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Dr John Postill Open University of Catalonia Sheffield Hallam University http://twitter.com/JohnPostill Weds, 9 February 2011 Pre-protests 14 Jan. Tunisian government ousted, ‘virtually unprecedented in modern Arab history´1. Week 1. Violence erupted during the first seven days of anti-government demonstrations in Egypt2 25 Jan Day of Anger. Largest demo in years against Mubarak, across Egypt, inspired by Tunisian events. Set on this day to coincide with National Police Day. Coordinated via Facebook page. Orgs ‘taking a stand against torture, poverty, corruption and unemployment’3. Twitter played ‘a key part’, supporters in Egypt and abroad used hashtag #jan25 ‘to post news of the day’4. Anonymous leaflets provide advice on how to organise mass demos, confront riot police, take control of gov offices. Leaflet asks people to email and photocopy it but not use social media which being monitored5. Also ham radio used to organise and coordinate the ‘extremely well organised’ revolt6. Al Jazeera TV coverage widely watched in Egypt and abroad. 26 Jan One protester and police officer killed. More violence used by both police and protesters7. 27 Jan. Nobel laureate ElBaradei returns to Egypt to take up leadership of opposition to Mubarak. Speaks to thousands of protesters defying curfew for third consecutive night. But protests smaller as people planning for mass demo the following day8. Police return to streets, fighter jets fly low overhead. User named eacusa tweeted: “#Jan25 #Egypt Good news, morale in Cairo still high, veteran activists from 60s & 70s r spreading knowledge of predigital ways 2 coordinate.”9. Government disrupts internet and mobile/blackberry services simply by making a few phone calls. 28 Jan Friday of Anger. Although Egyptian gov cut off internet and mobile phone services, this however didn’t dissuade protesters. One commentator said ‘demonstrators have an offline networking tool: the mosques’, but doubts about ability to sustain momentum ‘analogically’10. Violent clashes protesters and authorities11. ElBaradei placed under house arrest, US says will review $1.5 billion aid package, later released. ‘Plethora of Tunisian national flags and anti-Mubarak grafitti’ (overlooked media??)12. 29 Jan Soldiers protect Egyptian Museum. Thousands of protestors stand their ground in Tahrir Square despite troops firing into the air13. Protestors more confident, even ‘celebratory’ about prospects that Mubarak would leave, though no evidence14.
30 Jan. Thousands of protesters still defied curfew; army deployed across Cairo to protect key places; vigilante groups set in neighbourhoods to fight off looters. Muslim Brotherhood official support for ElBaradei to form national unity government15. 31 Jan Al Jazeera facing interference to broadcast signal across Arab region, worse than ever16. For first time pro-Mubarak protests, at least 1,000 people, drawn mostly from neighbourhood watch groups. Industrial strikes called in Cairo and many other cities17. Week 2. Anti-government protests continued into a second week, with running battles between rival demonstrators18 1 Feb. March of the Millions. Mubarak’s speech. Won’t step down yet and will “die on Egyptian soil”. More clashes between anti- and pro-Mubarak on streets. Leader of Kifaya (Enough) movement says Mubarak’s offer to serve another term not enough. New national coalition for change formed19. 2 Feb. State-sponsored thugs and police attacked the protesters in Tahrir Square, as the army looked on. “Provocateurs came riding on horses and camels armed with swords, whips, clubs, stones, rocks, and pocket knives, attacked anti-government protesters in central Cairo, including Tahrir Square”. Journalists also attacked20. Google and Twitter launch speak-to-tweet system whereby messages can be sent without having an internet connection, through a voicemail message21. In morning internet access partially restored; night-time curfew eased22. Why internet back on? Reporters Without Borders says: a) Egypt couldn’t ignore US pressure, b) dire economic consequences, c) too late to be effective, internet already effectively used as mobilisation tool23. Mubarak doesn’t heed international calls to resign. ElBaradei calls on army to step in and says Mubarak should be granted “safe exit” for Friday’s Departure Day24. 3 Feb Situation has deteriorated rapidly25. New vicepresident blames foreign media. Mubarak tells ABC he’s tired and wants to resign but fears chaos. Mubarak supporters shoot and kill at least five in Tahrir Square. Thousands barricaded in the square, will stay until Mubarak resigns. Muslim Brotherhood, until now on the sidelines, issues statement calling for national unity gov to replace Mubarak26. “Vodafone … forced by the Egyptian government to send SMS text messages to its customers. The pro-Mubarak messages characterized protesters as un-loyal to the state and had called upon recipients to "confront" them. Vodafone CEO Vittorio Colao reported that the general public is still being blocked from sending SMS text messages”27. 4 Feb Friday of Departure. Same organisers of Day of Anger and Friday of Anger [seriality]. Obama urges Mubarak to resign, though not calling for immediate resignation. Hundreds of thousands demonstrate in Tahrir Square. Chants calling for Mubarak’s resignation ‘reverberate across the square’28 5 Feb Thousands stay in square, fearing that army will try to evacuate them. Head of army asks protesters to go home29. Leadership of ruling National Democratic Party (sic) resigns, including son of Mubarak, Gamal30. 6 Feb Sunday of Martyrs Same organisers again. Muslim Brotherhood announce they’ll take part in a dialogue about the transition31. Banks reopened. People rushing to buy US dollars32.
