1: Introduction To Air Quality 2: Basic Statistics In Air Quality 3: Meteorology And Air Quality 4: Air Quality Assessment / Monitoring

Techniques 5: Operation & Maintenance Problems In Air Quality Monitoring 6: Air Quality Monitoring Objectives And Planning 7: Noise And Odour & Their Monitoring 8 : Developing strategy for management of ambient air quality of indian cities




A Trust set up in the interest of protecting environment by

Envirotech Instruments Private Limited
(India’s largest producer of Air Quality Monitoring Instruments in its 25th Year) A-271, Okhla Industrial Area, Phase I, New Delhi-110020, India.
Tel: 91-11-26814139, 26813887; Fax: 91-11-26811833; E-mail: envirotech@vsnl.com

About the Author
Dr S.P. Singal is presently Advisor to Envirotech Instruments Private Limited, New Delhi and Editor-in-Chief of Indian Journal of Air Pollution Control published by Indian Association for Air Pollution Control. Besides he is member of Delhi Pollution Control Committee.Before his retirement from the National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi, he was the scientist in-charge of the Acoustical Laboratories at NPL. He has been responsible for the development of SODAR – the Acoustic Remote Sensor, an instrument which is used for remote sensing of the atmospheric boundary layer to determine inversion height, mixing height, fumigation period, atmospheric stabilities, wind velocity and many other parameters. Dr Singal had his Masters and Doctorate degrees in Science (Physics) from Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India). After his Ph.D. he had gone to U.S.A. as a Fulbright Fellow to carry out Post-Doctoral work. On the Research and Development work that Dr Singal carried out at the National Physical laboratory, three of his colleagues working under his guidance were awarded the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Physics from Delhi University. During the year 1987-88, Dr Singal was awarded the prestigious New Zealand Government Fellowship to work at the New Zealand Meteorological Laboratories for one year. During the year 1988-89 he was also invited to work in the Institute of Atmospheric Science, Moscow under the USSR-India Science Exchange Programme. He is a Distinguished Fellow, and past Chairman & Executive Secretary of the International Society on Acoustic Remote Sensing. He is a Distinguished Fellow, and past President of Acoustical society of India. He is the recipient of the prestigious Raman Award and Bhagwantum Award of the Acoustical Society of India. He is Life Fellow of the Ultrasonic Society of India and Metrology Society of India. He has been Hon. Member of the National Technical Committee on Noise Pollution. He has worked as Associate Editor of Acustica-Acta Acustica for a number of years. Dr Singal has published more than 150 papers in various national and international journals. In 1990 Dr Singal edited a book on Acoustic Remote Sensing published by Tata Mcgraw-Hill, New Delhi, and in 1997 he edited another book on Acoustic Remote Sensing Applications published simultaneously by Narosa and Springer publishers. In 2000 Dr Singal authored another book on Noise Pollution & Control published by Narosa. A revised edition of the same book titled Noise Pollution and Control Strategy was published in 2005 simultaneously by Narosa in India and in U.K. by Alpha Science International Ltd. Oxford. This book was later translated in the Chinese language.

Air is an invaluable life support resource. We can live without food for a few weeks. We can also do without water for a few days. But, we cannot survive even for a few moments without breathing air. The adverse effects of polluted air could be disastrous not only on human beings but also on plants, animals, properties and monuments. The air is polluted through natural processes and human incursions of various kinds. We must know therefore the mechanisms through which air is contaminated, dispersed and deposited on the earth’s surface. Envirotech Trust has brought out a monograph on Air Quality Monitoring Guidelines. This booklet has been the result of studies carried out from time to time on different parameters of air quality, methodologies for air quality monitoring and operation and maintenance of monitoring systems. The booklet also provides guidelines for data collection and handling. For the first time, an attempt has been made through this booklet to the much needed manual for air quality professionals and public at large. I am very happy that such a manual has been brought out by Envirotech Trust. I express my sincere gratitude to the persons who have made their valuable contributions in bringing out this booklet. I would like to specially acknowledge the hard work put in by Dr S.P.Singal, Adviser, Envirotech Instruments Private Limited & Editor-in-Chief, Indian Journal of Air pollution Control and Shri S. K. Gupta Chairman, Envirotech Instruments Private Limited & Secretary, Indian Association for Air Pollution Control.

