11.102
Water flows from a drain spout with an initial velocity of 0.76 m/s at an
angle of 15° with the horizontal. Determine the range of values of the
distance d for which the water will enter the trough BC.
SOLUTION
Vertical motion: ( )
2
0 0
1
2
y
y y v t gt = + −
( ) ( )
2
0 0
1
0
2
y
gt v t y y − − − =
With
0
3 m and 0.36 m at level , y y BC = =
0
2.64 m y y − =
( )
0
0.76sin15 0.19670 m/s
y
v = − ° = −
Then,
2
4.905 0.19670 2.64 0 t t + − =
Solving the quadratic equation,
( ) ( )( )( )
( )( )
2
0.19670 0.19670 4 4.905 2.64
0.7139 s
2 4.905
t
− + − −
= =
Horizontal motion: ( ) ( )( )
0
0.76cos15 0.7139 0.524 m
x
x v t = = ° =
For water impact at C, 0.524 ft with 0.62 0.096 m
c c
x d x = = − = −
For water impact at B, 0.524 m
B
x d = =
So, 0.096 m 0.524 m d − < <
Owing to the foot of the wall, d cannot be negative; hence, the allowable range of d is 0 0.524 m d < < W
15°
3 m
v
0
A
B C
0.36 m
0.62 m d
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Fig. 11.14
DynaDEn
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Fig. 11.15a
DynaDEn
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Fig. 11.15b
DynaDEn
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Fig. 11.15c
DynaDEn
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Fig. 11.15d
DynaDEn
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Photo 11.4
DynaDEn
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Fig. 11.23
DynaDEn
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Fig. P11.177
DynaDEn
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
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Sample Problem 11.10
A motorist is traveling on curved
section of highway at 60 mph. The
motorist applies brakes causing a
constant deceleration rate.
Knowing that after 8 s the speed has
been reduced to 45 mph, determine
the acceleration of the automobile
immediately after the brakes are
applied.
SOLUTION:
• Calculate tangential and normal
components of acceleration.
• Determine acceleration magnitude and
direction with respect to tangent to
curve.
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
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Sample Problem 11.10
ft/s 66 mph 45
ft/s 88 mph 60
=
=
SOLUTION:
• Calculate tangential and normal components of
acceleration.
( )
( )
2
2 2
2
s
ft
10 . 3
ft 2500
s ft 88
s
ft
75 . 2
s 8
s ft 88 66
= = =
− =
−
=
∆
∆
=
ρ
v
a
t
v
a
n
t
• Determine acceleration magnitude and direction
with respect to tangent to curve.
( )
2 2 2 2
10 . 3 75 . 2 + − = + =
n t
a a a
2
s
ft
14 . 4 = a
75 . 2
10 . 3
tan tan
1 1 − −
= =
t
n
a
a
α
° = 4 . 48 α
D y n a D E n
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
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Sample Problem 11.12
Rotation of the arm about O is defined
by θ = 0.15t
2
where θ is in radians and t
in seconds. Collar B slides along the
arm such that r = 0.9  0.12t
2
where r is
in meters.
After the arm has rotated through 30
o
,
determine (a) the total velocity of the
collar, (b) the total acceleration of the
collar, and (c) the relative acceleration
of the collar with respect to the arm.
SOLUTION:
• Evaluate time t for θ = 30
o
.
• Evaluate radial and angular positions,
and first and second derivatives at
time t.
• Calculate velocity and acceleration in
cylindrical coordinates.
• Evaluate acceleration with respect to
arm.
D y n a D E n
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
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Sample Problem 11.12
SOLUTION:
• Evaluate time t for θ = 30
o
.
s 869 . 1 rad 524 . 0 30
0.15
2
= = ° =
=
t
t θ
• Evaluate radial and angular positions, and first
and second derivatives at time t.
2
2
s m 24 . 0
s m 449 . 0 24 . 0
m 481 . 0 12 . 0 9 . 0
− =
− = − =
= − =
r
t r
t r
& &
&
2
2
s rad 30 . 0
s rad 561 . 0 30 . 0
rad 524 . 0 15 . 0
=
= =
= =
θ
θ
θ
& &
&
t
t
D y n a D E n
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
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48  49
Sample Problem 11.12
• Calculate velocity and acceleration.
( )( )
r
r
r
v
v
v v v
r v
s r v
θ
θ
θ
β
θ
1 2 2
tan
s m 270 . 0 s rad 561 . 0 m 481 . 0
m 449 . 0
−
= + =
= = =
− = =
&
&
° = = 0 . 31 s m 524 . 0 β v
( )( )
( )( ) ( )( )
r
r
r
a
a
a a a
r r a
r r a
θ
θ
θ
γ
θ θ
θ
1 2 2
2
2
2
2 2
2
tan
s m 359 . 0
s rad 561 . 0 s m 449 . 0 2 s rad 3 . 0 m 481 . 0
2
s m 391 . 0
s rad 561 . 0 m 481 . 0 s m 240 . 0
−
= + =
− =
− + =
+ =
− =
− − =
− =
&
&
& &
&
& &
° = = 6 . 42 s m 531 . 0 γ a
D y n a D E n
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
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Sample Problem 11.12
• Evaluate acceleration with respect to arm.
