Note: This software is no longer supported by the Berkeley Device Group. Use at your own risk.

Introduction This software calculates the capacitance-voltage characteristics of an MOS capac itor considering the electron/hole distributions in both inversion and accumulat ion. These distributions are calculated by solving Schroedinger's and Poisson's equations self-consistently with the Fermi-Dirac distribution using the physical parameters for (100) Si. Electron and hole masses may be found in the source co de. User Agreement By using this software, you agree to acknowledge the UC Berkeley Device Group wh en disseminating or publishing the software or results derived from it. Installation The simulator is written in Matlab. Download these three files to your local mac hine. cmos.m shelec.m shhole.m Operation Before starting Matlab, edit cmos.m with the appropriate parameters. The user-de fined parameters are all contained in the section labeled INPUT PARAMETERS; the comments indicate the meaning of each parameter. It is worthwhile to note that c hanging the number of 'voltage steps' does not significantly impact the simulati on time. This is because the simulation converges more quickly for smaller volta ge steps. Start matlab and run cmos.m. (The other two files contain functions that are cal led by cmos.m.) While the simulation is running, it will give updates of the current bias point, iteration number, and convergence indicator. The simulation takes around 30 minutes, based on the processor type. Note: The simulation input parameters Vstart and Vend refer to the potential at the silicon surface (not the gate voltage or oxide voltage). Typical parameters for sweeping from accumulation to inversion are given. Note: Poly gate depletion is calculated after the quantum simulation using the e lectric field calculated in the simulation to reduce the effective gate potentia l. This option can be turned off. Output File The results are stored in plain text in a file whose name is specified as a para meter in the program. The results can be imported into your favorite graphing pr ogram (such as Microsoft Excel) as 'space delimited' text. The columns in the output file are (from left to right): Si surface potential, g ate voltage, gate capacitance, electron centroids (dc,ac), hole centroids (dc,ac ), Si surface electric field, total charge, and inversion charge. Fitting Physical Oxide Thickness Run the simulation repeatedly, changing doping and oxide thickness until the sim ulated results match the measured results well. After a good fit is obtained, pa rticularly in the accumulation regime, subtract 0.2nm from the final oxide thick ness to compensate for the accumulation charge centroid in the gate. This value is obtained from an independent simulation for highly-doped silicon. [ Home People Research Projects Testing Areas Links ]

Vs0=linspace(Vstart.u. Berkeley. 1Hr=27. Oct 05 1996 % Revised by Ya-Chin King at U.means n-type. % Silicon Voltage: start (accumulation) Vend=np*1.05e-4.3. % temperature (K) Ns =9E17. % 0/1 quantum/classical imax=5000.Vend. Berkeley. % Poly doping (.edu/~kjyang/qmcv/ % % Units for Poisson are cgs % Units for Shrodinger are Hartree (e=m0=h-=1. Many thanks to Vivek Subramanian for web design assistance. Berkeley. Feb 11 1997 % Last Revised by Kevin Yang at U.C. % Initialize output file. Jun 01 1999 % Posted to http://www-device. % Gaussian implant: dRp (straggle) % %*********DEFINE THE RANGE FOR CALCULATION****************** % if Nvstep>1. Kamohara at U. + means p-type) Vfb=99. % Following parameters for implant %cimp0=3.'w').4.C. end % . (+: p-type) %ximp0=0. % Clear memory and print header cflag=0. % Substrate doping concentration (cm^-3) % (-/+ for n/p-type).C. % consider poly depletion? 1: yes 0: no Npoly=-2.shhole. % Gaussian implant: peak conc. % Silicon Voltage: end (inversion) Nvstep=20.Copyright 2004 © The Regents of the University of California.m .berkeley. else Vs0(1)=Vstart.02e-4. % (do not edit this line) n-sub or p-sub Vstart=(-1)*np*0. % Oxide thickness (cm) pd = 1. % small signal voltage for capacitance np=sign(Ns). % Gaussian implant: Rp %simp0=0. Tox=28E-8. % number of voltage steps % cimp0=0. Jun 29 1996 % Revised by S. % maximum number of newton iterations % %****************INPUT PARAMETERS!!!********************* % fid1=fopen('cvdata'. All rights reserved. else uses value % autocalculate uses Npoly and Ns (see below) % For metal gate. % 99 means autocalculate. classical solution % for (100) NMOS or PMOS inversion layer % % Originated by Hiroshi Fujioka at U.2118eV 1a.m version 1.526177A) % % TO RUN THIS PROGRAM PLEASE INCLUDE TWO FUNCTIONS IN THE SAME % DIRECTORY: shelec. Berkeley.2e20. % cmos. please input Vfb here Dvc= 1e-4.0e17.C.Nvstep).m % %****************initial definition!********************* % clear. first arg is filename T = 300.3 (MAIN PROGRAM) % % 1-dimensions selfconsistent Poisson equations.eecs.=0.

