REVIEW OF LITRETURE

Introduction Quality of work life refers to the favorableness or unfavorableness of a job environment for people. It refers to the quality of relationship between employees and the total working environment. It is concerned with increasing labour management cooperatives to solve the problems of improving organisational performance and employee satisfaction. Concept In the concept of Walton (1974: 12), quality of work life is defined as the meaningful life of the employees with better living conditions or economic, social, and spiritual satisfaction which can be measured by applying the 8 indicators of quality of life which are as follows: ℘ Adequate and fair compensation ℘ Safe and healthy working conditions ℘ Development human capacity ℘ Growth and security ℘ Social integration ℘ Constitutionalism ℘ Total life space ℘ Social relevance.

Werther and Davis (1982) said that the factors influencing the quality of work life are composed of three factors, which includes
℘ Personal behavioral factor(age, experience, perception, attitude) ℘ Organisational factor(goals & objectives, management, job characteristic) ℘ Environmental factors(economic, social, cultural, administrative, technological)

Efraty and Sirgy (1990) conceptualized QWL in terms of “need satisfaction.” In their later research, Sirgy et al. (2001, p. 242) define QWL as “employee satisfaction with a variety of needs through resources, activities, and outcomes stemming from participation in the

℘ Esteem needs (recognition and appreciation of work within and outside the organization). methods and outcomes.workplace. seven dimensions of needs were suggested: ℘ Health and safety needs (protection from ill health and injury at work and outside of work. S. American Society Of Training And Development Quality of work life is “the extent to which employees can enhance their personal lives through their environment and experiences. Hackmann and Suttle (1997: 7-14) suggested that quality of work life affects the job satisfaction and feeling of affiliation towards the organisation while reducing the absenteeism and attrition rate in the work place. Specifically. 2000:32). ℘ Economic and family needs (pay. ℘ Knowledge needs (learning to enhance job and professional skills). collaboration and building mutual respect between management and employees”.” BNET Business Dictionary “Quality of work life is the degree to which work in an organisation contributes to material and psychological well being of its members. and ℘ Aesthetic needs (creativity at work as well as personal creativity and general aesthetics).” They proposed that QWL be measured in terms of employees' needs. job security.Cohan Quality of work life is “a process of work organization which enables its members at all levels to actively participate in shaping the organisation’s environment. ℘ Social needs (collegiality at work and leisure time off work).S. ℘ Actualization needs (realization of one's potential within the organization and as a professional). and enhancement of good health). D. and other family needs). Definitions Quality of work life is defined as “a process of joint decision making. This value based process is aimed towards meeting the twin goals of enhanced effectiveness of organization and improved quality of life at work for employees”.” Harrison . Quality of work life is important because it is considered as a supportive factor in motivating employees to work (Promsuwan.

quality of supervision. opportunities for promotion. • Job satisfaction: It implies the worker’s satisfaction with the environment of his job environment consisting nature of work. pay. Sense of competence and job involvement reinforce each other. coworkers.Measuring Quality of Work Life The following indices may be used to judge the quality of work life in an organisation: • • • • • Job involvement Job satisfaction Sense of competence Job performance Productivity • Job involvement: It represents the degree of an individual’s identification with or ego involvement in the job. • Sense of competence: It refers to the feelings of confidence that an individual has in his own competence. etc. • Job performance: .

job satisfaction and sense of competence increase.When an individual’s job involvement. Thus match between job characteristics and productivity traits of employees generally result in higher productivity. • Productivity: When the level of job performance increases the output per unit of input goes up. there is a rise in job performance. Dimensions of Quality of Work Life • • • • • • • • Adequate and fair compensation Safe and healthy working conditions Opportunities to use and develop human capacities Opportunity for career growth Social integration in work force Constitutionalisation in the work organization Work and personal life Social relevance to work Principles of Quality of Work Life • • • • The principle of security The principle of equity The principle of individualism The principle of democracy Techniques to Improve Quality of work life • Fair and equitable remuneration Reasonable stability of employment Employee health and safety programmes Alternative work schedules Participative management or self-managed teams Recognition of employees as human beings • • • • • .