Motion of collar with respect to arm is rectilinear
and defined by coordinate r.
2
s m 240 . 0 − = = r a
OA B
& &
PROBLEM 11.145
From a photograph of a homeowner using a snowblower, it is determined
that the radius of curvature of the trajectory of the snow was 9 m as the
snow left the discharge chute at A. Determine (a) the discharge velocity
A
v of the snow, (b) the radius of curvature of the trajectory at its
maximum height.
SOLUTION
(a) The acceleration vector is 9.81 m/s
2
.
At point A. Tangential and normal components of a are as shown
in the sketch.
2
cos 40 9.81cos 40 7.51 m/s
n
a a = ° = ° =
( ) ( )( )
2 2 2
9 7.51 67.59 m /s
A A A
n
v a ρ = = =
8.22 m/s
A
= v
40°
8.22 cos 40 6.30 m/s
x
v = ° =
(b) At maximum height, 6.30 m/s
x
v v = =
2
9.81 m/s ,
n
a g = =
( )
2
2
6.30
9.81
n
v
a
ρ = = 4.05 m ρ =
v
A
A 40°
D y n a D E n
PROBLEM 11.184
Assuming a uniform acceleration of
2
3.5 m/s and knowing that the speed
of a car as it passes A is 50 km/h, determine (a) the time required for the
car to reach B, (b) the speed of the car as it passes B.
SOLUTION
Let the origin lie at point A. 0, 50 m
A B
x x = =
2
50 km/h 13.889 m/s, 3.5m/s
A
v a = = =
(a)
2
1
2
B A A
x x v t at = + +
2.69 s t = W
(b)
83.9 km/h
B
v = W
35
2
.
t
2
+ 13.889t – 50 = 0 t = –10.63s, 2.69s
v
B
= v
A
+ at = 13.889 + (3.5) (2.69) = 23.3 m/s
v
A
= 50 km/h
50 m
A B
D y n a D E n
PROBLEM 11.185
Block B starts from rest and moves downward with a constant
acceleration. Knowing that after slider block A has moved 400 mm its
velocity is 4 m/s, determine (a) the accelerations of A and B, (b) the
velocity and the change in position of B after 2 s.
SOLUTION
Constraint of cable with
A
x increasing to the left and
B
y increasing downward.
3 constant, 3 0
A B A B
x y x y + = ∆ + ∆ =
3 0, 3 0
A B A B
v v a a + = + =
Block B moves downward so that
B
v and
B
a are positive.
Since, 3 ,
A B A
v v v = − is negative, i.e. to the right.
For block A,
2
2
A A A
v a x = ∆
(a)
( ) ( )
2 2
2
( 4)
20 m/s
2 2 0.4
A
A
A
v
a
x
−
= = = −
∆ −
or 20 m/s
2
A
= a W
2
1
6.67 m/s
3
B A
a a = − =
6.67 m/s
2
B
= a
W
(b) At 2 s, t =
( )( ) 6.67 2
B B
v a t = =
2
13.33 m/s
B
v = W
( )( )
2
2
1 1
6.67 2
2 2
B B
y a t ∆ = = 13.33 m
2
B
y ∆ = W
DynaDEn
DynaDEn
DynaDEn
F(t) F(t) DynaDEn ∆t t X(t) ≈ ∑ F (t )∆t = lim ∑ F (t )∆t = ∫ F (t )dt ∆t →0 i =1 i =1 t =0 i =n i =∞ t =t 2 .
DynaDEn .
DynaDEn .
DynaDEn .
DynaDEn .
a = 24 m/s2 . v = 0. a = 12 m/s2 • at t = 2 s. x = 16 m. v = 36 m/s. v = vmax = 12 m/s.Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Rectilinear Motion: Position. x = 0. a = 12 m/s2 • at t = 6 s. x = xmax = 32 m. a = 0 • at t = 4 s. x = 0. Velocity & Acceleration • Consider particle with motion given by x = 6t 2 − t 3 v= dx = 12t − 3t 2 dt DynaDEn dv d 2 x = 2 = 12 − 6t a= dt dt • at t = 0. v = 0.
DynaDEn .
DynaDEn .
s=x .v02=2as.x0 .A=const V=at+v0 X=1/2at2+v0t+x0 V2.
Phisical Meaning DynaDEn .
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 11. • highest elevation reached by ball and corresponding time.2 SOLUTION: • Integrate twice to find v(t) and y(t). DynaDEn • Solve for t at which altitude equals zero (time for ground impact) and evaluate corresponding velocity. Ball tossed with 10 m/s vertical velocity from window 20 m above ground. and • time when ball will hit the ground and corresponding velocity. . • Solve for t at which velocity equals zero (time for maximum elevation) and evaluate corresponding altitude. Determine: • velocity and elevation above ground at time t.
