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GOVERNMENT OF PAKISTAN
Sardar Taimur HyatKhan
Table of Contents Tables: Figures: Annexures: Executive Summary:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Name of the project:................................................................................................1 Location:...................................................................................................................3 Authorities responsible for: Plan provision: Project objectives and its relationship with sector objectives: Description, Justification, Technical Parameter and Technology Transfer Aspects: ....................................................................................................................4 6.1 Solid Waste:………………………………………………………………. 6.2 Surface Water:…………………………………………………………… 6.3 Soils:………………………………………………………………………. 6.4 Justification:……………………………………………………………… 6.5 Benefits:………………………………………………………………. 6.6 Description: Historical Background:…………………………………… 6.7 Technical Aspects:……………………………………………………….. 6.8 Project Components:………………………………………………….. I. Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) Mobilization & Awareness Raising:……………………………………………… II. Composting of Municipal Solid Waste; Nutrient Enhancement & Commercial Sales:…………………………………………… III. Bioremediation of Municipal Liquid Waste through Waste Water Gardens:………………………………………………… Capital Cost Estimates............................................................................................5 Annual Operating and Maintenance Cost after Completion of the Project......6 Demand and Supply Analysis:…………………………………………………...7 Financial Plan and Mode of Financing:…………………………………………8 Project Benefit and Analysis:……………………………………………………. Implementation Schedule:……………………………………………………….. Management Structure and Manpower Requirements Including Specialized Skills during Construction and Operational Phases:…………………………. Additional Project/Decisions Required Maximizing Socio-Economic Benefits from the Proposed Project:……………………………………………………. Certified that the Project Proposal has been Prepared on the Basis of Instructions Provided by the Planning Commission for the Preparation of PC1 for Production Sector Project……………………………………………….
7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.
Table Executive Summary: Table A Budget by Component/ Year: Table B Employment by Component: Table C Table D Table E Table F Table G Table Table 1. Table 2. Table 3. Table 4. Table 5. Table 6. Table 7. Table 8. Table 9. Table 10. Table 11. Table 12: Table 13. Table 14. Table 15. Table 16. Table 17. Table 18. Table 19. Table 20. Table 21. Table 22. Table 23. Table 24. Table 25. Table 26. Table 27. Table28. Table 29. Table 30. Table 31. Table 32. Table 33. Table 34. Table 35. Table 36. Table 37. Employment by Job: Breakdown by Component/ Head/ Year: Breakdown by Head/ Component/ Year: Returns/ Bags/ Day/ pm/ pa: Payback & Cost after Exit: PC-1 Sector-Wise Allocation For On-Going And New Schemes 2009-10 Sectoral Allocation Of Resources Development Budget The Looming Water Scarcity Description: Historical Background Technical Aspects: District Population 1998 (Census) Quantification of Solid Waste by Category Component I: Work Plan (Quarterly Activities). Component I: PROJECT BUDGET DETAILS Component II: Work Plan (Quarterly Activities). Component II: PROJECT BUDGET DETAILS Biodegradable Waste Quantities by City MDGs Targets Component III: Work Plan (Quarterly Activities). Component III: P ROJECT BUDGET DETAILS Root Depth for Selected Phytoremediation Plants: Phytoremediation Overview: Plants Used in Phytoremediation Summary of Bioremediation Technologies: Abbreviations: Processes occurring in Treatment of Waste: Performance of New Generation Reed Bed Systems Means for Total Phosphorus (TP) and Total Nitrogen (TN) Means for Total Phosphorus (TP) and Total Nitrogen (TN) Transformed standard errors for TP and TN The means for Cu and Zn Load/ Removal Rates for Reed-Beds Effluents Treated from Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plants SUCCESSFUL APPLICATIONS Component IV: Work Plan (Quarterly Activities). Component IV: PROJECT BUDGET DETAILS PCU Employment Details PCU: BUDGET DETAILS PERFORMANCE INDICATORS : District wise Sale of Fertilizers, in NWFP, 2004-05 to 2006-07 District Wise Land Utilization Statistics in NWFP, (2007-08) Project Component Cost Details
Page(s) 4 4 5 5 6 6 6 Page(s) 7 7 7 8 15 15 16 19 21 24 25 31 42 43 43 44 45 47 48 53 53 54 57 58 58 59 59 59 62 66 68 68 69 70 70
# 1 2 3 4 5
Budget by Component/ Year: Table A Component Year 1 Year 2 TOTAL Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) 48.05 14.04 62.09 Municipal Solid Waste Segregation/ Processing 195.67 16.71 212.38 Composting of Municipal Solid Waste 259.14 32.73 291.87 Bioremediation of Municipal Liquid Waste 104.93 15.82 120.74 Project Coordination Unit 14.47 10.70 25.17 TOTAL 622.26 89.99 712.25
Employment by Component: Table B Component II Segregation # Title Nos. Rate pm pa 1 Project Coordinators 6 0.04 0.24 2.88 2 Office Assistant 6 0.02 0.09 1.08 3 Technician 6 0.02 0.12 1.44 4 Drivers 24 0.01 0.24 2.88 5 Mate 6 0.01 0.06 0.72 6 Labor 24 0.01 0.14 1.73 7 Cleaner 12 0.01 0.07 0.86 TOTAL 84 0.97 11.59 Component III Composting 1 Project Coordinators 6 0.04 0.24 2.88 2 Mate 6 0.01 0.06 0.72 3 Labor 24 0.01 0.14 1.73 4 Drivers 18 0.01 0.18 2.16 5 Cleaner 6 0.01 0.04 0.43 TOTAL 60 0.66 7.92 Component IV Waste Water Gardens 1 Project Coordinators 6 0.04 0.24 2.88 2 Mate 6 0.01 0.06 0.72 3 Labor 12 0.01 0.07 0.86 4 Drivers 6 0.01 0.06 0.72 TOTAL 30 0.43 5.18 PCU 1 Project Director 1 0.15 0.15 1.80 2 Accounts Officer 1 0.06 0.06 0.72 3 PA to PD 1 0.03 0.03 0.30 4 Technician 3 0.02 0.06 0.72 5 Assistant to Technicians 3 0.01 0.02 0.29 6 Drivers 2 0.01 0.02 0.24 7 Peon 1 0.01 0.01 0.10 8 Cleaner 0.01 0.01 0.07 1 TOTAL 13 0.35 4.24 GRAND TOTAL 168 2.29 27.56 7 4 Employment by Job: Table C 4
Other/ TADA 0.14 0.05 0.07 0.14 0.04 0.09 0.04 0.58 0.14 0.04 0.09 0.11 0.02 0.40 0.14 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.26 0.90 0.36 0.36 0.14 0.12 1.88 3.252
# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Job Title Project Director Project Coordinators Accounts Officer PA to PD Office Assistant Technician Assistant to Technicians Mate Drivers Labor Peon Cleaner TOTAL
Nos. 1 18 1 1 6 9 3 18 50 60 1 19 187
Breakdown by Component/ Head/ Year: Table D Total YEARS Component Code Narration Y-1 Y-2 0.00 0.00 0.00 I. 61 ESTABLISHMENT EXPENSES 11.42 10.33 21.75 62 OPERATIONAL EXPENSES 36.64 3.70 40.34 63 CAPITAL EXPENSES Sub Total 48.05 14.04 62.09 25.56 12.17 13.39 II. 61 ESTABLISHMENT EXPENSES 5.46 2.55 2.91 62 OPERATIONAL EXPENSES 180.95 0.41 181.36 63 CAPITAL EXPENSES 212.38 Sub Total 195.67 16.71 16.51 7.86 8.65 III. 61 ESTABLISHMENT EXPENSES 30.67 14.56 16.12 62 OPERATIONAL EXPENSES 236.73 7.96 244.69 63 CAPITAL EXPENSES 259.14 32.73 291.87 Sub Total 13.34 6.35 6.99 IV. 61 ESTABLISHMENT EXPENSES
62 OPERATIONAL EXPENSES 63 CAPITAL EXPENSES Sub Total 61 ESTABLISHMENT EXPENSES 62 OPERATIONAL EXPENSES 63 CAPITAL EXPENSES Sub Total G. Total:
7.16 91.42 104.93 6.12 3.95 4.40 14.47 622.26
8.03 0.80 15.82 6.73 3.61 0.36 10.70 89.99
15.19 92.22 120.74 12.85 7.56 4.76 25.17
Breakdown by Head/ Component/ Year: Table E
Narration Component YEARS Total
I II III IV PMU Sub Total I II III IV PMU Sub Total I II III IV PMU Sub Total
Y-1 0.00 12.17 7.86 6.35 6.12 32.50 11.42 2.55 14.56 7.16 3.95 39.64 36.64 180.95 236.73 91.42 4.40 550.12 622.26
Y-2 0.00 13.39 8.65 6.99 6.73 35.76 10.33 2.91 16.12 8.03 3.61 41.00 3.70 0.41 7.96 0.80 0.36 13.24 89.99
0.00 25.56 16.51 13.34 12.85 68.26 21.75 5.46 30.67 15.19 7.56 80.64 40.34 181.36 244.69 92.22 4.76 563.36 712.25
Returns/ Bags/ Day/ pm/ pa: Table F
# 1 2 3 4 5 6 City Abbottabad Bannu DI Khan Kohat Mingora Mardan TOTAL MSW t/day 52.80 24.00 43.20 62.40 81.60 120.00 384.00 Compost/ day/ t 21.12 9.60 17.28 24.96 32.64 48.00 153.60 Compost/ day/ 000 21,120.00 9,600.00 17,280.00 24,960.00 32,640.00 48,000.00 153,600.00 50 kg bags pd 422 192 346 499 653 960 3,072 Price Rs.300.00 per bag 0.13 0.06 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.29 0.92 Price pm 3.80 1.73 3.11 4.49 5.88 8.64 27.65 Y-1 12.17 2.55 7.86 14.56 6.35 7.16 38.48 583.78 331.78 -252.00 Price pa 45.62 20.74 37.32 53.91 70.50 103.68 331.78 Y-2 13.39 2.91 8.65 2.92 6.99 8.03 29.50 60.49 331.78 19.28
Payback & Cost after Exit: Table G
61 62 61 62 61 62 Investment Gross Returns Net returns Component II ESTABLISHMENT EXPENSES OPERATIONAL EXPENSES Component III ESTABLISHMENT EXPENSES OPERATIONAL EXPENSES Component IV ESTABLISHMENT EXPENSES OPERATIONAL EXPENSES Yearly Cost Less Investment & Implementing Agencies
GOVERNMENT OF PAKISTAN PLANNING COMMISSION
PC-1 FORM (WSS SECTORS)
Name of the project: Master Plan for Provision of Bio-Environmental Services Teams (BEST) in selected Cities/ Towns of N.W.F.P. 2. Location: Abbottabad; Mingora; Mardan; Bannu; Kohat; DI Khan. 3. Authorities responsible for: Sponsoring: Go NWFP. Execution: Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC). Operation and maintenance: Respective City Municipal Authorities. Concerned federal ministry: Ministry of Food and Agriculture. 4. Plan provision: Sector-Wise Allocation for On-Going and New Schemes 2009-10 (Rs. In millions): Table 1 Sector Schemes Schemes Total (On-Going) (New) No Allocation No Allocation No Allocation Drinking Water & 41 1441.169 41 1441.169 Sanitation Environment 6 26.438 3 17.700 9 40.138 Sectoral Allocation Of Resources (Rs. In millions) Table 2 Sector Y1-Y2 Y3-Y5 Y6-Y7 Total Water & Sanitation 2,136 3,360 2,218 7,714 1.
. i. ii. v.
% Total 1.3 %
Development Budget (Rs. In millions) Table 3 Development Program 2009-10 Annual Development Foreign Project Assistance Total Program Drinking Water & 1441.169 1434.541 2875.710 Sanitation The proposed project is in line with the Medium Term Development Framework (MTDF) 2005-10 of the Planning Commission of Pakistan and an amount of Rs.1.441 billions in the ADP and Rs. 1.434 billions as Foreign Project Assistance in the Sector has been allocated for the Drinking Water & Sanitation Sector in NWFP. The proposed project will help in achieving the MTDF (2005-10) goals, targets and objectives besides supporting the implementation of its sectoral strategies. It will help Pakistan to fulfill international obligations of the Millennium Development Goal (MDGs) targets; Goal-7; (Ensure Environmental Sustainability). In addition the proposed project supports the National Agricultural and Environment Policy, National Conservation Strategy (NCS) and National Environment Action Plan (NEAP). In case of the regular water supply and sanitation programs an overall financial outlay of Rs.120 billion is envisaged to achieve the MTDF targets, including Rs 60 billion by the Federal and Provincial PSDPs. The proposed project would be financed out of the block provision for NWFP in the PSDP. 5. Project objectives and its relationship with sector objectives: “Major Themes for the Vision 2030 Project: 7
The Quality of Life: vi. Preserving the habitat.” “6 Agriculture Growth: Food, Water and Land: 6.1 Major Challenges: • Sustainable management of the natural resource base and protection of the environment; • Public investments in rural infrastructure and institutions including water management, research and extension, education, health, water supply and sewerage. The Water Challenge: Pakistan has not managed its water resources with care and is now becoming increasingly water stressed (current availability of 1100 cubic meters per capita which is fast approaching the water scarcity regime of under 1000 cubic meters per capita). The Looming Water Scarcity: Table 4 Year Population ( millions) Water Available, Per Capita (cubic metres) 1951 34 5650 2003 146 1200 2010 168 1000 2025 221 800 Without additional storage, the shortfall will increase by 12 per cent over the next decade alone. Managing the Use of Water: Strict prevention of discharge of industrial effluent in natural streams is another serious issue to be addressed through incentives and punitive measures, coupled with cleaning of polluted water streams. 10 Rural and Urban Development: Infrastructure and services in both rural and urban areas are deficient and substantial improvements are needed. However, the quality of life in rural areas is much lower than in urban areas and it continue to lag in the availability of physical infrastructure, education and health facilities, safe drinking water supply and sanitation and other social services. The community-based infrastructure development has shown great success and promise in Pakistan. Community based waste management and water supply and sanitation systems are examples of successful implementation of municipal service delivery. 10.5 Urban Services: With rapid urbanization coupled with inadequate investment, the quality of urban infrastructure has deteriorated. Less than 1 per cent of wastewater is treated in Pakistan. The rest is thrown into ravines, streams, and rivers which have turned into sewers and impact negatively on downstream users. The metropolitan governments recover less than 50 per cent of the solid waste generated in the cities. The rest is left to rot on the streets. Even the waste that is collected is mostly dumped in open fields or is incinerated. The dumped waste pollutes the groundwater and the incinerated waste creates air pollution.