investigated the association between institutionalization of ethics. Twenge & Laura A. The samples of college students and community adults are taken for this study. be it with their family or their personal demeanor. An experimental design varied a target’s sex. PAST RESEARCH Jean M. and relationship fulfillment . Anusha Parshotam (2005). The study was exploratory in nature and was investigated through the qualitative method of interview. Busaya Virakul & Dong-Jin Lee (2010). work fulfillment.• • • • • Congenial worker supervisor relations Grievance procedures and effective leadership Sound promotion policy and career development Management of employee stress Job redesign and enrichment. The author concluded that all the technical advisors who were interviewed found great satisfaction in making the change in career and this satisfaction spilled over into their personal lives. and employee job-related outcomes in the Thai work place. King (2004) conducted a research in relationship fulfillment and work fulfillment in judgments of life quality. The data were collected by means of . examined the quality of work life and career change among online technical advisors. Anusorn Singhapakdi.The results indicate that the relationship fulfillment is the most important part of the lay concept of a good life. Kalayanee Koonmee. quality of work life.

Weber (1985). Harry C. The findings of this research are generally consistent with those from previous studies on institutionalization of ethics that implicit institutionalization of ethics is shown to positively related to quality of work life and different job-related outcomes.questionnaires mailed to human resource managers of 514 Thai companies listed on the Stock Exchange of Thailand. accomplished a research to assess the relationships among characteristics of industrial relations systems. task identity. The empirical results proved (1) strong evidence of an association between measures of the performance of industrial relations systems and economic performance. as the emergence of innovations and developments in the telecommunications technology there is a high possibilities of doing jobs in home itself instead of going to office/work place. He found that the core job dimensions of educators’ job be improved especially with regard to autonomy and feedback. but union commitment increased irrespective of the perception of quality of work life success. experienced responsibility for outcomes of the work and knowledge of the actual results of the work activities). and (2) evidence that efforts to improve quality of working life have little impact on economic performance. examined changes in union and organizational commitment after the implementation of a joint union-management quality of work life program. autonomy and feedback) also to establish the level of the three critical psychological states (experienced meaningfulness of the work. Thapelo Jacob Moloi (2007). all these in relation to race and gender. task significance. Ilan Salomon (1985). Mark R. Katz. which they should know whether it is negative or positive. efforts to improve the quality of working life. Fields. Thacker (1992). They noticed that the company commitment increased only when participants perceived the quality of work life effort as successful. and selected measures of organizational effectiveness. Kochan. as well as the personal and work outcomes (only motivation and work performance). He has done this study in 25 manufacturing plants belonging to one company. Thomas A. conducted a research to test the Job Characteristics Model (JCM) developed by Hackman and Oldham towards enhancing quality of work life. Implications of work-at-home arrangements for the individual's quality of working life are researched and revealed several major aspects of the work . examined the level of the five core job dimensions (skill variety. He selected 15 secondary schools with 12 educators. Boas Shamir. James w. Mitchell w.

and Jeffrey H.experience relevant to quality of working life. attitudes. Based on an analysis of data from a 1987 survey of four different bargaining units within the same local union. measures. Mirvis (1976). . Barry A. Macy. James F. They investigated over a period of 10 months and a panel of 103 managerial dyads employed in service organizations were assessed at different times regarding the quality of their upward linking pin the perceived effectiveness of the leader-member exchange between the incumbents of linking-pin positions with their immediate superior and the behavior. Steven -Ginsburg. Gordon. accounting-work measurement. and treatment of the lower participants. also identified and quantified the cost components of certain behaviors and arrives at a dollar figure per incident and an estimated total cost over three years of measurement. and William Schiemann (1977). Michael E. Cashman. they developed a methodology (Standardized definitions. Keefe (1992). George Graen. is that the perceived effectiveness of the grievance procedure was a much powerful determinant of attitudes toward the union than was participation in quality of work life programs leading and to speculate that one way for unions to strengthen their ties with their members might be to improve the effectiveness of the grievance procedure. they were assessed the Effects of Linking-Pin Quality on the Quality of Working Life of Lower Participants. They were utilized industrial engineering. Finally they concluded that the state of the system may determine where resources become invested. Philip H. and behavioral concepts. they investigated a study pertinent to Quality of work life programs and grievance system effectiveness on union commitment. The differences along these aspects between working at home and working at a normal workplace. for behavioral outcomes. and speculation about the possible consequences for the individual of the transfer of jobs from employers' premises to employees' homes. Eaton. Adrienne E. However. the authors concluded that union members who participated in quality of Work Life programs were less likely than nonparticipants to view quality of work life as a threat to the union and also more loyal to the union. and costing methods) to assess the quality of work life in and organizational effectiveness in behavioral economic terms.