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 11.2 SOLUTION: • Integrate twice to find v(t) and y(t).81 m s 2 dt v (t ) t v(t ) − v0 = −9.905 2 t 2 s s .81t ∫ dv = − ∫ 9.81 dt v(t ) = 10 m m − 9. DynaDEn v0 0 dv = a = −9.81 2 t s s dy = v = 10 − 9.81t dt y (t ) t ∫ dy = ∫ (10 − 9.81t 2 2 m m y (t ) = 20 m + 10 t − 4.81t )dt y0 0 y (t ) − y0 = 10t − 1 9.
v(t ) = 10 m m − 9. m m y (t ) = 20 m + 10 t − 4.019 s DynaDEn • Solve for t at which altitude equals zero and evaluate corresponding velocity.019 s )2 s s y = 25.Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 11.2 • Solve for t at which velocity equals zero and evaluate corresponding altitude.1 m .905 2 t 2 s s m m y = 20 m + 10 (1.81 2 t = 0 s s t = 1.905 2 (1.019 s ) − 4.
28 s m m − 9.28 s ) s s v = −22. m m y (t ) = 20 m + 10 t − 4.28 s ) = 10 t = −1.243 s (meaningless ) t = 3.81 2 (3.2 m s .Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 11.905 2 t 2 = 0 s s DynaDEn v(t ) = 10 m m − 9.2 • Solve for t at which altitude equals zero and evaluate corresponding velocity.81 2 t s s v(3.
3 SOLUTION: a = − kv • Integrate a = dv/dt = kv to find v(t) • Integrate v(t) = dx/dt to find x(t). As barrel recoils with initial velocity v0. Brake mechanism used to reduce gun recoil consists of piston attached to barrel moving in fixed cylinder filled with oil. x(t). Determine v(t). DynaDEn • Integrate a = v dv/dx = kv to find v(x). piston moves and oil is forced through orifices in piston. . causing piston and cylinder to decelerate at rate proportional to their velocity.Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 11. and v(x).
3 SOLUTION: • Integrate a = dv/dt = kv to find v(t).Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 11. dx v(t ) = = v0 e − kt dt t x (t ) t 1 − kt − kt x(t ) = v0 − e ∫ dx = v0 ∫ e dt k 0 0 0 x(t ) = v0 1 − e − kt k ( ) . v (t ) t dv dv v(t ) a= = − kv = − k ∫ dt ln = − kt ∫ v dt v0 0 v0 DynaDEn v(t ) = v0 e − kt • Integrate v(t) = dx/dt to find x(t).
v = v0 − kx with and then v0 x(t ) = 1 − e − kt k ( ) v(t ) = v0 e − kt or e − kt = x(t ) = v0 v(t ) 1 − k v0 v(t ) v0 v = v0 − kx .Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 11.3 • Integrate a = v dv/dx = kv to find v(x). dv a = v = − kv dx v − v0 = − kx dv = − k dx v ∫ dv = −k ∫ dx 0 x v0 DynaDEn • Alternatively.
dx = v = constant dt ∫ dx = v ∫ dt x0 0 x x − x0 = vt DynaDEn t x = x0 + vt .Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Uniform Rectilinear Motion For particle in uniform rectilinear motion. the acceleration is zero and the velocity is constant.
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Uniformly Accelerated Rectilinear Motion For particle in uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion. dv = a = constant dt v = v0 + at v ∫ dv = a ∫ dt 0 t v − v0 = at v0 dx = v0 + at dt DynaDEn ∫ dx = ∫ (v0 + at )dt 0 x t x0 v x − x0 = v0t + 1 at 2 2 x = x0 + v0t + 1 at 2 2 dv v = a = constant dx 2 v 2 = v0 + 2 a ( x − x0 ) ∫ v dv = a ∫ dx x0 x v0 1 2 (v 2 − v02 ) = a(x − x0 ) . the acceleration of the particle is constant.
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Motion of Several Particles: Relative Motion • For particles moving along the same line. time should be recorded from the same starting instant and displacements should be measured from the same origin in the same direction. DynaDEn vB A = x B − x A = relative position of B with respect to A xB = x A + xB A xB A = v B − v A = relative velocity of B with respect to A vB = v A + vB A = a B − a A = relative acceleration of B with respect to A aB = a A + aB A aB A .
• Write equation for relative position of ball with respect to elevator and solve for zero relative position. • Substitute impact time into equation for position of elevator and relative velocity of ball with respect to elevator..4 SOLUTION: • Substitute initial position and velocity and constant acceleration of ball into general equations for uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion.e. impact. At same instant. • Substitute initial position and constant velocity of elevator into equation for uniform rectilinear motion. i. . Determine (a) when and where ball hits elevator and (b) relative velocity of ball and elevator at contact.Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 11. openplatform elevator passes 5 m level moving upward at 2 m/s. DynaDEn Ball thrown vertically from 12 m level in elevator shaft with initial velocity of 18 m/s.
