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Chinese Military Aircraft and Missiles
J-8 (Jian-8 Fighter aircraft 8) / F-8
The J-8 was the first PLAAF aircraft of domestic design, with design work beginning in 1964. The overall configuration is a rather straightforward enlargement of the MiG-21/J7 layout to accomodate two engines. Although it resembled Mikoyan's experimental Ye152A, contrary to some early reports, it was not based on that aircraft. Production began in December 1979, with about 100-150 units of the first configuration entering service. Design work on the improved J-8-2 began in 1980, with production beginning in the late 1980. As with the cancelled "Super 7" upgrade to the single-engine J-7, the J-8-2 completely reworks the front end of the aircraft, adding a much larger radar and ventral air inlets, along with various other less pronounced improvements. The best that can be said of the J-8 is that once upgraded it will be no more than an advanced obsolete aircraft, comparable in configuration and aerodyanmic performance to the Su-15 FLAGON. The Jian-8IIM upgrader, co-developed by China and Russia, is the result of a thorough modernization of the F-8M fighter ("M" standing for export-only weaponry in China's weapon designation system) and has actually become a new-generation fighter plane. The first flight of this version was conducted on 31 March 1996. It features upgraded electronics systems, the lack of which has disadvantaged China's fighter planes for a long time. The J-8 and J-8II aircraft are trouble-prone aircraft with a poor weapon suite and an inefficient engine. At best, the J-8-II can be compared with an early model (1960s) US F4 Phantom. In fact, after twenty-six years the J-8-II is still in the development stage, has resulted in only about 100 fighters deployed, and meets none of the requirements of the PLAN. The twin-engined Jian-8IIM is claimed to be better equipped to survive damage than single-engined F-16A/C and Mirage 2000 series. The high-altitude high-speed performance of the Jian-8IIM is superior to the F-16A/C, F-18, and Mirage 2000; and its radar and electronic equipment are better than those of the F-16A and are similar to those of F-16C, F-18,and Mirage 2000-5. By using the new, powerful WP-13B engines, the Jian-8IIM fighter boasts greatly improved low-altitude maneuverability, which is slightly better than that of the F-18 and Mirage 2000-5, but still inferior to that of the F-16. The Jian-8IIM fighter will probably be equipped with Russia's or China's helmet sight and advanced PL-9 and P-73 missiles, with which it will outperform the F-16C in close-range air combat. Phazotron, a Russian firm, has signed contracts with China to provide 150200 improved Zhuk radars mainly in support of China's new F-8II fighter, but also to equip the new Chengdu J-10 fighter. These radars have six times the data and signal processing power of the basic variant and greater detection range than the current 80KM. They can track while scanning on 24 targets, display up to 8 of them, and simultaneously provide fire-control solutions for 2-4 of them. The Jian-8IIM does not use large amounts of expensive composite material and titanium alloy, and it is not equipped with complicated maneuverable flaps, as found on the F-
7MG and F-16. Consequently, although their combat capabilities are similar, the Jian8IIM is much cheaper than the F-16C. Though mature and reliable, the Jian-8IIM is rather cumbersome. With a fuel load exceeding that of the F-16, its operating range is shorter than that of the latter. However, if specified by a customer, the Jian-8IIM could incorporate composite material, titanium alloy, and maneuverable flaps to further enhance its maneuverability and expand its external storage capacity and radius of action.
Country Designation Type Builder Wing Span Length Height Weight Engine Maximum speed Cruising speed Ceiling Range Internal Fuel Drop Tanks In-Flight Refueling Payload Crew Sensors One Izmurd raging radar, RWR, Ballistic bomb sight. Will be upgraded with APG-66 radar 2 23mm Cannon (J-8 only; not found on J-8II) 1 underfuselage hardpoint 6 underwing hardpoints for fuel, bombs, rockets, or missiles People's Republic of China (PRC) Jian-8 Finback Intercept Shenyang Aircraft 30 ft in ( 9.3 m) 70 ft 10 in (21.6 m) 17 ft 9 in ( 5.4 m) 21,600 lb ( 9,820 kg) empty 31,500 lb (14,300 kg) normal takeoff 39,200 lb (17,800 kg) max takeoff 2 Wopen 13A-II turbojets @ 14,815 lbst thrust 1,450 mph / 2,340 km/h / Mach 2.2 800 mph / 1,300 km/h 18-20,000 meters 700 nm / 1300 km cruise radius (est.) 3994 kg 480 L drop tank with 383kg of fuel for 34nm range 800 L drop tank with 639kg of fuel for 56nm range No
4 PL-2 or PL-7 and 800 L drop tank (680 nm) 2 PL-2 or PL-7 and 2 480 L drop tank and 1 800 L drop tank (741nm) Inventory Basing
In 1986 China signed a $550 million agreement with Grumman to modernize 55 of its fleet of J-7 fighters under the so-called "Super-7" upgrade, but this agreement was canceled in early 1990, in the wake of the cooling of political relations with the West, as well as in response to a 40% increase in the cost of the project. As a substitute for the Super-7, China is developing the FC-1 (Fighter China 1) lightweight multipurpose fighter based on the design for the MiG-33, which was rejected by the Soviet Air Force. The FC-1 is being developed with a total investment in excess of $500 million, including support from the China National Aero-Technology Import and Export Corporation (CATIC), mainly for export to replace the 120 F-7M/P fighters currently in service in the Pakistani Air Force, though it is possible that the Chinese Air Force will use this aircraft as well. Chengdu Aircraft Industry Company [CAIC], based in Sichuan Province, is China's second-largest fighter production base, and the enterprise is cooperating with Pakistan's Aviation Integrated Company and Russia's Mikoyan AeroScience Production Group [MASPG] in the development of the FC-1. Israel and several European countries are being considered as suppliers for the plane's avionics. The first flight took place in 1997 with delivery to the Pakistani Air Force scheduled for 1999. Initially it was anticipated that the FC-1 would be a high- performance, low-cost fighter plane to supplement the F-10 air superiority fighters developed for the Chinese Air Force. But with the participation of MASPG, the Russians are using the FC-1 as a continuation of the MiG-33 [R33] program developed in the 1980s. Like the MiG-33, the FC-1 uses the "Zhuk" pulse Doppler radar and RD93 turbofans, though the FC-1 features air inlets on the lateral sides of the fuselage rather than the ventral inlets of the MiG-33. With Russian technical assitance the redesigned FC-11 has improved climbout performance and steering capabilities along with a stronger fuselage. However, the most apparent modifications to the MiG-33 design is the repositioning of the ventral fins from the engine compartment to the added tail edgings, providing aerial maneuverability that is claimed to match that of the American F16. These improvement in performance have affected the program's costs, and if the final production order if fewer than 300 aircraft the unit price will rise from the original $10 million to $15 million. Consequently, the China National Aero-Technology Import and Export Corporation (CATIC) is trying to persuade the Chinese Air Force to use the FC-1 so as to increase the production run and reduce the unit cost. But the Chinese military has resisted, being of the view that equiping the Air Force with two types of fighter planes with similar performance within the same time period would both consume limited financial resources and complicate logistical support for dissimilar aircraft. The FC-1 was to make it's first flight in 1996, but the project was delayed when Pakistan sought to upgrade the performance characteristics of the FC-1 to respond to India's acquisition of Su-30MKIs. After several years of stagnation, the Pakistani Prime Minister's February 1998 trip to China resulted in an agreement to continue development of the fighter. Currently Pakistan is interested in acquiring at least 150 fighters, with the Chinese contemplating acquiring over 200.