7 Feb Concessions to civil servants by new Cabinet: 15% rise in salaries and pensions. Admin of Facebook page that ignited protests, Wael Ghonim, released – had been arrested 25 Jan. Week 3. 8 Feb “3:35am Since Wael Ghonim's release from Egyptian custody and emotional TV interview on DreamTV, thousands of supporters have joined a new Facebook page created in his honour. Its called: We authorise Wael Ghoneim to speak on behalf of the Egyptian revolution.”. 04:00am Making the rounds on Facebook and Twitter is this Egypt tribute music video by Amir Sulaiman, Omar Offendum,The Narcicyst, Ayah, and Freeway, with lyrics like: "I heard them say the revolution won't be televised. Al Jazeera proved them wrong, Twitter has them paralysed.". 6:31am Hamas eyes Brotherhood rise - Change in regime in neighbouring Egypt could be a major boost for the Hamas movement which has been ruling Gaza for the past four years. Hamas' early origins lie in the Muslim Brotherhood, and the two groups still have very close links. 9:08am PJ Crowley, US assistant secretary of state, joins the thousands on Twitter that are talking about the release of Wael Ghonim. Having been released in #Egypt earlier today, it is good to see @Ghonim back on line. 2:52pm Al Jazeera showing live video from Egypt's Tahrir Square - hundreds of thousands already there protesting, and many more expected. 5:07pm Al Jazeera's correspondents in Cairo said that there are a lot of Egyptians visiting the square for the first time today. Well dressed upper class people. The mood is euphoric, they are celebrating the sense of freedom. People chant freedom, we want freedom. They are euphoric about their ability to express themselves, this is something they have not been able to do in the past. we have noticed in the Square that there is a recognition by people that this will not happen over night in order to achieve their aim. 5:40pm Al Jazeera correspondent in Cairo said the vice president came out about 10:30 this morning and said the president had signed a decree allowing for constitutional amendments and was probably intended as a move against the million man march in Tahrir Square today. "But I don’t think it worked well, I don’t think anyone here has bothered listening to that yet, the call here is for an end to the regime of the past 30 years, and to make sure they will not return once it’s over," our correspondent said. 9 Feb. 1:30am Egypt’s Ambassador to the UN, Maged Abdelaziz, has spoken at the UN Security Council and had this to say about Al Jazeera: "Even though when we had some disputes with Al Jazeera, and then they were able to broadcast, they managed to maneuver us and go to get from some other sources, so the world is a small village and everybody knows what is happening all over the place.". 10:07am Egypt protests remain strong - demonstrations enter sixteenth day, following the largest gathering so far in Cairo's Tahrir Square. Crowds also out in huge numbers in Alexandria, Egypt's second largest city. Sources
http://timelines.boston.com/timelines/2011-egyptian-protests . http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-12327995 3 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-12283849 4 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-12283849
http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/jan/27/egypt-protest-leaflets-mass-action http://shortlinks.co.uk/31cz 7 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2011_Egyptian_protests 8 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2011_Egyptian_protests 9 http://english.aljazeera.net/news/middleeast/2011/01/2011128102253848730.html 10 http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2011/01/egypts-internet-shutdown-cant-stop-mass-protests/ 11 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2011_Egyptian_protests 12 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2011_Egyptian_protests 13 http://english.aljazeera.net/news/middleeast/2011/01/201112515334871490.html 14 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2011_Egyptian_protests 15 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2011_Egyptian_protests 16 http://english.aljazeera.net/news/middleeast/2011/01/201112515334871490.html 17 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2011_Egyptian_protests 18 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-12327995 19 http://english.aljazeera.net/news/middleeast/2011/01/201112515334871490.html 20 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2011_Egyptian_protests 21 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-12332850 22 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2011_Egyptian_protests 23 http://blogs.forbes.com/andygreenberg/2011/02/02/mubaraks-digital-dilemma-why-egypts-internet-controlsfailed/ 24 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2011_Egyptian_protests 25 http://matadornetwork.com/change/photo-essay-the-egyptian-uprising-from-january-25th-to-february-1st 26 http://www.aawsat.com/english/news.asp?section=1&id=24008 27 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2011_Egyptian_protests 28 http://english.aljazeera.net/news/middleeast/2011/01/201112515334871490.html 29 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2011_Egyptian_protests 30 http://english.aljazeera.net/news/middleeast/2011/01/201112515334871490.html 31 http://english.aljazeera.net/news/middleeast/2011/01/201112515334871490.html1º 32 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2011_Egyptian_protests
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