905 2 s s • Substitute initial position and constant velocity of elevator into equation for uniform rectilinear motion m s m y E = y0 + v E t = 5 m + 2 t s .4 SOLUTION: • Substitute initial position and velocity and constant acceleration of ball into general equations for uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion. v B = v0 + at = 18 yB = DynaDEn y0 + v0t + 1 at 2 2 vE = 2 m m − 9.81 2 t s s m m = 12 m + 18 t − 4.Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 11.
4 • Write equation for relative position of ball with respect to elevator and solve for zero relative position. impact.Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 11. i.65) vB = (18 − 9.905t 2 − (5 + 2t ) = 0 t = −0.81t ) − 2 = 16 − 9.3 m m = −19.65) vB E E • Substitute impact time into equations for position of elevato and relative velocity of ball with respect to elevator..e. yB E = 12 + 18t − 4.81 s . y E = 12.39 s (meaningless ) t = 3.65 s ( ) DynaDEn y E = 5 + 2(3.81(3.
and the total distance traveled when t = 5 s. x5 = ( 0.45 = 0 v ≤ 0.300 m d = d1 + d 2 = 0.00 s.15 )( 2 ) v = 0.075 )( 5 ) − ( 0.675 mm 2 . v ≥ 0. v5 = ( 0.15t − 0. v t t ∫ − 0.075t 2 − 0. the position. Total distance traveled: d1 = x0 − xmin = 0.675 m d 2 = x5 − xmin = 0.300 m/s x is decreasing. When v = 0.975 m x0 = −10 m (given) x3 = xmin = ( 0.45 )( 5 ) − 10 = −10.15dv = ∫ 2a dt = ∫ 20. Knowing that x = −10 m when t = 0 and υ = −0.45 m/s At t = 5 s.45t − 10 m 2 At t = 5 s.14 The acceleration of a particle is defined by the relation a = 0. SOLUTION Determine velocity.15 m/s when t = 2 s.00 s. For 0 ≤ t ≤ 3. t = 3.00 s v5 = 0.PROBLEM 11.00 s < t < 5 s.00 s. x is increasing.00 ) − ( 0.45t x = 0.075t 2 − 0.45 ) dt x − ( −10 ) = 0.375 m x5 = −10. DynaDEn x t t ∫−10 dx = ∫0 v dt = ∫0 ( 0.45 0.15t − ( 0.00 ≤ t ≤ 5 s.075t 2 − 0.15 m/s 2.15 dt v − ( −15 ) = 0.45t ( ) t 0 = 0.075 )( 3.38 m At t = 0. At t = 3. Distances traveled: Over 0 ≤ t ≤ 3.45 )( 3. For 3. Determine position. Over 3.15 )( 5 ) − 0.15t − 0. determine the velocity.15t − 0.00 ) − 10 = −10.
DynaDEn .
time should be recorded from the same starting instant and displacements should be measured from the same origin in the same direction.Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Motion of Several Particles: Relative Motion • For particles moving along the same line. DynaDEn vB A = x B − x A = relative position of B with respect to A xB = x A + xB A xB A = v B − v A = relative velocity of B with respect to A vB = v A + vB A = a B − a A = relative acceleration of B with respect to A aB = a A + aB A aB A .
DynaDEn .
impact.. Determine (a) when and where ball hits elevator and (b) relative velocity of ball and elevator at contact.e. At same instant. • Substitute impact time into equation for position of elevator and relative velocity of ball with respect to elevator. openplatform elevator passes 5 m level moving upward at 2 m/s. DynaDEn Ball thrown vertically from 12 m level in elevator shaft with initial velocity of 18 m/s. • Substitute initial position and constant velocity of elevator into equation for uniform rectilinear motion. . i.Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 11.4 SOLUTION: • Substitute initial position and velocity and constant acceleration of ball into general equations for uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion. • Write equation for relative position of ball with respect to elevator and solve for zero relative position.
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 11. v B = v0 + at = 18 yB = DynaDEn y0 + v0t + 1 at 2 2 vE = 2 m m − 9.905 2 s s • Substitute initial position and constant velocity of elevator into equation for uniform rectilinear motion m s m y E = y0 + v E t = 5 m + 2 t s .81 2 t s s m m = 12 m + 18 t − 4.4 SOLUTION: • Substitute initial position and velocity and constant acceleration of ball into general equations for uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion.
i.39 s (meaningless ) t = 3.65 s ( ) DynaDEn y E = 5 + 2(3. y E = 12.3 m m = −19.e.905t 2 − (5 + 2t ) = 0 t = −0.81t ) − 2 = 16 − 9. impact.65) vB = (18 − 9.65) vB E E • Substitute impact time into equations for position of elevato and relative velocity of ball with respect to elevator.Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 11.81(3. yB E = 12 + 18t − 4.4 • Write equation for relative position of ball with respect to elevator and solve for zero relative position.81 s ..
