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Define the terms anatomy and physiology, and explain their relationship using an example of a human structure with its corresponding function. Anatomy is the study of the structure and shape of the body and its parts. Physiology is the study of how the body and its parts work or function. The lungs are an essential body part that can be studied when one studies anatomy. The most essential function of the lungs is to maintain respiration. 2. List, in order from least to most complex, the levels of structural organization, discuss the relationship between the levels, and name an example at each level.
1. Chemical Level- atoms combine to form molecule. Different elements and molecules are example of this. Water is a molecule that is abundant in the human body. 2. Cellular Level- the smallest units of all living things. Cells are made up of molecules. A smooth muscle cell is an example of this. 3. Tissue Level- consists of groups of similar cells that have a common function. Smooth muscle tissue is an example of this. 4. Organ Level- a structure that is composed of two or more tissue types and performs a specific function for the body. The heart is an example of this. 5. Organ system Level- a group of organs that cooperate to accomplish a common purpose. The cardiovascular system is an example of this. 6. Organism Level- represents the highest level of structural organization and made up of many organ systems. Humans are an example of this. 3. List the 11 organ systems of the human organism, name the major organs within each, and give a general function for each system.
1. Integumentary: Forms the external body covering. Protects deeper tissue from injury. Synthesizes vitamin D. Location of cutaneous nerve receptors. The skin is the main organ. 2. Skeletal: Protects and supports body organs. Provides muscle attachment for movement, stores minerals and is the site of blood cell formation. Cartilage, joints and bones are the organs of the skeletal system. 3. Muscular: The muscular system allows for locomotion, helps maintain posture, and produces’ heat. The skeletal muscles are the organs of this system. 4. Nervous: The nervous system is a fast acting control system that responds to internal and external changes and activates muscles and glands. The brain, sensory receptor, spinal cord and nerves make up this system 5. Endocrine: The endocrine system secretes regulatory hormones that help with growth, reproduction and metabolism. The pineal gland, pituitary gland, thyroid gland (parathyroid glands on posterior aspect), thymus gland, adrenal gland, pancreas, testis (male) and ovary (female) make up this system. 6. Cardiovascular: The cardiovascular system transports materials in the body via the blood pumped by the heart. This helps transport materials like oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and
required for chemical reactions.e. bronchus. 8. 11. larynx.Provides for metabolic reaction. negative feedback) by using examples that you find. esophagus. 7. and proper response to the stimulus. prostate gland. The forehead is . superior. The oral cavity. Respiratory: The respiratory system keeps blood supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide. In the body this occurs only in blood clotting and childbirth. which increases the original stimulus to push the variable farther. and compare different body parts using these terms (i.). The position with the body erect with the arms at the sides and the palms forward. what is involved in maintaining homeostasis. medial and lateral. trachea. urinary bladder. disposes off debris and is involved in immunity. inferior. maintains acid-base balance. etc. Specify the five environmental needs required for life. metabolism.e. The anatomical position is of importance in anatomy because it is the position of reference for anatomical nomenclature. allows for nutrient absorption into blood and eliminates indigestible material.e. The nasal cavity. Digestive: The digestive system breaks down food. 10. There is also positive feedback. penis. 5. uterus and vagina make up this system. Name the six life processes that distinguish living from non-living things. large intestine. Reproductive: The reproductive system is used in the production of offspring. maintain boundaries. Anatomic terms such as anterior and posterior. lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels make up this system. sending information to the control center. testis and scrotum make up this system. vas deferens. responsiveness. 4. Superior. stomach. Negative feedback includes most homeostatic control mechanisms. 7. uterine tube. toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body. the elbow is proximal to the wrist). digestion. In men the seminal vesicles. Define various directional terms (i. These shut off the original stimulus or reduce the intensity and it works like a household thermostat. The thoracic duct. In women the mammary glands (in breasts). and lungs make up this system. Urinary: The urinary system eliminates nitrogenous wastes. Nutrients. wastes. ovary. reproduction and growth. rand regulates material like water and electrolytes. The heart and blood vessels make up this system.chemical for energy and cell building like carbohydrates and proteins Oxygen. Demonstrate what is meant by "anatomical position". abduction and adduction. Lymphatic: The lymphatic system returns fluids to blood vessels. The kidney. small intestine. responding to changes in the environment. Stable body temperature Atmospheric pressure must be appropriate 6. and urethra make up this system. ureter. Movement. pharynx.Above. excretion. Maintaining homeostasis requires the body communicating through neural and hormonal control systems. 9.Questions you should be able to answer after lecture. Water. Homeostasis is the metabolic equilibrium actively maintained by several complex biological mechanisms that operate via the autonomic nervous system to offset disrupting changes. rectum and anus make up this system. and explain how a homeostatic mechanism is regulated (i. Define the term homeostasis. and so on apply to the body when it is in the anatomical position. 8.