The J-9 designation was apparently initially applied to an unbuilt aircraft that was cancelled in development around 1979. The F-9 FANTAN designation was at one time applied to the Q-5 FANTAN attack aircraft. Should the FC-1 enter PLAAF service, it might carry the J-9 designation.
LENGTH HEIGHT WING SPAN 13.95 meters 5.02 meters 9.5 meters
MAX T-O WEIGHT 12,500 kilograms MAX LEVEL SPEED MAX RANGE 1031 knots 864 nautical miles
SERVICE CEILING 16,000 meters T-O RUN LANDING RUN 500 meters 700 meters 23 mm GSh-23-2 twin-barrel cannon 6 - PL-7 AAM 6 - PL-10 AAMs ASMs, bombs
J-10 (Jian-10 Fighter aircraft 10) / F-10
The J-10 [the export version being designated F-10] is a multi-role single-engine and single-seat tactical fighter, with its combat radius of 1,000 km. It is designed for point defensive warfare with performance generatlly matching aircraft such as the Mirage 2000 deployed by Taiwan. Apparently, Chinese engineers are trying to develop the J-10 from a single F-16 provided by Pakistan, and with assistance from Israeli engineers associated with Israel’s US-financed Lavi fighter program, which was cancelled in 1987. The acquisition of Su-27, after China had attempted for years to develop the J-10 aircraft with equivalent technology to perform similar functions, demonstrates a lack of confidence in domestic industrial capabilities. China’s record on reverse engineering aircraft has not been impressive, and it remains in doubt whether the J-10 will ever join China’s interceptor inventory. It is unclear what specific technologies and systems Israel has provided, although it is reported that the Jian-10's radar and fire-control system is the Israeli-made ELM-2021 system, which can simultaneously track six air targets and lock onto the four mostthreatening targets for destruction. Some experts believe that the Israeli contribution will focus on avionics and radar, with Russia supplying the engines. In December 1991, US intelligence officials announced that Israel was planning to open a government coordinated and sponsored "arms office" in the PRC. In light of what the Israelis have to offer, and what the Chinese need, it was most likely that a transfer of avionics and other technologies developed in the Lavi program would ensue, since there is a void in the Chinese avionics and fire control system capability due to the 1989 termination of a US/Chinese program in response to Tienanmen square. China and Israel started collaboration in the early 1980's and full-scale cooperation was underway officially by 1984. After the 1987 cancellation of the Lavi, it was taken over by CAIC and the IAI carried on with the development of avionic equipment. However, the Lavi project had included many elements that Israel could not develop by itself, and China cannot obtain these key technologies from the United States, which has consequently substantially increased the technical difficulties of the F10. In addition, there are certain difference between the Israeli and Chinese requirements for the aircraft. Since Israel already already had fighters such as the F-15, its primary requirement for the Lavi was short-range air support and interdiction, with a secondary mission of air superiority. In contrast, the Chinese Air Force is interested in replacing its large fleet of outmoded J-6 and J-7 fighters, for which air superiority capabilities remain a top priority while the air-to-ground attack capability is of secondary importance. Since neither China nor Israel is capable of developing the propulsion system required by the J-10, in 1991 China acquired the AI31F turbofan engine from Russia for incorporation into the J-10 fighter. This engine is also used in the Su-27 air superiority fighter that Chinese acquired from Russia. The performance of the AL31F engine is significantly better than that of the American PW1120 originally slated for the Lavi, it may be anticipated that the performance of the J-10 will be accordingly enhanced.
The J-10 features a delta wing canard configuration which ensures aircraft stability with widened static stability active control technology. The deep burial of the engine and the extensive use of composite materials for wing-fuselage fusion design reduces the aircraft's radar signature. This aircraft uses control-figured vehicle design and nine independent control planes: two forward wings, two forward wing flaps, two inside elevons, two outside elevons, and one vertical rudder. In November 1995 the Jian-10 fighter prototype crashed during a test flight, and consequently it was decided to indefinitely suspend manufacturing plans which had anticipated deliveries to users by 1998. By mid-1999 flight testing had resumed, with little prospect of entering service by 2005.
J-11 [Su-27 FLANKER]
Codenamed `Flanker' by NATO, the J-11 [Su-27] is a multi-role fighter bomber and air superiority aircraft which can also be used in the maritime strike role. The Flanker has an operational radius of around 1500 km, and is equipped with an inflight refuelling facility extending their radius by another 500 km. Although normally configured for conventional operations, the J-11 could provide China with a high-performance nuclearcapable strike aircraft. The acquisition of Su-27, after China had attempted for years to develop the J-10 aircraft with equivalent technology to perform similar functions, demonstrates a lack of confidence in domestic industrial capabilities. In 1991 China purchased an initial batch of 24 SU-27s for about $1 billion which were delivered in late 1992 and based at Wuhu Air Base, 250 kilometers west of Shanghai. In May 1995 China purchased a second batch of 24 SU-27 aircraft through Russia's main state-run arms exporting company Rosvooruzheniye. These were delivered in April 1996 and based at Suixi Air Base in Southern China. The 48 Su-27-type aircraft include 36 one-seat Su-27SK manufactured in Komsomolsk-on-Amur and 12 two-seat Su-27UB manufactured in Irkutsk, worth a total of 1.7 billion dollars. In February 1996 Moscow and Beijing reached a $2.2 billion agreement for Chinese coproduction of the Sukhoi Su-27. Under the initial agreement China would produce up to 200 aircraft [without the right to reexport the jets to third countries] from Russian-made components over three to five years. The total cost of the contract is $1.5 billion, including $650 million for technical documents and $850 million for parts, instruments and equipment provided by Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aviation Enterprise imeni Yuriy Gagarin [KnAAPO], which is to deliver around 30 percent of all completing parts for 200 Chinese SU-27SK jets. Russia has licensed coproduction of Su-27s to the Shenyang Aircraft Company, which can produce fifteen to twenty per year. In the period 1998-2000 Shenyang plans to assemble only 15 Su- 27SK fighters of the 200 permitted under the terms of the contract. The first two aircraft built at Shenyang flew at the end of 1998. Eventually China might seek to obtain as many as 300 Su-27s. However the integration of the Su-27 into the Chinese Air Force has proven difficult, particularly with respect to training and maintenance costs. Russia delivered parts and assemblies for 2 fighters, which were assembled in 1998, bringing China's total inventory to some 50 aircraft. However, these initial airframes proved unsatisfactory, and no additional production had been completed by late 1999. By the end of 2000 deliveries are planned for the parts and assemblies for the first batch of 15 Chinese-built fighters. In March 1996, the PLA Air Force and other PLA elements conducted joint-service exercises in the Taiwan Strait. During these exercises the JL-11 [Su-27] fired a variety of air-to-ground rockets, and also dropped four deceleration bombs similar to the US MK82 Snake-Eye, the first time that such bombs have been shown publicly. These exercises clearly stressed the bombing capabilities of the JL-11, suggesting that radar and computer
software improvements to its air-to-surface attack capacities may have incorporated the advanced SU-35 fire control equipment and functions to provide high accuracy munition delivery. In mid-1999 Russia agreed to sell as many as 72 of the front-line Sukhoi-30 variant of the SU-27 jet to China, in addition to the Su-27 aircraft previously agreed to. As a result of the 7th session of the Russian-Chinese commission on economic cooperation held in Beijing in August 1999, the two countries reached a general agreement on the deliveries to China of the Su-30MKK two-seat multipurpose fighters, worth a total of about two billion dollars. Under the agreement, Russia will start delivery of about 40 the jets to China between 2000 and 2002. The Sukhoi Design Bureau developed state-of-the-art Su30MKK (modernised, commercial for China) especially for the specific requirements of the Chinese military. At the same time, negotiations began for Moscow to grant a licence for the production of another 250 Sukhoi-30 fighters, though it is unclear whether this production would be in addition to or instead of the licensed production of the SU-27. At the end of 1999 it was anticipated that the Irkutsk aviation industrial association will deliver to China a total of 28 training and combatant Su-27UB fighters. The delivery will be implemented to repay the state debt, and 8 planes will be delivered to China within the year 2000, 10 planes in the year 2001 and 10 planes in the year 2002.