m0 = 9.4.^2./(simp0^2)). % Conductivity mass low energy valley (3. % fregion spacing xscale(2:N1+1)=dx0:dx0:fregion.109534E-31. %number of mesh points in the aregion for Shrodinger eqn. % aregion space array % %**************** IMPURITY PROFILE SETUP ************************ % Nad= Ns*ones(N. % size of classically forbidden region (cm) N1 =50.9.2.19. % Electron effective mass in z direction for lower(3. % effective density of states of valence band Nc = 2. % aregion spacing xscale(N1+1:N)=fregion:dx1:aregion. % atomic unit in cm Eg = 1. % Relative permittivity of Si eps1ox = 3. if Vfb==99 if np*Npoly<0. % effective density of states of conduction band ni = 1. % mesh size in aregion % %**************** MESH GENERATION **************** % dx=zeros(N. % Conductivity mass high energy valley (1.602E-19. %number of mesh points in the aregion for poisson solution NS =50.026*log(abs(Npoly*Ns)/2. % density of intrinsic carrier pai= 3. % mesh size in fregion dx1= (aregion-fregion)/real(N2-1).7. % Density of state mass low energy valley (3.6) md2 = 0.6) m2 = 0.1). % Density of state mass high energy valley (1. % Gaussian implant Nad=Nad+np*cimp0.1045e20).417. % Bandgap of Si in eV Nv = 1.12.1).*exp(-(xscale-ximp0). % n+/nsub or p+/psub end end % %****************CONSTANTS********************** % k = 8.8E19.1). % n+/nmos or p+/pmos else Vfb=np*0. % Relative permittivity of Si q0 = 1.916.02E19. N=N1+N2.5) md1 = 0. . % size of classically allowed region (cm) fregion=100e-8. % electron charge (C) au = 0. % initialize space array dx(1:N1)=ones(N1.58215e-16.6) mc2 = 0. % constant substrate doping % if cimp0~=0.19.5) % %****************NUMERICAL CONSTANTS****************** % aregion=2000e-8. % Plank's constant in eV-s eps0 = 8. Vfb=-np*0.2.*dx1.1). %number of mesh points in the fregion for poisson solution N2 = 50.4.86E-14. % Electron effective mass in z direction for higher(1.026*log(abs(Npoly/Ns)).5262E-8. % electron mass in Kg m1 = 0.4. % fregion space array dx(N1+1:N)=ones(N2. % Permittivity of free space (F/cm) eps1 = 11. % kT/q (1/eV) hb= 6. % initialize spacing array xscale=zeros(N.1).5) mc1 = 0. % total number of mesh points for the poisson solution dx0= fregion/real(N1).*dx0.19. % Boltzmann constant in eV/K beta=1/k/T.%*********calculate Vfb***************** % Ns=abs(Ns).61735E-5.45E10.315.2.14159.