13 October, 2008

Dilip Biswas President, IAAPC Former Chairman CPCB

As a preface to this very useful monograph “Air Quality Monitoring Guidelines”, I would like to briefly narrate two stories, one old and the other new. The first story is of a king who was very proud of the loyalty of his subjects. His minister held the view that people were obedient for fear of being caught and punished. The king insisted to the minister to prove it. The minister got it announced that the king desired that every household should pour one pot of milk in the dry pond of the city centre. A dark night was selected for doing so. The next morning, king saw nothing but water in the pond. The second is named as the U-turn Story. Approaching a crossing on which U-turn was prohibited, a motorist felt the need to return and though there were two sign-boards, one showing the picture of a Crossed-U and the other showing the warning ‘No U-Turn’, he took a swift turn. When he reached the kerb on the other side of the road, a policeman stopped him and said to him that he had taken a U-turn. The motorist said nothing. The policeman said that U-turn was forbidden on that junction. Again the motorist was speechless. “There are two boards showing ‘NO U-TURN’ right there,” the policeman’s voice was high as he pointed his finger towards the boards. The motorist was still mum. The policeman lost his cool and shouted “Did you see the boards or not?” This time the motorist replied “I saw the boards but I did not see you.” The stories tell very clearly what monitoring means to the success of any programme. Monitoring is needed but how to do it? Selection of parameters, stations, equipment, etc., is very challenging and has to be tailored to suit site conditions. Development of skills and interpretation of results are equally important and complex. This manual attempts to provide guidance on all these matters in a simple manner. Success of this publication will show up in the improvement of air quality of the environment we live in. I hope that planners and implementers alike will find it useful and more supplements and versions will follow as we move towards perfection.

16 October 2008

Paritosh C. Tyagi Former Chairman, CPCB

With our atmosphere becoming dirtier day by day, our concern to keep it clean is also increasing. Evidently achieving and maintaining good air quality is crucial to the maintenance of public health and economic vitality. This awakening came to India after the promulgation of Air (Prevention and Control) Act of 1981 and Environment (Prevention and Control) Act of 1986. Slowly and steadily this concept has also spread now in all our neighbouring countries such as Thailand, Bangladesh, Nepal, Dubai, Malaysia, and Egypt etc. To breathe clean air, we need to monitor it to identify the nature and extent of pollutants, so as to devise ways and means to suppress/ eliminate/reduce these pollutants. This needs knowledge, appropriate technology/instruments and trained manpower. To day there is no shortage of knowledge and technology or instruments, however, we face shortage of trained manpower. To get trained manpower with knowledge, skill, and awareness is a huge job. It needs right kind of persons with appropriate background since one is required to handle and operate air monitoring instruments and to analyze and archive data for control purposes. At present there is hardly any training or courses of study in the teaching institutes with this effect. For the past many years, Envirotech Instruments Private Limited, New Delhi has been carrying out this job on a somewhat small scale as a means of approaching their potential customers. During these courses while they have been essentially training people in the use of their instruments, they have also been coaching the trainees a little bit about air pollution and its potential hazards. Some printed course material also used to be handed over to the prospective trainees. The trainees used to be from the various state pollution control boards, central pollution control board, industries, institutes, and consultancy establishments. It may not be inappropriate here to say that Envirotech is one of the premier companies who took a lead in the manufacture of indigenous instruments. With the increasing demand to monitor air quality throughout the length and breadth of the country, effort at a much bigger scale is required than the one that has been put in so far by Envirotech. In my opinion it is high time to set up a professional institute for this purpose. Such a work should preferably be initiated by the Central Pollution Control Board and the Ministry of Environments and Forests, New Delhi through the formation of a technical board for this purpose. This board may initiate this project of the development of trained manpower with the launch of a six monthly diploma level training programme in all big cities and towns in the country through correspondence and otherwise. Keeping the future need of trained manpower in mind, Envirotech, a leader in the manufacture of indigenous instruments, has taken the initiative to publish a monograph on Air Quality Monitoring Guidelines. This monograph not only gives a brief account of the problem of air pollution in the country, but it also gives a brief account of the various monitoring techniques/instruments, practical use, instructions, precautions etc. At the end a strategy for management of ambient air quality in Indian cities is also given. The monograph has been divided into eight chapters. The first chapter is an introduction to air quality. The second chapter gives briefly the basic statistics required to work out certain statistical figures in air quality at a place or region. Meteorology is another very important subject that takes care of dispersion of air pollutants at any place. The basics of meteorology associated with air quality at a place or region are discussed in the third