J-12 (Jianjiji-12 Fighter aircraft 12) / F12
Besides carrying on with the improvement of the J-8 series and the licensed production of the Su-27, the Shenyang Aircraft Company (SAC) is now engaged in preliminary research for the "No. 12" project for the development of the Chinese Air Force's main fighter aircraft for the 21st century. Also known as the "XXJ," this fifth generation PLAAF fighter, is currently projected to enter service in the 2013-2015 timeframe. The aircraft is projected to have a crew of two, is anticipated to be in same class as US F-22 fighter, probably based on significant Russian technical assistance. The J-12 designation was apparently previously applied to an aircraft built at Nanchang in the late 1970s, with only one or two airframes being constructed prior to the program's cancellation. Said to resemble a scaled-up MiG-15/17, it was in competition with the J-7 and J-8, though with a less robust weapon system.
JH-7 [Jianhong Fighter-Bomber] [B-7]
Xian Aircraft Industry Company [XAIC], based in Shaanxi Province, produced the new JH-7 Jianhong-7 [Jian=fighter hong=bomber] Flying Panther supersonic fighterbombers for the Chinese Navy at the modest rate of two aircraft per month. Due to its unreliable engines, the JH-7 was rejected by the PLAAF in favor of Su-27SK. It was first revealed publicly September 1988 as model at Farnborough International air show, with the first of two prototypes having been rolled out during previous month. The first flight came in late 1988 or early 1989. Service entry was originally scheduled for 1992-93, but introduction in significant numbers seems to have been delayed. Having nonetheless entered the Chinese Navy's air arm inventory in the early 1990s, according to some reports as few as a dozen [and probably no more than two dozen] pre-production JH-7s are in service with PLA Naval Aviation, with additional JH-7 production awaiting the availability of a Chinese engine. This twin-engined, two-seat, swept-back high mounted wing supersonic fighter-bomber has a configuration similar to the British "Tornado" attack plane. The plane is designed to have the same role and configuration class as the Russian Sukhoi Su-24 'Fencer'. It has high mounted wings with compound sweepback, dog tooth leading edges adn marked anhedral; twin turbofans, with lateral air intakes; all swep tail surface, comprising large main fin, single small ventral fin and low set all moving tailplane; small overwing fence at approximately two third span. Quarterchord sweep angles approxomately 45 degrees on wings and fins, 55 degrees on tailplane. Armament including twin-barrel 23mm gun in nose; two stores pylons under each wing, plus rail for close-range air-to-air missile at each wingtip. Typical underwing load for maritime attck includes two C-801 seaskimming anti-ship missiles and two drop tanks. The JH-7 has provided the Chinese Navy with improved attack capabilities. However, he WS9 turbofan does not have enough thrust (with boosted thrust at 9,305 kg per engine), the maximum bomb-carrying capacity of this large fighter with a maximum takeoff weight of 27 metric tons is only five metric tons, far less than that of foreign aircraft in the same weight class. The XAIC plan is to use Russian-made engines and advanced composite materials to improve the B7 and equip it with terrain-tracking radar and electronic countermeasures equipment. This improved JH-7A will have more reliable AL-31F engine as well as a domestic radar with a detection range of 100 km and the ability to simultaneously track 14 targets and attack 4 to 6. This improved JH-7A is a candidate to replace the outmoded B5 and A5 attack planes. However, the J-10 fighter-bomber has a maximum bombcarrying capacity of design at 6.8 metric tons, and the Su-27 also has a bomb-carrying capacity of nearly 6.5 metric tons. While it was widely reported that the aircraft would have upgraded Russian AL-31SM turbofan engines, the JH-7 that was shown at the 1998 Zhuhai Aerospace Show had two British Spey MK-202 turbofan engines. Turbofan engines are a bottleneck technology for
the Chinese aircraft industry which, from the 1960's to the present has always used less efficient turbojet engines.
Builder Wing span Length (excl probe) Height Max take off weight Powerplant Xian Aircraft Industry Company [XAIC] 12.80 m (42 ft 0 in) 21.00 m (68 ft 10.75 in) 6.22 m (20 ft 4.875 in). 27415 kg (60,439 lbs). Two Xian WS9 turbofans (licence Rolls-Royce Spey Mk 202) each 91.2 kN; 20,515 lbst with afterburning Max level speed at 11000 m (36,080 ft): Mach 1.6-1.7 (917-975 kt; 1.699-1.808 km/h; 1.0561.122 mph); Cruise speed: Mach 0.80-0.85 (459-487 kts; 850-903 km/h; 528-561 mph); 15500 m (50,850 ft) 485 n miles (900 km; 560 miles). 5000 kg (11,023 lbs) Twin barrel 23 mm gun in nose; two store pylons under each wing plus wingtip rails for PL-5 air-to-air missiles Armament Typical maritime attack weapons load would be two C801 or C-802 (YJ-1) sea-skimming anti-ship missile and two drop tanks.
Service ceiling Combat radius Max weapon load
China and Pakistan agreed to jointly develop the K-8 Karakorum jet trainer, which was planned to incorporate significant American content, including Garrett engines, and Collins and Magnavox avionics. The develpment of this project was jeopardized US restrictions levied by the United States following the June 1989 Tienanmen Square massacre. Manufacture of four prototypes started January 1989, and the first flight test was conducted on 21 November 1990. A total of 12 aircraft (six each to China and Pakistan) were delivered by end of 1996. Pakistan decided against domestic series production in 1994. While the original plan involved up to 75 aircraft for Pakistan, by early 1996 as many as 100 were reportedly desired to replace aging Cessna T-37 trainers. The Chinese requirement may range up to several hundred, which would be powered by the Progress AI-25 turbofans imported from Russia beginning in 1997.
