You are on page 1of 13

ABSTRACT

This is about the environmentally friendly design of chemical products and


processes. The focus is on minimizing the hazard and maximizing the efficiency of any
chemical choice. It is distinct from environmental chemistry which focuses on chemical
phenomena in the environment.
It mainly deals with waste minimisation at Source, Use of Catalysts in place of
Reagents, Using Non-Toxic Reagents, Use of Renewable Resources, Improved Atom
Efficiency, Use of Solvent Free or Recyclable Environmentally Benign Solvent systems
Etc.
Green chemistry aims toward the design of environmentally-begin products and
processes using ecologically friendly materials and solvents, with no or minimal amount
waste generation. In this poster, we will present several green chemistry approaches that
target towards preventing pollution. it includes global warming, energy, food supply,
toxics in the environment, carbon cycling, renewable and non renewable sources Etc.
These research works have each implemented green chemistry principles into the
advanced nanomaterials synthesis and processing. Green chemistry consists of chemicals
and chemical processes designed to reduce or eliminate negative environmental impacts.
The use and production of these chemicals may involve reduced waste products, non-
toxic components, and improved efficiency
Green chemistry aims toward the design of environmentally-benign products and
processes using ecologically friendly materials and solvents, with no or minimal amount
waste generation. green chemistry approaches that target advanced synthesis and
processing of nanoparticles. These approaches include (1) green synthesis of metal and
semiconductor nanocrystals in supercritical CO2; (2) metal nanocrystal deposition using
CO2 -expanded liquids and supercritical CO2 processing for targeting low defect, wide area
ordered arrays and thin films; (3) green synthesis of metal nanostructures with high
degree of size and shape control; (4) green synthesis and supermolecular self-assembly
of Pt Nanocrystals in aqueous solution; (5) green synthesis of metal nanocrystals for
catalytic applications including ground water treatment and alternative energy synthesis.
These research works have each implemented green chemistry principles into the
advanced nanomaterials synthesis and processing.

Abstract: Green chemistry is the new and rapid emerging field of chemistry. Its
growing importance is in utilization
of maximum possible resources in such a way that, there is negligible or
minimum production of chemical waste. It is
one of the best alternatives for traditional chemical synthesis process.
introduction

The 12 principles of green chemistry are:

• Prevent waste: Design chemical syntheses to prevent waste, leaving no waste to


treat or clean up.
• Design safer chemicals and products: Design chemical products to be fully
effective, yet have little or no toxicity.
• Design less hazardous chemical syntheses: Design syntheses to use and
generate substances with little or no toxicity to humans and the environment.
• Use renewable feedstocks: Use raw materials and feedstocks that are renewable
rather than depleting. Renewable feedstocks are often made from agricultural
products or are the wastes of other processes; depleting feedstocks are made from
fossil fuels (petroleum, natural gas, or coal) or are mined.
• Use catalysts, not stoichiometric reagents: Minimize waste by using
. Catalysts are used in small amounts and can carry out a single
reaction many times. They are preferable to reagents, which are used in
excess and work only once.
• Avoid chemical derivatives: Avoid using or any
temporary modifications if possible. Derivatives use additional reagents and
generate waste.
• Maximize atom economy: Design syntheses so that the final product
contains the maximum proportion of the starting materials. There should be
few, if any, wasted atoms.
• Use safer solvents and reaction conditions: Avoid using solvents,
separation agents, or other auxiliary chemicals. If these chemicals are
necessary, use less harmful or dangerous chemicals.
• Increase energy efficiency: Run chemical reactions at background or
room temperature and pressure whenever possible.
• Design chemicals and products to degrade after use: Design chemical
products to break down to innocuous substances after use so that they do not
accumulate in the environment.
• Analyze in real time to prevent pollution: Include in-process real-time
monitoring and control during syntheses to minimize or eliminate the
formation of byproducts.
• Minimize the potential for accidents: Design chemicals and their forms
(solid, liquid, or gas) to minimize the potential for chemical accidents
including explosions, fires, and releases to the environment.
• The Green Chemistry program supports the invention of more environmentally
friendly chemical processes which reduce or even eliminate the generation of
hazardous substances.
• Prevention
It is better to prevent waste than to treat or clean up waste after it has been
created.

• Less Hazardous Chemical Synthesis


Wherever practicable, synthetic methods should be designed to use and generate
substances that possess little or no toxicity to people or the environment.

• Designing Safer Chemicals


Chemical products should be designed to effect their desired function while
minimising their toxicity.