chapter. The fourth chapter gives an account of air quality assessment/monitoring techniques. Herein the basic principles of the instruments or techniques employed have been touched upon very briefly. The schematic diagrams of the instruments have been given to understand the various parts or components of any instrument to be used for monitoring air quality. To this chapter, annexures have also been added to describe additional features of some of the monitoring instruments. Chapter 5 underlines the operational and maintenance problems that one comes across while using monitoring instruments. Monitoring objectives and planning for air quality has been discussed in chapter 6. In this chapter one finds answers to questions like: The need for air quality monitoring, choice of monitoring locations, monitoring parameters, monitoring techniques/instruments, averaging times and frequencies etc. One also finds hints about data recording, processing and interpretation of results etc. In the seventh chapter an entirely new subject in the field of air pollution has been added. In the Environment Act, 1986, noise was also included as one of the important air toxics. In this chapter this topic has been described to a certain limit to associate the reader with this field which is otherwise very vast in itself. Odour has also been included in this chapter. The last chapter deals with the development of strategies for management of ambient air quality in Indian cities. The new pollutants that required attention have been incorporated in this chapter. The proposed new standards for air quality have also been given. The author is thankful to Envirotech Instruments Private Limited, New Delhi to assign this very important and nationally useful task to me. I am personally thankful to Professor Dr G.D. Agrawal for overseeing my compilation and suggesting various additions and changes. In fact at many places Dr Agrawal has carried out additions or changes with his own pen. I have also found through this compilation that he is a very good teacher. During the course of this compilation I have learnt many a things which I was simply ignoring previously. I have enjoyed working with him. I am also thankful to Prof. J.M. Dave, Shri Paritosh C. Tyagi, Prof. Dilip K. Biswas, Dr B. Sengupta and Dr R.H. Siddiqi for their interest in this compilation and making various suggestions from time to time. Thanks are also due to Shri S.K. Gupta, Shri Rakesh Agrawal, and Dr Rajendra Prasad for their generous help in collecting material for this monograph. My personal thanks are also to Shri Anuj Goel, Shri Raman Agrawal, Shri R.S. Yadav and Shri Chetan Garg for their general interest and help rendered to me from time to time during the course of compiling this monograph. I will fail in my duty if I do not acknowledge the secretarial support available to me from the secretarial staff of the Envirotech Instruments establishment. During the writing of this monograph I had the good wishes of many eminent scientists devoted to the cause of Air Quality in India, I am thankful to all of them. Lastly, I thank my son Shri Munish Singal for helping me in typing, compilation of diagrams, and facilitating other computer related operations including formatting, and my wife, Dr (Mrs) Sudesh Singal, for her patience and encouragement during the course of compiling this monograph.

19 October 2008

S.P. Singal

Page No.

Introduction to Air Quality
1.1: Composition of Air 1.2: Air Pollution 1.2.1: Gaseous Pollutants 1.2.2: Particulate Matter 1.2.3: Radio-active Pollution 1.3: Air Quality 1.4: Sources of Air Pollution 1.5: Impact of Air Pollution on Human Health, Vegetation, and Property 1.5.1: Impact of Air Pollution on Human Health 1.5.2: Impact of Air Pollution on Vegetation 1.5.3: Impact of Air Pollution on Buildings and Property 1.6: Air Quality Standards 1.7: Chapter Summary References 1 1 3 3 4 6 6 7 9 9 13 15 15 16 16

Basic Statistics in Air Quality 2.1: Data Classification & Frequency Distribution 2.2: Common Indices 2.3: Distributions 2.4: Errors
18 18 19

21 21

Meteorology and Air Quality 3.1: Meteorology and Air Pollution Dispersion 3.1.1: Wind Velocity and its Role in Atmospheric Dispersion 3.1.2: Turbulence 3.1.3: Atmospheric Stability 3.1.4: Stability Classification 3.1.5: Mixing Height 3.2: Measurement of Air Quality Related Meteorological Parameters 3.2.1: Simple Manual techniques for Common Meteorological Measurements 3.2.2: Data-Logging Micro-Meteorology Monitoring System 3.2.3: Advanced Micro-Meteorology Monitoring System – Envirotech Wind Monitor WM 271 3.2.4: Monitoring Station and the Meteorological Sensors 3.3: Monitoring Meteorology at Heights above Ground Level 3.3.1: Tethered Balloon Tecniques 3.3.2: Remote Sensing Techniques References