A = zeros(N. VS = zeros(N. Nen= zeros(N. end.1). % hole density at equilibrium Nen0=ni*ni/Nep0. % hole density at equilibrium end Ef=+k*T*log(Nep0/ni).N. %bondary condition V(N)=0 V0=A\Rho.1). % %************** BEGIN CALCULATIONS ************************* % fprintf(fid1.N).1). Nep= zeros(N. A(j. % %**************LOOP FOR EACH VOLTAGE STEP************************* % for ivl=1:Nvstep Vss(1)=Vs0(ivl)-Dvc. % %***************** NEWTON LOOP ********************************** % for i=1:imax. % electron density at equilibrium Nep0=ni*ni/Nen0.1). % %**************POISSON EQUATION SETUP***************************** % Rho(1)=Vs/dx0^2. %bondary condition Vsurface=Vs for j=2:N-1 avgdx=(dx(j-1)+dx(j))/2. % Matrix for 2nd differential operator A(1. A(j.1).j-1) = 1/dx(j-1)/avgdx.N)=1/dx(N-1)^2. R = zeros(N. % electron density at equilibrium else Nen0=0.1). %inital guess deltaNe = zeros(N. V0 = zeros(N.1). Rho = zeros(N. % definition of Fermi % fprintf('Matrix for Poisson is %g by %g square \n'.N). A(N.end % %****************CALCULATED PARAMETERS**************** % if sign(np)==1 Nep0=0.5*(Ns+sqrt(Ns*Ns+4*ni*ni)). Ne = zeros(N. % % Hole . % %**************LOOP FOR CAPACITANCE CALCULATION******************* % for icc=1:2 Vs=Vss(icc).1).'Vs Vg Cac Lndc Lnac Lpdc Lpac Es Qtot Qinv \n').5*(Ns+sqrt(Ns*Ns+4*ni*ni)). % for capacitance calculation purpose (dV) Vss(2)=Vs0(ivl).j) = -(1/avgdx)*(1/dx(j-1)+1/dx(j)). deltaRho = zeros(N. A(j.1).j+1) = 1/dx(j)/avgdx. %bondary condition on the surface Rho(N)=0.1)=1/dx0^2.

Y3h.5 % cflag=1.YY2e.j)-deltaRho(j).VSH. else % Quantum xstart=0.0.j)=NR(j. % Net charge density deltaNe=-beta*Nep-beta*Nen. % %Set up the Newton Raphson matrix NR=A. deltaRho=-q0*deltaNe/eps0/eps1.YY1e.T). % Potential in eV V0=V0+deltaV0.0e-12) break end . deltaV0=NR\R.if cflag>0.Y2h. R(N)=0. VSH=+V0+Eg/2. % Update the V0 % % convergence test dsort=max(abs(deltaV0)). Classical case Quantum define quantization region shift potential % SOLVING SHRODINGER EQUATIONS [xscaleO. Nep(j) = interp1(xscaleO.xs tart.0. end R=-A*V0+Rho.Y1e.Y2e. Classical case Nen=+ni^2. else Nen(j)=+ni^2/Nep0*exp(beta*V0(j)).E1e.VSH. % xend=fregion.YY3h. for j=2:N-1 NR(j. % % cflag=1.Y1h./Nep.5 % Nep=+Nep0*exp(-beta*V0). Ef.E3h. else % xstart=0.E2e.xscale(j)). for j=1:N if xscale(j)>=xstart & xscale(j)<=xend. if(dsort<1. end % scale if end % scale for end % quantum if % Ne=-sign(np)*Nad-Nen+Nep.E2h.YY2h.E1h.NS.R0]=shelec(xscale.YY1h.R0]=shhole(xscale.0.Ef.xstart.NS. xend=fregion. end % scale if end % scale for end % quantum if % % Electron if cflag>0.R0.0.xscale(j)).xend. Nen(j) = interp1(xscaleO.T). [xscaleO. % R(1)=0. VSH=-V0+Eg/2. else Nep(j)=+Nep0*exp(-beta*V0(j)).R0.xend. for j=1:N if xscale(j)>=xstart & xscale(j)<=xend. % gradient for NR method Rho=-q0*Ne/eps0/eps1.

