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Environmental and Social Safeguards Management in NAIP*

Project title: Detection and Mitigation of Dairy Pathogens and Detection of Adulterants using
Chemical Biology

1. Basic information
A. Project Data

• Project Statistics:
Project Cost: Rs.411.8005 lakh
Duration: Three years and three months
Location: Roorkee, Karnal and Goa

• Consortium Leader: Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee


• Consortium Partners: NDRI, Karnal
:BITS, Goa campus
• Consortium PI: Dr. Naveen Kumar Navani
• Consortium CoPI: Dr. Y. S. Rajput
: Dr.Sunil Bhand

Project Objectives:

• To develop high affinity nucleic acid aptamers for the detection of food spoilage and dairy
pathogens as per legal document, viz., Escherichia coli including pathogenic strain 0157,
Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens and
Enterobacter sakazaki.
• To develop high affinity nucleic acid aptamers and chemical based detection methods for
common adulterants of milk viz., urea, detergents, and whey.
• To screen drug like molecules for mitigation of gram negative bacteria and separation of the
dead/inactivated bacteria and associated drug molecules from milk during processing.

• Brief Project Description:


Milk is an essential nutritional food for infants and adults alike. India leads the world in total milk production,
however, the tropical climate, unorganized milk production, laxity in quality control, a lopsided demand and
supply position coupled with evolution of recalcitrant pathogens in the dairy industry are the major factors
causing the development pace to bog down significantly. The situation is further being deteriorated by incessant
reports of synthetic milk being prepared by adulterants and fed to the unsuspecting population thus jeopardizing
the health people. The synthetic milk is usually composed of chemicals like urea, neutralizers and detergents
which can get metabolized into carcinogenic and endocrine disrupting agents. There is a need for development
of cost-effective and easy to handle means of detecting such adulterants. The aptamer based biosensing can
provide effective solutions to such problems. The other problem which ails Indian dairy sector in particular and
food processing industry in general is of quality assurance with particular reference to microbial contamination.
The problem for dairy sector initiates with the milk producing animals, which can deliver heavy load of
bacteria to fresh milk due to infections. Even though there are different reasons for developing and developed
economies to combat infection and food contamination, everyone agrees that such undesirable microbes are a
threat to human health and must be contained or eliminated. World wide there are huge efforts being directed
towards the discovery of conventional and non conventional ways to combat food infections. The concept of
forward chemical genetics has given rise to identification of novel antibacterial leads which are proving to be
effective in combating several food spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. The identification and isolation
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of such NCEs (New Chemical Entities) and understanding their mode of action will allow researchers to
develop a complete battery of antimicrobial arsenal targeting both (Gram positive and negative) groups of
dairy pathogens in particular and food processing industry in general.
Taken together, detection and inhibition of adulterants and pathogens in the milk and other agricultural
products and by products is one need of the hour which will not only address the national need and export
potential of Indian food processing industry but will lead to development of effective sensing technologies and
therapeutics at competitive international level. This comprehensive approach will add value by controlling the
adulterated food and milk, after careful studies it can help in combating the microbial load.
The following scientific problems are to be solved in order to attain the objectives -
1. Development of sensing systems for food spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms.
2. Development of sensing systems for a few frequently used milk adulterants like; urea, whey proteins, and
detergent.
3. Incorporation of sensing system with the suitable signalling system so that the whole biosensor can be
developmed into “qualitative detection kit” at farmer/ unorganized dairy sector level.
4. Incorporation of sensing system with the suitable signalling system so that the whole biosensor can be
developed into “quantitative detection kit” at industrial level.
5. Screening of small molecule libraries using the chosen gram negative pathogens and find their targets and
studies for the removal of anactivated bacteria-drug from the milk.
The challenging tasks of detection and mitigation are proposed to be taken-up by experts in the upcoming field
of chemical biology (aptamer development), and at the same taking the chemical approaches also. Three
institutes are collaborating to address the problem of adulteration and food spoilage. We are aiming to generate
easy to use sensing system for quality control of market milk. The forward chemical genetics combined with
small molecule screening will address the problem of mitigation by discovering novel chemical matter.
B. Environmental Category:
2. Major issues in the subproject
• Social: Nil, There are no major social issues involved in the execution of this project, since it does
not disturb any of the existing social structure or systems or communities.
• Environmental:
NIL, since it does not propose to release any environmentally detrimental organisms.