Our urban planners have seldom followed pro-poor strategies in the past. The rich get subsidized sewers; the poor live in often appalling sanitary conditions. Yet a lot can be done with some grit, and vision, as shown by the Orangi Pilot Project in Karachi; this provides sewerage services to over a million poor people and provides many lessons which can and are being emulated on a larger scale. The Key Lesson from Orangi: Poor people also want good quality services just like rich people. Orangi also showed how poor people can transform their environment and reduce costs and corruption to a small fraction of ‘standard’ costs by technical innovation and selfhelp. It also showed the importance of high-quality technical support, and why eventually, there must be a partnership between the informal sector (which can handle much of the local infrastructure better than the municipality) and the government (which must build the bulk collection and wastewater treatment facilities). 10.5.1 Urban Water Supply and Sanitation: The strategy for urban water supply would be based on meeting rapidly increasing demand for household and industrial water, increasing investments in new water delivery systems, upgrading and managing the existing systems more efficiently, ensuring provision of potable water to poor households, recycling of water, where feasible, and enhancing cost recovery. The sanitation improvement options would cover wastewater management and disposal of human wastes through cost efficient and affordable means, including improvement in the management of septic tanks. For solid waste, the strategy would be to develop integrated solid waste management systems, sanitary landfills, and to minimize waste through refuse recovery and electricity generation.” The Bioenvironmental aspect of our habitations is under threat of ecological collapse. The Natural Cycles have been interfered with and have broken down in many places. Due to this the vital regenerative aspect of Nature and constant supply of fresh air and water along with replenished soil fertility is being curtailed. Emission of noxious and hazardous gasses, leachates and breeding grounds for disease vectors are some of the problems associated with our manner of living. The discovery that every aspect of Nature works in harmony with each other to produce and maintain the eco-system in habitable condition should make us realize that we have to conform to the Laws of Nature in order to ensure that we can continue to inhabit that particular eco-system. When we learn that the products required for regeneration of soil fertility and the generation of vitally needed energy as well as water is available to us with a little effort then there is no justification of allowing these potential inputs to create a nuisance rather than be beneficial. Solid and Liquid Municipal Waste affords us the opportunity to produce compost and digestate liquor which can be used as a fertilizer supplying vital nutrients to soils. The solid, fibrous component of compost and digestate can be used as a soil conditioner. The liquor and nutrient fortified compost can be used as a substitute for chemical fertilizers which require large amounts of energy to produce and transport. The use of manufactured fertilizers is more carbon intensive than the use of anaerobic digestate fertilizer thus savings can be affected by reduction in their use. At present Solid & Liquid Waste is grossly polluting the environment. This is causing increasing incidence of diseases and indirectly contributing to decreased economic activity due to degradation of the environment. Invisible costs in terms of loss of manhours and increased pressure upon medical facilities are of great concern. 9
• • •
Most MSW is disposed of in landfills, burnt, or illegally dumped, as there is no special government regulation on MSW treatment. GHG emissions especially CO2 and other air pollutants, i.e. NOx, CO, SOx and also particulates are polluting the environment. MSW landfills produce leachates that contaminate water body/soil creating water/soil pollution. The unsorted municipal solid waste in the six nominated cities amounts to an average of just under 384 tons per day. There is no proper waste collection system. Waste is dumped in the open. Different types of waste are not segregated. There are no controlled sanitary landfill sites. “It has been estimated that around 4,000 million gallons of sewage is being discharged to surface water bodies every day in Pakistan, with very little consideration of used-water management for fresh water conservation and human well being. Serious health concerns arise in the absence of a regular monitoring of the water quality of the surface and groundwater bodies. Contaminated and poor quality water loads estimated health costs of Rs. 114 billion, or approximately 1.81 percent of GDP per annum.” The high proportions of costs due to premature child deaths, followed by the mortality impacts of typhoid in the older population are striking (Pak- SCEA2006). A study conducted by UNICEF found that 20-40% of the hospital beds in Pakistan are occupied by patients suffering from water-related diseases, such as typhoid, cholera, dysentery and hepatitis, which are responsible for one third of all deaths (Pak SCEA2006). 2 The Rivers Swat and Panjkora (in Malakand Division) are at threat from the ever increasing disposal of domestic; agricultural, municipal waste water; industrial effluents; solid wastes; deforestation; unplanned construction and encroachments as well as the high level of environmental unawareness of the residents and the visiting tourists to the region”3 “The links between water quality and health risks are well established. Inadequate quantity and quality of potable water and poor sanitation facilities and practices are associated with a host of illnesses such as diarrhea, typhoid, intestinal worms and hepatitis. It is estimated that more than 1.6 million DALYs (Disability Adjusted Life Years) are lost annually as a result of death and disease due to diarrhea, and almost 0.90 million as a result of typhoid. Diarrheal and typhoid mortality in children accounts for the bulk of the losses, reflecting the vulnerability of children to these diseases. The negative impact of the above mentioned contamination can be reversed by using bio-remediation techniques, and local communities will actually benefit from enhanced soil fertility and better overall health. National Agricultural Research Center (NARC) has high potential and state of the art capabilities to deal with the used water through environment friendly biological means. Benefits of used-water management can be seen in terms of improvement in the quality of life, health standards of communities combined with used-water reclamation and soil safety from toxicity within three years. The contamination of water is just one example of the harm being done to natural resources. Bio-remediation technologies, which utilize natural processes of decontamination by facilitating the remedial activity of various organisms, can be applied to many aspects including decontamination of water, decomposition of biodegradable solid waste and detoxification of soil. These methods, when combined with Integrated Farming promote a broad-based and holistic approach.”4
Pak- Strategic Country Environment Assessment 2006 Feasibility Study to divert domestic and municipal sewage entering into the River System Swat & Panjkora in Districts Swat & Dir Lower (ADP No. 483): Swat Irrigation Division Saidu Sharif.
Latest techniques of Biotechnology have led to the development of low-cost solutions to what was earlier a high cost exercise. Rapid decomposition by bacteria through Bioaugmentation is the application of selected microorganisms to enhance the microbial populations of an operating waste treatment facility to improve water quality or lower operating costs. Bioaugmentation involves working to improve a continuous process and can readily convert Biodegradable and noxious solid and liquid waste into valuable by-products. Environment Control Infrastructure for Solid & Liquid Waste Treatment has also been revolutionized by the NARC by developing low-cost and rapidly constructed structures for both Solid & Liquid Waste Management. Thus operating period of beds and ponds is extended well into winter. Resultant cost effectiveness of by-products and short turnover periods make the Project extremely beneficial and desirable. Thus the Overall Project is extremely effective; immediately implemented and bears low-cost. It is a Project of High Profile as it caters to one of the most critical problems being faced by our Society. The beneficial results for protecting the environment from further degradation are incalculable. The Eco System that we inhabit might be reaching critical stage in destabilization. Once this thresh hold is passed we will face an extremely expensive and uphill rehabilitation task.
A NEW MORN! Project Objectives: The prime objective of the project is to create sustainable Metropolitan Municipal Liquid & Solid Waste Management systems that support GHG emission reduction through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). For trading purposes, one carbon credit is considered equivalent to one ton of CO2 emission and this carbon credit can be sold in the international market like other commodities at the prevailing price. So far, five exchanges are dealing in carbon credits: The EcoSecurities, Chicago Climate Exchange, European Climate Exchange, Nordpool and Powernext. Domestic and Industrial Water Use and Waste Water Disposal: Access to water for domestic purposes in the urban areas is limited to about 83% of the population, with 57% having piped supply to their homes. Present water use in the urban sector is of the order of 4.3 MAF. The demand is expected to increase to about 12.1 MAF by the year 2025. Rural domestic water use is currently 0.8 MAF, with only about 53% of the rural population having access to drinking water from public water supply sources. Water consumed by major industries is about 1.2 MAF per year, mostly from ground water.
Bio-remediation of used water. A publication of NARC Institute of Eco-toxicology, Bio-remediation and Integrated Farming.
To address the fact that water pollution is a main concern in Pakistan. The source is from both municipal and industrial uses, with only about 1% of wastewater treated before disposal. This has become one of the largest environmental problems in Pakistan. General objectives of the proposed project are in line with the sectoral objectives of the sewage and sanitation sector besides supporting the green environment in MTDF (2005-10). Accordingly, the Government of Pakistan is committed to combat environmental pollution in various sectors and at various levels. Specific Objectives: The proposed Project will establish Community Led Total Sanitation CLTS) Programs as Bioenvironmental Services Teams (BEST) in: • Abbottabad • Mingora • Mardan • Kohat • Bannu • D. I. Khan of NWFP including the following components: Component I: Social Mobilization for CLTS and overall Project Management; Monitoring and Evaluation in Six (06) Cities/ Towns of N.W.F.P. Component II: Segregation of MSW for Composting and Recyclables. Component III: MSW Bioremediation through Bioaugmented Windrow Composting Facilities for Biodegradable Solid Waste in order to remove foul odors; exclude breeding areas for disease vectors; provide aesthetically pleasing environment; curtail environmental pollution and produce Organic Fertilizer Component IV: Bioremediation of Liquid Waste Facilities through Waste Water Gardens to recycle water for agriculture; horticulture and aquaculture and prevent contamination of the aquifers. Component III, (MSW Bioremediation through Bioaugmented Windrow Composting Facilities) can be established on priority basis as a stand-alone Project. However, inclusion of Components I (Social Mobilization for CLTS) and II (Segregation of MSW) are essential for efficient implementation and sustainability of Component III. Component IV (Bioremediation of Liquid Waste Facilities through Waste Water Gardens) is a pressing and emergency requirement. Integrated or phase wise implementation will provide cost effectiveness and high impact to the project as well as earn income to cover expenses incurred. This will ensure sustainability of the project as well as complete bioenvironmental cover to the localities in a replicable manner. Relationship with Sector Objectives: 6. Description, Justification, Technical Parameter and Technology Transfer Aspects: Background: NWFP covers 39,267 sq miles (101,700 km2), which is 12.8% of the total area of Pakistan and has a population of 22.4 million (15.9 % of total population). 6.1 Solid Waste: In the NWFP generation of municipal solid waste is estimated to be between 0.4 and 0.6 kilograms per day per capita and virtually, no proper waste management system exists. Approximately 40 per cent of the generated wastes remain at collection points, or in streets, where they emit a host of pollutants into the air, making it 12
unacceptable for breathing. Also on roadside, the dump burning of the municipal solid wastes generates air pollution problem. Many Cities do not have regular Dumping Grounds and the Solid Waste generated in the Cities is being sold directly to farmers for inculcation into their lands without any form of pre-treatment what so ever. Pollution of surface and sub-surface water by leachates from MSW is also a matter of grave importance. The EPA has found that quality of drinking water is often low and seldom met the WHO guidelines. Water in many parts of the province was unsafe for human consumption due to both bacterial and chemical contamination. It says that water samples of Bannu and Kohat districts were 30 to 20 % affected by bacteriological contamination. Almost 50 % in Mardan and Swat, while more than 60 % contaminated samples belonged to D.I. Khan and Mansehra. 6.2 Surface Water: The quality of surface water has also been identified as the major issue of water resources. Untreated waste discharged from factories, industrial units, residential areas and municipal waste are the prime culprits which are polluting sources of surface water. One of the sources of pollution in Swat River is the water coming from one of its main tributaries, the Mingora Khawar. The Murghuzar Khawar flows past the famous village of Islampur. Here 4-5,000 handlooms are engaged in the weaving of shawls and blankets for export and sale in local markets. The products are washed with chemicals and soap before sale and the entire effluent goes into the Murghuzar Khawar which joins the Mingora Khawar before it enters into the city. All the waste and effluent in Mingora city are added to Mingora Khawar and these pollutants are further injected into River Swat contributing to its ecological degradation as well. Analysis has revealed some frightening figures that indicated serious threats to the aquatic, terrestrial, atmospheric eco-systems and to the well-being of human, plant and animal life. There are many studies and also a PC-1 for undertaking the survey of Liquid Waste effluent dumping in all streams/ rivers of Swat. A Study Group exists within Peshawar University, Area Study Center, Swat Study Group run by a Core Working Group which covers Liquid & Solid Waste in Swat District. An M-Phil Thesis on Solid Waste in Mingora also exists. This Study Group may be taken on board. Geneva University has also carried out research in this matter. Civil Society estimates that a minimum period of 18 months for complete Social Mobilization on CLTS concept for dealing with the hazardous problem of waste entering the food chain as well as the hazard of Hospital waste through formation of Community Groups of 500 Households for primary segregation of Solid Waste in the home. A Round Table for Pollution Prevention was constituted in 1998 by the Environment Protection Society (EPS), a Civil Sector Organization. 6.3 Soils: The soils of all the areas are depleted in Nutrients and Organic Material. As such water retention capacity and soil fertility is being eroded. No soil conservation efforts are being made and non-sustainable road construction as well as deforestation are badly affecting the stability of slopes and carrying capacity of the land. Subsistence farming is replacing the bountiful yields of nature. Soil borne diseases and viruses are plentiful whereas overuse of chemical fertilizers and plant ‘protection’ chemicals has served to eradicate friendly microbes and insects. Over cultivation has led to compaction and destruction of Macro pores in the soil leading to increased run-off and erosion. Soil amendments in the shape of organic content can be served if composting is adopted to provide: Increased water retention capacity. 13
• • • • •
Decreased Soil erosion. Increased Soil fertility and carrying capacity. More quality & Quantity yields. Increased revenues from sale of Organic Produce. Curtailment in incidence of diseases. 6.4 Justification: The project consists of aerobic and anaerobic MSW and leachate treatment for producing Compost and Waste Water Gardens for treating Liquid Waste, complete with Bioreactors to generate Methane Gas for energy production in six cities: Abbottabad, Mingora, Mardan, Kohat Bannu and D I Khan, complete with Sorting; Shredding; Composting; Nutrient Enhancement with pure mono and divalent metals chelated with inert organic matter as opposed to ETDA chelation. Leachates and run-off from MSW will be added to the Bioreactors. 6.5 Benefits: The benefits of the proposed project are: a. Reduction of environment pollution (in rivers and ground caused by liquid and solid waste disposal and air pollution from open burning of waste); b. Overcome social issues occurring from illegal waste disposal (open dumping); c. Harvest Methane Gas for energy production; d. Conversion of non reusable solid waste for better economic benefits; f. Reduction of GHG emissions; g. Cleaner environment for better public health (odor, seeping of contaminated or polluted water, potential spreading of disease); h. Creation of job opportunities; i. Dissemination of a good municipal waste treatment technology to other locations. Besides improving the environment, the project is financially and economically feasible. The project has a potential to reduce GHG emission as much as 37.5 M tons of CO2 equivalent per year from Solid Waste alone. Additionally, the project will produce organic fertilizer (compost) that is also environmentally friendly. The expected operational lifetime of the project activity is 20 years. The project is to be executed by the PARC, Islamabad. 6.6 # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Description: Historical Background: Table 5 Era 2500BC 500BC 320BC 31BC 1400AD 1800AD 1870AD 21st Century Item Mohenjo Daro & Harappa Covered Drains. Aryan Tribal Taboos against polluting flowing water. Greek Laws against Refuse Dumping. Rome property owners responsible for area cleanliness. England Scavengers. US Municipal Waste Collection. Technological Approach. Biotech Revolution.