% subtract for nmos Lpdc2=trapz(xscale. Nep2=Nep.Nep).Nen1-Nen2). % surface electric field Vox(icc)=Fg0(icc)*Tox*eps1/eps1ox.5*Qt(icc)^2/(eps0*eps1*Npoly*q0). % gate voltage % %++++++++++++++++DC Centroid++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ % Lndc1=trapz(xscale. Lnac=Lnac1/Lnac2. Lpdc(icc)=Lpdc1/Lpdc2.dsort end % print status % Newton loop % %+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ % % store charge density profile if icc<1. else Qinv(icc)=q0*trapz(xscale.(Nep-Nad*((np+1)/2))). % %++++++++++++++++Ac Centroid++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ % Lnac1=trapz(xscale. Nen1=Nen. % poly depetion else Vpoly(icc)=0. Vpoly(icc)=-0. else Nen2=Nen. Lpdc1=trapz(xscale.*(Nen+Nad*((np-1)/2))). end % %+++++++++++++++Volatge estimation++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ % Fg0(icc)=(V0(1)-V0(2))/dx(1).xscale. % %+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ % end % capacitance loop % %++++++++++++++++Capacitance++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ % Cac=abs(Qt(2)-Qt(1))/(Vg(2)-Vg(1)) .(Nen+Nad*((np-1)/2))).0.xscale.i. % poly acc end Vg(icc)=V0(1)+Vox(icc)+Vpoly(icc)*pd+Vfb. if sign(np)==1 Qinv(icc)=q0*trapz(xscale. % potential in oxide qtot(icc)=eps0*eps1*Fg0(icc). .*(Nep-Nad*((np+1)/2))). end % %+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ % Qt(icc)=q0*trapz(xscale. Lnac2=trapz(xscale.Nen). % subtract for pmos Lndc2=trapz(xscale.5.xscale.Ne). Lndc(icc)=Lndc1/Lndc2. % total charge density (#/cm2)(elec+ion) if (Vs*sign(Npoly))<=0. Ne2=Ne. Nep1=Nep. Ne1=Ne.% ivl.*(-Ne1+Ne2)).

Cac. % electron charge (C) au = 0.qtot(1). % effective density of states of valence band Nc = 2. % Electron mass in z direction for higher(1.4e %10.5262E-8. % Plank's constant in ergs eps0 = 8.4e %10.Lpdc(1).86E-14.YY2.4e\n'.N. % Relative permittivity of Si eps1ox = 3.4e %10. Lpac2=trapz(xscale.u.C.6) . % %+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ % end % bias loop % %+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ % fclose(fid1).4e %10 .Berkeley. % Electron mass in z direction for lower(3.916.Berkeley.Lpac1=trapz(xscale.19.xend): analysis region (cm) % N: analysis mesh number % Ef: Fermi level % T : temperature % "output" % xscale : new scale (cm) % E1-2 (i):energy level of light.Lnac.4e %10.02E19.Qinv(1)).'%10.Nep1-Nep2).Fg0(1).2118eV 1a.05459E-27.VI.E2.4.xscale.Vs.0 % "input" % xscaleI:cordinate of volatge (cm) % VI: voltage (V) % (xstrat. Lpac. heavy on i-band at j-point % R : carrirer density (cm-3) % Written by Hiroshi Fujioka at U. Jun 29 1996 % Revised by Shiro Kamohara at U.YY1. % Relative permittivity of Si q0 = 1.4e %10.2.Ef.C.9. % %+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ 2ND FUNCTION FILE function [xscale.7.Y1.19.R]=shelec(xscaleI. % Density of state mass low energy valley (3. Dec 06 1996 % Unit for Shrod is Hartree (e=m0=h-=1.5) md1 = 0. %*********************************************************** % 1-dimensions Shrodinger equations % for (100) electorn ver 1.4e %10.Y2. % electron mass in g m1 = 0.Vg(1).4e %10.E1.602E-19. % effective density of states of conduction band m0 = 9. Lpac=Lpac1/Lpac2. % Boltzmann constant in eV/K hb= 1.212. % Bandgap of Si in eV Nv = 1.61735E-5. heavy on i-band % YY1-2 (j.Lndc(1). % 1 Hartree in eV Eg = 1.6) m2 = 0.i):density of light.8E19.12. % %+++++++++++++++Out put+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ % fprintf(fid1. % atomic unit in cm Hr = 27.109534E-28.526177A) %****************CONSTANTS********************************************* k = 8. % Permittivity of free space (F/cm) eps1 = 11.T).0.*(Ne1-Ne2)).4e %10. 1Hr=27.xend.=0.xstart.