He conducted this study with the help of fifteen bus drivers from four different Pune Municipal Corporation bus depots. . Joanna E. Finally.Prof. particularly for females and pharmacy practice faculty. Finally they have concluded that much of the research productivity done by minority of faculty and there must be a need for formalized mentoring programs. ultimately leading to better transport service to the citizens and a reduction in the rates of accidents. Due to less literature on this area they were revealed this study with the help of pharmacy faculties. (2) the impact of the survey was more important than the survey itself. and how those commitments. and support. thus. Mark H. Finally he given some suggestions to quality of work life of the drivers could be improved. Also she has revealed the following themes are emerged from the analysis: (1) talking about the survey triggered discussions of quality of work life issues most of which were not captured in the survey. They identified that the faculty reported only modest levels of commitment. Rajib Lochan DHAR (2008). India.M. Shane P. She explored the perceptions of a quality of work-life survey from the perspective of 10 employees from a variety of departments in a Canadian cancer centre. They had examined the impact of quality of work life on auditors’ career and organizational commitment in Taiwanese public accounting firms. causing high probability of road accident. in turn. Desselle (2007). Conklin. satisfaction. and (3) participants were concerned that departments or groups of employees were labeled based on the survey results. with relatively high consensus among department colleagues on a number of teaching and research issues. had conducted a research work on The Effects of Quality of Work Life on Commitment and Turnover Intention. Tung-Chun Huang. Ching-Yi Lei (2007). Under his study he considered the quality of work life of the bus drivers and the factors that lead to an imbalance. They have identified that the pharmacy faculties has less confidence on research and indicated areas of teaching. Sale (2007). John Lawler. conducted a research on Snapshot of Pharmacy Faculty quality of Work Life and Productivity. conducted a qualitative study on Perceptions of a Quality of Work-Life Survey from the Perspective of Employees in a Canadian Cancer Centre. revealed that different dimensions of quality of work life result in distinctive effects on organizational and career commitments and turnover intentions. affect turnover intention. he divulged a qualitative study on quality of work life: a study of municipal corporation bus drivers.

a definition of quality of work life is provided and the measuring instrument that results there from (the Quality of Working Life Systemic Inventory – QWLSI) is presented.Andy Danford. general Quality of Life (QOL) which. Finally they have seen that a significant interaction effects indicated in 195 firms out of 658 firms work-life programs had a stronger optimistic impact on output when women comprised a larger percentage of the workforce and when a higher percentage of professionals were employed. have a negative impact on both workplace stress and employee evaluations of union performance. it does. considered the assumptions underlying prospective quality of life instruments in an historical and contemporary context. Based on the suggested definition of QOL. Mike Richardson. At the same time as the partnership–high performance work systems centers seems to have little impact on employees’ job satisfaction or sense of attachment. Konrad. Tom Koch (2000). Gilles Dupuis (2006). they measured the effects of workplace partnership and selected high performance work practices on four different dimensions of employee experience. Finally they had a questions and common assumptions about the inevitability of ‘mutual gain’ and the necessity of employer/union partnership. Finally. Alison M. and in some cases. the continuance of persons with physical differences. however. Paul Stewart. In these 658 organizations. was presented a historical overview of the concept of quality of work life. inspired by the research on a related concept. they given measuring instrument provided for the above-mentioned problems. examined the adoption of work-life programs and the impact of work-life programs on firm productivity. has faced the same conceptualization and definition problems as quality of work life. . It argues that as a tool in health planning and in clinical decision making life quality as a measurement It concludes that to the degree now current prospective instruments reflect a purely physical perspective of ``disease burden'' irrespective of social conditions they create a context that works against life quality. as the literature shows. the percentage of professionals and the percentage of women employed were positively related to the development of more extensive work-life programs. Robert Mangel (2000). Stephanie Tailby and Martin Upchurch (2008). Jean-Pierre Martel. They consensus pertaining to the solutions that have been developed to date. They have collected the sample of 658 organizations provided survey data on firm characteristics and work-life programs. a new definition of quality of work life is suggested.