In order to maintain a sustained yield from Natural Resources we must introduce rational management of the environment and consequently the ecosystem. Nature, when left on its own, is finely balanced. When man tinkers with Nature this balance is destroyed. For example when man ignorantly upsets the balance by contaminating aquifers, attracting disease vectors to open air dumping and burning of Biodegradable Waste Solid Waste, great perils arise. These activities cause contaminated aquifers; spread 14
of water and air borne diseases; release of deadly dioxins (carcinogenic) and polluted rivers. These in turn yield many other disastrous results such as diminished vitality; expensive medical cures and so on. This results in malnutrition; lowered living standards; depleted resources etc. At the same time pressure keeps on increasing due to rapid population growth. As a result we have Eco-catastrophe on our hands and finally extinction. 6.7
Technical Aspects: District Population 1998 (Census) Table 6
Populatio n (millions) MSW tons/ day MSW million tons/ per month 0.0016 0.0007 0.0013 0.0019 0.0024 0.0036 0.0115 MSW million tons/ per annum 0.019 0.0088 0.016 0.023 0.029 0.044 0.1398 MLW million gallons / day 11.00 5.00 9.00 13.00 17.00 25.00 80.00 MLW million gallons/ month 330.00 150.00 270.00 390.00 510.00 750.00 2,400.00 MLW million gallons/ year 3,960.00 1,800.00 3,240.00 4,680.00 6,120.00 9,000.00 28,800.00 AcreInches/ day AcreInches/ month AcreInches/ year
1 Abbottabad 2 Bannu 3 D.I.Khan 4 Kohat 5 Mingora 6 Mardan TOTAL:
0.11 0.05 0.09 0.13 0.17 0.25 0.80
52.80 24.00 43.20 62.40 81.60 120.00 384.00
0.00044 0.0002 0.00036 0.00052 0.00068 0.001 0.0032
0.013 0.006 0.011 0.016 0.02 0.03 0.096
0.16 0.07 0.13 0.19 0.24 0.36 1.15
It is estimated that a community of 10,000 people can generate 40-acre inches of sewage effluent per day or an equivalent of 1 million gallons of wastewater. Quantification of Solid Waste by Category (tons/ month): Table 7
ITEM Rubber & Leather Textiles Wood Food Waste Yard Waste Paper & Paperboard Others Glass Metals Plastics TOTAL Biodegradable Recyclable Total Degradable Non-degradable TOTAL % 3.00 3.80 5.30 10.10 12.80 38.60 3.30 5.50 7.70 9.90 100.00 35.00 38.60 73.6 26.40 100.00 Abbottabad 47.52 60.19 83.95 159.98 202.75 611.42 52.27 87.12 121.97 156.82 1584.00 554.40 611.42 1165.82 418.18 1584.00 Bannu 21.60 27.36 38.16 72.72 92.16 277.92 23.76 39.60 55.44 71.28 720.00 252.00 277.92 529.92 190.08 720.00 DI Khan 38.88 49.25 68.69 130.90 165.89 500.26 42.77 71.28 99.79 128.30 1296.00 453.60 500.26 953.86 342.14 1296.00 Kohat 56.16 71.14 99.22 189.07 239.62 722.59 61.78 102.96 144.14 185.33 1872.00 655.20 722.59 1377.79 494.21 1872.00 Mingora 73.44 93.02 129.74 247.25 313.34 944.93 80.78 134.64 188.50 242.35 2448.00 856.80 944.93 1801.73 646.27 2448.00 Mardan 108.00 136.80 190.80 363.60 460.80 1389.60 118.80 198.00 277.20 356.40 3600.00 1260.00 1389.60 2649.6 950.40 3600.00 Totals 345.60 437.76 610.56 1163.52 1474.56 4446.72 380.16 633.60 887.04 1140.48 11520.00 4032.00 4446.72 8478.72 3041.28 11520.00
Being an apex research organization at Federal level responsible for coordination and promotion of agricultural research, Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC) has the mission “Poverty reduction through science-based improvements in agriculture productivity, profitability, and competitiveness to ensure “food and livelihood security for all in an environmentally sustainable manner”. 6.7 I. Project Components:
Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) Mobilization & Awareness Raising. CLTS represents a radical alternative to conventional top-down approaches to sanitation and offers hope of achieving the Millennium Development Goals (Kar and Chambers 2008). CLTS emphasizes community action and behavior change as the most important elements to achieving better sanitation – without resorting to subsidies. CLTS highlights how communities themselves are capable of analyzing the problems of fecaloral routes of disease spread, and of conceiving of ways to deal with these themselves, rather than outsiders offering prescribed solutions. What distinguishes Community-Led Total Sanitation from earlier community-based approaches, therefore, is the way that it emphasizes facilitation rather than education or training. For example, a report on CLTS from Sierra Leone states that; ‘In three weeks, CLTS has managed to do what millions of dollars, hundreds of construction projects, and dozens of NGOs failed to do over decades.’
Project Abstract/Summary: Being sensitive to cultural and religious norms and practices is essential in terms of adopting a Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) approach. Because the approach relies so heavily on triggering spontaneous behavior change, there is a need to be aware of how current behavior and norms are couched in particular cultural and religious concepts and practices. 16
Technological issues In contrast to supply-oriented approaches, the CLTS framework does not offer predesigned sanitary solutions; facilitators do not foist particular technological options on dwellers but aim towards generating a drive to build their own facilities, using local technologies and drawing upon local knowledge. Thus, the particular technological options that do emerge will depend on the availability and nature of building materials in the immediate vicinity, their cost, the knowledge and skills of the community, the existence of masonry traditions, and the division of labor within that particular community (Kar and Bongartz 2006). What is CLTS? CLTS is assisting the community in identifying its sanitation problems and optimizing its potential to improve (Lokakarya 2008). An approach that focuses on igniting a change in sanitation behavior through community participation rather than constructing toilets (Plan UK 2008) GOAL: People consciously change their behavior because of collective pressure. Over 50% of the problem related to Solid Waste Management can be overcome by simple Primary Segregation on the part of the Waste Generating Society. Division into Biodegradable and non-degradable waste streams in the home or business simplifies the problem of sustainable waste disposal. Sanitation staff and scavengers are also not subject to contamination by disease vectors. Biodegradable waste is kept in covered containers and sent straight to the composting facility. Where neighborhoods and people are interested in home composting and have the necessary space, local composting can help to reduce waste bulk. Secondly, disease vectors are denied space to multiply within residential and commercial areas. The local communities need to be motivated and mobilized to undertake this primary responsibility. • • • • • Objectives of the Project: To establish Citizens Community Organizations for Solid Waste Management. To disseminate Environmental Health Education. Institute Primary Segregation on the part of the Community. Streamline Solid Waste Collection. Demonstrate and Transfer Rapid Composting Technology. Justification of the Project: The proposed target areas are heavily populated Urban Spreads. There is a complete absence of proper Solid or Liquid Waste Management creating a serious Health Hazards. As Waste Producers the residents of the area should be willing to take on the responsibility of managing their own Solid Waste. The Project has been designed with simplicity and ease of implementation as a Prime Objective. The emphasis is upon Practical Management as well as Awareness Raising and not only upon Awareness raising alone. As such the Proposed Project will go a long way in providing a viable demonstration of Low-Cost, Self-Help Solid Waste Management that will be Replicable. As there is a critical need for Solid Waste Management all over the Country, the Project will serve a very Noble Cause that is integral to our Religion and Beliefs. Specific Objectives: 17
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Arrange Mohallah/ Ward delimitation into populations not exceeding 500 households. Motivate and Mobilize populace to segregate biodegradable and nondegradable waste at site. Ensure segregated waste is transported to Municipal Composting Facility. Educate the society regarding composting and safe disposal of solid waste. Campaign for Total Sanitation.
Methodology: Local NGOs/ CBOs will be identified to undertake campaigns under the CLTS approach. Educational and poster campaigns will be launched through these organizations while education institutions and media will be fully involved in the process. Expected Outputs and Outcome/Impact: With targets for primary segregation achieved the task of rapid, bioaugmented composting will be facilitated and success of the efforts will be guaranteed. Involvement of the sovereign masses in tackling their own problems will lead to a sense of ownership and lent sustainability to the project. Healthy and sanitary habitations will evolve from the exercise and Public Health will be positively impacted especially amongst children. The prevalence of clean environment will have the subliminal affect of inculcating cleanliness and a sense of pride/ belonging in society and go a long way in promoting harmony. The impact is likely to be even more than expected as aware and highly motivated communities are looking for ways and means to better their living conditions. The use of compost will also be increased as the people will themselves be involved and will be aware of the positive benefits that accrue from this eco-friendly activity. Team of Experts for Project Component – I Project Director: The overall Project Director will be responsible for this aspect of the Project. Other Team Members: Members of Civil Society and NWFP Government will comprise the team divided between the six proposed composting sites. Project Duration: Duration will be of two years (24 months). Project Cost: Total Project Cost (Rs. in million): Rs.62.09 million Locations of the project: The Proposed Project Sites are: Abbottabad; Mingora; Mardan; Kohat; Bannu; D. I. Khan. Project Implementation: a. Project Duration: Two Years (24 months).
Component I: Work Plan (Quarterly Activities). Table 8 18
Start/ End dates of 6-monthly Periods 01-03-210 to 01-09-2010
01-09-20010 to 01-03-2011
01-03-2011 to 01-09-2011
01-09-2011 to 01-03-2012
Activities Preparation of Educational/ Promotional material (Videos/ Manuals/ Brochures/ Banners). Formal Opening Primary Segregation and Sanitation Awareness Campaigns (Seminars/ Meetings/ Walks/ Media Campaigns). University of Peshawar/ Hazara: Review Door to Door Campaign for Awareness Raising / Motivation. Seminars/ Posters/ Community Meetings. Formation of Neighborhood Committees. Identification of Agents for Positive Change. Election of Executive Committee Members (5 each in 6 locations) through Page Rank Algorithm based ranking. Training/ Demonstration by PARC. Quarterly Monitoring Primary Segregation into 2 streams: Green = Bio-degradable Brown = Non-degradable. Determination of Collection Points (CPs) Arrangements for Recyclable Waste Sorting Practical composting at Micro Level Schools Cleanliness Awareness Campaign On-Going Review by Community Quarterly Monitoring Report of 1st & 2nd quarters to Concerned Authorities On-Going Schools program Poster Competition On-going Composting Progress Report & Distribution Self-Reliant base for Continuity through sale of Compost and Recyclables Technical Appraisal by PARC. Project Review Adjustment Quarterly Monitoring On-Going School education program On-Going motivation program Visits by neighboring Communities On-going Composting Visits by Officials Project Evaluation by Beneficiaries 2nd & 3rd Quarter Reports End of project Review Report
The Project will be implemented by Neighborhood Committees constituted for this very purpose on the lines of Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS). The entire Community will be involved in all aspects of implementation and monitoring of the Project. Overseeing and Monitoring Committees of the local community will be 19
constituted and regular meetings and on-going review will be held. College students and School children will be fully involved in all aspects and will be motivated to ensure success of the Project. Agents for positive Change from amongst the community will be identified and will assume responsibility of various aspects of the Project. Most attention has been paid to Long-term continuity and sustainability of the Project. This has been ensured by the following. Compost: Given the heightened awareness regarding Organic fertilizers and Global Warming, the residents will be encouraged to go in for small scale composting where ever possible. Small scale demonstrations will be held and literature will be distributed. A questionnaire will be developed for monitoring and evaluation. Regular meetings of the Community will be held for this purpose as well. Quarterly Review Reports and well as Technical Appraisal of progress by PMU will provide external Audit of Activities. A Participatory Evaluation Process will be initiated and indicators will be developed to mark the progress of the project. Local and area influentials and Govt. Officials will be invited to review the project from time to time.
Details of Components Activities and their itemized cost of material, labor, machinery etc.
Component I: PROJECT BUDGET DETAILS (Rs. in millions): Table 9
Code 62-13 62-14 Narration Running cost of vehicles Transport of goods Y-1 1.44 0.60 Y-2 1.58 0.13 Total 3.02 0.73
62-2 62-20 62-21 62-23 62-24 62-3 62-30 62-31
62-36 62-37 62-4 62-43 62-44 62-5 62-52 62-53 62-55 62-56 62-6 62-60 62-62 62-63 62-7 63-1 63-12
Transportation Postage & Telegraph Telephone & trunk calls Courier service E-mail & internet Communication Utilities/office support Stationery Printed Material Booklets Rs.30.00 Posters Rs.15.00 Stickers Rs 10.00 Banners Rs. 500.00 Schools Awareness Campaign Consumable stores Other Misc. Expenses Software Development Utilities Computer & Office equipment Furniture & Fixture Repair & Maintenance Public Meetings Social Mobilization Essay/article writing Other services Official Visits Other Services Publicity and advertisement Project Review expense Seminars/workshops/meetings Other Charges OPERATIONAL EXPENSES Survey & Organization 10% Operational Expense to Implementing NGO Pre-Fabricated Insulated Fiber Glass Office Building 40ft dia Geodesic Dome @Rs.2,500.00 sq ft Rapid Composting Demonstration Composting Pits & Cover Frames x 25 x 6 Black & Green Plastic (Winter/ Summer Cover): Resource Persons x 2 x 4,000.00 x 30 Bio-Aab (EM Technology) Inputs @ Rs. 80.00 Vehicle CAPITAL EXPENSES Grand Total
2.04 0.04 0.14 0.04 0.04 0.25 0.07 0.07 0.60 0.15 0.06 0.15 2.00 0.36 0.07 1.00 4.54 0.15 0.30 0.45 1.20 1.20 0.30 0.06 0.15 2.91 0.36 0.15 0.72 1.23 11.42 3.20 1.14 24.00 1.50 0.08 0.24 0.48 6.00 36.64 48.05
1.71 0.05 0.18 0.05 0.05 0.34 0.11 0.11 0.15 0.06 0.15 2.00 0.40 0.11 0.00 3.08 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.50 1.20 0.45 0.07 0.18 3.40 0.54 0.18 1.08 1.80 10.33 0.00 1.03 0.00 1.80 0.09 0.27 0.51 0.00 3.70 14.04
3.75 0.09 0.32 0.09 0.09 0.59 0.18 0.18 0.00 0.60 0.30 0.12 0.30 4.00 0.76 0.18 1.00 7.62 0.15 0.30 0.45 2.70 2.40 0.75 0.13 0.33 6.31 0.90 0.33 1.80 3.03 21.75 3.20 2.18 24.00 3.30 0.17 0.51 0.99 6.00 40.34 62.09
CONDUCT: • Site Survey and Project Design. • Submission of Work Plans with financial details and working drawings for the Project. • Physical erection of requisite infrastructure. 21
• Monitoring & Evaluation. The Project is urgently required and. deserves prompt perusal and sanction. The positive effects on humanity and the environment are highly visible and desperately needed! Finally, the project is environment friendly and low-cost in nature. Thus, it is urged that the process be taken forward at the earliest. II. Municipal Solid Waste Segregation/ Processing: • • • Secondary Segregation: Mixing/ Grinding. Recyclables Baling On-Site. “ “
1. Solid Waste Handling 1.1 Sorting and Shredding: The decomposable materials in refuse are isolated from glass, metal, and other inorganic items through sorting and separating operations. These are carried out mechanically, using differences in such physical characteristics of the refuse as size, density, and magnetic properties. Shredding or pulverizing reduces the size of the waste articles, resulting in a uniform mass of material. It is accomplished with hammer mills and rotary shredders 1.2 Separation Before any material can be recycled; it must be separated from the raw waste and sorted. Separation can be accomplished at the source of the waste or at a central processing facility. Source separation, also called curbside separation, is done by individual citizens who collect newspapers, bottles, cans, and garbage separately and place 22
them at the curb for collection. Many communities allow "commingling" of non-paper recyclables (glass, metal, and plastic). In either case, municipal collection of sourceseparated refuse is more expensive than ordinary refuse collection. In lieu of source separation, recyclable materials can be separated from garbage at centralized mechanical processing plants. Experience has shown that the quality of recyclables recovered from such facilities is lowered by contamination with moist garbage and broken glass. The best practice, as now recognized, is to have citizens separate refuse into a limited number of categories, including newspaper; magazines and other wastepaper; commingled metals, glass, and plastics; and garbage and other non-recyclables. The newspaper, other paper wastes, and commingled recyclables are collected separately from the other refuse and are processed at a centralized material recycling facility, or MRF (pronounced "murf" in waste-management jargon). A modern MRF can process about 300 tons of recyclable wastes per day. At a typical MRF commingled recyclables are loaded onto a conveyor. Steel cans ("tin" cans are actually steel with only a thin coating of tin) are removed by an electromagnetic separator, and the remaining material passes over a vibrating screen in order to remove broken glass. Next, the conveyor passes through an air classifier, which separates aluminum and plastic containers from heavier glass containers. Glass is manually sorted by color, and aluminum cans are separated from plastics by an eddycurrent separator, which repels the aluminum from the conveyor belt. 1.3 Reuse: Recovered broken glass can be crushed and used in asphalt pavement. Color-sorted glass is crushed and sold to glass manufacturers as cullet, an essential ingredient in glassmaking. Steel cans are baled and shipped to steel mills as scrap, and aluminum is baled or compacted for reuse by smelters. Aluminum is one of the smallest components of municipal solid waste, but it has the highest value as a recyclable material. Recycling of plastic is a challenge, mostly because of the many different polymeric materials used in its production. Mixed thermoplastics can be used only to make lowerquality products, such as "plastic lumber.” In the paper stream, old newspapers are sorted by hand on a conveyor belt in order to remove corrugated materials and mixed papers. They are then baled or loose-loaded into trailers for shipment to paper mills, where they are reused in the making of more newspaper. Mixed paper is separated from corrugated paper for sale to tissue mills. Although the processes of pulping, de-inking, and screening wastepaper are generally more expensive than making paper from virgin wood fibers, the market for recycled paper should improve as more processing plants are established. Rubber is sometimes reclaimed from solid waste and shredded, reformed, and remolded in a process called re-vulcanization, but it is usually not as strong as the original material. Shredded rubber can be used as an additive in asphalt pavements, and discarded tires may be employed in "tire playgrounds." In general, the most difficult problem associated with the recycling of any solid-waste material is finding applications and suitable markets. Recycling by itself will not solve the growing problem of solid-waste management and disposal. There will always be some unusable and completely valueless solid residue requiring final disposal. 2. a. b. Project Implementation: Project Duration & Cost: One Year (12 months). Rs. 198.20 million:
Component II: Work Plan (Quarterly Activities). Table 10
Start/ End dates of 6-monthly Periods 01-03-210 to 01-09-2010
01-09-20010 to 01-03-2011
Activities Conduct planning meetings Construction Purchase of Plant, Machinery & Equipment Installation Trials & Adjustments Training Operation Analysis Reports & Returns Over run period