and acceleration develop equations for velocity and of block B when block A is at L. velocity. • Pulley D has uniform rectilinear motion. • Collar A has uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion. collar A starts moving down from K • Block B motion is dependent on motions of collar A and pulley D. Write motion with constant acceleration and zero relationship and solve for change of block initial velocity.Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 11. DynaDEn . Pulley D is attached to a collar which Calculate change of position at time t. determine the change in • Differentiate motion relation twice to elevation. Knowing that B position at time t. Solve for acceleration and time t to reach L. velocity of collar A is 300 mm/s as it passes L.5 SOLUTION: • Define origin at upper horizontal surface with positive displacement downward. acceleration of block B. At t = 0. is pulled down at 75 mm/s.
DynaDEn 2 v A = (v A )0 + 2a A [x A − ( x A )0 ] 2 (300 mm)2 = 2a A (200 mm) v A = (v A )0 + a At 300 mm = 225 mm/s 2 a A = 225mm/s 2 t = 1.333 s .Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 11.5 SOLUTION: • Define origin at upper horizontal surface with positive displacement downward. • Collar A has uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion Solve for acceleration and time t to reach L.
x A + 2 x D + x B = ( x A )0 + 2( x D )0 + ( x B )0 B [x − (x ) ] + 2[x − (x ) ] + [x − (x ) ] = 0 (200 mm) + 2(100 mm) + [x − (x ) ] = 0 B 0 B B 0 xB − ( xB )0 = −400 mm . Total length of cable remains constant.5 xD = ( xD )0 + vD t • Pulley D has uniform rectilinear motion. xD − ( xD )0 = (75 mm/s)(1.333 s) = 100 mm DynaDEn A A 0 D D 0 • Block B motion is dependent on motions of collar A and pulley D. Write motion relationship and solve for change of block B position at time t. Calculate change of position at time t.Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 11.
x A + 2 xD + xB = constant DynaDEn (225 mm/s) + vB = 0 a A + 2a D + a B = 0 (300 mm) + 2(75 mm) + vB = 0 v A + 2v D + v B = 0 vB = 450 mm/s a B = −225 mm/s .Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 11.5 • Differentiate motion relation twice to develop equations for velocity and acceleration of block B.
47 and P11. P11.Fig.48 DynaDEn .
49 and P11.50 DynaDEn .Fig. P11.
Fig.51 and P11. P11.52 DynaDEn .
53 and P11. P11.Fig.54 DynaDEn .
P11.Fig.56 DynaDEn .55 and P11.
58 DynaDEn . P11.57 and P11.Fig.
59 and P11.60 DynaDEn .Fig. P11.
P11.Fig.127 DynaDEn .
128 DynaDEn .Fig. P11.
(a) Accelerations.49 Block C starts from rest and moves downward with a constant acceleration. taken positive if downward.3 mm/s 2 3 3 aC = a B = 25.67 mm/s 2 (b) Velocity and change in position of B after 8 s.0 ) = 12.0 mm/s 2 2 2 aB = − a A = − ( 38. Knowing that after 12 s the velocity of block A is 456 mm/s. (b) the velocity and the change in position of block B after 8 s.3)( 8 ) = −203 mm/s v B = 203 mm/s xB − ( xB ) 0 = ( vB ) 0 t + 1 1 2 aBt 2 = 0 + ( −25. Constraint of cable on left: 2 x A + 3xB = constant or 2 vB = − v A . hence. B.0 ) = −25. block A also moves downward.PROBLEM 11. Constraint of cable on right: vB + 2vC = 0. SOLUTION Let x be position relative to the fixed supports. 3 and 2 aB = − a A 3 2v A + 3vB = 0.0 mm/s 2 12 a A = 38.67 mm/s 2 3 3 xB + 2 xC = constant 1 aA 3 456 − 0 = 38. 2 3 and aC = = 1 1 a A = ( 38. Block C moves downward. determine (a) the accelerations of A.3)( 8 ) = −811 mm 2 2 ∆xB = 811 mm . and C. vB = ( vB )0 + aBt = 0 + ( −25. v A = ( v A )0 + a AT or aA = v A − ( v A )0 t DynaDEn or 1 1 vC = − vB = v A .3 mm/s 2 aC = 12.
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DynaDEn unit vector: 단위벡터 .
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(v x )0 . a x = && = 0 x a y = && = − g y a z = && = 0 z DynaDEn ( ) Integrating twice yields v x = (v x )0 x = (v x )0 t vy = vy 0 with initial conditions. v y 0 .. . • Motion in vertical direction is uniformly accelerated • Motion of projectile could be replaced by two independent rectilinear motions. e. (v z )0 = 0 x0 = y 0 = z 0 = 0 ( ) y = (v y ) y − 1 gt 2 2 0 − gt vz = 0 z=0 • Motion in horizontal direction is uniform.Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Rectangular Components of Velocity & Acceleration • Rectangular components particularly effective when component accelerations can be integrated independently. motion of a projectile.g.