Zeenobiyah Hannif. Thompson (2002). Una Byrne(2005). The participants are asked to describe current or anticipated work-family or work-life balancing concerns. reviewed the meaning of quality of work life. It has been concluded that quality of work life from the perspective of IT professionals is challenging both to the individuals and organizations. however. analyses constructs of quality of work life based on models and past research from the perspective of IT professionals in many countries and in Malaysia. competency development. affective commitment. a qualitative research paradigm utilizing a job characteristics approach to measuring job quality is put forth as the most appropriate means of investigating the quality of work life. examined quality of work life in China in terms of how their work lives satisfy eight basic needs of employees and how the satisfaction of each individual need in their work life affects employees’ job satisfaction. The constructs of quality of work life discussed are health and well-being. It is concluded that. is that employee needs and interests are not necessarily in opposition to the organization’s interests and that working together to resolve work-life conflict can benefit both the employee and the organization. Cynthia A. The study makes a contribution to the quality of work life literature in understanding the needs satisfaction at work in the Shanghai area of China. and addressing key gaps in the literature moving towards a research agenda. life satisfaction and general well-being. highlighted the concerns that have surfaced regarding the quality of call centre work alongside the rapid expansion of this market over the past decade.Guna Seelan Rethinam (2008). Wyatt(2007). A total of 319 questionnaires were collected from eight organizations in Shanghai. John Burgess & Julia Connell (2009). job security. discussed the development of the concept of the ‘work-life balance’ as a means of tackling the problem of increasing amounts of stress in the workplace as people try to . designed to focus on the concerns that employees and organizations have about employees’ ability to balance work-life demands. job satisfaction. work and nonwork life balance. Finally. Kawai Chan & Thomas a. China. turnover intention.

All these variables are tested the relationship with job satisfaction. family. work-family conflict. health. relationship with peers. Ten variables to measure quality work life are examined namely support from organization. The survey was designed based on a literature review and augmented by focus group data. It was concluded that some of Wisconsin’s health care organisations are doing better than others at working with their family physicians to maximize their satisfaction with their organisation. The sample consists of 475 managers from the free trade zones in Malaysia for both the multinational corporations and the small-medium industries. Ainon Jauhariah Abu Samah and Nurita Juhdi (2008). examined obstacles working professionals face in their efforts to enhance quality of life including a discussion of the advice and employer assistance they desire.Beasley. John W. . impact on job. examined to predict quality of work life in relation to career-related dimensions. optimism on organizational change. 251 employees in the university are taken as sample for the research. Francois Sainfort. The sample size was 1482 physicians. reduce turnover and enable them to reach their professional goals. Jegak Uli and Khairuddin Idris (2006). Elise Dallimore and Amy Mickel (2006). LooSee Beh. autonomy. Ben-Tzion Karsh. Hanita Sarah Saad. Mary Ellen Hagenauer & Lucille Marchand (2004). meaningfulness of job. access to resources and time control. including: work. career achievement and career balance.juggle a wide range of factors in their life/work environment. conducted a survey in the quality of work life of family physician in Wisconsin’s health care organisation. A category of general-life issues (which bridge work and non-work domains) also emerged from the data. The test indicated that each of the quality work life variables on its own is a salient predictor of job satisfaction. The result indicates that three exogenous variables are significant: career satisfaction. reviewed to find out about the employee’s perception of their work-life quality in the university. Raduan Che Rose. friends. and spirit/self. with 63% of the variance in quality of work life. self competence.

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