3. Details of Components Activities and their itemized cost of material, labor, machinery etc.
Component II: PROJECT BUDGET DETAILS (Rs. in millions): Table 11
Object Salaries & Allowances Other benefits to staff Establishment Transport of Goods Running Cost of Vehicles Year-I 11.59 0.58 12.17 0.30 0.12 Year-2 12.75 0.64 13.39 0.10 0.15 TOTAL 24.34 1.22 25.56 0.40 0.27
Code 61-20 61-21
62-1 62-21 62-23 62-2 62-31 62-32 62-36 62-37 62-3 62-4 62-60 62-63 62-69
62-6 62 62-42
62-43 62-44 63-15
Transportation Telephone, E.mail & Internet Courier Services Communications Stationery Printing & Publications Consumable Stores Other Misc. Expenditure Utilities/Office Supp/Rent Annual Repair & Maintenance Repair & Maintenance Publicity and Advertisement Seminar/Workshop/Field day Meetings/Seminars Expenses Protective Clothing Fittings & connections Other Charges Operational expenses Equipment & Machinery Weigh Scale (5 tons) (06) Hydro Pulpers (06) Magnetic Seperators (06) Conveyor Belts (100ft x 06) Shredders/ Chippers (06) Grinders (06) Gravi Seperators (06) Hand Tools (06 sets) Belarus 510 Tractor (12) Hydraulic Trolleys (06) Fork Lift Attachment (12) Bins/ drums Moisture Detection Equipment (06) Temperature Detection Probes (5 ft x 06) Oxygen Probes (06) Fittings & Electrification Clearing/ Handling/ Transportation & Installation Charges Tubewell Bore & Fitting Computer & Office Equipment Furniture & fixture Vehicles Buildings Pre-Fabricated Insulated Fiber Glass Sheds 20x110 ft (06) @Rs.2500.00 sq ft Pre-fabricated Office Buildings 30 ft dia Geodesic Domes x06 @Rs.2500.00 sq ft 10% Operational Charges to Implementing Organization
0.42 0.06 0.02 0.08 0.03 0.30 0.20 0.03 0.56 0.30 0.30 0.60 0.30 0.03 0.27 1.20 2.55 6.00 9.00 12.00 18.00 6.00 12.00 18.00 0.60 12.00 3.00 1.20 3.00 0.60 0.60 0.60 5.13 10.26 9.00 0.60 0.60 6.00 33.00 13.50 0.26
0.25 0.07 0.03 0.10 0.03 0.40 0.25 0.03 0.71 0.35 0.35 0.75 0.40 0.04 0.32 1.51 2.91 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.06 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.05 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.29
0.67 0.13 0.05 0.18 0.06 0.70 0.45 0.05 1.26 0.65 0.65 1.35 0.70 0.07 0.58 2.70 5.46 6.00 9.00 12.00 18.00 6.00 12.00 18.00 0.66 12.00 3.00 1.20 3.00 0.60 0.60 0.60 5.13 10.27 9.00 0.65 0.60 6.00 33.00 13.50 0.55
CONDUCT: 1. Construction/ Machinery & Equipment Installation: On-Site. 2. Secondary Segregation: “ 3. Mixing/ Grinding. “ 4. Recyclables Baling/ Sale “ Plan of Work: The project will carry out the following activities: 1. Conduct planning meetings 25
2. Construction. 3. Import Plant, Machinery and Equipment. 4. Install Plant, Machinery and Equipment. 5. Trial Runs. 6. On-going refinement. 7. Test & Adjust. 8. Analysis. 10. Periodic and annual report writing. Figure 2 Flow Chart of the plant:
5. Objectives: The objectives of the project component include: a. Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. b. Reduction of Air Pollution. c. Reduction of impact on water (leaching). d. Reduction of land contamination. e. Reduction of Disease Breeding/ Feeding Grounds. 6. Methodology: Many new technologies have been developed to solve MSW problems, but unfortunately, these technologies are either too sophisticated or expensive for use in developing countries like Pakistan. 6.1 MSW from the trucks are dumped on to the receiving floor, in which they are temporarily stored for further treatment. 6.2 Screening is used to separate mixtures of materials of different sizes into two or more sizes by using screening surfaces. 6.3 Size Reduction Equipment Forks – A forklift attachment for a loader helps to break material apart and make it more uniform MSW will then be picked up mechanically by overhang arms to conveyor’s hoppers. 6.4 Leachate that may be excreted during the storage will be collected into a collection tank prior to further treatment. 6.5 MSW will then be transported to grinders by a long conveyor. The operator will be placed along the conveyors that will sort valuables, recyclables and large articles that may harm process equipment. The process will be undertaken manually by a large number of operators that will have the beneficial effect of providing work for the unemployed. 6.6 MSW will then be processed in size reduction equipment (grinder) so that universal size of around 5 to 10 cm is obtained. Size reduction is a process in which 26
collected waste materials are mechanically reduced in size. In practice, the terms shredding, grinding, and milling are used interchangeably to describe mechanical size reduction. The objective of size reduction is to obtain a final product that is reasonably uniform and considerably reduced in size in comparison with its original form. 6.7 During the process, most readily degradable material will be squeezed out and form organic-rich leachate. 6.8 Ground MSW will then be fed into a hydro-pulper in which organic material will undergo further size reduction and further excretion of suspended organic material so that pulp-like materials is obtained. Materials that cannot be pulped and have high density like glass, battery and stones will sink in the operation. 6.9 The partly pulped MSW is then fed into a rotating trommel in which fine MSW and slurry leach out onto the open tray underneath. 6.10 The retained coarse MSW will be retained and are taken out at another end of the trommel. 6.11 The slurry and fine organics will be pumped out into the Biogas Plant where the organic materials will undergo a series of biochemical reactions leading to acid formation. During the formation of acid, gases such as hydrogen, methane and carbon dioxide will also be produced. Process operation will be maintained at optimum condition that most of the hydrogen produced will bio-chemically be converted into methane to avoid serious toxicity. The acidified solution will be pumped into the second stage reactors in which acids and non-degraded organics are further mineralized into methane, the final product. The whole process will only partly utilize the organic, while the non-easily degradable will form sludge that needs further treatment. 6.12 The coarse organic and slurry from the second stage reactors will be dried in the gravi-separator. In the gravi-separator, most of water will have been squeezed out so that the organic material is relatively dry prior to feeding to windrows. 6.13 The end products are relatively dry organic matter (sludge and coarse organics) and water. Dry organic matter is passed into drying tank while water will be pumped into the biogas plant. • Fork Lift Tractors: Tractors with this attachment are essential for bulk movement of MSW.
Conveyor Belts:The MSW will be passed along a conveyor belt for sorting in order to produce a mix that is compostable.
Hydro Pulpers: The removal of excess moisture is important, both for sorting as well as composting. Leachate from excessively wet MSW will be captured and sent to the Bio Gas plant for anaerobic digestion and Methane generation. Run off from Composting shed and washing of equipment will also be directed towards this facility.
Eco-Tower Sort consists of a Rare Earth Drum Magnet, Eddy Current Separator, Pro-Sort Metal Sorter and Inductive Sensor Air Sorter. It can be customized to fit requirements and preferences. At the metal sensor stage, material can be ejected either by using air or an airless mechanical paddle system. The overall cost of the system is lower. There will be a return on investment through recovered materials in a very short time.
Magnetic Separators: Ferric material will disturb the Composting process and needs to be completely removed before the actual composting takes place. Any material missed during pre-segregation or scavenger activity will be recovered by using this equipment.
Trommels: Specialized trommels will be used for sorting MSW through sizing, A wind sifter is incorporated in the trommel in order to facilitate removal of Plastic and small size non-organic material.
Gravity Separator: Material is fed onto a flat porous deck that is sloped in two directions. Low-pressure air is forced through the deck to fluidize and stratify the material bed. A vibrating action is applied to the deck to convey the heavier particles, which have sunk to the bottom of the material bed, up the inclination of the deck. Lighter particles are suspended in the rising airflow and slide down the slope of the deck. The final result, presented at the discharge face of the deck, is a continuous gradation of material from the densest, largest particles to the lightest, smallest particles.
Shredders/ Chippers: Large and bulky material will take a longer time to decompose. Shredding/ Chipping breaks down the material to increase area for microbial interaction.
Grinders: Special grinders are used to reduce the size of the MSW.
Feeding Hopper: The MSW is loaded into feeder hopper for onwards transmission:
Recyclables Storage and Baling: The amount of recyclables that results from sorting will be temporarily stored in Bins and eventually compacted and baled for disposal.
7. Existing Facilities: At present Open Air Dumping Sites are being used to dump and burn Solid Waste, causing Air, ground and water pollution. 8. Expected Outputs/ Outcomes There will be some biogas generation from leachate and this will be used in the Composting Site. As such the first Outcome will be sequestration of leachate and conversion into Alternate Energy. Large quantities of Compost will be generated which will be re-enforced with High Grade, Organic Plant Nutrients and bagged for Commercial sale. Air and ground pollution will be eliminated resulting is no dioxins; bad odors or smoke. III. Composting of Municipal Solid Waste; Nutrient Enhancement & Commercial Sales. • Windrow Formation. 30
• • • • •
Turning. Analysis. Additives & Mixing. Bagging. Sale.
TYPES OF HUMUS Mild humus is dark in color, well saturated with bases, especially calcium, rich in humic acids (of high molecular weight), and serves to stabilize clay. Raw humus is more red in color, less basic, rich in fulvic acids (of low molecular weight), and favors dispersion of clay. Soil also contains organic matter that has not yet been humified. Digesting and processing Pulverized waste is ready for composting either by the open windrow method or in an enclosed mechanical facility. Windrows are long, low mounds of refuse. They are turned or mixed every few days to provide air for the microbes digesting the organics. Depending on moisture conditions, it may take five to eight weeks for complete digestion of the waste unless Bioaugmentation is used. With the addition of microbes lead times are reduced to 3 weeks in summers and 4-5 weeks in winters. With proper insulation, lead times for winters can be decreased by keeping Bacteria active. Extreme heat also needs to be avoided through use of shade or Shading Material/ Open Air circulation.. Because of the metabolic action of aerobic bacteria, temperatures in an active compost pile reach about 1500 F (650 C), killing pathogenic organisms that may be in the waste material. Open windrow composting requires relatively large land areas. Enclosed mechanical composting facilities can reduce land requirements by about 85 %. Mechanical composting systems employ one or more closed tanks or digesters equipped with rotating vanes that mix and aerate the shredded waste. Complete digestion of the waste takes about one week. Digested compost must be processed before it can be used as a mulch or soil conditioner. Processing includes drying, screening, and granulating or pelletizing. These steps improve the market value of the compost, which is the most serious constraint to the success of composting as a waste management option. Agricultural demand for digested compost is usually low because of the high cost of transporting it and because of competition with inorganic chemical fertilizers. Municipal Solid Waste: Fruit & Vegetable Market waste; Animal manure and Ashes Large quantities of carbonaceous materials are present in Fruit and Vegetable Market waste. Fish Mundies and Slaughterhouse wastes are also valuable nutrient sources. The exchange of nutrients between living and non-living parts of the Eco-system is called Nutrient Cycling. When based upon human; animal and vegetable waste it is Nutrient recycling at peak efficiency rather than merely creating a nuisance; pollution and source of disease. The act of composting consists of two processes; Mineralization and Immobilization. Mineralization occurs when microbial decomposers convert the nutrients in Organic matter into inorganic ions. Immobilization is the uptake of inorganic nutrient ions by organisms. Thus nutrient cycling conserves the nutrient supply and results in repeated use of these nutrients. Organic matter added to the soil consists of many compounds. These are fats; carbohydrates; proteins and lignins. The process of Mineralization and immobilization eventually breaks down the most resistant elements for use of food. The net effect is the release of energy as heat; formation of carbon dioxide and water; and the appearance of Nitrogen as Ammonium (NH4+); Sulfur as Sulfate 31
(So+4); Phosphorus as Phosphate (PO4-3) and other Nutrients as simple metal ions (Ca+ +; Mg++; K+). As the elements or ions are released in Organic Matter Decomposition; other specialized organisms oxidize some of them. The oxidized forms are more readily available for use by higher plants. Abbottabad 19,272 Biodegradable Waste Quantities by City: Table 12 Bannu DI Khan Kohat Mingora 8,760 15,768 22,776 29,784 Mardan 43,800
Introduction: The project consists of aerobic MSW treatment for producing Compost. The expected operational lifetime of the project activity is 20 years. Environment and predator protection will have to be catered to in order to ensure smooth functioning of the Project. Covered sheds with concrete floors and effluent disposal to Biogas Plants will be provided to ensure that leachate does not drain away or infiltrates the aquifer. Hygienic conditions will be maintained at all costs in order to prevent breakout/ spreading of disease. The project is to be executed by PCU, PARC in conjunction with respective Tehsil Municipal Authorities (TMAs). Basic Principles of Aerobic Composting Composting is the decay of biologically decomposable organic the process can occur either aerobically (with O2) or anaerobically (without O2) producing a product called humus or compost useful as soil amendment. The basic process is as follows. • Collection Segregation • Visual / Parameters Monitoring • Aeration and Temperature Control • C/N Moisture Adjustment • Composite Sampling/ Characterization • Shredding/Chopping • Stacking • Sun drying/ • Packing Actual experimental studies on aerobic composting of agricultural and municipal solid wastes in place of open air dumping and burning show that carbon dioxide emission can be reduced by 13%, methane emission by 11% and nitrous oxide emission by 14%. Aerobic Biological Treatment of Waste Aerobic Decomposition: is the process where organic matter is digested by microorganisms under aerobic conditions resulting in a rise in temperature and the formation of carbon dioxide and water in addition to humus-rich compost. Decomposition Phases of Composting: The composting process consists of four phases when a suitable environment is provided: 1. Mesophilic phase (I) In this phase slightly rotted material exists, in which mainly bacterial degradation of easily degradable substances takes place. The temperature rises up to 420 C. 2. Thermophilic phase (II) 32
In this phase fresh compost is produced where further degradation of easily degradable materials as well as degradation of cellulose, caused by thermophilic fungi and becteria. The temperature in this phase rises up to 650 C which causes selflimitation or decrease in reproduction of microorganisms. 3. Cooling phase (III) Finished compost is produced in this phase, where degradation of cellulose by fungi and bacteria, and formation of humus substances takes place. A decrease in microbial activity and temperature occur in this phase. 4. Maturing phase (IV) Matured compost is produced in this phase, with further decrease of temperature to the surrounding temperature. Very low microbial activity with further formation of humic substances and stabilization take place. Important Parameters of Biological Waste Treatment 1. Water content: water film on the substrate surface is the most important region for microbial activity. Water is also important for dissolving and transporting nutrients. 2. Aerobic organisms need molecular oxygen dissolved in water for respiration and oxidation of organic matter. 3. Presence of nutrients is important in composting and almost all nutrients are present in organic waste. Optimum carbon to nitrogen ratio C/N for composting is between 25-35. 4. Temperature of waste during composting is increased due to the release of energy in degradation reactions of the organic materials. The amount of increase depends on the amount of substrate, insulation of waste and aeration. 5. The pH value of organic waste may change several times starting from collection of waste until the compost is produced: 1Acidic (reduction) during collection in containers due to anaerobic decomposition (up to 5). 2Basic: pH increase during composting (e.g. due to volatilization of organic acids and formation of bases) - pH: 7-9. 3Acidic: possible reduction in a later composting stage (e.g. due to degradation or release of bases). 4Neutral: In matured compost. Aims of Biological Treatment (composting) 1 Volume and mass reduction of solid waste. 2 Return of organic substances to the natural cycle. Stages of Biological Pre-treatment • Delivery of waste: Registration and weighing of vehicles loaded with waste. 2Storage: a) Intake of waste. b) In the case discontinuous delivery and continuous production. c) Buffer for uniform waste. 3Shredding: a) To increase the surface area of waste for better degradation. b) To create a well aerateble and homogeneous structure. 4Screening: a) Pre-screening for fresh waste. 33
b) c) 56-
d) Sifting: Separation of light and heavy fractions. Magnetic Separation: to remove ferrous materials from waste.