). Divides the body into superior and inferior parts. Frontal (Coronal) Plane. inguinal.Bladder. cuts).Spinal Cord Thoracic Cavity. digital. dividing it into right and left halves. List both anterior and posterior anatomical landmarks (i.This is an imaginary plane that divides the body into anterior (ventral) and posterior (dorsal) halves along the longitudinal (left-right) axis. and describe how each would be accomplished. Inferior.Digestive viscera Pelvic Cavity. the navel is inferior to the breastbone. 12. 10. oral.Behind. Your right thumb and right index finger are ipsilateral. abdominal.Questions you should be able to answer after lecture. acromial. deltoid. the arms are lateral to the chest Intermediate.The inner side.Toward or at the body surface. superior to the nose.Farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk. patellar. pelvic. Your right elbow and left elbow are contralateral. The knee is distal to the thigh. occipital. Contralateral. cervical. toward the backside of the body. pubic. Transverse Plane. gluteal. at right angles to the sagittal and frontal planes.e. away from the midline of the body.between a more medial and a more lateral structure. the heart is posterior to the breastbone Medial. Median (midsagittal). the elbow is proximal to the wrist Distal. brachial.Outer side. etc.Below. Anterior. lungs Abdominal Cavity. the lungs are deep to the rib cage Ipsilaterial.Cephalic. antcubital. the breastbone is anterior to the spine Posterior. Away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body. sternal. inguinal. axillary.Brain Spinal Cavity. toward or at the midline of the body. femoral. toward or at the front of the body. popliteal and sural. 11. Cranial Cavity. crural (leg). more internal. scapular. buccal. It is the principal muscle of respiration . lumbar. Designate the five major human body cavities and name the organs within each on a human diagram. orbital. vertebral. orbital. the armpit is intermediate between the breastbone and the shoulder Proximal. 9. thoracic.A plane passing horizontally through the body. Anterior. Posterior.Close to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk. femoral and fibular.On the opposite side of the body. Superficial. Name the three major body sections (planes. carpal.One would have to cut longitudinally through the middle of the body from front to back. the skin is superficial to the skeleton Deep.On the same side of the body.Nasal. reproductive organs and rectum.Heart. sacral.In front of.Away from the body surface. Describe the anatomical importance of the diaphragm muscle and make sure you can spell it correctly!!!! The diaphragm separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities. tarsal. coxal. and dividing the body into upper and lower portions. umbilical. the heart is medial to the arm Lateral.
transverse colon. left fallopian tube Quadrants: Right upper. right and left ureters. m-vas deferens. descending colon. liver. 13. right and left fallopian tubes. F-left ovary. spleen Right lumbar region: Tip of liver. stomach. small intestine. Distinguish between visceral and parietal serous membranes. Describe the nine regions of the abdominopelvic cavity and the four quadrants of the abdominopelvic cavity and list the major organs found within each. tip of left kidney Right iliac (inguinal) region: Small intestine. right and left ureters. right and left ureters Left lumbar region: Small intestine. seminal vesicle. tail of pancreas. cecum and ascending colon. tip of liver. right and left adrenal glands.uterus. and differentiate between pericardial. Visceral Serosa: Covers the internal organs Parietal Serosa: Covering the body walls Serous Fluid: Separates the serosae Pericardial: encloses the heart Pleural: Each houses a lung Peritoneal: serous membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity or the coelom -. pleural. Serous fluid separates the serosae. urinary bladder. left lower 14. right lower. small intestine. Serous fluid lubricates and conducts electrical impulses from the brain through the nerve endings at the organ surrounded by the fluid. small intestine. pancreas. transverse colon. ascending colon. gall bladder.it covers most of the intra-abdominal (or coelomic) organs 15. pancreas. transverse colon. pancreas. gall bladder. left kidney. sigmoid colon. Name the function of serous fluid. right and left kidneys. spleen Left hypochondriac region: Stomach. and right kidney Umbilical region: Stomach. pancreas. descending colon. rectum. ascending colon.Questions you should be able to answer after lecture. F. . right ovary. right kidney epigastric region: esophagus. sigmoid colon. pancreas. right and left ovaries. Right hypochondriac region: Liver. descending colon. small intestines. right fallopian tube Hypogastric (pubic) region: Small intestine. transverse colon. f-uterus. left upper. small intestine. prostrate Left iliac (inguinal) region: Small intestine. right and left kidneys. appendix. and peritoneal varieties.