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**DETERMINATION OF DESIGN AIRSPEEDS AND LOAD FACTOR. PLOTTING DESIG ENVELOPES.
**

For a strength calculation it is necessary to know design airspeeds and load factors. Initial conditions for determination of these values for transport airplanes are: a take-off weight Gt, Lw - wing span, Sw – wing area, cruising airspeed of an airplane VC at a cruise altitude of flight Hc, the wing sweep till 0.25 of chord – χ0.25 . These values are selected for the plane designed by the student. These values are shown below for AERI 001 which is an modification of HAWKER 4000 with extended range and passenger capacity. INITIAL DATA : Take – off mass of airplane Gt= 17666.67 kg Cruise speed VC= 842kmh Cruise altitude HC = 12000 m Wing span LW =18.8 m Wing area SW=43.82 m2 Quarter line swept of wing χ0.25=26 ͦ For planes flying with speeds 700-950 km/h airfoils are recommended with relative thickness = 8-12 %.

c

Considering the speed of aircraft airfoil chosen for the wing is NACA 2309 is chosen For NACA 2309 ,

Cymaxaf=1.51

We spend calculation only for altitude H=0. In design office (DO) calculations are carried out for all altitude range. In this HT we have the cruising airspeed from technical data of plane. In strength analysis only equivalent airspeeds VEAS are used, which are calculated under the formula: VEAS =V ,

ρH =V Δ ρ0

where V- is air airspeed of plane on flight altitude, ρH – is air density on flight altitude, ρ0 - is air density on altitude H=0, - is relative density which we take from table of standard atmosphere. From the standard

Δ = ρH

ρ0

**table, Δ= 0.254 at height 12000 m. Thus,
**

VEAS=8420.254=424.36kmh

= 117.88 m/s For the chosen wing airfoil you should plot the diagram Су=f(), where the angle α of attack should be in degrees and radians (fig.1). Upon this diagram you find the maximal value of lift coefficient for airfoil Сy max af and . On these sizes you expect Су мах р and .

C αaf y

Cα p y

The maximum value of a lift coefficient for an airplane Cy max p is equal to:

05 Design airspeeds we discover only for one altitude H=0. 1.e.5 and need not be greater than 3. for VC<740 km/h).59 The negative limit maneuvering load factor nlyminman may not be less than -1.25VC Thus VD = 1. we obtain Cy afα=4.1) as ratio: (1) C α af = y ∆C y ∆α ( rad ) Fig.Cy max p= 0.51 =1.25x 424. The negative limit maneuvering load factor for all transport airplanes can be received: (2) n ly min man = −1.95 Cymax af.1 + 10886 G + 4536 where G is the design maximum takeoff weight in kilograms of force.5 .95 x 1.45 km/h (3) .67 + 4536 Since 3.59> 2. Cy max p= 0. From the above graph . So we chose n ly max man = 2. is equal to: VD=1.36 = 530.3567 According to AR maneuvering maximum limit load factor does not depend on an altitude and en-route weight and are determined under the formula: .4345 where Cy max af – is the maximum value of a lift coefficient for an airfoil. n ly max man = 2.05.59 17666.0 at airspeeds up to VD. Dependence lift coefficient Cy from α . n ly max man = 2.1 + 10886 = 2.8>2. except that nly max man may not be less than 2. The maximum dive airspeed VD. You should estimate the angular rate of attack the lift coefficient of the airfoil upon the linear site of C α af y the diagram (fig.8. The calculation of a maximum limit load factor is carried out to within 0. if it is not restricted to a Mach number (i.

81m/c2 – is acceleration of free fall.82×1.73 km/h =107. Airspeed VA is a minimum airspeed.532.VC The gust load factor should be determined by the following formula: . So let us first find the value of load factor from gust on cruising velocity VC.53 km/h VA = VS1 n ly max man =241. Sw – wing area in m2. 53+ ug .= 147.59=388.671. It is under the formula from AR: 3. g=9. It is necessary to translate this value in km/h.435×43.98ms For calculation of airspeed for maximum intensity of vertical gusts VB it is necessary to find value of the load factor from gusts on a cruising airspeed ng. ρ density on altitude H=0 from table of standard atmosphere in kg/m3. (7) ng = 1 + K g * C α * U de * V y 16 * G / S where Kg . . 1 Calculations for Cruising velocity . determined by the following formulas: .6V[m/s]=V[km/h] =241.stalling airspeed VS1 is flight on Cy max p with load factor ny =1. For H=0 and cruising airspeed VC value of the vertical airspeed of the gust Ude is equal Ude=15.2m/s. It is necessary to round off this value to within 10 km/h.35 m/s The minimum airspeed of flight .09 m/s 0 – air From formula (5) the airspeed is in m/s.225= 67. on which the maneuver with a maximum maneuvering limit load factor nly max man is possible. From this condition VS1 is equal to: VS1 = (5) 2G C y max p S w ρ0 where G = Gtg . Kg = 088* ug . VS1=2×17666.is plane weight in N.is the gust damping factor.