Post-screening of shredded material. Post-screening of the pre-rotten compost for separation of non-degradable materials. Screening of matured compost.
Processing Techniques of Composting Windrow Composting Stages of Windrow Composting: Windrow composting is a two-phase process. And is one of several techniques of composting. Phase I: Rotting 1This phase starts with transferring the mechanically treated waste to a specific area designed especially for windrows. A coarse material such as wood chips is spread over that area to enhance ventilation and drainage at the bottom of the windrow, and to prevent saturation that might cause anaerobic conditions. 2Triangular or trapezoidal windrows are made parallel to each other with enough distance in between. Length of windrow = 100-130m Width of windrow = 3m (base) Height of windrow = 1.5m 3Turning of waste and addition of water by special machine to provide the oxygen and water necessary for aerobic decomposition. Air can be pumped into the waste for good ventilation (forced aeration). The waste remains in windrows for 12 weeks to decompose with turning and addition of water twice a week during the first three weeks and once a week for the remaining period. Windrows should be covered with special cover to prevent evaporation but without preventing air intrusion. Phase II: Post – Rotting In this phase, the fresh compost produced in the first phase is transferred to another area and piled up and kept to mature for a period of four weeks, without turning and water addition. Matured and dry compost (water content = 25-30%) is produced. 2The matured compost is separated into two fractions, fine and coarse by sieving. The fine fraction is packed in suitable quantities according to it purpose of used. The coarse fraction is sold without packaging. This can be effective if material is matted, such as wet leaves or manure/straw mixtures, and allows for increased airflow. A loader lifts the organic material and drops it back in place, or stacks it to form a new windrow. Some composters have attached forks to buckets so they can incorporate more air and fluff the material. Loaders are a good, allpurpose piece of equipment. They can move, mix, and load compost into trucks. Dedicated equipment designed specifically for turning is not as versatile. Loaders can turn material efficiently if the bucket is sized for the operation. The first stages of composting, proper windrow construction is the key to getting to a good start. Organic waste is formed into rows of long piles called "windrows" and aerated by turning the pile periodically by mechanical means. The pile height allows for a pile large enough to generate sufficient
heat and maintain temperatures, yet small enough to allow oxygen to flow to the windrow's core. The two aspects of windrow building are: 1) Mixing materials 2) Forming and shaping the windrow. If several different types of waste are going to be composted together they must first be thoroughly blended. Mixing is required to balance the carbon and nitrogen ratio and distribute moisture throughout the pile, and also to insure an even distribution of large pores so that oxygen can move freely. Mixing can be accomplished with a front-end loader and specialized windrow turning machines. The size and shape of the windrow are designed to allow oxygen to flow throughout the pile while maintaining temperatures in the proper range. The optimum size varies both with the type of material and with the time of year. Windrows are usually about 5 feet high and 10 feet wide. These sizes are approximate, and may need to be adjusted somewhat. Windrows can be as long as is convenient for the site, up to several hundred feet in length.
There are two goals to keep in mind when turning a compost windrow. The first is to move material from the outside of the pile to the middle, where it can decompose more quickly. The second goal is to loosen and fluff the material, so it will be more porous and air can move freely. Specialized windrow turners are designed to accomplish both of these goals. Turning frequency should normally be based on temperature, and should occur whenever temperatures exceed to 140° F, or drop below 90° F. Regular turning accelerates decomposition by mixing the material and exposing new surface. Catalysts and Innocula Odors can also be biologically oxidized after they have formed, and this is important for composting systems. Catalysts degrade odorous compounds via Microorganisms. A catalyst facilitates a reaction without itself being permanently changed by the reaction, and thus each Microorganism can act on many molecules of an odorous compound before it is eventually degraded. Microorganisms are applied on the surface of a compost pile. Odorous anaerobic products produced in the low oxygen center of a pile usually pass through an aerobic zone on the way out. Bioaugmented Microorganisms will then degrade the odors aerobically. This process probably occurs on both a macro scale (the pile as a whole) and a micro scale (within individual particles or clumps), essentially providing in situ biofiltration. In a windrow system, it is far better to address the fundamentals of porosity and pile size to insure adequate passive aeration (diffusion and convection) throughout the compost pile.
Aerated (Turned) Windrow Composting
Huge Compost Pile - Photo Courtesy of Campaign Recycle Maui Inc. / Compost Maui • Mixers and Manure Spreaders – These can be used to mix materials and form windrows. With a flail spreader, it is necessary to move very slowly, allowing the material to pile into a rough windrow. The auger type unloads out of the back or a side-shoot. By moving the spreader slower than normal, it will form a windrow but will generally not make very tall piles. It is essential to maintain correct Carbon: Nitrogen ratio at 30:1 in order to ensure efficient composting.
Bagging Facility: Finished Compost will be bagged for Commercial Sale.
• Windrow Turners – Windrow turners are dedicated pieces of equipment that just turn compost windrows. The right turner will mix, reduce particle size, homogenize the organic material and may save time and space. Turners come in many sizes and the choice depends on the amount of use, climatic fluctuations (in cold climates a bigger turner may be needed to achieve adequate pile size). Most turner manufacturers have different accessories, like water or inoculant tanks, rock guards, or attachments that manage compost covers. Windrow spacing needs to account for the size and type of the turner. Elevating Face Conveyors – These can vary in type from PTO driven to self-propelled. They lift the organics up the face and drop them off the back into the windrow. Each time the whole windrow is actually picked up and moved a few feet, which allows for good size reduction, aeration, and mixing.
Moisture Detection Equipment – Moisture detection equipment can be useful, especially with high moisture feedstock or in very dry climates. The simplest instrument is a gloved hand. The “squeeze test” will indicate relative moisture content. With a gloved hand, take a handful of the mixture and squeeze. If more than a few drops of water come out it is too wet. If it appears to be very dry, moisture will need to be incorporated. Moisture meters are also available from equipment dealers and laboratories can test for it. A moisture content of 50- 60% is ideal. Monitoring Equipment: Thermometers – Equipment for monitoring temperature is most useful when learning to produce compost or keeping a temperature log to meet regulations. Temperature probes come in different forms including 18 inches to 5 feet probes, thermocouples placed in piles and continuous read sensors, or data loggers that download to a computer and produce graphs. The temperature of a pile will give a good indication of how well the microbes are working. Heat produced through the composting process is an indicator of microbial activity. If the pile gets too hot, it can kill the microbes or spontaneously combust. Turning and/or watering can bring the temperature down. If too cool, it is an indication that the pile needs aeration or moisture. If the pile never heats, it may indicate that the mix of materials is not suitable for active composting. During the active stage, the temperature should range from 120- 1600 F. Once the active stage is completed, the pile will cool and can be left to cure. Sensors need to be able to reach the center of the pile and should have a range of 0-2000F.
Hand-held Relative Humidity and Temperature Transmitters • Oxygen Meters – Microbes require oxygen in the active stage of composting. An oxygen meter can detect oxygen levels and indicate if there is a need to incorporate more air through turning, forced aeration or changing the mix to include more coarse bulking material. Oxygen levels should range from 5% to 16%. Oxygen sensors are used extensively with in-vessel units and can be used in other 37
applications. Oxygen meters are especially useful to regulate forced aeration systems, and when developing the mixture for static pile composting.
• • • •
Caution: Probes on monitoring equipment can easily be bent or broken, store in a safe place. Remove from the pile before turning and insert and remove carefully. Many thermometers come with threaded PVC tubes. Data loggers may also need to be protected from heat and moisture. Advantages of Composting. Reducing the weight and the size of the solid waste dumped in landfills, and thus increasing the design life of landfills. Return of organic matter and nutrients to the natural cycle through the application of compost to the soil. Stabilization of organic matter in the waste to become a non-degradable material when land-filled. This makes landfills more stable and reduces biogas production to a great extent. Material gain from selling the compost and reduce unemployment. Biological Properties of Compost For acceptable compost quality, non-epidemic, hygienic conditions are necessary. Sanitation depends on rise of temperature during different phases of composting (55 o C for two weeks or 65o C for one week) Physical Properties of Compost. High quality compost should have the following properties: 1. Density (500-800 g/L). 2. Water content (30-45%). 3. Granulation size (fine grained 4-12m ,coarse grained 12-40 mm) 4. Low content of foreign substances (< 0.5%) and stones (< 5%). Chemical Properties of Compost • Nutrient content should be within the values shows in Table below: Nutrient Unit Value N % TS/% dry matter 0.5-1.8 P2O5 % TS/% dry matter 0.4-1.0 K2O % TS/% dry matter 0.6-1.8 Mg O % TS/% dry matter 0.7-3.0 Ca O % TS/% dry matter 3.0-12.0 2- Salinity (1.0-8.0 g kC1/L) 3- PH (7-8) 4- Content of organic matter (measured as ignition loss)-(20-50%), matured compost (20%) organic matter, raw compost (>40% organic matter) 5- Low content of heavy metals. The table below shows the values in good quality compost: Heavy Metal Values 38
Lead Cadmium Chrome Copper Nickel Mercury Zinc
50-100 0.1-1.0 26-60 30-50 10-30 0.1-0.5 150.350
Effects of Compost Application Positive Affects: 1. Soil conditioning effect (ventilation and structure). 2. Humus effect (slow release of nutrients). 3. Buffering action (compost is slightly alkaline). 4. Phytosanitary affect (prevent undesired grass growth and suppress harmful pathogens. Negative Affects when bad quality compost with the following materials is applied: 1 Salts. 2 Heavy metals. 3 Organic contaminants. 4 Nutrients (too much may cause ground water pollution). Compost Application Possibilities 1. Soil conditioning and fertilization. 2. For domestic plants and gardens. 3. Erosion protection. 4. Mulched material. 5. Use in biofilters (prevent air pollution). 6. Use in noise protecting walls. Problems Regarding Composting 1 Lack of on-site separation of solid waste which reduces the quality of compost or requires greater efforts in separation of organic waste. 2 High temperatures during the summer season which causes the waste to dry quickly and requires frequent addition of water to the waste. 3 No previous experience in marketing of compost which might influence the feasibility of compost producing projects. 4 The degree of acceptance by the public to the idea of adding compost produced from solid waste to their farms and gardens. 5 Composting on a large scale decreases organic material land-filled which in turn reduces biogas generation in landfills to a great extent. This means that producing electricity from landfill gas will not be possible. Sustainable development objectives likely to be achieved by the project The main objective of the project is to develop a technically, financially and environmentally feasible MSW treatment facility to produce Compost. The project is an alternative technology. The project is expected to have various affects that are in line with policy measures. These include reduction of GHG emission of methane gas from the final disposal site. Contribution to Sustainable Development Long-term GHG and local pollutants reduction
GHG emissions especially CO2 and emissions of other air pollutants, i.e. NOx, CO, SOx and also particulates can also be reduced. MSW landfills produce leachetes that contaminate water body/soil creating water/soil pollution. Treating leachates can produce useful products such as fertilizer and biogas (in the form of CH4) thus reducing water and soil pollution. Other benefits Most MSW is disposed of in landfills, burnt, or illegally dumped, as there is no special government regulation on MSW treatment. Therefore, the technology adopted for this project could have good prospects for diffusion in all cities and areas). The nonbiodegradable materials recovered by scavengers are in many cases unsuitable for anaerobic digestion and gasification processes. Removal of such materials by scavengers prior to treatment would also help to increase the dependability of operation as well as the operating rate. Scavengers should be given work by allowing them to hand-sort the waste. GHG emission from refuse burial GHG emissions consist of the so-called “landfill gas” emissions of methane gas from MSW buried at the site At present, these emissions are not monitored, thus data is not available. To obtain reliable data, it would require monitoring for many years at dozens of points in the vast disposal site in order to derive average values. Thus it was consequently decided that actual measurements could not be taken for this study. For this reason, the 1996 revised guidelines of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has been adopted to calculate methane gas emitted from buried MSW. Economic Analyses: Statement of poverty reduction impact The project will be using skilled and unskilled labor. Majority of the unskilled labor comes from poor villages and communities. Realization of this project will promote the development of alternative fertilizers in Pakistan that is highly beneficial for improving productivity, enhancing yields from farms and generating economy. It is expected that national standards will be improved due to the creation of social capital, assurance of wage income and improvement in living conditions. Environment impacts The implementation of the project could possibly exert an impact to the vicinity in terms of reducing items such as air and water pollution. The study of this area concluded that the project would not exert an adverse environmental impact to the vicinity. The process facilities in question would be designed and constructed in accordance with the International environmental standards. On the contrary, the project would act to improve the environment in the vicinity of the disposal sites. In implementing the project, the following environmental impact issues are to be considered. Air pollution The air concentration is to meet the country’s air pollution standards. The MSW processing facilities to be installed for this project are designed and built to meet these standards, and it is inconceivable that their operation would exert adverse impacts to the surrounding environment. The prospective sites for the project facilities are Municipal Dumping lots where refuse is dumped in the open and burned (the latter being a source of dioxin emissions). The construction of a refuse processing facilities will eliminate this burning of refuse in the open, and the facilities will be in conformance with International standards for dioxin countermeasures. The atmospheric environment in the vicinity should improve as a result. Water pollution Pakistan has enacted regulatory standards for water quality, but its water environment is in worse shape than the atmospheric environment. It is clearly seen in the 40
rivers flowing through the Provinces that the water pollution standards are largely ignored. The refuse processing facilities would apply Pakistani wastewater discharge standards. This indicates that the facilities would not pollute the water in the vicinity. In contrast to this project, the discharge of leachates from the Open Air Dumping sites into nearby water bodies has caused water pollution concentrations exceeding standard values, for items such as NH3, Mn, and H2S. Similarly, the study of well water found values above the standards for Fecal Coliforms and Nitrates. Therefore, operation of the MSW processing facilities would mitigate water pollution. The project will also generate fertilizer from the aerobic and anaerobic processes. Coverage in Sanitation Services: The sanitation services coverage is low in the country, however it is steadily improving. The percentage of population with access to flush toilets increased from 30 % in 1990 to 45 % in 2001. In the last 5 years the situation has further improved and the coverage increased to 54 % in 2004-05. The indicators are better in the urban as compared to the rural areas. Only 5 % of households have municipal garbage collection arrangement. Targets of 70 and 90 % are fixed for the years 2010 and 2015 respectively. Sanitation facilities (including sewerage in urban areas and drainage in rural areas) are available to only about 42 % of the total population, including 65 % in urban areas and 30 % in rural settlements. With the exception of a few big cities, the sewerage service is almost non-existent, causing serious public health problems. Nearly 45 % of all households do not have access to a latrine. Furthermore, only 51 % of all households are connected to any form of drainage (35 % to open drain and 16 % to underground sewers or covered drains). Only 5 % households have access to a municipal garbage collection system. Limited availability of drinking water, its non-judicious distribution and system losses have reached alarming proportions. Under the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), it is envisaged to halve by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and to achieve a significant improvement in access to sanitation. This translates to increasing water supply and sanitation coverage to 93 % and 90 % respectively by 2015. While the water supply and sanitation programs are being accelerated, there would be some shortfalls in the achievement of envisaged MDG targets of water supply and sanitation coverage. However, the target of regularization of 75 % of Katchi Abadis with adequate access to water supply and sanitation will be fully met, by 2010. The current sanitation and sewerage facilities at around 42 % population (urban 65 %, rural 30 %), will be extended to serve additional 3 million households, thus covering 50 % of total population (urban 75 % and rural 35 %) by 2010, along with the development of wastewater treatment units, recycling provisions and conservation measures in urban centers up to district level. The MDG on Environmental sustainability is designed to ensure that pursuit of rapid economic growth does not jeopardize the environmental quality and reduce the benefits of growth via increased pollution, inefficient use of energy, low coverage of sanitation and access to safe drinking water. Of particular reference to Pakistan are the two indicators related to provision of safe drinking water and sanitation coverage. They have direct linkages with health and therefore the productivity of the society and its future generations.