FANTAN Q-5 / A-5
The Q-5 [Qiang-5 Attack-5, the export version being designated A-5] is a single-seat, twin-engine supersonic fighter developed by the Nanchang Aircraft Company of China. It offers enhanced combat performance particularly at low and super-low altitude. It is the latest renovated type equipped with imported navigation and attack systems. It is used mainly to assist ground troops in attacking concentrated targets on land, key transportation points and ships near the coast. It can also intercept and fight enemy aircraft. It has two WP-6 after burning type of turbojet engines, a fuselage 15,65 meters long, a height of 4.33 meters, and a wingspan of 9,68 meters. Its maximum takeoff load is 11,300 kg. It carries a cannon in each wing, mounted near the fuselage, and it can be loaded with air to air weapons. It can carry bombs and canisters in its hold and various kinds of bombs, rockets and spare fuel tanks in the racks under its wings. This derivative of the J-6 fighter originated in August 1958 as a Shenyang design proposal. Reponsibility was assigned to Nanchang. The prototype program was cancelled 1961, but kept alive by small team and resumed officially 1963. The first flight came on 04 June 1965, with preliminary design certificate awarded and preproducton batch authorised late 1965. Further modifications were found necessary, leading to flight test of two much modified prototypes from October 1969. Series production was approved at the end of 1969, with deliveries beginning 1970. A total of approximately 1,000 aircraft were built, of which nearly 600 were the improved Q-5A variant. An small number, perhaps a few dozen, of the Q-5As were modified to carry nuclear weapons. PLAAF equipment holdings have improved only slowly, hampered by the need for hard currency, as most Chinese equipment upgrades have required foreign assistance. The upgrade of the Q-5 aircraft centers on the addition of French inertial guidance and attack systems, including a heads-up display and laser range-finder. As Qiang-5 has been fitted with laser-ranging sensors, its strike accuracy has been greatly improved. The ALR-1 laser-ranging sensor and the heads-up laser-ranging fire control system, which consists of the new-type heads-up display and the air data computer, both have continuous computerized point-of-impact functions. The range of the ALR-1 laserranging sensor is 20-10,000 meters and its range precision is 5 meters. Its overall performance is roughly equivalent to that of the British 105D and the French TMV of the 1980s. The wings are mid-mounted, sharply swept-back, and tapered with blunt tips and wing fences. Two turbojets are located inside the body with semicircular air intakes and two exhausts. The fuselage is thick, flattened, with an upward taper to the rear section. The
tail flats are high-mounted on the body, swept-back, and tapered with square tips. The sharply swept-back tail fin has a blunt tip.
Builder Wing Span Length Height Weight Engine Internal Fuel In-Flight Refueling Drop Tanks Maximum speed Cruising speed Combat Radius Service Ceiling Nanchang Aircraft Company 31 ft, 10 in (9.8 m) 54 ft, 10 in (16.74 m) 14.8 feet (4.51 m) 12,000 kg full load 2 Shenyang Wopen-6 5,732 lbst turbojets 2883kg No two 201-gal external fuel tanks 1210 km/hr 910 km/hr 600 km hi-lo-hi 400 km lo-lo-lo 16000 meters 1000-2000 kg 2 Type 23-2 23mm Cannon 250kg bombs PL-2 AAM PL-7 AAM 8x57mm rocket pods High Fix radar, Balistic bombsight one
Sensors Crew Cost Similar Aircraft User Countries
Super Etendard, Yak-38 Forger, Mirage F1. Bangladesh, North Korea, Pakistan, People’s Republic of China.
Chinese Airborne Early Warning (AEW)
The acquisition of an Airborne Early Warning (AEW) platform capable of conducting data relays has held a high priority in the PLAAF's efforts to modernize. China's acquisition of an AEW system would provide a dramatic advance in China's operational abilities. China has tested an AEW radar rotodome on a TU-4 platform, but there is no indication that this unique aircraft is intended as a prototype for subsequent production. China conceivably could have fully operational AEW platforms by 2005. Israel Aircraft Industries (IAI) currently is marketing its Phalcon airborne early warning (AEW) system to China in competition with the British defense firm GEC-Marconi. However, this airborne early warning program to mount the Israeli Phalcon airborne radar on a Russian airframe remains behind schedule, and evidently negotiations continue on the deal under which IAI would supply the advanced radar and computer systems. It was reported in November 1995 that the Russian foreign ministry had vetoed a deal where IAI would rebuild an Ilyushin aircraft into an AEW&C aircraft for China. However, in 1996 Tel Aviv and Beijing signed an agreement on purchasing the Falcon radar system, which China insisted system should be fitted onto Russian Il-76 aircraft. The Phalcon's triangular radar array would be mounted on the rear quarter fuselage of the Il-76 to provide full 360 degree scan coverage. China already has six such aircraft as well as a service base for them. In May 1997 it was reported that Russia and Israel agreed to fulfill jointly an order from China to develop and deliver an early warning system. The first Russian aircraft was expected to arrive in Israel for refitting in 1998. But Russian reluctance to provide technical specifications for the Il-76 delayed the program. China reportedly ordered one Phalcon for $250 million, which entailed retrofitting a Russianmade Ilyushin-76 cargo plane [also incorrectly reported as a Beriev A-50 Mainstay] with advanced Elta electronic, computer, radar and communications systems. Beijing is expected to acquire several PHALCON AEW systems, and reportedly could buy at least three more [and possibly up to eight] of these systems, the prototype of which was planned for testing beginning in 2000.
D-4 NPU (Xian NPU)
The D-4 is a small UAV operated by remote control. The contractor is Xian Pilotless Research and Development Center, located at the Northwestern Polytechnical University in China. Other similar craft are BAZ (Iran) and LG 17 (CIS). The D-4 drone's wings are high-mounted, straight to the midsection, and tapered from midwing to tips. The engine is a single, prop-driven engine in the nose section. The fuselage is round and tapers to front and rear, with fixed landing pads. The tail flats are high-mounted on the body and equally tapered. The fin is equally tapered.
Country of Origin Builder Role Similar Aircraft Wing Span Length Height Weight Engine Maximum speed Cruising speed Range Service Ceiling Armament Crew Cost User Countries None China Xian Multirole, reconnaissance, surveillance and target MK-105 Flash. Predator 14 ft, 10 in (4.30 m) 10 ft, 8 in (3.32 m)
The PL-9 [Pili = Thunderbolt, or Pen Lung = Air Dragon] is China's latest thirdgeneration air-to-air fighting missile. It has infrared guidance and boasts omnidirectional attack capability and good maneuverability. Its supplier is China National Aviation Import and Export Corporation. Its all-round performance is said to be better than that of the AIM-9L/M Sidewinder missile, and comparable to the R-73 of Russia. Apart from its control surfaces the PL-9 is almost identical to the Israeli Python 3, which was developed from the AIM-9L. But the PL-9 has only about one-third the range of the Python 3. Israel sold China its 9-mile range Python 3 infra-red guided air-to-air missile in the late 1980s. The PL-9 is used as a surface-to-air guided missile, desinated the DK-9, in the 390 missile and artillery combination air defense system unveiled in 1991 by Beifang Industrial Company. This complex includes a photoelectric sensor, IBIS ultra-lowaltitude searching radar, 3C&I command station, 90 double 37 anti-aircraft gun, 702 antiaircraft fire control system (including a radar and optical surveillance system, a friendand-foe identifier, a data transmission system, and fire control computer). One complete system can cover an airspace of 3,000 square kilometers and take on 48 targets simultaneously. The "80" anti-aircraft artillery system is a less advanced system based on the 702 fire control system lacks the PL-9 surface-to-air guided missile.
