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Metal detectors are fascination machines. Many of the people who use them are just as enthusiastic about extolling the virtues of their favorite metal detector as they are about setting off in search of buried treasure. Those of us who design and build these instruments for a living listen carefully when one of our customers talks about his or her experience in the field, because this is the primary means by which we determine how well we are doing our jobs, and what sort of things we need to do better. Sometimes though, communication is difficult. Almost as though we and our customers speak different languages. Which in a sense, we do. The purpose of this page is to try to narrow that communication gap a little. And, to resolve some of that "typical curiosity" metal detector operators have regarding what is going on inside their instruments. Is it necessary to know how a metal detector works in order to use it effectively? Absolutely not. Will knowing how it works help someone to use it more effectively in the future? Quite possibly yes, but only with persistence and practice. The best metal detector available is still only as good as the person using it.
This is the circuit diagram of a low cost metal detector using a single transistor circuit and an old pocket radio...This is nothing but a Colpitts oscillator working in the medium band frequency and a radio tuned to the same frequency.First the radio and the circuit are placed close.Then the radio is tuned so that there is no sound from radio. In this condition the radio and the circuit will be in same frequency and same frequencies beat off to produce no sound.This is the set up.When the metal detector circuit is placed near to a metal object the inductance of its coil changes , and so do the frequency of oscillations.Now the two frequency will be different , there will be no canceling and radio produces a hissing sound.The metal is
USES As a hobby
There are six major types of hobbyist activities involving metal detectors:
Coin shooting is looking for coins after an event involving many people, like a baseball game, or simply looking for any old coins. Serious coin shooters will spend hours, days and months doing historical research to locate long lost sites that have the potential to give up historical and collectible coins. Prospecting is looking for valuable metals like gold and silver in their natural forms, such as nuggets or flakes. General metal detecting is very similar to coin shooting except that the metal detectorist is after any type of historical artifact. Metal detectorists may be dedicated to preserving historical artifacts, and often have considerable expertise. Coins, bullets, buttons, axe heads, and buckles are just a few of the items that are commonly found by relic hunters; in general the potential is far greater in Europe and Asia than many other parts of the world. More valuable finds in Britain alone include the Staffordshire Hoard of Anglo-Saxon gold, sold for £3,285,000, the gold Celtic Newark Torc, the Ringlemere Cup, West Bagborough Hoard, Milton Keynes Hoard, Roman Crosby Garrett Helmet, Stirling Hoard, Collette Hoard and thousands of smaller finds. Beach combing is hunting for lost coins or jewelry on a beach. Beach hunting can be as simple or as complicated as
one wishes to make it. Many dedicated beach hunters also familiarize themselves with tide movements and beach erosion. There are two main techniques for beach hunting. The first one is called "gridding", which is when you search in a pattern. For example, you start from the beach line, and work your way down to the shoreline, move to the side a little, and repeat the process. The next technique is called "Random searching". Random searching is when you walk around the beach in no particular pattern, hoping to cover more ground. Metal detecting clubs across the United States, United Kingdom and Canada exist for hobbyists to learn from others, show off finds from their hunts and to learn more about the hobby.
A series of aircraft hijackings led the Finnish company Outokumpu to adapt mining metal detectors still housed in a large cylindrical pipe, to the purpose of screening airline passengers as they walked through. The development of these systems continued in a spin off company and systems branded as Metor Metal Detectors evolved in the form of the rectangular gantry now standard in airports. In common with the developments in other uses of metal detectors both alternating current and pulse systems are used, and the design of the coils and the electronics has moved forward to improve the discrimination of these systems. In 1995 systems such as the Metor 200 appeared with the ability to indicate the approximate height of the metal object above the ground, enabling security personnel to more rapidly locate the source of the signal.
Smaller hand held metal detectors are also used to locate a metal object on a person more precisely.
Industrial metal detectors
Industrial metal detectors are used in the pharmaceutical, food, beverage, textile, garment, plastics, chemicals, lumber, and packaging industries. Contamination of food by metal shards from broken processing machinery during the manufacturng process is a major safety issue in the food industry. Metal detectors for this purpose are widely used and integrated into the production line. Current practice at garment or apparel industry plants is to apply metal detecting after the garments are completely sewn and before garments are packed to check whether there is any metal contamination (needle, broken needle, etc.) in the garments. This needs to be done for safety reasons.
In civil engineering special metal detectors (cover meters) are used to locate rebar. Rebar detectors are less sophisticated, and can only locate metallic objects below the surface
GPR has many applications in a number of fields. In the Earth sciences it is used to study bedrock, soils, groundwater, and ice. Engineering applications include nondestructive testing (NDT) of structures and pavements, locating buried structures and utility lines, and studying soils and bedrock. In environmental remediation, GPR is used to define landfills, contaminant plumes, and other remediation sites, while in archaeology it is used for mapping archaeological features and cemeteries. GPR is used in law enforcement for locating clandestine graves and buried evidence. Military uses include detection of mines, unexploded ordnance, and tunnels. Before 1987 the Frankley Reservoir in Birmingham, England UK was leaking 540 litres of drinking water per second. In that year GPR was used successfully to isolate the leaks. Borehole radars utilizing GPR are used to map the structures from a borehole in underground mining applications. Modern directional borehole radar systems are able to produce threedimensional images from measurements in a single borehole. One of the other main applications for ground penetration radars to locate underground utilities, since GPR is able to generate 3D underground images of pipes, power, sewage and water mains.
Individual lines of GPR data represent a sectional (profile) view of the subsurface. Multiple lines of data systematically collected over an area may be used to construct three-dimensional or tomographic images. Data may be presented as threedimensional blocks, or as horizontal or vertical slices. Horizontal slices (known as "depth slices" or "time slices") are essentially planview maps isolating specific depths. Timeslicing has become standard practice in archaeological applications, because horizontal patterning is often the most important indicator of cultural activities.
The most significant performance limitation of GPR is in highconductivity materials such as clay soils and soils that are salt contaminated. Performance is also limited by signal scattering in heterogeneous conditions (e.g. rocky soils). Other disadvantages of currently available GPR systems include:
Interpretation of radargrams is generally non-intuitive to the novice. Considerable expertise is necessary to effectively design, conduct, and interpret GPR surveys. Relatively high energy consumption can be problematic for extensive field surveys.
Recent advances in GPR hardware and software have done much to ameliorate these disadvantages, and further improvement can be expected with ongoing development
Disadvantage of metal detector
y The first disadvantage of a metal detector is that it may give a false alarm. This may happen if someone is carrying any sort of metal object on them (watch, phone, toy, jewelry). This may cause panic for no reason and cause the person to be embarrassed. This is seen as a major inconvenience for both the person and staff.
Pacemakers and Other Devices:y another disadvantage is that the metal detector isn't really helpful with people who have had to get a pacemaker or other types of replacements such as a knee replacement. It may also be unsafe for these people. In most cases, these people avoid going through metal detectors.
Interference:y The final disadvantage of a metal detector is that it may interfere with certain personal devices. For example, it may interfere with a magnetic recording device. An example of this is a cassette or CD. It also interferes with other things such as a cell phone, forcing people to turn it off before walking through.
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