• Safer Solvents and Auxiliaries


The use of auxiliary substances (e.g., solvents or separation agents) should be
made unnecessary whenever possible and innocuous when used.

• Design for Energy Efficiency


Energy requirements of chemical processes should be recognised for their
environmental and economic impacts and should be minimised. If possible,
synthetic methods should be conducted at ambient temperature and pressure.

8 Reduce Derivatives
Unnecessary derivatization (use of blocking groups, protection/de-protection, and
temporary modification of physical/chemical processes) should be minimised or avoided
if possible, because such steps require additional reagents and can generate waste.

9 Catalysis
Catalytic reagents (as selective as possible) are superior to stoichiometric reagents.

10 Design for Degradation


Chemical products should be designed so that at the end of their function they break
down into innocuous degradation products and do not persist in the environment.

11 Real-time Analysis for Pollution Prevention


Analytical methodologies need to be further developed to allow for real-time, in-process
monitoring and control prior to the formation of hazardous substances.

12 Inherently Safer Chemistry for Accident Prevention


Substances and the form of a substance used in a chemical process should be chosen to
minimise the potential for chemical accidents, including releases, explosions, and fires.
 Substances that are toxic to humans, the biosphere and all that sustains it, are
currently still being released at a cost of life, health and sustainability.
 One of green chemistry’s greatest strengths is the ability to design for reduced
hazard.
 Green chemistry is developing:

 While current food levels are sufficient, distribution is inadequate


 Agricultural methods are unsustainable
 Future food production intensity is needed.
 Green chemistry can address many food supply issues

 Pesticides which only affect target organisms and degrade to innocuous
by-products.
 Fertilizers and fertilizer adjuvants that are designed to minimize usage
while maximizing effectiveness.
Methods of using agricultural wastes for beneficial and profitable uses.

Green chemistry - or: sustainable chemistry - is the application of environmentally


friendly chemicals and processes to protect the environment from hazardous substances.

Risk = Hazard x Exposure


‘Green Chemistry’ is essentially a way of thinking rather than a new branch
of chemistry and is about utilising a set of principles that seek to reduce the
environmental impact of chemical processes and products. This Note is
designed to provide information and general guidance for members of the
RSC, and to raise awareness of the principles and benefits of Green
Chemistry. It is not intended to be a full or definitive guide and readers are
urged to obtain more detailed information and/or expert advice if this is
required.
The RSC recognises that there can be both real and perceived barriers to the
greater adoption of Green Chemistry. However we believe that overall it
should represent a major step change in the practice of chemistry. The
promotion of ‘Green Chemistry’ is one of the most important ways in which
chemistry and chemists can contribute to sustainable development. A
companion EHSC Note on ‘Sustainable Development and the Professional
Chemist’ explores the role of chemists in relation to sustainable development
in more detail.
WHAT IS GREEN CHEMISTRY
safety issues such as fire and explosion, health effects such as carcinogenicity
and endocrine disruption, and environmental impacts such as global warming
and impacts on wildlife. The true extent of such risks is the subject of debate,
and it can be argued that too little attention is given to the corresponding
benefits that chemicals bring to society. Nonetheless society’s growing
concern for the environment and pressures for greater control of chemicals in
the environment have now coalesced in the arena of ‘Sustainable
Development’. ‘Green Chemistry’ is a major component in the way that
chemistry as well as the chemical and related industries, have led and
responded to the sustainable development debate.
‘Green Chemistry’ is essentially a way of thinking rather than a new branch
of chemistry. It involves pulling together tools, techniques and technologies
that can help chemists and chemical engineers in research, development and
production to develop more eco-friendly and efficient products and processes,
which may also have significant financial benefits. ‘Green Chemistry’ aims
to improve the way that chemicals are both produced and used in chemical
processes in order to reduce any impact on man and the environment. It is
not just about industrial production. The principles involved apply equally to
the use of chemicals in for example laboratories and education.
The term “Green Chemistry”, defined as “The
invention, design, and application of
chemical products and
processes to reduce or to eliminate
the use and generation of
hazardous substances”.
Green Chemistry Mission:
To promote innovative chemical technologies that reduce or eliminate
the
use or generation of hazardous substances in the design, manufacture,
and

use of chemical products


conclusion

Green chemistry, also known as sustainable chemistry, is an umbrella concept that has
grown substantially since it fully emerged a decade ago. By definition, green chemistry is
the design, development, and implementation of chemical products and processes to
reduce or eliminate the use and generation of substances hazardous to human health and
the environment.
Principles
Paul Anastas, then of the United States Environmental Protection Agency, and John C.
Warner developed 12 principles of green chemistry,[3] which help to explain what the
definition means in practice. The principles cover such concepts as:

• the design of processes to maximize the amount of raw material that ends up in
the product;
• the use of safe, environment-benign substances, including solvents, whenever
possible;
• the design of energy efficient processes;
• the best form of waste disposal: not to create it in the first place.