Contractor Entered Service Total length Diameter Wingspan Weight Warhead Weight Propulsion Maximum Speed Maximum effective range Guidance mode Single-shot hit probability 2.99 m 160 mm 0.81 m 120 kg 10 kg single stage solid rocket Mach 2 15 km IR
HQ-7 / FM-80/-90 Feimeng 80
The Feimeng 80 air defense missile is a point defense missile that is usually deployed to ammunition depots or military bases. Its mission is similar to that of the "Avenger" missile. With an effective engagement range of 12-15km the system uses an E/F-band Acquisition radar and a J-band Engagement radar. In order to reduce the danger of being hit by the enemy's air defense units, fighter bombers now use ultra-low-altitude flight to launch surprise assaults against ground targets. Ordinary radar and air defense missiles are relatively ineffective against planes and helicopters using this kind of tactics, flying at altitudes of scores of meters. Under such circumstances, low-altitude air defense missiles specially designed to hit objects flying in low altitudes have become increasingly important. In the early 1990s China first publicly displayed its first mobile low-altitude and ultralow-altitude missile -- the "Feimeng (Flying Midge)-80." Using a combination of infrared, television and radar guidance systems, this air defense missile system is under wireless command control all the way, which gives it excellent resistance to passive jamming, active jamming and crustal and meteorological noises. Compared to similar types of advanced air defense missiles abroad, the "Feimeng-80" is superior to the US Chaparrel, the British Rapier, and the German and French Roland in all-weather capability, combat response time, combat air space, and ability to deal with multiple targets. Its overall performance is comparable to the improved Sidewinder. At the end of 1998, the "Feimeng-90," an improved version of the "Feimeng-80," was introduced. Compared to the old system, the target seeking range of the new system is increased from 18,400 meters to 25,000 meters, the homing range is increased from 17,000 meters to 20,000 meters, the maximum speed is increased from 750 meters/second to 900 meters/second, and the maximum range is increased from 12,000 meters to 15,000 meters, thus enhancing its long-range combat capability. At the same time, its maximum ultra radio frequency height is reduced from 30 meters to 15 meters. The new system also makes use of two-waveband radar instead of ordinary radar and features an improved television tracking system, which greatly increases its combat effectiveness.
Contractor Entered Service Total length Diameter Wingspan 3.0 m 0.15 m 0.55 m
Weight Warhead Weight Propulsion Maximum Speed Operating altitude Operating range Guidance mode Single-shot hit probability
Mach 2.3 15 - 5500 m 8000 - 12000 m Radar, IR & optical
HQ-9 / FT-2000
The the [yet-to-be-deployed] HQ-9 is a program to develop a new long-range surface-toair missile (SAM). The HQ-9 development effort may be based on a Chinese-designed missile motor, search and guidance hardware based on the Russian S-300PMU, and guidance technology from the American Patriot. China purchased four to six S-300PMU batteries (48 to 72 missiles) in 1991 and purchased an additional 120 missiles in 1994. In 1993 it was alleged that Israel had transferred a Patriot missile or missile technology to China, though Israel denied the charges. In 1997 the US Office of Naval Intelligence suggested that "technology from advanced Western systems may be incorporated into the HQ-9." A naval version of HQ-9 could be installed on the Luhai-class destroyers if the HQ-9 enters service. However, China is said to have encountered difficulties with the associated radar system, and it is unclear whether the PLA is currently funding this program. The FT-2000 surface-to-air anti-radiation missile is the first large surface-to-air antiradiation missile in the world. It is said to be based on a marriage of the SA-10 and the US Patriot track-via-missile seeker. While the association of the HQ-9 and the FT-2000 remains unclear, the two programs appear to share remarkably similar development histories, and the FT-2000 capabilities are consistent with the employment of the HQ-9 missile without the evidently problematic tracking radar. Its broadband passive radar target seeker can detect the electromagnetic emmanations from the adversary early warning and electronic jamming planes and shoot them down by tracing signals. Since the missile has a passive homing system which does not transmit electromagnetic waves, the possibility of being discovered by the enemy is greatly minimized. Its 12-100 kilometer slant range also ensures that it can strike at long range. The FT-2000 has become the focus of attention in Taiwan, given the concern that this missile will pose a serious threat to Taiwan's US-made E-2T early warning planes. The missile associated with the FT-2000 is probably similar to the HQ-9 in size but may be somewhat slower. Its maximum range reportedly is about 100 km, with a maximum altitude of approximately 20 km. A complete FT-2000 battalion probably would consist of a command platoon and three batteries. Sales brochure acquired at Farnborough dubbed the FT-2000 an "AWACS killer." The FT-2000 could be deployed as a standalone air defense system or deployed as part of another system. Although Beijing has stated publicly that the FT-2000 will be available for foreign export around the year 2001, it is more likely that it will not be available until the second half of the decade. If a foreign customer cannot be found, development could take longer or not occur at all.
Contractor Entered Service Total length 6.8 m
Diameter Wingspan Weight Warhead Weight Propulsion Maximum Speed Operating altitude Operating range Guidance mode Single-shot hit probability
Solid rocket booster
3 - 20 km 12 - 100 km Passive Radar Homing
HQ-61 / RF-61 / SD-1 / Model Type 571 CSA-N-2
The HQ-61 [Hongqi /Hungchi = Red Leader ] missile is responsible for intercepting jet fighters in the low- to medium-altitudes. The missile's rear control wing is similar to that of the Standard missile made by the United States. This surface-to-air missile can also be used as a ship-to-air antiaircraft missile. Photographs of a November 1995 Chinese Navy exercise offered the first public sighting of this RF-61 (CSA-N-2) surface-to-air missile.
Contractor Entered Service Total length Diameter Wingspan Weight Warhead Weight Propulsion Maximum Speed Operating range Maximum effective altitude Guidance mode Single-shot hit probability Mach 3 2500 - 12000 m 10000 m Radar 4m 0.28 m 1m 320 kg 42 kg
The Kaishan 1 anti-aircraft missile is 5.6 meters long, 0.4 meter in diameter, and weighs 900 kilograms. Its maximum operational range is variously reported as between 25 and 40 kilometers and minimum operational range is 0.5 kilometers. The system uses the SJ202 acquisition radar and a phased-array engagement radar.
Contractor Entered Service Total length Diameter Wingspan Weight Warhead Weight Propulsion Maximum Speed Maximum effective range Guidance mode Single-shot hit probability 25 kilometers 900 kilograms 5.6 meters 0.4 meter
LY-60 / PL-10
In October 1994 the new medium-low-altitude surface-to-air missile system, the "Lieying (Falcon)-60," was deployed to China's air defense troops. The system is mainly intended for the interception of military aircraft and missiles flying in medium-low altitude. It a command control system with artificial interference capability thanks to the use of microprocessor intelligent module technology. This technology is not found on existing medium-low-altitude air defense missiles of other countries. The "Lieying-60" search radar can can simultaneously track up to 40 targets, and the tracking radar is able to simultaneously track 12 targets, and engage three targets at once. The use of the moving target tracking processing system and frequency agility technology also gives the system good anti-jamming capability. The LY60N SAM is being deployed in place of the HQ61 SAM used in the Jiangweiclass frigates. Compared with the HQ61 wit a range of 12 kilometers and maximum altitude of 10 kilometers, the LY60 has a range of 18 kilometers and reaches a maximum altitude of 12 kilometers. The LY60N is installed in Jiangwei B-class frigates that have recently been placed in service. Every launch system features a sextuple launchers and each launcher contains four LY60N missiles, for a total of 24 missiles. The wings of the LY60N are foldable. In comparison, the LY60 of the ground army version features a quadruple launchers, each of its launcher contains one missile, and its missile wing is not foldable. The system will be adopted as the shipborne vertically-launched air defense system of the Chinese Navy's "Luhai"-class missile destroyers, with at least eight vertical launch barrels with a total of 32 missiles. The Air Force version of the LY-60 is the FD-60 semi-active radar-guided air-to-air missile carried by the J8B fighter plane, which is very similar to the Aspide AAM of Italy in appearance. This missile, which is evidently also known as the PL-10 [Pili = Thunderbolt, or Pen Lung = Air Dragon] medium range air-to-air missile is a Chinese copy of the Italian Aspide, which was developed from the American AIM-7E Sparrow. The bodies of the two missiles are generally similar, though the wings of the air-to-air PL-10 mirror those of the Sparrow, while the LY-60 wings have evidently been truncated to improve storage. The application of the same missile to both air-to-air and ship-to-air applications emulates the American practice with the Sparrow, which started life as an air-to-air missile with subsequent shipboard deployments. In addition, the Shanghai Academy has also developed a portable ground-to-air version called the FY-60.