is the design maximum takeoff weight in kilograms of force. VC and χ MC=VCa=424.is equivalent airspeeds of the airplane.47 =60.331×0.125. meters / sec2.81×43. b ..is derivative of the lift factor of the airplane where V .051 ng maxl= 1+1.051=2. ρ =0.475.361225=0.95×4.3+60.67×15.8218.81 m/s2.95C α af y 1. meters/second.an acceleration of the free fall.81 ng=1±0.05 The value of this load factor in AR is meant ng. kgf × sec 2 / m4.47 = 0.25 .8=2.is the wing sweep till 0. Сα y on an angle of attack (1 / radian).88×60.M 2 cos 2 χ 0. G .is wing area in m2. The angular rate of attack the lift coefficient of the planeis approximately equal: C α p =C α y y (8) C =C ≈ α yp α y 0.331 ug=2×17666.25 where MC – is the Mach number for. Cy pα=Cyα~0.67 b=43. ug = 2 * G / SW b* ρ* C α * g y .3462×(cos 26)2 =4.051=-0.67×9.051 ng min l=1-1. SW .99×43.125×4. g =9.672.346 0.2×117.25 of chord .67 = 1±1.is mean aerodynamic cord in m .361-0.82 Kg=0.81×4.the density of the air. On this value we can calculate VB1: .b=Sw/Lw.8216×17666.

256Кg Cαр у = 1. VB2) VB=353. from positive and negative gusts on airspeeds VD. as they cannot be more than nly max man. It is explained to that the maneuvers go on Cy max p and greater aerodynamic force cannot be.095 =98.98 km/ h Су max p – maximum lift coefficient of the airplane.67 = 4. .75 p = 17666. VB2.09×403. VB=VC-81 (Km/h) = 424.36 -81=342.752+(4×0.67 / 43.17 VB2 = 4. B + B 2 + 4 Ap VB2 = 2A where VB2 – in m/s.82 =403. If this value VB does not meet the requirement (10) than you must take VB upon formula (10).this value we can take for speed VB1. .33m/ sec =353. So. From these values VB – VB1.9 km/h (9) According to the AR airspeed VB must be: VB≤VC-81 (Kmh) (10) By aerodynamic characteristic airspeed VB2 is equal: .98 Km/h This value VB must meet the requirement (10).051 VB1=345.VB1 =VS1* ng VB1=241.is specific wing load.81 x 4.derivative of the Cα y lift factor on the angle of attack from formula (8).17)2×0.0625Су max p. it is necessary to choose maximal value for VB: VB= max(VB1. Kg – gust damping factor from formula (7).0625 × 1. S – wing area in m2 (11) p =G S А= 0. VB and VC. nlg min.53×2.256 x 0. .36 km/h Further under the formula (7) we must calculate the values of load factors nlg max.75+4.435 =0. =0. On airspeed VA load factor from gusts are not determined.09 В=1. G – is plane weight in kgf.

11 ug=2×17666.215.712 = 1.6 m/s.15=-0.95×4.79×9.As we carry out analysis only on height H=0 than for VB we have Ude= 20.79 =58.95×4.1×43.433 Cy pα=Cyα~0.Calculations for airspeed VB VB =343. 2.82 =4.1 m/s.8216×17666.Calculation for diving speed VD VD = 530.35671-0.361225 = 0.35×43.79×20.712=0.36 km/h =95.1 m/sec MB = 343.331×0.4332×(cos 26)2=5.803 ng=1±0.1×95.895.89 = 0.45 km/h =147.88×55.35671-0.88×58.89 Kg=0.712 Table #1 . Data of calculations is brought in the table #1 and design envelops are plotted for flight modes (fig. for VC Ude=± 15.8216×17666.28 Cy pα=Cyα~0.82 =55. 2.67 ng maxl = 1+1.15 ng minl =1-1.81 ng=1±0.3+58.11×9.125×5.81×43. 3).331×0.67 ng maxl ng minl=1-0.81×4.21 Kg=0.125×4.15 3.35 m/sec MD = 530.3+55.29 = 1+0.672.21 = 0.6×147.451225 = 0.11×7.282×(cos 26)2 ug=2×17666.803×5.15 = 2.672.2 m/s and for VD Ude=± 7.81×43.

VS V(km/h) nly max man nly min man nlg max nlg min 241.59 -1.051 -0.59 -1.36 2.15 -0.05 —— —— VB 343.45 2. 2.15 VC 424.36 2.29 Fig.05 2.05 1.05 2.59 -1.05 VD 530. The design envelop for maneuvering load factors.73 2.53 1 — — — VA 388.59 -1. .71 0.

Fig. 3. The design envelop for gust load factors. .

Prakul Mittal Gr :. Kripkin By:.Prof.10E 3-1 KHARKOV 2010 .MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE OF UKRAINE National Aerospace University “Kharkov Aviation Institute” CHAIR- DETERMINATION OF DESIGN AIRSPEED AND LOAD FACTOR PLOTING DESIG ENVELOPES Checked by :.

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