Green chemistry can lead to dramatic changes in how we interact with chemicals on
a daily basis as in the case of the 2005 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the development
of the metathesis method in organic synthesis. "The word metathesis means
'change-places'. In metathesis reactions, double bonds are broken and made
between carbon atoms in ways that cause atom groups to change places. This
happens with the assistance of special catalyst molecules. Metathesis can be
compared to a dance in which the couples change partners...Metathesis is used daily
in the chemical industry, mainly in the development of pharmaceuticals and of
advanced plastic materials. Thanks to the Laureates' contributions, synthesis
methods have been developed that are

• more efficient (fewer reaction steps, fewer resources required, less wastage),
• simpler to use (stable in air, at normal temperatures and pressures), and
• environmentally friendlier (non-injurious solvents, less hazardous waste
products).

Berthelot's reagent - Berthelot's reagent is an alkaline solution of phenol and hypochlorite,


used in analytical chemistry. It is named after its inventor, Marcellin Berthelot. Ammonia
reacts with Berthelot's reagent to form a blue product which is used in a colorimetric method
for determining ammonia. The reagent..

Reagent - In organic chemistry, reagents are compounds or mixtures, usually composed of ...
Chemistry stubs | Reagents for organic chemistry | Chemical reactions..

Reagent - Examples of such analytical reagents include Fehling's ... in the reaction, are
usually not referred to as reactants. ... Limiting reagent; Reagents for organic chemistry
References..

Reagent - Examples of organic reagents include the Collins reagent, ... Limiting reagent;
Reagents for organic chemistry References ... Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
Catalysis is the change in rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of a
substance called a catalyst. Unlike other reagents that participate in the chemical reaction,
a catalyst is not consumed by the reaction itself. A catalyst may participate in multiple
chemical transformations.
Green Chemistry

Green chemistry is also known as environmentally benign chemistry, or


sustainable chemistry. Perhaps the most widely accepted definition of green
chemistry is the one offered by chemists Paul Anastas and John Warner, who
defined green chemistry as the design of chemical products and processes that
reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances.

Milestones
The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 set the stage for green chemistry: Its focus
is the prevention of pollution at the source rather than the treatment of
pollutants after they are formed. This goal became a formal objective of the
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1991. Anastas coined the term "green
chemistry" the same year. Two of the most prominent and early advocates of
green chemistry were Kenneth Hancock of the National Science Foundation
(NSF) and Joe Breen, who after twenty years of service at the EPA then became
the first director of the Green Chemistry Institute (GCI) during the late 1990s.

Anastas and Warner formulated the twelve principles of green chemistry in 1998.
These serve as guidelines for chemists seeking to lower the ecological footprint of
the chemicals they produce and the processes by which such chemicals are made.

Starting in 1996, outstanding examples of green chemistry have been recognized


in the United States each year by the Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge
(PGCC) awards. These are the only awards in chemistry that are bestowed at the
presidential level.
The EPA and the American Chemical Society (ACS) have played a major role in
promoting research and development, as well as education, in green chemistry.
In 2000 the GCI became a partner of the ACS. Chemical societies around the
globe have recognized the importance of green chemistry and promote it through
journals, conferences, educational activities, and the formation of GCI chapters.
There are GCI chapter affiliates all over the world.

Importance to Industry: The Triple Bottom


Line
During the 1990s many industries began to earnestly adopt green chemistry and
other sustainable practices. Forward-looking companies realized that the practice
of green chemistry not only leads to environmental benefits, but also economic
and social benefits. The combination of these three benefits is known as the
"triple bottom line" and provides strong encouragement for businesses to develop
sustainable products and processes.

The following real-world examples of green chemistry represent the


accomplishments of several winners of the PGCC awards. They illustrate how
green chemistry impacts a wide array of fields including pharmaceuticals,
pesticides, polymers, and many others.

The Concept of Atom Economy


When chemists are considering a compound, they are concerned with the
chemical, biological, and physical properties of this compound, and the
Concerns over the pollution of natural resources such as this valley in Zion
National Park, Utah prompted the development of green chemistry in the 1990s.

method by which the compound is prepared or its synthesis . In order to focus


greater attention on waste by-products that are formed during a synthesis, Barry
Trost of Stanford University developed the concept of atom economy. This
concept deals with the question: How many of the atoms of the reactants are
incorporated into the final desired product and how many are wasted by
incorporation into by-products? An example of the application of this concept is
discussed in the following synthesis of ibuprofen.