Contractor Entered Service Total length Diameter Wingspan Weight Warhead Weight Propulsion Maximum Speed Maximum effective range Guidance mode Single-shot hit probability 3.69 m 203 mm 1m 220 kg 33 kg single stage solid rocket Mach 4 AA - PL-10 60 km (head on attack) SAM LY-60 18 km Semi-Active Radar Homing Shanghai Academy of Space Flight Technology (SAST)
HY-5 (Hongying = Red Tassel) is a shoulder-held air defense missile. The application of the "HY" designation to a missile of this type is somewhat confusing to Westerners, since the other Chinese missiles using the "HY" designator are large coastal defense cruise missiles. The confusion is entirely of Western origin, since the Chinese characters for the Hai Ying [Sea Eagle] anti-ship missile and the Hong Ying [Red Tassel] anti-tank missile are readily distinguished.
At the end of 1998 the improved "Qianwei (Advance Guard)-2" was introduced. According to the developers of this new missile, the "Qianwei-2" is the world's most effective one-man shoulder-launched ultra-low-altitude air defense missile, surpassing the US "Stinger" and the the French "Mistral" in performance.
The PL-7 [Pili = Thunderbolt, or Pen Lung = Air Dragon] air-to-air missile, said by some to be a copy of the French Magic-R550, has automatic target seeking, acquisition and homing ability as well as dog-fight capability. Some analysts claim the missile is no more than a cosmetically enhanced PL-5, with few internal changes.
Contractor Entered Service Total length Diameter Wingspan Weight Warhead Weight Propulsion Maximum Speed Maximum effective range Guidance mode Single-shot hit probability 2.74 m 165 mm 0.66 m 89 kg 12.5 kg single stage solid rocket Mach 2.5 7 km IR
The PL-8 [Pili = Thunderbolt, or Pen Lung = Air Dragon] is an all-aspect air-to-air missile with the tail stabilizing fins resembling the Israeli Python-3, and it is believed that Israel sold the Python-3 technology to China in the 1980s. The PL-8 has been seen carried on the naval aviation J-8II aircrat, indicating that the missile has entered operational service. A few Jianghu III/IV class guided missile frigates mount a close-in gun/missile system combining 2 PL-8N (PL-8H) with a twin 37mm AA gun.
PL-11 / AMR-1
The AMR-1 is an advanced next-generation medium-range active terminal guidance airto-air missile seeker developed by China's Leihua Electronic Technology Research Institute. The flat-plate antenna bears some resemblance to that of active version of Russian AA-10, although the extent of Russian assistance if any is unclear. The seeker may be integrated onto PL-11 [Pili = Thunderbolt, or Pen Lung = Air Dragon] air-to-air missile which is reportedly based on the Italian Aspide airframe. The seeker is equipped with a miniaturized pulse Doppler radar and has the following capabilities: all- weather and omnibearing attack, low- latitude down-firing, fire-and-forget beyond-the-horizon launch, and interception and tracking of target in complicated electronic interference environments. Its technical sophistication is close to that of the advanced medium-range air-to-air missile, AMRAAM and Russia's P-77 "fire-and-forget" missile which has caught worldwide interest. However, an insufficient military budget and low-price competition from Russian missiles have cast batch production of this missile into doubt.
Tianyan (Celestial Swallow)-90
Helicopter gunships are becoming increasingly threatening in modern wars, but surfaceto-air missiles and antiaircraft artillery are not very efficient in fighting helicopters. One method is to rely on helicopters to fight helicopters. This requires helicopters to carry airto-air missiles that are both light-weight (in order to carry more) and powerful (because present-day helicopter gunships have thick armors). Air-to-air "Stinger" and "Sidewinder" missiles are used on two types of US helicopters. The former is an improved one-man air defense missile with a small warhead. The latter is an improved air-to-air missile for fighter planes, and its weight not only restricts the number of missiles that can be carried but also affects the air combat maneuverability of the helicopter. China has developed the "Tianyan (Celestial Swallow)-90" which is both light-weight and powerful. As the first air-to-air missile for helicopters, this missile does not have the drawbacks of helicopter air-to-air missiles of other countries, which are heavy and not very powerful because they are developed from surface-to-air missiles or missiles for fighter aircraft, and their target seekers are not suitable for hitting helicopters which operate in near earth environments where there are strong sources interference. It also is claimed to have the advantages of long range, extended detection range and robust antijamming capability.
C-801 YJ-1 / YJ-8 (Eagle Strike) CSS-N-4 SARDINE
The C-801 missile was developed in response to the Navy's need for small-scale missiles. Said to be derived from the French Exocet, the C-801 bears little external resemblance to this missile apart from nearly identical length and diameter, and in fact the triple control surfaces are rather similar to those found on the American Harpoon [though the Harpoon is only about 80% the size of the C-801]. After 8 years of R&D, the C801 ship-to-ship missile passed final design tests in September 1985 directly hitting targets in all six test launches. The final design of this missile was approved in 1987. The C-801 missile is the second generation of antiship missiles developed by China. The C-801 is carried on missile speedboats, submarines, escort boats, and destroyers, and is used to attack destroyers or escort boats. The Han-class attack submarines are armed with C-801 cruise missiles, as are the Song-class submarines. The Modified Romeo class submarines are armed with 6 YJ-1 (Ying Ji = Eagle Strike) C-801 SSMs. The PLAN's Luda-class destroyers are armed with a ballistic trajectory ASW weapon CY-1, and 8 YJ1 missiles. The Luhu-class destroyers are also armed with 8 YJ-1 missiles. The terminal guidance radar with monopulse system possesses high anti-jamming capabilities. The high precision radio altimeter allows the missile to have minimumaltitude flight above the sea. It uses a semi-armor-piercing anti-personnel blast warhead which relies on the missile's kinetic energy to pierce the deck of a ship, penetrate into and explode in the ship's interior. During final design flight tests, one missile attacked and sank a target ship with displacement of 10,000 tons. This multipurpose missile can with modification be loaded on various ships, aircraft and motor vehicles. On the basis of the C801 ship-to-ship missile and in accordance with user demands, the product series with modified design includes:
C801A general purpose antiship missile uses folded wings, semiautomatic testing, ballistic breakable container launching, and other new technologies to increase the number of missiles carried by ships. C802 shore-to-ship missile which employs a small turbojet engine in place of the original solid rocket engine, providing a three-fold increase in range to 120 km. Iran may have imported as many as 100 C-801s and eight launchers in 1987-88, and by 1994 it was claimed that Iran had about 200 C-801 missiles as well as the ability to produce the C-801 indigenously [under the designation "Tondar"]. Other reports in 1996 suggest that China was assisting Iran with a new antiship cruise missile -- the "Karus" -which believed to be based on the C-801 and/or C-802. In June 1997 Iran tested two Chinese-built C-801 air-launched cruise missiles from an F-4 fighter.
The submarine-launched "Yingji no 8, model 3" anti-submarine missile officially passed the first-phase system acceptance tests early in 1997. Taiwan sources claim that China made the Yingji no. 8 by modifying the French "Exocet" missile. The hit probability is expected to be higher than the missiles currently used by Chinese forces. The precise application of the YJ-8 designation remains somewhat obscure, as it is used with reference to both C-801 and C-802 missiles, and may be the overall designator for the weapon system that fires both types of missiles.