DynaDEn .
Sample Problem 11.7a DynaDEn .
Sample Problem 11.7b DynaDEn .
7c DynaDEn .Sample Problem 11.
Sample Problem 11.8a DynaDEn .
8b DynaDEn .Sample Problem 11.
8c DynaDEn .Sample Problem 11.
8d DynaDEn .Sample Problem 11.
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P11.97 DynaDEn .Fig.
98 DynaDEn . P11.Fig.
P11.Fig.99 landing: physical meaning DynaDEn .
101 DynaDEn . P11.Fig.
Fig. P11.104
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Fig.109 DynaDEn . P11.
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Fig. P11.114
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P11.Fig.115 DynaDEn .
2 m A v0 1.11 m/s 0. α = 6.2 = 41.3810 s = 0.81 x0 = 0.3810 12.11 m/s (b) Vertical motion: Horizontal motion: 115.02 = 0.5 m h a B A baseball pitching machine “throws” baseballs with a horizontal velocity v 0 .5 m. = 0.2968 s DynaDEn 9.3 km/h ≤ v0 ≤ 148.81 = 0.3810 ) 32.5 − 1.02 m/s ≤ v0 ≤ 41.11 . (b) the values of α corresponding to h = 788 mm and h = 1068 mm.788) 9.5 − 0.05° ( 9.068) With xB = 12.PROBLEM 11. tan α = tan α = ( 9. Horizontal motion: tB = ( 2 )(1. SOLUTION (a) Vertical motion: y = y0 + v y y0 = 1. For h = 1.02 m/s 0. 32.07082. ( v y )0 = 0 t = 2 ( y0 − y ) g ( )0 t − 1 gt 2 2 or or At point B.66° α = 4.068 m.788 m.788 m. or v0 = x = v0t x x = B t tB we get and v0 = v0 = 12.2 m.11673.2968 or vy = vy tB = ( 2 )(1. Knowing that height h varies between 788 mm and 1068 mm. determine (a) the range of values of v0 . When h = 1068 mm = 1.2 = 32. ( vx )0 = v0 .2968) 41.81)( 0.0 km/h ( )0 − gt = − gt vx = v0 tan α = − vy dy gt B =− = B dx vx ) B v0 ( ( ) For h = 0.81)( 0. y =h tB = 2 ( y0 − h ) g When h = 788 mm = 0.97 12.068 m.
44 m/s at point C.2 m 0.PROBLEM 11.0 . v0 = 2.6 m y = y0 + v y x = v0t xc = 4.2 m 0.0 m Point C: Vertical motion with v y ( )0 = 0: DynaDEn yc = −0. 0.81 = 11.98 While delivering newspapers.2 (3) 9. Determine the range of values of v0 if the newspaper is to land between points B and C.0 ) 9.2 m 0. a girl throws a paper with a horizontal velocity v 0.87 m/s ( −2 )( −1.4 m 1m A v0 1. Range of v0 : v0 = 4.0 m ( )0 t − 1 gt 2 2 or or t = −2 y g (1) Horizontal motion with ( vx )0 = v0 : v0 = x t v0 = x g −2 y (2) Substituting equation (1) into equation (2) gives Applying equation (3): at point B.81 = 4.87 m/s ≤ v0 ≤ 11.6 ) 4. Point A: x = x0 = 0 y = y0 = 0 Point B: xB = 2.2 m yB = −1.44 m/s ( −2 )( 0.2 m C B SOLUTION Sketch the limiting trajectories.2 m 2.
99 25 m/s A ski jumper starts with a horizontal takeoff velocity of 25 m/s and lands on a straight landing hill inclined at 30o. SOLUTION (a) At the landing point. (c) the maximum vertical distance between the jumper and the landing hill. dh = v0 tan 30° − gt = 0 dt Then. Horizontal motion: Vertical motion: y = − x tan 30° x = x0 + ( vx )0 t = v0t y = y0 + v y t2 = − ( )0 t − 1 gt 2 = − 1 gt 2 2 2 from which 2y 2 x tan 30° 2v0t tan 30° = = g g g 2v0 tan 30° ( 2 )( 25 ) tan 30 ° = g 9.94 ) x v0t = = cos 30° cos 30° cos 30° d = 84. Determine (a) the time between takeoff and landing.81 ) 2 hmax = 10.81 t = 2.94 s Rejecting the t = 0 solution gives (b) Landing distance: (c) Vertical distance: or DynaDEn t = d = (25 )( 2. (b) the length d of the jump.9 m h = x tan 30° + y h = v0t tan 30° − 1 2 gt 2 Differentiating and setting equal to zero.PROBLEM 11.6 m . or t = vo tan 30° g 2 hmax = ( v0 )( v0 tan 30°) tan 30° − 1 g v0 tan 30° g 2 2 g = 2 v0 tan 2 30° ( 25 ) ( tan 30° ) = 2g ( 2 )( 9.