Pharmaceuticals. Ibuprofen is the active ingredient in many analgesic and


inflammatory drugs such as Advil, Motrin, and Medipren. Beginning in the
1960s, ibuprofen was produced by a six-step synthesis with an atom economy of
only 40 percent. This meant that less than half (40 percent) of the weight of all
the atoms of the reactants were incorporated in the ibuprofen, and 60 percent
were wasted in the formation of unwanted by-products. The annual production of
approximately 30 million pounds of ibuprofen by this method resulted in over 40
million pounds of waste. But during the 1990s, the BHC Company developed a
new synthesis of ibuprofen with an atom economy of 77 to 99 percent. This
synthesis not only produces much less waste, it is also only a three-step process.
A pharmaceutical company can thus produce more ibuprofen in less time and
with less energy, which results in increased profits.

Pesticides. Dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) is one of the most well-


known insecticides. During World War II it saved thousands of Allied lives by
killing disease-carrying insects, but during the 1960s the significant
environmental damage caused by DDT was brought to the public's attention by
Rachel Carson in Silent Spring (1962). As a result of the controversy generated by
this book and other media coverage, the substance's use was banned in the
United States in 1973.

During the 1960s and 1970s organophosphates largely replaced organo-chlorine


pesticides such as DDT. These pesticides rapidly degrade in the environment,
but they are much more toxic to mammals. They are deadly to a wide array of
insects and kill not only the target organism but also beneficial insects, such as
bees and predatory beetles, and can also be harmful to humans.

One approach to producing less environmentally harmful pesticides is to use


compounds that destroy only the target organisms. One manufacturer, Rohm &
Haas, has developed insecticides that mimic a hormone used only by molting
insects. Insects that do not molt are not affected, leaving many beneficial insects
unharmed.

A more recent strategy for protecting plants from pests and disease involves the
use of genetically altered plants. This method is controversial. Concerns include
cross-pollination with unaltered plants and the entry of altered plants into the
food supply.

Other Examples. Some other examples of green chemistry include the


following:

• taking chromium and arsenic, which are toxic, out of pressure-treated


wood
• using new less toxic chemicals for bleaching paper
• substituting yttrium for lead in auto paint
• using enzymes instead of a strong base for the treatment of cotton fibers

Green chemistry reduces toxicity, minimizes waste, saves energy, and cuts down
on the depletion of natural resources. It allows for advances in chemistry to occur
in a much more environmentally benign way. In the future, when green
chemistry is practiced by all chemists and all chemicalrelated companies, the
term "green chemistry" will ideally disappear as all chemistry becomes green.

.
Introduction :(1,2)
‘Green Chemistry’ is the new branch of chemistry
which involves pulling together tools, techniques and
technologies. It is helpful to chemists and chemical
engineers in research, development and production for
development of more eco-friendly and efficient
products which may also have significant financial
benefits. It is now going to become an essential tool in
the field of synthetic chemistry. The development of
Green Chemistry redefines the role of a solvent: “An
ideal solvent facilitates the mass transfer but does not
dissolve”. In addition, a desirable green solvent should
be natural, nontoxic, cheap and readily available with
additional benefits of aiding the reaction, separation or
catalyst recycling. Of the various principles of green
chemistry, the important one is maximizing the Atom
Economy which evaluates the efficiency of chemical
transformation and is calculated as:
% atom utilization (3)
= Molecular weight of desired product X 100
Molecular weight of
(desired product + waste product)
In the present study, few derivatives of acetanilide (IIV)
are synthesized by conventional method as well as
green synthesis method. The synthesized compounds
are characterized by their physical constants and FTIR.
Both the method gives the desired products, but by
applying the green synthesis method, we can able to
avoid the use of acetic anhydride and formation of by
products. Moreover, the atom economy was obtained
in the range of 72% to 82% which indicates the
complete use of chemicals. Thus, concept of green
chemistry can be applied to various synthetic methods.
This may leads to generation of eco friendly synthetic
chemistry.

CONCLUSION: The ultimate aim of green chemistry is to entirely cut down the stream of
chemicals pouring into the environment. This aim seems unattainable at present, but progress in the green
chemical research areas and their application through successive approaches will certainly provide safer

specialty chemicals and much more satisfactory processes for the chemical

industry