H(j. H(1.5) %**************** set up **************** Ef=-Ef.1415/(hb)^2/6.j) = V(j)+2*dd/m2.u. % Sort of eigen vector Y2 = Y(:. %****************scale set up **************** xscale = linspace(xstart.u. % Mesh separation in a. H(1. H(j. % Eigen vectors(Y) and Eigen values(D) [lambda1. for j=2:(N-1) H(j. % Potential in Hr for j=2:(N-1) V(j) = interp1(xscaleI.1). dd=1/2/(dx^2). end H(N.xscale(j))/Hr.j-1) = -dd/m1. % (a.N).j-1) = -dd/m2. % Density of state mass high energy valley (1. end V(1)=20.key1] =sort(diag(D)).j) = V(j)+2*dd/m1. end [Y.1415/(hb)^2/6.key2] =sort(diag(D)). for j=2:N H(j-1. E1=lambda1*Hr.6) g2 = 4.N). dx= dx0/au.N)=V(N)+2*dd/m2. ne2(j)=Do2*k*T*log(1+exp((Ef-E2(j))/k/T)).1)=V(1)+2*dd/m1.xend. E2=lambda2*Hr.2. end H(N. % light electorn for j=2:(N-1) H(j.key2). % Sort of eigen vector Y1 = Y(:.5) g1 = 2.N). for j=2:N H(j-1.2.key1).D]=eig(H).417.N)=V(N)+2*dd/m1.4. end [Y.'. % Eigen vectors(Y) and Eigen values(D) [lambda2.)^-2 %**************potential set up***************************** V=zeros(N.D]=eig(H).j) = -dd/m1. % New scale cm dx0=(xend-xstart)/real(N). % heavy electorn H = zeros(N.1)=V(1)+2*dd/m2. %**************** Calculating electron densities ****************** %p:electron density /cm2 for j=1:N ne1(j)=Do1*k*T*log(1+exp((Ef-E1(j))/k/T)).j) = -dd/m2.VI. %boundary condition V(N)=20.4. end %YY:electron density at each valley /cm3 for j=1:N . % degeneracy for high energy valley (1. % degeneracy for low energy valley (3. %density of state (#/eV/cm2) %************* Schrodinger Equation ******************** H = zeros(N.24146E11. %boundary condition %****************CALCULATED PARAMETERS**************** Do1 = g1*md1*m0/3.24146E11.md2 = 0. %density of state (#/eV/cm2) Do2 = g2*md2*m0/3.

for j=1:N for jj=1:N R(j) =R(j)+(YY1(j. % atomic unit in cm Hr = 27. % Electron mass in z direction for light hole m3 = 0.Berkeley.602E-19. split on i-band % YY1-3 (j. (high ene. % Electron mass in z direction for split off md1 = 0. % degeneracy for heavy hole .291. Jun 29 1996 % Revised by Shiro Kamohara at U.526177A) %****************CONSTANTS********************************************* k = 8. % Relative permittivity of Si eps1ox = 3. % electron charge (C) au = 0. heavy. % spin-orbit sprit energy g1 = 1. 1Hr=27.Y2.YY3.jj)=(Y2(j.044.xend): analysis region (cm) % N: analysis mesh number % Ef: Fermi level % T : temperature % "output" % xscale : new scale (cm) % E1-3 (i):energy level of light. % 1 Hartree in eV Eg = 1.T).29.jj))^2*ne1(jj)/dx0. %elec. (low ene.5262E-8.7.C.0. % Density of state mass for haevy hole md2 = 0.R]=shhole(xscaleI.E1. split on i-band at j-point % R : carrirer density (cm-3) % Written by Hiroshi Fujioka at U.for jj=1:N YY1(j.Ef.02E19.2.xstart. % effective density of states for conduction band Nv = 1.29. heavy. den.05459E-27. valley in #/cc) YY2(j. % Boltzmann constant in eV/K hb= 1. % Relative permittivity of Si q0 = 1.212.VI.9. %*********************************************************** % 1-dimensions Shrodinger equations % for (100) hole ver 1.12. % Density of state mass for light hole md3 = 0. den. end end FUNCTION 1 USED MY MAIN PROGRAM function [xscale. % effective density of states for valence band m0 = 9. valley in #/cc) end end %R:electron density /cm3 R = zeros (N.u.C.1).YY1. % electron mass in g m1 = 0.E3.E2.jj)=(Y1(j.jj))^2*ne2(jj)/dx0.0 % "input" % xscaleI:cordinate of volatge (cm) % VI: voltage (V) % (xstrat. % Plank's constant in ergs eps0 = 8.8E19.2118eV 1a. % Density of state mass for sprit-off band deltaE=0.i):density of light. % Bandgap of Si in eV Nc = 2. Dec 06 1996 % Unit for Shrod is Hartree (e=m0=h-=1. % Permittivity of free space (F/cm) eps1 = 11.Y1.86E-14.Y3.YY2.Berkeley.jj)+YY2(j.645.251.jj)). % Electron mass in z direction for heavy hole m2 = 0.61735E-5. N.=0.109534E-28.xend. %elec.