Table 13: MDGs
Target 10: halve by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation: Indicators Definitions 1990-91 2001- 2004PRSP MTDF MDG 02 05 Target Target Target 2005-06 2009-10 2015 Proportion of Percentage of 53 69 66 70 760 93 population (urban population with and rural) with access to sustainable access Improved water to safe source (Improved) water source Proportion of population (urban and rural) with access to sanitation Percentage population access sanitation of with to 30 45 54 55 70 90
Notes and Sources: A. Planning Commission B. Medium Term Development Framework, 2005-10 C. Pakistan Economic Survey 2004-05 D. PIHS 2000-01, (Coverage of Tap, Hand-pump water and Flush Toilets use) E. PSLM (CWIQ) 04-05 (Coverage of Tap, Hand-pump water and Flush Toilets use). F. Target of MTDF changed from 50 to 70 percent in view of higher coverage in the previous years G. All PRSP targets are taken from Accelerating Economic Growth and Reducing Poverty: The Road Ahead. Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper, Government of Pakistan, December 2003. H. Ministry of Environment, 2003
Achieving MDG target of 90 percent of sanitation coverage is important in meeting the desired quality of life and health. The population coverage increased by only 24 percent in the last 15 years; an additional 36 percent population has to be covered to achieve the target by 2015. Vision 2030 envisages, “developed industrialized, just and prosperous Pakistan through rapid and sustainable development in a resource constrained economy by deploying knowledge inputs”. This vision is being operationalized through series of MTDF. National Economic Council (NEC) approved on 27th May 2005 the MTDF 20052010, which is first of the series. “Water and Sanitation for All”: Provision of safe water supply and sanitation is necessary to ensure a healthy population. By 2015, the water supply and sanitation will stand extended to the entire population. The main elements of the strategy will include the following: Adoption of an integrated approach, rational resource use, and the introduction of water efficient techniques. Containment of environmental degradation. Institutional strengthening, capacity building & human resource development. Improving performance and utilization of local systems through better planning management and community participation. Improving quality of and easy access to water supply, especially for women. Improving sanitation through sewerage and drainage schemes. Promoting increased take up of household sanitation. Improving the understanding of linkages between hygiene and health through community education campaigns, especially among the women and children. Table 14: Targets7
Category High HDI Pakistan Avg. (2004) Med. HDI Avg (2004) Pakistan 2004 -05* MDG Target (2015) Vision 2030
• • • • • • • •
Pakistan Millennium Development Goals Report 2005
HDI: Human Development Index; Sources: Human Development Report (2006); Pakistan. Millennium Development Goals Report 2005; PSLM Survey (2004-05); MTDF, 2005-10; World Fact Book 2006; Annual Report, Pakistan Telecomm. Authority, 2006; Pakistan Economic Survey, 2005-06.
Population with 97 sustainable access to improved sanitation ( percent) Water use, share of total Agriculture 95% Industrial 1% Domestic/municipal 4%
Population access to: Safe water Rural 53% Urban 83%
Sanitation 27% 59%
Six Cities of NWFP have been earmarked for Compost Production from Solid Waste. For Commercial Composting to be successful there has to be segregation of Biodegradable and Non-Degradable Solid Waste. Secondly hazardous waste has to be separated from other biodegradables. Thus project has the following components: Project Implementation: a. Project Duration & Cost: Two Year (24 months). Rs. 250.65 million: b. Component III: Work Plan (Quarterly Activities). Table 15
Start/ End dates of 6-monthly Periods 01-03-210 to 01-09-2010 Activities Conduct planning meetings Construction Purchase of Plant, Machinery & Equipment Installation Trials & Adjustments Training Operation Analysis Reports & Returns Over run period
01-09-20010 to 01-03-2011
Code 61-20 61-21
Details of Components Activities: Itemized cost of material, labor, machinery. Component III: P ROJECT BUDGET DETAILS (Rs. in millions): Table 16
Object Salaries & Allowances Other benefits to staff Establishment Transport of Goods Running Cost of Vehicles Transportation Telephone, E.mail & Internet Courier Services Communications Stationery Printing & Publications Consumable Stores Other Misc. Expenditure Utilities/Office Supp/Rent Annual Repair & Maintenance Repair & Maintenance Publicity and Advertisement Seminar/Workshop/Field day Meetings/Seminars Expenses Protective Clothing Packing Consumables Other Charges Operational expenses Equipment & Machinery Belarus 510 Tractor (12) Fork Lift Attachment (12) Windrow Turners (06) Year-I 7.49 0.37 7.86 0.30 0.12 0.42 0.06 0.02 0.08 0.03 0.30 0.20 0.03 0.56 0.30 0.30 0.60 0.30 0.03 0.27 12.00 13.20 14.56 12.00 1.20 24.00 Year-2 8.24 0.41 8.65 0.10 0.15 0.25 0.07 0.03 0.10 0.03 0.40 0.25 0.03 0.71 0.35 0.35 0.75 0.40 0.04 0.32 13.20 14.71 16.12 0.00 0.00 0.00 TOTAL 15.73 0.78 16.51 0.40 0.27 0.67 0.13 0.05 0.18 0.06 0.70 0.45 0.06 1.27 0.65 0.65 1.35 0.70 0.07 0.58 25.20 27.90 30.67 12.00 1.20 24.00
62-13 62-1 62-21 62-23 62-2 62-31 62-32 62-36 62-37 62-3 62-4 62-60 62-63 62-69
62-6 62 62-42
WaterTanks Mixers & Manure Spreaders (06) Moisture Detection Equipment (06) Temperature Detection Probes (06) Oxygen Probes (06) Bagging Machine Fittings & Electrification Clearing/ Handling/ Transportation & Installation Charges Computer & Office Equipment Furniture & fixture Bacteria @Rs.100.00/ Liter x 50,000 L Plants misc. Buildings Pre-fabricated Office Buildings 30 ft dia Geodesic Domes x06 @Rs.2500.00 sq ft Camp offices Pre-fabricated Office Buildings 30 ft dia Geodesic Domes x06 @Rs.2500.00 sq ft Pre-Fabricated Insulated Fiber Glass Sheds 100x110 ft (04) @Rs.2500.00 sq ft Pre-Fabricated Insulated Fiber Glass Sheds 50x60 ft (02) @Rs.2500.00 sq ft Fixed Assets Vehicles 10% Operational Expense to Implementing NGO Capital Expenses Total
1.80 18.00 1.20 1.20 1.20 9.00 0.39 0.78 0.40 0.50 5.00 0.60 13.50 13.50 110.00 15.00 229.27 6.00 1.46 236.73 259.14
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.05 0.00 6.25 0.05 0.00
1.80 18.00 1.20 1.20 1.20 9.00 0.39 0.78 0.45 0.50 11.25 0.65 0.00 13.50
0.00 13.50 0.00 110.00 0.00 6.35 0.00 1.61 7.96 32.73 15.00 138.50 6.00 3.07 244.69 291.87
Revenue generation By City: Compost Production/ Sales: Table 17 # City 50 kg bags pd Price pa @Rs.300.00/ bag 1 Abbottabad 422 45.62 2 Bannu 192 20.74 3 4 5 6 DI Khan Kohat Mingora Mardan TOTAL 346 499 653 960 3,072 37.32 53.91 70.50 103.68 331.78
Line Depiction Compost Windrow: 6 Ft.
5 Ft. 10 Ft.
Black Plastic Winter Cover Mound
Geo-Membrane IV. Bioremediation of Municipal Liquid Waste through Waste Water Gardens. Population increase brings with it the problem of vast amounts of Liquid and Solid waste. Where adequate disposal/ treatment is not carried out, Nature is unable to absorb and filter toxic materials which eventually find their way into underground reservoirs of water and also into the food chain. A point is reached where there is a complete breakdown and environmental and health problems increase to such an extent that they cannot be treated. Nature uses microbes to breakdown; plants to uptake toxic minerals as well as the earth’s surface to filter the waste. However, nature is only capable of handling a limited amount of waste. In case of increased amounts artificial enhancements and interventions have to be resorted to. A very simple, close to nature, environment friendly solution is available that converts eyesores, displeasing smells and source of poison into a Garden that hosts Biodiversity and can be used for recreation as well as study of plants, birds and insects. Advanced Countries of the World are switching to the use of Bioaugmentation (Addition of Live Bacteria to the target Waste for treatment/ biodegradation) and Phytoremediation (Use of Plants to treat Waste) and planting Reed-Beds and other Plants to treat their Waste. This concept has been used effectively in advanced economies despite the fact that most of their sites are located in cold regions. In hot, temperate climates the process is greatly enhanced. However, extreme temperatures have to be controlled.
1. Phytoremediation8 uses various plants to degrade, extract, contain, or immobilize contaminants from soil and water. This technology is an innovative, cost-effective alternative to previous treatment methods. A mechanism for contaminant degradation is metabolism within the plant. Some plants are able to uptake toxic compounds and in the process of metabolizing the available nutrients, detoxify them. Containment using plants either binds the contaminants to the soil, renders them non-bioavailable, or immobilizes them by removing the means of transport. Physical containment of contaminants by plants can take the form of binding the contaminants within a humus molecule (humification), physical sequestration of metals as occurs in some wetlands, or by root accumulation in non-harvestable plants. Certain trees sequester large concentrations of metals in their roots, and although harvesting and removal is difficult or impractical, the contaminants present a reduced human or environmental risk while they are bound in the roots. Risk reduction may also be achieved by transforming the contaminant into a form that is not hazardous, or by rendering the contaminant non-bioavailable. EPA and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) have ongoing research in this area. a. Root System Remediation with plants requires that the contaminants be in contact with the root zone of the plants. Either the plants must be able to extend roots to the contaminants, or the contaminated media must be moved to within range of the plants. This movement can be accomplished with standard agricultural equipment and practices, such as deep plowing to bring soil from 2 or 3 feet deep to within 8 to 10 inches of the surface for shallowrooted crops and grasses, or by irrigating trees and grasses with contaminated groundwater or wastewater. Because these activities can generate fugitive dust and volatile organic compound emissions, potential risks may need to be evaluated. As shown in Table 5, the effective root depth of plants varies by species and depends on soil and climate condition. b. Growth Rate Phytoremediation is also limited by the growth rate of the plants. More time may be required to phytoremediate a site as compared with other more traditional cleanup technologies. Excavation and disposal or incineration takes weeks to months to accomplish, while phytoextraction or degradation may need several years. Therefore, for sites that pose acute risks for human and other ecological receptors, phytoremediation may not be the remediation technique of choice but is much better than no treatment at all. c. Contaminant Concentration
The contents of this portion are taken from the various publications of the National Science Foundation of the U.S.A.
Sites with widespread, low to medium level contamination within the root zone are the best candidates for phytoremediative processes. d. Impacts of Contaminated Vegetation Some ecological exposure may occur whenever plants are used to interact with contaminants from the soil. The fate of the metals in the biomass is a concern. At one site, sunflower plants that extracted cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from surface water were disposed of as radioactive waste (Adler 1996). Although some forms of phytoremediation involve accumulation of metals and require handling of plant material embedded with metals, most plants do not accumulate significant levels of organic contaminants. While metal accumulating plants will need to be harvested and either recycled or disposed of in compliance with applicable regulations, most phytoremediative plants do not require further treatment or disposal. Often overlooked, however, is the possibility that natural vegetation on the site is already creating very similar (but often unrecognized) food chain exposures. In addition, even on currently un-vegetated sites, contaminants will be entering the food chain through soil organisms. The remediation plan should identify and, if possible, quantify potential avenues of ecological exposure, and determine if and where any accumulation of toxics in the selected plants will occur. Root Depth for Selected Phytoremediation Plants: Table 18.
# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Plant Indian mustard Grasses Poplar trees Alfalfa Grasses Indian Mustard Poplar Trees Maximum Root Depth To 12 inches To 48 inches To 15 feet 4-6 ft. 2 ft 1 ft 15 ft. Target Contaminants Metals Organics Metals, organics, chlorinated solvents -do-do-do-do-
Most organic contaminants do not accumulate in significant amounts in plant tissue. Some plant-eating animals have been shown to avoid eating plants with elevated metal levels (Pollard 1996). In addition, the increased habitat provided by the plants may in some cases offset any potential localized impacts. If some organisms (e.g., caterpillars, rodents, deer, etc.) seem likely to ingest significant amounts of the vegetation, and if harmful bio-concentration up the food chain is a concern during the life of the remediation effort, appropriate exposure control measures should be implemented including perimeter fencing, overhead netting, and pre-flowering harvesting. Phytoextraction techniques aim to harvest metal-laden crops just as the plants translocate metals into shoots, thereby limiting availability of contaminants for consumption. Transfer of the contaminants or metabolites to the atmosphere might be the greatest regulatory concern. Transpiration of TCE into the atmosphere has been measured (Newman et al. 1997a), but little information is available that would indicate any release of vinyl chloride. Research being done on the bioavailability of contaminants and on human health and environmental risk assessment is directly related to phytoremediation. Studies are underway to determine if contaminants that are not available to plants for uptake or that are not vulnerable to plant remediation are less of a risk to human health and the environment. Phytoremediation Overview: Table 19.