Contractor Entered Service Total length Diameter Wingspan Weight Warhead Weight Propulsion Maximum Speed Maximum effective range Guidance mode Single-shot hit probability 8-42 km automatic control + homing 75% 5.81 m 0.36 m 1.18 m 625 kg (not including booster) 165 kg HE one solid rocket engine, one solid booster CHETA - China Hai Yang [Sea Eagle] ElectroMechanical Technology - CASC 3rd Academy
/ YJ-2 / Ying Ji-802 CSS-C-8 / SACCADE C-8xx / YJ-22
The Ying-Ji-802 land attack and anti-ship cruise missile [Western designation SACCADE], is an improved version of the C-801 which employs a small turbojet engine in place of the original solid rocket engine. The weight of the subsonic (0.9 Mach) Yingji-802 is reduced from 815 kilograms to 715 kilograms, but its range is increased from 42 kilometers to 120 kilometers. The 165 kg. (363 lb.) warhead is just as powerful as the earlier version. Since the missile has a small radar reflectivity and is only about five to seven meters above the sea surface when it attacks the target, and since its guidance equipment has strong anti-jamming capability, target ships have a very low success rate in intercepting the missile. The hit probability of the Yingji-802 is estimated to be as high as 98 percent. The Yingji-802 can be launched from airplanes, ships, submarines and land-based vehicles, and is considered along with the US "Harpoon" as among the best anti-ship missiles of the present-day world. Following the 1991 Gulf War Iran imported the C-802 antiship cruise missile from China. China suspended exports in 1996 in response to comlaints by the the United States. In December 1996 Chairman of the US Joint Chiefs of Staff, John Shalikashivili, warned Chinese Defense Minister General Chi Haotian that arms exports would increase destabilizing factors in the region. No international agreement bans transfers of anti-ship missiles, and the C-802 is not covered by the MTCR, which controls exports of ballistic and cruise missiles that can deliver 500 kg. warheads to 300 km. Iran expected to purchase 150 C-802 missiles from China but only received a half of them because of the arms suspension. By mid-1997 Iran reportedly possessed some 60 of the missiles deployed in coastal batteries on Qeshm Island, a strategic point on the eastern side of the Arabian peninsula. In 1997, General J.H. Binford Peay, Central Command commander, said that China transferred 20 patrol boats with 15 equipped with C-802 missiles (Washington Times, January 29, 1997). [Some reports claim that China may have transferred hundreds of C-802s, although these claims are not widely attested]. In early 2000 it was reported that North Korea and Iran were jointly developing an advanced version of the C-802 cruise missile. These missiles initially acquired by Iran were not equipped with advanced systems, and the missiles acquired by Iran were rather outdated. Iran turned to North Korea for missile system technology, and the two countries are jointly developing an upgraded version with improved accuracy. ["N. Korea, Iran Jointly Develop Missile: Report" Korea Times February 17, 2000] The precise application of the YJ-8 designation remains somewhat obscure, as it is used with reference to both C-801 and C-802 missiles, and may be the overall designator for the weapon system that fires both types of missiles.
The YJ-22 is a land-attack cruise missile development of the anti-ship C-802 with a 400km range, and possible GPS/TM guidance currently said to be under development with an IOC expected after 2005.
Contractor Entered Service Total length Diameter Wingspan Weight Warhead Weight Propulsion Maximum Speed Maximum effective range Guidance mode Single-shot hit probability 120 km 165 kg HE CHETA - China Hai Yang [Sea Eagle] ElectroMechanical Technology - CASC 3rd Academy
C-601 / YJ-6 CAS-1 KRAKEN
The C-601 [Western designation KRAKEN] is China's first generation air-to-ship missile, and is generally similar to the C-201 HY-2 surface launched missile, apart from the deletion of the solid-rocket booster motor which is superfluous to this air-launched missile. The C-601 is carried on the Hong-6D aircraft, with a combat radius of 1800-2000 km, which can carry two missiles which are used for attacking large and medium-sized surface ships at sea. Double fire volleys greatly increases the fighting power of the missile. Regardless of the control mode used after launch, once a missile is launched from an aircraft it will fly towards the target area based on a prearranged program, relying on the terminal guidance radar in the missile to seek the target. The aircraft can immediately leave the combat area. The terminal guidance head uses monopulse active radar which provides resistance to sea waves and various types of electronic jamming. The level flight altitude of the missile can be set at 500 meters, 70 meters or 50 meters, providing good low-altitude penetration capabilities. The missile can sink or seriously damage a 3,000 ton or higher class cruiser or a 10,000 ton class transport ship. Development of the C601 missile series began in the mid-1960s, and in September 1975 the Military Commission of the Central Committee of the CPC formally approved development work on this air-to-ship missile weapons system. After 9 years of R&D, with four hits in seven firings in 1984, design formulation flight tests were completed for the entire weapon system. Following this the C601 "basic model" entered serial production The C-611 is modified with high energy oxidizer fuel and an improved engine that extended the firing range to 186-200 km.
Contractor Entered Service Total length Diameter Wingspan Weight Warhead Weight Propulsion Maximum Speed one liquid rocket engine 7.1 m 0.76 m 2.4 m 2988 kg CHETA - China Hai Yang [Sea Eagle] ElectroMechanical Technology - CASC 3rd Academy
Maximum effective range Guidance mode Single-shot hit probability
90-100 km basic C-601 automatic control + homing 70%
C-101 / YJ-16 CSS-C-5 SAPLES SY-2 / FL-2 CSS-N-5
The C-101 is a supersonic short range air, ground, and ship-launched anti-ship missile with two side-mounted ramjet engines at the rear of the airframe. China acquired the C101 missile technology in the late 1970s, and production began in the mid-1990s replace obsolete HY-2/CSS-N-2 missiles. The Chinese Navy tested the C-101 antiship missile on the Hoku-class fast attack craft [FAC], and Huang-class craft are being fitted with four C101 launch tubes, while other FAC classes will carry two launch tubes. The air launched version has been reportedly carried on the H-5 and H-6 bombers and the SH-5 amphibian. The missile is believed to have a 300 kg semi-armour-piercing warhead with a delayed impact fuse. Cruising at an altitude of 50 meters, the missile dives about 3 kilometers away from the target to impact about 5 meters above the waterline.
Contractor Entered Service Total length Diameter Wingspan Weight Warhead Weight Propulsion Maximum Speed Maximum effective range Guidance mode Single-shot hit probability 1.2 m (3 ft, 9 in) 1,850 kg 300 kg Ramjet Mach 2 45 km Inertial and Active Radar 5.8 m (19 ft)
C-611 / YJ-62
The C-611 is a development of the Russian Raduga Kh-28 AS-9 KYLE. The C-611 is modified with high energy oxidizer fuel and an improved engine that extended the firing range to 186-200 km.
Contractor Entered Service Total length Diameter Wingspan Weight Warhead Weight Propulsion Maximum Speed Maximum effective range Guidance mode Single-shot hit probability ~6 m ~0.4 m ~1.7 m ~750 kg ~150 kg one liquid rocket engine 3500 km/h 90-100 km basic C-601 185-200 km improved C-611 automatic control + homing 70% CHETA - China Hai Yang [Sea Eagle] ElectroMechanical Technology - CASC 3rd Academy
The C-701 light-weight anti-ship missile measures 2.5 meters long, less than half that of the Yingji-801. The diameter of the missile is also much smaller. It has a range of 15 kilometers and a cruising speed of Mach 0.8. It uses television guidance control and is anti-jamming capability is comparable to that of the US Maverick missile. However, the C-701 can be launched from ships and planes, unlike the air-to-surface Maverick. The C701 antiship missile was first exhibited at China's Second International Aviation and Aerospace Show held in Zhuhai late 1998.