3. Safeguard Policies Triggered (World Bank Policies):


Safeguard Policies Triggered (World Bank Policies) Yes No
Environmental Assessment (OP/BP 4.01) [ ] [X]
Natural Habitats (OP/BP 4.04) [ ] [ X]
Pest Management (OP 4.09) [ ] [X ]
Cultural Property (draft OP 4.11-OPN 11.03 -) [ ] [X ]
Involuntary Resettlement (OP/BP 4.12) [ ] [X ]
Indigenous Peoples (OD 4.20) [ ] [ X]
Forests (OP/BP 4.36) [ ] [X ]
Safety of Dams (OP/BP 4.37) [ ] [X]
Projects in Disputed Areas (OP/BP 7.60) [ ] [X]
Projects on International Waterways (OP/BP 7.50) [ ] [X]

4. Risk related Issues (not covered under 3 above but perceived to be important in the sub project): NIL
5. Impact Assessment (Enclosure –I and II): Enclosed
6. Potential indirect and / or long-term Impacts due to anticipated future activities in the project areas
(assessment of anticipated conflict / complimentarily with the current as well as those proposed for the
next five years) in the areas of activities of the sub-Project) : Nil
7. Identify the key stakeholders and describe mechanisms for consultation with and to them done / disclosure
so far done including pre-project consultations with the stake holders, stakeholders’ workshop before
formulating the full proposal, discussing the full proposal with some stakeholders before submission to the
PIU: Key stakeholders for this sub-project are the researchers working in the field of food, dairy and
human health.

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8. Consultation / disclosures to be done in future : Local disclosure through mechanisms such as launch
workshop, interfaces during the implementation stage of the sub-project for sharing the results and
soliciting feedback, circulating project brochures and implementation progress from time to time, putting
up annual reports on the web site and annual stakeholder workshops wherever feasible:

Consortium PI National Coordinator National Director

Enclosure-I
Safeguards Template for NAIP Projects
A: Environmental Safeguard : Activities, Issues, Impact and Mitigation Measures

Table 1: Environmental Safeguard : Activities, Issues, Impact and mitigation Measures

Activities1 Issues2 Anticipated level of Impacts3 Mitigation


Measures
(Negative
Impact)4

Positive Scale Negative


To develop high affinity NIL NIL Nil Nil NA
nucleic acid aptamers for
the detection of six food
spoilage and dairy
pathogens.
To develop high affinity NIL NIL Nil Nil NA
nucleic acid aptamers and
chemical based detection
methods for common
adulterants of milk viz.,
urea, detergents, and whey.
To screen drug like NIL NIL Nil Nil NA
molecules for mitigation of
gram negative bacteria and
separation of the
dead/inactivated bacteria
and associated drug
molecules from milk
during processing.

1. List the activities/interventions proposed in the project:


Activities and intervensions as mentioned under Environmental Safeguard, Table 1.

2. List of possible issues under different sectors is provided in List I.


As listed under Environmental Safeguard, Table 1

3. Provide quantitative indication of the issue at the beginning of the project on the basis of studies,
collective wisdom etc. State the likely impact (Positive or Negative) of activities/interventions on the level of
issues identified. Put in a scale of 0-5 (very low, low, moderate, high and very high). Brief statements can also
be made.
See Table A1
4. State the mitigation measures planned to be taken to address the negative impact
Not Applicable

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Enclosure-II
B. Social Safeguard : Activities, Issues, Impact and mitigation Measures
Table 2 : Social Safeguard : Activities, Issues, Impact and mitigation Measures

Activities1 Issues2 Anticipated level of Impacts3 Mitigation


Measures
(Negative Impact) 4

Positive Scale Negative

To develop high affinity nucleic Human Health * 3 Nil NA


acid aptamers for the detection
of six food spoilage and dairy
pathogens.
To develop high affinity nucleic Human Health * 3 Nil NA
acid aptamers and chemical
based detection methods for
common adulterants of milk
viz., urea, detergents, and whey.
To screen drug like molecules Human Health * 3 Nil NA
for mitigation of gram negative
bacteria and separation of the
dead/inactivated bacteria and
associated drug molecules from
milk during processing.
* The results of the sub-project will allow formulation of techniques which when used in commercial scale will
provide detection of milk and other food products with deliberate adulteration and prevention of contamination
by unwanted microbes at fairly low cost and large scale.

1. List the activities/interventions proposed in the project. An indicative list of main activities is
provided in List II: Not applicable
2. List of possible issues under different sectors is provided in Annex-3. Fine tune it according to the
project interventions/activities: Not applicable
3. Provide quantitative indication of the issue at the beginning of the project on the basis of studies,
collective wisdom etc. State the likely impact (Positive or Negative) of activities/interventions on the level
of issues identified. Put in a scale of 0-5 (very low, low, moderate, high, very high). Brief statements can
also be made.

4. State the mitigation measures planned to be taken to address the negative impact:
Not applicable