81 )( 48 ) 2 ( 2 )(25)2 = 18. 3m SOLUTION Horizontal motion: x = x0 + ( vx )0 t = v0t . y = 0. At x = 45 m. determine the range of values of h which must be avoided.89 m ( 9. y = y0 + v y or t = x v0 y = y0 − gx 2 2 2v0 Vertical motion: ( )0 t − 1 gt 2 = y0 − 1 gt 2 2 2 so that y0 = gx 2 2 2v0 or At ground level. Knowing that the magnitude of v 0 is 25 m/s.08 m .89 m < h < 6. DynaDEn h = y0 − 12 = 3.81 ) (45)2 ( 2 )(25)2 = 15. y0 = At x = 48 m.100 v0 h 12 m Pond 45 m A golfer aims his shot to clear the top of a tree by a distance h at the peak of the trajectory and to miss the pond on the opposite side.08 m h = y0 − 12 = 6.PROBLEM 11.89 m y0 = ( 9.08 m Range to avoid: 3.
PROBLEM 11. determine the distance d between the golfer and point B where the ball first lands.912 s 2v0 ( cos 25° tan 5° + sin 25° ) = ( ) g 9.101 v0 A 25° B d 5° A golfer hits a golf ball with an initial velocity of 48 m/s at an angle of 25° with the horizontal. Knowing that the fairway slopes downward at an average angle of 5°. Vertical motion: x = x A + v0 cos 25°t = v0 cos 25°t xB = d cos 5° = v0 cos 25°t B y = y0 + v0 sin 25°t − 1 2 1 gt = v0 sin 25°t − gt 2 2 2 1 yB = −d sin 5° = v0 sin 25° − gt B t B 2 Ratio: v0 sin 25° − 1 gt B t B yB sin 5° 2 =− = xB cos 5° v0 cos 25°t B tB = ( ) or − v0 cos 25° tan 5° = v0 sin 25° − 1 gt B 2 or Then. SOLUTION Horizontal motion: At point B. DynaDEn d = ( 2 )( 48) cos 25° tan 5° + sin 25° = 4.81 ( 48)( cos 25° )( 4.912 ) xB v cos 25°t B = 0 = cos 5° cos 5° cos 5° d = 215 m .
For water impact at B.524 ft with d = xc − 0.905t 2 + 0.524 m Owing to the foot of the wall.905 )( −2. Determine the range of values of the distance d for which the water will enter the trough BC.524 m xc = 0.64 = 0 Solving the quadratic equation. y0 − y = 2.36 m d 0. So.524 m −0.36 m at level BC .096 m < d < 0.19670 m/s 4.PROBLEM 11.76 m/s at an angle of 15° with the horizontal.19670 + ( 0.62 m Water flows from a drain spout with an initial velocity of 0.524 m 0 < d < 0. = −0. the allowable range of d is .76 cos15° )( 0. x = ( v0 ) x t = ( 0.64 ) ( 2 )( 4.7139 s Horizontal motion: For water impact at C. t = DynaDEn −0. SOLUTION Vertical motion: y = y0 + ( v0 ) y t − 1 2 gt 2 1 2 gt − ( v0 ) y t − ( y0 − y ) = 0 2 With y0 = 3 m and y = 0.7139 ) = 0.62 = −0. hence.76sin15° = −0. d cannot be negative.19670t − 2.905) = 0.102 15° A v0 3m B C 0.096 m xB = d = 0.64 m ( v0 ) y Then.19670 )2 − ( 4 )( 4.
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Fig.14 DynaDEn . 11.
15a DynaDEn .Fig. 11.
11.Fig.15b DynaDEn .
Fig.15c DynaDEn . 11.
Fig.15d DynaDEn . 11.
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4 DynaDEn .Photo 11.
Fig. 11.23 DynaDEn .
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Fig.177 DynaDEn . P11.
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• Determine acceleration magnitude and direction with respect to tangent to curve. . A motorist is traveling on curved section of highway at 60 mph. The motorist applies brakes causing a constant deceleration rate. determine the acceleration of the automobile immediately after the brakes are applied.Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 11.10 SOLUTION: • Calculate tangential and normal components of acceleration. DynaDEn Knowing that after 8 s the speed has been reduced to 45 mph.
ft 2 2 2 2 a = 4.10 2 2500 ft s • Determine acceleration magnitude and direction with respect to tangent to curve.75 2 ∆t 8s s 60 mph = 88 ft/s 45 mph = 66 ft/s DynaDEn an = v2 ρ (88 ft s )2 ft = = 3.14 2 a = at + an = (− 2.10 = tan −1 at 2.10 SOLUTION: • Calculate tangential and normal components of acceleration.10 s α = tan −1 an 3.75 α = 48.75) + 3.Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 11.4° . ft ∆v (66 − 88) ft s at = = = −2.