Contractor Entered Service Total length Diameter Wingspan Weight Warhead Weight Propulsion Maximum Speed Maximum effective range Guidance mode Single-shot hit probability Mach 0.8 15 kilometers television 100 kg 2.5 meters
The CY-1 is an anti-submarine rocket carried on a variety of surface platforms, including the Luda class missile destroyer and Jiangwei class missile patrol combatants.
China and Russia are the only two countries to have successfully developed supersonic anti-ship missiles, which represent the future direction of anti-ship weapons. The majority of anti-ship missiles are high subsonic. In addition to developing the C-101 and C-301 supersonic anti-ship missiles which are fairly large in size, China has developed the more compact Feilong (Flying Dragon)-7 supersonic anti-ship missile which can be carried on airplanes and warships. The Feilong-7 has an effective range of 32 kilometers and a speed of Mach 1.4. It has powerful anti-jamming capability and its supersonic flight makes terminal interception difficult. The warhead of the "Feilong-7" can pierce solid armor and destroy large and medium-sized surface warships. It was reported in 1996 that Iran had begun indigenous production of a medium-range antiship missile, the FL-10, based on the Chinese FL-2 or FL7 and developed with Chinese technical assistance.
Contractor Entered Service Total length Diameter Wingspan Weight Warhead Weight Propulsion Maximum Speed Maximum effective range Guidance mode Single-shot hit probability Mach 1.4 32 kilometers
C-201 / HY-2 / SY-1 CSS-N-2 / CSS-C-3 / SEERSUCKER
The C-201 is a mid-range ground-, air-, and ship-launched cruise missile developed on the basis of the HY-1, with the primary difference being a longer fuselage accomodating a correspondingly greater propellant capacity. Apart fromt the longer fuselage, the overall configuration of the C-201 missile is similar to the HY-1, with two delta wings and triform rudder and tail. C-201 anti-ship cruise missile variants include the SY-1A [Shang You] for ship launch and the land based HY-2. The HY-2 [Hongying / Hai Ying] coast-to-ship defensive tactical missile weapon system - with the Western designation "Seersucker" -- is employed at coastal fortifications, bases or islands to attack enemy surface ships. The system features long range coverage and a large firing sector (+/-85o, enabling one missile battalion to cover a blockaded ocean area of 14,000 square kilometers. After the missile is fired, ground guidance and control are not necessary, and the firing position can remain concealed. The PLAN has three categories of frigates-Jiangwei-class, Jianghu III- and IV-class, and Jianghu I-class. All of these are armed either with surface-to-surface missiles (SSMs) YJ1 (Eagle Strike) or Hy-2 (C-201). The level flight altitude of the missile is low, and the system's anti-jam capabilities are effective against electronic countermeasures. The missile's large warhead can sink or severely damage a 3,000 ton class destroyer. After 5 years of development the program achieved six hits in seven firings in 1970, when the missile passed final design testing. Based on the combat requirements of Navy forces, a series of modified designs of the HY-2 basic model were developed and produced.
HY-2A terminal guidance radar of the prototype missile was modified into a passive infrared target seeker which effectively raised the concealment and anti-jamming capabilities of the missile. The interception performance of this missile within guidance range can realize omnidirectional attacks on ship targets at sea. HY-2B the conical scanning terminal guidance radar of the prototype missile was modified to an advanced monopulse system radar which improved its resistance sea waves interference and various forms of electronic jamming. HY-2C terminal guidance radar of the prototype missile was modified into a television-equipped target seeker which was able to effectively raise the concealment and anti-jamming capabilities of the missile as well as increase its hit probability.
HY-2G uses a high precision radio altimeter so that the level flight altitude of the missile can be lowered to 30-50 meters, raising penetration capabilities.
The HY-2 missile is also the basis for modified test aircraft and target missiles with various functions. During the Iran-Iraq War, one of China's most controversial arms transfers involved the HY-2 antiship missile, commonly [and improperly] referred to in the media as the "Silkworm." The first of several HY-2 shipments was delivered in the summer of 1986, and in October 1987 an American-owned tanker under the Liberian flag and a Kuwaiti tanker under the US flag, the Sea Isle City, were hit by Iranian HY-2 missiles. China respomded to American complaints by claiming that the weapons had been supplied by North Korea. Although in March 1988 China stated that it would not sell antiship cruise missiles to Iran, HY-2 transfers reportedly continued through 1989. In early 1988 Iran claimed the capacity to manufacture HY-2s and other antiship cruise missiles indigenously. It is currently estimated that Iran has about 100 HY-2 missiles on eight to ten mobile missile launchers deployed on the north side of the Straits of Hormuz.
Contractor Entered Service Total length Diameter Wingspan Weight Warhead Weight Propulsion Maximum Speed Maximum effective range Guidance mode Single-shot hit probability 95-100km autocontrol + homing > 70% one liquid rocket engine and one solid rocket booster 7.36 m 0.76 m 2.4 m 2988 kg CHETA - China Hai Yang [Sea Eagle] ElectroMechanical Technology - CASC 3rd Academy
C-301 / HY-3 CSS-C-6 / SAWHORSE
The C-301 / HY-3 [Western CSSC-X-6] is a supersonic coastal defence anti-ship missile with four solid rocket boosters and two ramjet sustainer engines located aft of the missile body. The booster motors accelerate the missile to past Mach 1.8 and the kerosene-fueled ramjet engines accelerate the missile to a cruise speed of Mach 2.0. Its range is variously reported as up to 180 km, and it can fly as low as 50 meters in its terminal attack phase. The missile is programmed to dive from cruising altitude to under 100 feet before the active-radar terminal phase begins, then dive onto the target just prior to impact. While test flights of this missile have been conducted, the operational status of the system remains unclear.
Contractor Entered Service Total length Diameter Wingspan Weight Warhead Propulsion Maximum Speed Maximum effective range Guidance mode Single-shot hit probability 2.24 meters 3,400 kg 300-500 kg Semi AP HE two side-mounted ramjet engines four solid propellant boost motors Mach 2.0 100-180 km Inertial and Active Radar under development 9.85 meters
C-201 / HY-4 CSS-C-7 / SADSACK
The HY-4 variant of the C-201 is a mid-range ground-, air-, and ship-launched cruise missile. Development of the C-201 HY-4 is believed to have started in the mid-1970s, replacing the C-201 HY-2 liquid propellant sustainer motor with a small turbojet engine, and adding a the monopulse active radar seeker. Apart fromt the substitution of the turbojet engine, the overall configuration of the HY-4 variant of the C-201 missile is similar to the HY-2 variants of the C-201, with two delta wings and triform rudder and tail. The missile has a radio altimeter which allows the cruise height to be varied between 70 and 200 m altitude, followed by a steep dive onto the target. Reports suggest that an improved version of the HY-4, known as XW-41 is no in development. An improved version of the HY-4, known as the XW-41 is, in development. This missile is said to feature a 300km range with GPS guidance.
Contractor Entered Service Total length Diameter Wingspan Weight Warhead Weight Propulsion Maximum Speed Maximum effective range Guidance mode Single-shot hit probability [HY-4 up to 150km] autocontrol + homing > 70% 7.36 m 0.76 m 2.4 m 1740 kg 500 kg one turbojet engine and one solid rocket booster CHETA - China Hai Yang [Sea Eagle] ElectroMechanical Technology - CASC 3rd Academy