23 23 26 27 29 31 32 32 34 36 37 39 40 40 42

Air Quality Assessment / Monitoring Techniques 4.1: Bio-indicators: Lichens / Plants 4.1.1: Lichens & Plants as Bio-Indicators 4.1.2: Selection of a Bio-Indicator Species 4.1.3: More about Lichens 4.1.4: Air Quality Surveys Using lichens & Other Indicator Plant Species 4.2: Passive Samplers 4.2.1: About Passive Samplers 4.2.2: Simple Passive Sampler Devices 4.3: Grab Sampling & Indicator Tubes 4.3.1: Grab sampling 4.3.2: Draeger Tubes or Indicator Tubes 4.4: Mechanical Air Samplers 4.4.1: Sampling for Particulates in Ambient Air 4.4.2: Sampling Gaseous Pollutants in Ambient Air 4.4.3: Measurement of Individual Exposures 4.4.4: Monitoring Emissions 4.5: Sensor Based Instruments: 4.6: Remote Sensing Instruments 4.7: On-line Systems and Networks 4.7.1: On-line Devices 4.7.2: On-line Monitoring Station 4.7.3: Details of AQMS 4.8: Air Quality Networks 4.8.1: Networking 4.8.2: Current Air Quality Related Networks in India
References Bibliography Annexure 1: Special Features of Envirotech High Volume Sampler Annexure 2: Special Features of Envirotech Respirable Dust Samplers Annexure 3: Gaseous Attachment APM 411 Annexure 4: Personal Sampler Envirotech APM 800 and APM 801 Annexure 5: Envirotech/ Vayu Bodhan Stack Monitoring Kit 44

44 44 45 46 47 49 49 50 51 51 52 53 54 58 62 62 67 68 70 70 70 71 72 72 72
73 74 75 76 78 79 80

Operation & Maintenance Problems in Air Quality Monitoring
5.1: Operation & Maintenance of Air Quality Samplers 5.1.1: Operation of High Volume Samplers/Respirable Dust Samplers 5.1.2: Calibration of High Volume Samplers/Respirable Dust Samplers 5.1.3: Maintenance of High Volume Samplers/Respirable Dust samplers 5.2: Operation & Maintenance of Emission Samplers 5.2.1: Stack Samplers 5.2.2: Sequential Sampler APM 500 5.2.3: Composite Stack Sampler APM 625 5.3: Operation & Maintenance of Meteorological Instruments 5.3.1: Installation & Operation 5.3.2: Maintenance 5.4: Operation & Maintenance of On-line Air Quality Monitoring Systems 5.4.1: Systems Start-Up 5.4.2: Calibration 5.4.3: Common Maintenance Procedures 83 83 83 84 86 87 87 88 88 88 88 89 89 89 91 93

5.4.4: Data Handling & Validation 96 5.4.5: Quality Assurance Procedures 97 5.5: Maintenance & Precautions in the Laboratory 98 5.5.1: Chemicals & Reagents 98 5.5.2: Cleaning of Glassware 98 5.5.3: Practices for Equipment Maintenance, Sample Handling & Data Recording98 5.5.4: Measurement of Mass or Weight of the Material 99

Air Quality Monitoring Objectives and Planning
6.1: Need for Air Quality Monitoring 6.2: Choice of Monitoring Locations 6.3: Choice of Monitoring Parameters 6.4: Choice of Monitoring Techniques and Instruments 6.5: Choice of Averaging Times and Frequencies 6.6: Data Processing & Interpretation 100 100 100 101 102 102 103

Noise and Odour & their Monitoring
7.1: Noise Pollution 7.1.1: Noise Basics 7.1.2: Impact of Noise on Health 7.1.3: Noise Pollution Standards 7.1.4: Noise Monitoring 7.1.5: Envirotech SLM 100 – A Practical Field Tool 104 104 104 105 109 110 114

7.2: Odour Pollution
7.2.1: Odour Basics 7.2.2: Impact of Odour on Health 7.2.3: Odour Pollution Standards 7.2.4: Methodology of Odour Level Monitoring References

118 118 118 119 119

Developing Strategy for Management of Ambient Air Quality of Indian Cities120
8.1: Concern on Growing Air Quality Degradation 8.2: Basic Steps to Develop a Strategy for Air Quality Management 8.3: Case Study on Recently Obtained Data/Results for two Indian Cities & Implications There-from 8.3.1: Delhi Metropolitan Scenario 8.3.2: Bangaluru City 120 122 123 123 129

8.4: Updating Existing Standards 8.5: Strategy for Legal, Financial, Institutional, and Community/Social Problems 8.6: Conclusion Bibliography

130 132 132 133

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