for j=2:(N-1) H(j. % Sort of eigen vector Y1 = Y(:. for j=2:(N-1) H(j.j) = V(j)+2*dd/m1. %boundary condition %****************density of state **************** Do1 = g1*md1*m0/3. for j=2:N H(j-1.N).u. H(j. for j=2:N H(j-1. H(1.'. % New scale cm dx0=(xend-xstart)/real(N). % Sort of eigen vector Y2 = Y(:.u. % Eigen vectors(Y) and Eigen values(D) [lambda1.24146E11.1)=V(1)+2*dd/m3.xscale(j))/Hr.key1] =sort(diag(D)). %density of state (#/eV/cm2) %************* Schrodinger Equation ******************** H = zeros(N.VI.j) = -dd/m1. H(j.j-1) = -dd/m2.j-1) = -dd/m1.j) = -dd/m2.1415/(hb)^2/6. % degeneracy for split off band %****************scale set up **************** xscale = linspace(xstart.D]=eig(H).key2). %density of state (#/eV/cm2) Do2 = g2*md2*m0/3.N). %boundary condition V(N)=20. end V(1)=20. % light hole for j=2:(N-1) H(j. %density of state (#/eV/cm2) Do3 = g3*md3*m0/3.1415/(hb)^2/6.1415/(hb)^2/6. % (a. % Eigen vectors(Y) and Eigen values(D) [lambda2.g2 = 1.1).N)=V(N)+2*dd/m2.N).D]=eig(H). H(1. E2=lambda2*Hr.j) = V(j)+2*dd/m3. E1=lambda1*Hr. H(j.24146E11.key1). % split band H = zeros(N.1)=V(1)+2*dd/m1. dx= dx0/au. % heavy hole H = zeros(N. end [Y.N)=V(N)+2*dd/m1.N).)^-2 %**************potential set up***************************** V=zeros(N. end H(N. % Mesh separation in a.j) = V(j)+2*dd/m2. .key2] =sort(diag(D)). end [Y. end H(N.1)=V(1)+2*dd/m2.xend.N)=V(N)+2*dd/m3. for j=2:N H(j-1. % degeneracy for light hole g3 = 1. % Potential in Hr for j=2:(N-1) V(j) = interp1(xscaleI.j) = -dd/m3. end H(N. dd=1/2/(dx^2).j-1) = -dd/m3.24146E11. H(1.

(heavy band in #/cc) YY2(j.end [Y.jj)+YY3(j. %hole den in light p3(j)=Do3*k*T*log(1+exp((Ef-E3(j))/k/T)). % sprit is added %**************** Calculating hole densities ****************** %p:hole density /cm2 for j=1:N p1(j)=Do1*k*T*log(1+exp((Ef-E1(j))/k/T)). end end .jj)=(Y2(j. %hole den.key3] =sort(diag(D)). (sprit off band in #/cc) end end %R:hole density /cm3 R=zeros(N.jj))^2*p3(jj)/dx0.jj)=(Y1(j. %hole den. E3=lambda3*Hr+deltaE.jj)+YY2(j.jj))^2*p2(jj)/dx0.jj))^2*p1(jj)/dx0.key3). %hole den in heavy p2(j)=Do2*k*T*log(1+exp((Ef-E2(j))/k/T)). %hole den. for j=1:N for jj=1:N R(j) = R(j)+(YY1(j.jj)=(Y3(j.1). % Eigen vectors(Y) and Eigen values(D) [lambda3.D]=eig(H). %hole den in sprit end %YY:hole density at each valley /cm3 for j=1:N for jj=1:N YY1(j. % Sort of eigen vector Y3 = Y(:. (light band in #/cc) YY3(j.jj)).

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