Mechanism Process Phytoextraction Goal Contaminant extraction and capture sludges Media Soil, Sediment Contaminants Metals: Ag, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Zn; Radionuclides, 90Sr, 137Cs, 239Pu, 238,234U Plants Indian mustard, pennycress, alyssum, sunflowers, hybrid poplars Status Laboratory, pilot and field applications
Contaminant extraction capture
Groundwater Surface water Sediment
Contaminant Soil containment sludges Contaminant Soil destruction
As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hs, Pb, Zn Organic compounds(TPH, PAHs, pesticides chlorinated solvents, PCBs) Organic compounds chlorinated solvents, phenols, herbicides munitions Chlorinated solvents some inorganics (Se, Hg, and As) Water-soluble organics inorganics and
Sunflowers, Indian mustard, water scale hyacinth Indian mustard hybrid poplars, grasses Red mulberry grasses, hybrid, poplar, cattail, rice Algae, stonewort hybrid poplar black willow, bald cypress Poplars, alfalfa black locust, Indian mustard Hybrid poplar, cottonwood, willow Poplars, grasses
Laboratory and pilot Field application Field application
sediment sludges groundwater Soil, sediment sludges groundwater surface water Groundwater soil sediment sludges Groundwater surface water, Soil, sludge, sediments Surface water,
Contaminant destruction Contaminant extraction from media and release to air Contaminant degradation(plume control) or containment Contaminant containment, Contaminant destruction
Field demonstration Laboratory and field application Field demonstration Field application Field application
Vegetative cover (evapotranspiration erosion control cover) Riparian corridors (non-point source groundwater and inorganics control)
Organic and inorganic compounds Water-soluble organics
Phytodegradation Definition/Mechanism Phytodegradation (also known as phytotransformation) is the breakdown of contaminants taken up by plants through metabolic processes within the plant, or the breakdown of contaminants external to the plant through the effect of compounds (such as enzymes) produced by the plants. The main mechanism is plant uptake and metabolism. Additionally, degradation may occur outside the plant, due to the release of compounds that cause transformation. Any degradation caused by microorganisms associated with or affected by the plant root is considered rhizodegradation. b. Uptake For phytodegradation to occur within the plant, the compounds must be taken up by the plant. One study identified more than 70 organic chemicals representing many classes of compounds that were taken up and accumulated by 88 species of plants and trees (Paterson et al. 1990). A database has been established to review the classes of chemicals and types of plants that have been investigated in regard to their uptake of organic compounds (Nellessen and Fletcher 1993b). Uptake is dependent on hydrophobicity, solubility, and polarity. Moderately hydrophobic organic compounds (with log kow between 0.5 and 3.0) are most readily taken up by and translocated within plants. Very soluble compounds (with low sorption) will not be sorbed onto roots or translocated within the plant (Schnoor et al. 1995a). Hydrophobic (lipophilic) compounds can be bound to root surfaces or partitioned into roots, but cannot be further translocated within the plant (Schnoor et al. 1995a; Cunningham et al. 1997). Nonpolar molecules with molecular 49
weights <500 will sorb to the root surfaces, whereas polar molecules will enter the root and be translocated (Bell 1992). Plant uptake of organic compounds can also depend on type of plant, age of contaminant, and many other physical and chemical characteristics of the soil. Definitive conclusions cannot always be made about a particular chemical. For example, when PCP was spiked into soil, 21% was found in roots and 15% in shoots after 155 days in the presence of grass (Qiu et al. 1994); in another study, several plants showed minimal uptake of PCP (Bellin and O’Connor 1990). c. Metabolism Metabolism within plants has been identified for a diverse group of organic compounds, including the herbicide atrazine (Burken and Schnoor 1997), the chlorinated solvent TCE (Newman et al. 1997a), and the munition TNT (Thompson et al. 1998). Other metabolized compounds include the insecticide DDT, the fungicide hexachlorobenzene (HCB), PCP, the plasticizer diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP), and PCBs in plant cell cultures (Komossa et al. 1995). d. Plant-Formed Enzymes Plant-formed enzymes have been identified for their potential use in degrading contaminants such as munitions, herbicides, and chlorinated solvents. Immunoassay tests have been used to identify plants that produce these enzymes (McCutcheon 1996). e. Media Phytodegradation is used in the treatment of soil, sediments, sludges, and groundwater. Surface water can also be remediated using phytodegradation. f. Advantages Contaminant degradation due to enzymes produced by a plant can occur in an environment free of microorganisms (for example, an environment in which the microorganisms have been killed by high contaminant levels). Plants are able to grow in sterile soil and also in soil that has concentration levels that are toxic to microorganisms. Thus, phytodegradation potentially could occur in soils where biodegradation cannot. g. Disadvantages Phytodegradation has the following disadvantages: • Toxic intermediates or degradation products may form. In a study unrelated to phytoremediation research, PCP was metabolized to the potential mutagen tetrachlorocatechol in wheat plants and cell cultures (Komossa et al. 1995). • The presence or identity of metabolites within a plant might be difficult to determine; thus contaminant destruction could be difficult to confirm. h. Applicable Contaminants/ Concentrations Organic compounds are the main category of contaminants subject to phytodegradation. In general, organic compounds with a log kow between 0.5 and 3.0 can be subject to phytodegradation within the plant. Inorganic nutrients are also remediated through plant uptake and metabolism. Phytodegradation outside the plant does not depend on log kow and plant uptake. i. Organics Chlorinated solvents The plant-formed enzyme dehalogenase, which can dechlorinate chlorinated compounds, has been discovered in sediments (McCutcheon 1996). TCE was metabolized to trichloroethanol, trichloroacetic acid, and dichloroacetic acid within hybrid poplar trees (Newman et al. 1997a). In a similar study, hybrid poplar trees were exposed to water containing about 50 ppm TCE and metabolized the TCE within the tree (Newman et al. 1997a).
Minced horseradish roots successfully treated wastewater containing up to 850 ppm of 2,4-dichlorophenol (Dec and Bollag 1994). Herbicides Atrazine in soil was taken up by trees and then hydrolyzed and dealkylated within the roots, stems, and leaves. Metabolites were identified within the plant tissue, and a review of atrazine metabolite toxicity studies indicated that the metabolites were less toxic than atrazine (Burken and Schnoor 1997). The plant-formed enzyme nitrilase, which can degrade herbicides, has been discovered in sediments (Carreira 1996). A qualitative study indicated that the herbicide bentazon was degraded within black willow trees, as indicated by bentazon loss during a nursery study and by identification of metabolites within the tree. Bentazon was phytotoxic to six tree species at concentrations of 1000 and 2000 mg/L. At 150 mg/kg, bentazon metabolites were detected within tree trunk and canopy tissue samples (Conger and Portier 1997). Atrazine at 60.4 g/kg (equivalent to about 3 times field application rates) was used to study phytodegradation in hybrid poplars (Burken and Schnoor 1997). The herbicide bentazon was phytotoxic at concentrations of 1,000 to 2,000 mg/L, but allowed growth at 150 mg/L (Conger and Portier 1997). Insecticides The isolation from plants of the enzyme phosphatase, which can degrade organophosphate insecticides, may have phytodegradation applications (McCutcheon 1996). Munitions The plant-formed enzyme nitroreductase, which can degrade munitions, has been discovered in sediments; this enzyme, from parrot feather, degraded TNT (McCutcheon 1996). Hybrid poplar trees metabolized TNT to 4-amino- 2,6-dinitrotoluene (4-ADNT), 2-amino4,6- dinitrotoluene (2-ADNT), and other unidentified compounds (Thompson et al. 1998). TNT concentrations in flooded soil decreased from 128 to 10 ppm with parrot feather (Schnoor et al. 1995b). Phenols Chlorinated phenolic concentrations in wastewater decreased in the presence of oxidoreductase enzymes in minced horseradish roots (Dec and Bollag 1994). j. Inorganics Nutrients Nitrate will be taken up by plants and transformed to proteins and nitrogen gas (Licht and Schnoor 1993). k. Root Depth Phytodegradation is generally limited to the root zone, and possibly below the root zone if root exudates are soluble, nonsorbed, and transported below the root zone. The degree to which this occurs is uncertain. l. Plants The aquatic plant parrot feather (Myriophyllum aquaticum) and the algae stonewort (Nitella) have been used for the degradation of TNT. The nitroreductase enzyme has also been identified in other algae, ferns, monocots, dicots, and trees (McCutcheon 1996). Degradation of TCE has been detected in hybrid poplars and in poplar cell cultures, resulting in production of metabolites and in complete mineralization of a small portion of the applied TCE (Gordon et al. 1997; Newman et al. 1997a). Atrazine degradation has also been confirmed in hybrid poplars (Populus oliform x nigra DN34, Imperial Carolina) (Burken and Schnoor 1997). Poplars have also been used to remove 51
nutrients from groundwater (Licht and Schnoor 1993). Black willow (Salix nigra), yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera), bald cypress (Taxodium distichum), river birch (Betula nigra), cherry bark oak ( Quercus Colifor), and live oak ( Quercus viginiana) were able to support some degradation of the herbicide bentazon (Conger and Portier 1997). m. Site Considerations i. Soil Conditions Phytodegradation is most appropriate for large areas of soil having shallow contamination. ii. Ground and Surface Water Groundwater that can be extracted by tree roots or that is pumped to the surface may be treated by this system. Phytodegradation can also occur in surface water, if the water is able to support the growth of appropriate plants. iii. Climatic Conditions Phytoremediation studies involving phytodegradation have been conducted under a wide variety of climatic conditions. n. Current Status Research and pilot-scale studies have been conducted primarily at Army Ammunition Plants (AAPs). These demonstrations include field studies at the Iowa AAP, Volunteer AAP, and Milan AAP (McCutcheon 1996). The following plants are used in hydraulic control: Cottonwood and hybrid poplar trees were used at seven sites in the East and Midwest to contain and treat shallow groundwater contaminated with heavy metals, nutrients, or pesticides (Gatliff 1994). Poplars were used at a site in Utah to contain groundwater contaminated with gasoline and diesel (Nelson 1996). Passive gradient control was studied at the French Limited Superfund site using a variety of phreatophyte trees; native non-deciduous trees were found to perform the best (Sloan and Woodward 1996). o. i. Site Considerations: Riparian Corridors/Buffer Strips Definition/Mechanism Riparian corridors/buffer strips are generally applied along streams and riverbanks to control and remediate surface runoff and groundwater contamination moving into the river. These systems can also be installed to prevent down gradient migration of a contaminated groundwater plume and to degrade contaminants in the plume. Mechanisms for remediation include water uptake, contaminant uptake, and plant metabolism. Riparian corridors are similar in conception to physical and chemical permeable barriers such as trenches filled with iron filings, in that they treat groundwater without extraction containment. Riparian corridors and buffer strips may incorporate certain aspects of hydraulic control, phytodegradation, rhizodegradation, phytovolatilization, and perhaps phytoextraction. Media Riparian corridors/buffer strips are used in the treatment of surface water and groundwater. iii. Advantages Secondary advantages include the stabilization of stream banks and prevention of soil erosion. Aquatic and terrestrial habitats are greatly improved by riparian forest corridors. iii. Disadvantages 52
The use of buffer strips might be limited to easily assimilated and metabolized compounds. Land use constraints may restrict application. iv. Applicable Contaminants/ Concentrations Nutrient and pesticide contaminants are among the water- soluble organics and inorganics studied the most often using this technology. The nitrate concentration in groundwater was 150 mg/L at the edge of a field, 8 mg/L below a poplar buffer strip, and 3 mg/L downgradient at the edge of a stream (Licht and Schnoor 1993). v. Root Depth Uptake occurs within the root zone or the depth of influence of the roots. vi. Plants Poplars have been used in riparian corridors and buffer strips. vii. Site Considerations Sufficient land must be available for the establishment of vegetation. Typically a triple row of trees is installed, using 10 meters at minimum. Larger corridors increase capacity, and wider areas allow for more diverse ecosystem and habitat creation. Native Midwestern songbirds, for example, prefer corridors 70 meters and more. viii. Soil Conditions The primary considerations for this technology are the depth and concentration of contaminants that affect plant growth. Soil texture and degree of saturation are factors to be considered for use of this system. Planting technique can mitigate unfavorable soil conditions. ix. Ground and Surface Water Groundwater must be within the depth of influence of the roots. x. Climatic Conditions The amount of precipitation, temperature, and wind may affect the transpiration rate of the plants. xi. Current Status Buffer strips have been researched and installed commercially with success. p. Plants Used in Phytoremediation A compilation of plants used in phytoremediation research or application is given in Appendix D. This Appendix includes a table giving the common name followed by the scientific name, and a table with the scientific name followed by the common name. The following are examples of commonly-investigated or used plants: Plants Used in Phytoremediation: Table 20
Trees: Poplars (hybrids)/cottonwoods Willows Grasses: Prairie grasses Fescue Legumes: Alfalfa Metal-accumulators: Hyperaccumulators Thlaspi caerulescens Brassica juncea Accumulators: Sunflower Aquatic plants: Parrot feather Phragmites reeds Cattails Hyacinths Target Contaminants metals – Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn metals – As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Se, Zn hydrophobic organics – DDT, dieldrin, dioxins, furans, PAH, PCB, PCP
Summary of Bioremediation Technologies: Table 21
Technology Phytoextraction Phytostabilization Applicable Media Phytoremediation brownfields; sediments; soil; groundwater sediments; soil
sediments; soil; waste water (land application) groundwater; landfill leachate; soil; wastewater (land application)
organics – aromatics, PAH, pesticides ammunition wastes – RDX, TNT, aromatics – BTEX, chlorinated aliphatics – TCE, herbicides – atrazine,alachlor, hydrocarbons – TPHnutrients – NO3 (-),, NH4 (+), PO4 (3-) hydrophobic organics, metals – Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, radionuclides – 137Cs, 90Sr, U BOD, TDS, TSS, NO2, NO3, NH3, NH4 Coliforms – fecal, total, metals – Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, nutrients – Al, Fe, K, Mn, P COD organics – BTEX, NAPL, pesticides, solvents non-chlorinatedhydrocarbons, pesticides, petroleum hydrocarbons, wood, preservatives inorganic contaminants hydrocarbons – BTEX, PAH, other phenols ethylene glycol, explosives, hydrocarbons – PAH, PCP, pesticides acetic acid, explosives – TNT, hydrocarbons – BTEX, PAH, pesticides, petrochemicals, wood preservatives
Rhizofiltration Constructed Wetlands
Biodegradation Bioventing Chemical Oxidation of Soils In situ Lagoon Compost-based reactor Slurry-based reactor
groundwater; water and wastewater in lagoons or constructed wetlands domestic wastewater; landfill leachate; livestock wastewater; pulp mill effluent; septage Bioaugmentation groundwater; sludge; soil Biostimulation soil soil; wastewater sludge; soil Bioreactors lagoon sediments; municipal and refinery sludge; soil groundwater; sludge; soil
Composting Land Farming White-rot Fungus
Land-based Treatments lagoon sediments; municipal sludge; soil ethylene glycol, explosives, hydrocarbons – PAH, PCP, pesticides sediment; sludge; soil hydrocarbons – TPH, PCP, pesticides Fungal Remediation soil CAH, PCB, polychlorinated dibenzo(p)dioxins, explosives – TNT, hydrocarbons – PAH, pesticides – DDT,
Abbreviations: Table 22
Abbreviation BOD: BTEX: CAH: COD: DDT: NAPL: PAH: PCB: Name biochemical oxygen demand benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons chemical oxygen demand 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(pchlorophenyl) ethylene non-aqueous phase liquid polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon polychlorinated biphenyl Abbreviation PCP: RDX: TCE: TDS: TNT: TPH: TSS: Name pentachlorophenol hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5triazine trichloroethylene total dissolved solids 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene total petroleum hydrocarbons total suspended solids
Raw sewage not mixed with detergents and Household/ Commercial chemicals are generated in large quantities. It is estimated that a community of 10,000 people can generate 40-acre inches of sewage effluent per day or an equivalent of 1 million gallons of wastewater. This waste is extremely rich in nutrients especially Nitrogen. Integrated Biosystem Highlights 54
Most conventional wastewater treatment tries to clean water mechanically and chemically then releases it into waterways. Such systems are expensive, produce limited economic benefits, and can themselves pollute. By contrast, integrated biosystems treat water by recycling it for agricultural use, producing numerous economic, health and environmental benefits. Nutrients in wastewater are recycled by algae, crops and livestock via processes such as photosynthesis, mineralization, and uptake. Water is treated by combined natural processes such as soil and root filtration, sedimentation and biochemical reactions including photosynthesis, anaerobic and aerobic digestion. In this system, clean water is a by-product along with organic crops, fertilized soil, and reclaimed wildlife habitat. Economic benefits come from soil restoration, fertilizer recovery, crops and livestock. Products can be produced safely and profitably with low input costs. Costs are minimized by using wastewater for fertilizer, integrating crops for pest protection, maintaining biodiversity, treating water via natural processes, and reducing environmental liability. The technology is especially suitable for poor soil and regions where flood control or water conservation are required. Locally available resources are used so costs for imported fertilizer and equipment are minimized. Components are scalable, ranging from single households to large farms and communities. Due to high levels of year-round ambient sunlight, more productive applications occur in a belt defined by 30 degrees latitude north and south of the equator. 3. Reed Beds: Two different basic types of reed-beds have been developed and used for the treatment of polluting waste water effluents over the last 20 years or so: • Horizontal flow reed-beds • Vertical flow reed-beds From these in more recent years a third type of reed bed system, that is highly efficient, has evolved: • Combination vertical and horizontal flow reed beds i. Horizontal Flow Reed-Bed Systems: Horizontal flow reed beds work particularly well for low strength effluents, or effluents that have undergone some form of pre-treatment. Whilst not effective in reducing ammonia they will almost always reduce BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) and SS (Suspended Solids) levels. These systems play an invaluable role in tertiary treatment and for the polishing of effluents. A typical application would be to treat the discharge from a package sewage treatment plant which is unable to meet the discharge consent standard required. ii. Vertical Flow Reed-Bed Systems: Vertical flow reed-bed systems are much more effective than horizontal flow reed-beds not only in reducing BOD and SS levels but also in reducing ammonia levels and eliminating smells. They can be considerably smaller and will also cope with much stronger effluents.