9 . • Evaluate acceleration with respect to arm. determine (a) the total velocity of the collar. and (c) the relative acceleration of the collar with respect to the arm. .Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 11. After the arm has rotated through 30o. DynaDEn • Evaluate radial and angular positions and first and second derivatives at time t. (b) the total acceleration of the collar. • Calculate velocity and acceleration in cylindrical coordinates. Rotation of the arm about O is defined by θ = 0. Collar B slides along the arm such that r = 0.12t2 where r is in meters.15t2 where θ is in radians and t in seconds.0.12 SOLUTION: • Evaluate time t for θ = 30o.
524 rad θ& = 0.449 m s & θ = 0.15 t 2 = 0.24 t = −0.12 t 2 = 0. θ = 0.561 rad s & θ& = 0. r = 0.9 − 0.12 SOLUTION: • Evaluate time t for θ = 30o.524 rad t = 1.869 s DynaDEn r && = −0. and first and second derivatives at time t.30 t = 0.481 m r = −0.24 m s 2 • Evaluate radial and angular positions.Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 11.15 t 2 = 30° = 0.30 rad s 2 .
391m s 2 & & aθ = rθ& + 2rθ& β = 31.6° .359 m s 2 2 2 a = ar + aθ ( ) a γ = tan −1 θ ar a = 0.449 m s vθ = rθ& = (0.524 m s DynaDEn ar = && − rθ& 2 r = −0.561rad s )2 = (0.481m )(0.481m ) 0.3 rad s 2 + 2(− 0.481m )(0. & vr = r = −0.Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 11.0° = −0.270 m s 2 2 v = vr + vθ v β = tan −1 θ vr v = 0.561rad s ) = 0.12 • Calculate velocity and acceleration.561rad s ) = −0.531m s γ = 42.240 m s 2 − (0.449 m s )(0.
Motion of collar with respect to arm is rectilinea and defined by coordinate r.240 m s 2 r DynaDEn .Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 11. a B OA = && = −0.12 • Evaluate acceleration with respect to arm.
51 m/s 2 2 v A = ρ A ( a A )n = ( 9 )( 7.05 m .30 )2 9.22 cos 40° = 6.30 m/s ρ = ( 6.22 m/s vx = 8.59 m 2 /s 2 v A = 8. Determine (a) the discharge velocity v A of the snow.51) = 67.81 ρ = 4. Tangential and normal components of a are as shown in the sketch.81 m/s2 . SOLUTION (a) The acceleration vector is 9. (b) the radius of curvature of the trajectory at its maximum height.PROBLEM 11.81 m/s 2.81cos 40° = 7. v2 = an (b) At maximum height. At point A. an = a cos 40° = 9.145 vA A 40° From a photograph of a homeowner using a snowblower.30 m/s 40° DynaDEn an = g = 9. it is determined that the radius of curvature of the trajectory of the snow was 9 m as the snow left the discharge chute at A. v = vx = 6.
determine (a) the time required for the car to reach B. 2. a = 3.69s 35 t 2 + 13.184 A 50 m B Assuming a uniform acceleration of 3.63s. SOLUTION Let the origin lie at point A.889 + (3. 2 t = 2.5 m/s2 and knowing that the speed of a car as it passes A is 50 km/h.vA = 50 km/h PROBLEM 11. x A = 0.69 s (b) vB = vA + at = 13.69) = 23. (b) the speed of the car as it passes B.889t – 50 = 0 .889 m/s.5) (2.9 km/h . xB = 50 m v A = 50 km/h = 13.3 m/s DynaDEn vB = 83.5 m/s2 (a) xB = x A + v At + 1 2 at 2 t = –10.
(b) the velocity and the change in position of B after 2 s.33 m/s 2 ∆yB = 13. For block A.PROBLEM 11. vB = aBt = ( 6.67 m/s 2 3 (b) At t = 2 s. x A + 3 yB = constant.67 )( 2 ) 2 2 a B = 6. DynaDEn 2 v A = 2a A∆x A aA = 2 vA (−4) 2 = = −20 m/s 2 2∆x A ( 2)( −0. v A = −3vB . determine (a) the accelerations of A and B.185 Block B starts from rest and moves downward with a constant acceleration. Knowing that after slider block A has moved 400 mm its velocity is 4 m/s.33 m2 .67 m/s2 vB = 13. to the right. v A + 3vB = 0. (a) v A is negative.4) or a A = 20 m/s2 1 aB = − a A = 6. i. Since. SOLUTION Constraint of cable with x A increasing to the left and yB increasing downward.e.67 )( 2 ) ∆yB = 1 1 2 aBt 2 = ( 6. ∆x A + 3∆yB = 0 a A + 3aB = 0 Block B moves downward so that vB and aB are positive.
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