Combination Systems: Multi-stage reed-bed systems, incorporating one or two stages of vertical flow followed by one or more stages of horizontal flow, and large single stage vertical flow reed-beds, when properly designed, are used for example, for the full treatment of domestic sewage - black and grey water and, sludge, if required. Systems can be designed to accommodate virtually any situation - from flat sites to steep rocky slopes. On sloping sites gravity can be used, whereas one or two pumping stages may be required on flat sites, to move the effluent through the reed-beds. Section I.1 Reed-bed systems do not require a lot of space. The most effective "combination reed-bed systems", usually sized at about 2 sq. m. per person equivalent for sewage treatment, have a remarkably small footprint. Constructed Wetlands for wastewater treatment The use of wetlands to treat effluent is not a new idea. Thousands of years ago, natural wetlands were used by the Chinese and by the Egyptians to clarify liquid effluent. However, the first “constructed” wetland was not used until 1904 (in Australia). Even after that the use of such wetlands was slow to catch on. The first botanical treatment of waste was not reported in Europe until the 1950s; America’s research into the field did not begin until the 1970s. Nevertheless, it is now recognized that constructed wetlands are an economic way of treating liquid effluent and even raw. Constructed Wetlands reduce concentrations of suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), nitrogen, phosphorus, and coliform bacteria (often by up to 98%). Their simplicity and scalability make them effective for treatment of waste from small communities. If constructed on suitable topography, they require little energy input, which makes them suitable for both under-developed and rural sites. However despite the suitability of climate in developing countries, the spread of wetlands in such areas has been described as "depressingly slow".9 Number of Wetland Systems Currently in Use: It has been claimed that there are "thousands of wetland-based wastewater treatment systems around the world".10 However, although it is clear use of constructed wetlands is increasing, the precise number of such systems in operation is relatively difficult to obtain. Those figures which are available are summarized below: USA and Canada Constructed wetlands are still not in widespread use as treatment systems for wastewater. A 1996 survey of the USA and Canada showed 176 wetland treatment sites in use. A majority (116) of these were in sub-tropical or warm-temperate zones. However, the state with the greatest number of installations was the cold-temperate South Dakota (40 sites). The majority of wetlands in cold-temperate zones were of the FWF type
P.Denny et al., 'Constructed wetlands in developing countries', Water Sci and Tech. 35 (5) pp167174 1997 10 K.R.Eddy and E.M.Angelo 'Biogeochemical indicators to evaluate pollutant removal efficiency in constructed wetland'’ Water Sci and Tech. 35(5) pp 1-10, 1997
Northern Europe In Northern Europe, Denmark is the leader in implementing constructed wetlands. A pioneer of SSF-type (Subsurface Flow) installations, the country has at least 130 wetlands, most of which treat municipal wastewater. By comparison, Sweden and Norway have shown much less interest in such systems and neither government has given final approval use of constructed wetlands for statutory water treatment. In 1996 Sweden had 6 FWF and 8 SSF wetlands for treatment of municipal or domestic wastewater. However, in most cases they were installed only to aid in removal of nitrogen, or to 'polish' water which had been treated by other means. Norway had almost twenty wetlands, the majority of them SSF-type installations Eastern Europe The spread of constructed wetlands is greatest in the Czech Republic. Between 1989 and 1996, 26 systems were built. As a result of their success, 54 more such systems are currently being constructed. All systems are of the horizontal SSF-type and treat municipal waste (after initial mechanical pre-treatment). Hungary and Estonia are also known to be introducing constructed wetlands, but no numbers are currently available. (b) How Constructed Wetlands treat Waste: The treatment of waste by constructed wetlands is achieved by a large number of chemical and biological processes, many of the latter microbially-mediated. Table 1 (below) shows the main processes (and the sites at which they occur) affecting Carbon (usually measured as BOD5), Nitrogen (as NH4+ or NO3-), and Phosphorus.
Processes occurring in Treatment of Waste: Table 23 Contaminant Site Process BOD5 Stems and Leaves Microbial respiration Roots Microbial respiration Bed media Microbial respiration (gravel/sand) Settling Bed media (gravel/sand) Nitrogen Leaves Volatilization (as N2 and N2O) Algae in water NO3 and NH4+ -> Soluble Organic Nitrogen column Ammonium -> Nitrate Roots Nitrate -> N2, N20, or NH4+ Soil Settling Bed media(gravel/sand) Phosphorus Stems and Leaves Microbial Repiration Roots Microbial Repiration 57
Roots Uptake Bed media Sedimentation/Burial (gravel/sand) Adsorption Bed media (gravel/sand) (i) (ii) Biogeochemical Reactions and Nutrient Uptake As mentioned at the start of this section, temperature affects the rate at which biogeochemical processes occur. In cold climates the rate at which biomass takes up nutrients will be significantly lower than in warm, subtropical or tropical climates. Indeed, the treatment area required to transfer 90% of nutrients to biomass increases from around 7 ha at 20°C to 35 ha at 0°C. However, this is not particularly important if nutrient recycling is not required. Figure 2 shows uptake of nitrogen and phosphorus for wetlands in Florida (sub-tropical), New Zealand (warm temperate), Sweden (cold-temperate) and Canada (cold-temperate). Figure - Nutrient Uptake by Wetlands from different climatic regions
Performance of New Generation Reed Bed Systems (conc. in mg/l): Table 24. Total COD d BOD TS T PTKN CO 5 S P PO D 4 Raw Sewage 495 190 215 225 8. 6.4 42.8 5 Filter A outflow 92 70 0 18 5. 5.3 19.6 8 Final Outflow 58 40 16 12 5. 5.1 10.1 6 Removal (%) 87.5 80 92.5 94. 40 28 76 5 Performance of Swiss System after 10 years use (Conc in mg/l): Table 25. Total COD BOD TP NO3NH4Min-N 5 N N 58
Gray water Sand filter out Final Outfall Removal (%) (c)
• • •
311 31 26.7 91.4
129.5 0 5.4 95.8
8.5 3.1 0.8 90. 6
3 50.7 12.7 -323.0
89.8 1.9 6.3 93.0
92.6 62.2 18.5 80.0
• • •
Conclusions Constructed wetlands are an effective, environmentally friendly means of treating waste (liquid and solid). Wetlands are effective at reducing loads of BOD/COD, nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended solids. Reduction can be up by 98%. In the last few years, there has been a tendency to construct SSF-type wetlands rather than FWF-type. Such systems are believed to be more effective at treating waste. Despite current usage patterns, it is tropical and subtropical climates, which hold the greatest potential for the use of wetlands; cold climates do bring problems with both icing and thaw. Constructed wetlands require little maintenance, and remain effective after more than 10 years of use. Use of constructed wetlands in developing countries can provide real economic benefits by providing biomass and supporting aquaculture. Wetlands can provide a habitat for wildlife and act as a tourist attraction for the community. Performance Characteristics The means for Total Nitrogen (TN), Total Phosphorus (TP), copper and zinc are: • Inflow TP: 1.018mg/L and TN: 1.92 mg/L. • Outflow TP: 1.013 mg/L and TN: 1.50mg/L. • Inflow for Cu:9.1788 µg/L and Outflow for Cu: 2.4081µg/L • Inflow for Zn: 9.02 µg/L and Outflow: for Zn: 3.7603 µg/L. • Improved species diversity and abundance Water Quality Improvement Surface water is monitored for copper, cadmium, zinc, conductivity, pH, turbidity, total phosphorus, total nitrogen and temperature. The results for total phosphorus, total nitrogen and heavy metals are presented in tables 11, 12 and 13 As shown in Table 11 the concentrations of total phosphorus entering the wetland are higher than the concentrations leaving the wetland. This indicates a reduction of total phosphorus due to uptake by flora and sediments within the wetland. Statistical Analysis Means for Total Phosphorus (TP) and Total Nitrogen (TN) for the four sites: Table 26. TP (mg/L) TN (mg/L) Inflow 1.018 1.92 Outflow 1.013 1.50 Upstream 1.005 1.26 Farmers Downstream 1.006 1.29 Farmers 59
Because of heterogeneity of the data, it had to be transformed to undertake the statistical analysis. Transformed standard errors for TP and TN: Table 27. TP TN S.E 0.000556 0.007165 The means for Cu and Zn: Table 28. Cu (µg/L) Zn (µg/L) Inflow 9.2788 9.02 Outflow 2.4081 3.7603 Upstream 1.1761 5.8904 Farmers Downstream 1.0456 4.2496 Farmers
Wildlife Pond at end of Reed-Bed System: Botanical/ Reed Beds: Artificial Wetlands; Constructed wetlands or Botanical/ Reed Beds are designed to mimic the sediment and nutrient removal processes occurring in natural wetlands. General design principles are based on holding or slowing the passage of water through the wetland where a range of physical, chemical and biological processes can operate to store, transform or remove various pollutants. These processes can be optimized through the control and manipulation of the hydraulic regime, including retention time. Constructed wetlands are configured into different zones, with each zone performing different functions. Technical Details The wetland is divided into three zones: sedimentation, wetlands (botanical bed) and open water zone. The Sedimentation Zone improves water quality by trapping sediments, litter and contaminants. As flow enters this zone it slows down resulting in sediment deposition. The sediments act as a sink for phosphorus and other pollutants like heavy metals and pesticides. Litter becomes tapped by vegetation located on the edges of this zone.
• • • • •
• • •
The Wetland (Botanical Bed) Zone improves water quality by removing nutrients and other pollutants. This zone effectively: Slows the flow of water, thereby increasing sedimentation and contact time with the water (effluent); Filters pollutants and precipitates them from the water; Transfers oxygen to the root zones thereby preventing a build up of toxins under saturated conditions; Assimilates, processes and stores nutrients; Supports microbial growth to enhance nutrient transformations. The Deep Open Water Zone polishes water, allowing time for finer particles to settle and for sunlight to kill pathogens. The littoral vegetation surrounding the open water zone contributes to pollutant removal through the processes described above. Over the last hundreds of years there has been a general decline in the water quality of rivers and streams. Land clearance for agriculture, urban development and manufacturing have led to increasing levels of phosphorus, turbidity, heavy metals and pathogenic bacterial contamination of major water systems. Streams and rivers have been adversely affected by industrial and urban development. The water quality is poor, with high nutrient levels and heavy metal contamination problems. Performance Criteria The performance characteristics by which Wetlands are assessed include: The improvement of surface water quality entering water systems from the Wetland (in particular the reduction of nutrients and heavy metals) The improvement of the site as habitat for native fauna; and Creation of a focal point for environmental education and passive recreation within the Islamabad area. Water Quality Improvement Surface water is monitored for copper, cadmium, zinc, conductivity, pH, turbidity, total phosphorus, total nitrogen and temperature. In simple terms, a botanical bed can be seen as a low loaded fixed film filter with in-built sedimentation, a primary tank is required to retain the organic material, the effluent then gravitates or is pumped to the botanical bed, membrane lined and filled with appropriate gravel and stone and planted with appropriate plants. Dimensions, shape and number of beds vary with type of application, flow rate and organic loading, and quality of treated effluent required. Botanical bed schemes have proven themselves to be an effective, sustainable, reliable and economical method of treatment. Cost effective and aesthetically pleasing are two good reasons for choosing botanical beds, a third and more important reason is that they are the most environmental friendly form of sewage treatment available at this time. The use of botanical beds in environmentally sensitive areas is now widespread in the United Kingdom, over the last decade reed beds have been monitored by the Environment Agency and are now an established form of treatment. Agri/ Horticulture "Water in the environment is like blood in the body: and ours is sick. The arteries and veins of our countryside, its rivers and wetlands, are suffering from the equivalent of low blood pressure and blood poisoning. The condition has developed over many years and treatment is now urgent." Sir David Attenborough The use of wetlands to treat effluent is not a new idea. Thousands of years ago, natural wetlands were used by the Chinese and by the Egyptians to clarify liquid effluent. However, the first “constructed” wetland was not used until 1904 (in Australia). Even 61
after that the use of such wetlands was slow to catch on. The first botanical treatment of waste was not reported in Europe until the 1950s; America’s research into the field did not begin until the 1970s. Nevertheless, it is now recognized that constructed wetlands are an economic way of treating liquid effluent (and even raw sewage Horizontal-flow wetlands may be of two types: free-water surface-flow (FWF) or sub-surface water-flow (SSF). In the former the effluent flows freely above the sand/gravel bed in which the reeds etc. are planted, and there may be patches of open water; in the latter effluent passes through the sand/gravel bed. In FWF-type wetlands plant stems, leaves and rhizomes treat effluent. Such FWF wetlands are densely planted and typically have water-depths of less than 0.4m. However, dense planting can limit oxygen diffusion into the water, and FWF wetlands are typically less effective at reducing BOD5 and phosphorus than SSF wetlands (in which effluent is treated by the roots). (i) Biogeochemical Reactions and Nutrient Uptake: As mentioned earlier, temperature affects the rate at which biogeochemical processes occur. In cold climates the rate at which biomass takes up nutrients will be significantly lower than in warm, subtropical or tropical climates. Indeed, the treatment area required to transfer 90% of nutrients to biomass increases from around 7 ha at 20°C to 35 ha at 0°C. Constructed wetlands are not yet widely used in developing, tropical countries. However, this is the very environment in which such wetlands perform best. Indeed, constructed wetlands can form an integrated part of the food production system in such climates. The advantage of a hot climate is a continuous growing season, which means that the wetland biomass can also be harvested. For example, the annual production of papyrus in tropical conditions can be in excess of 100 tons/ ha/ year. The foliage can be sustainably cropped, while the papyrus stems can be used for matting and thatching roofs. Water that has passed through the wetland can be used to irrigate crops and/or introduced to a fishpond. In this final stage, remaining nitrates and phosphates stimulate the growth of phytoplankton - the favorite food of fish. Such systems may actually yield a profit for local communities, and would be a powerful tool in breaking the poverty cycle. (ii) All chemical reactions slow as temperature drops and this is true for the processes occurring in constructed wetlands3 Biogeochemical Reactions and Nutrient Uptake As mentioned at the start, temperature affects the rate at which biogeochemical processes occur. In cold climates the rate at which biomass takes up nutrients will be significantly lower than in warm, subtropical or tropical climates. Indeed, the treatment area required to transfer 90% of nutrients to biomass increases from around 7 ha at 20°C to 35 ha at 0°C. However, this is not particularly important if nutrient recycling is not required. Figure 2 shows uptake of nitrogen and phosphorus for wetlands in Florida (subtropical), New Zealand (warm temperate), Sweden (cold temperate) and Canada (coldtemperate).
Load/ Removal Rates for Reed-Beds: Table 29 Total COD d BOD5 TSS TP COD Raw Sewage Filter A outflow Final Outflow Removal (%) 495 92 58 87.5 190 70 40 80 215 0 16 92.5 225 18 12 94.5 8.5 5.8 5.6 40
PPO 4 6.4 5.3 5.1 28
TKN 42.8 19.6 10.1 76
Two innovative, low-cost and highly effective structures are being introduced. These are an Environment Protected Green/ Shade House Structure built as a Geodesic Dome and rectangular Green/ Shade covers for Botanical Beds. Starting Medium Tunnel for Iris/ Papyrus Reeds/ African Lettuce/ Bulrushes
Bioaugmentation Pond Geodesic Dome
Line Depiction: Liquid Waste Remediation:
GEODESIC DOMES (Bioaugmentation). Hyacinth Botanical Beds Type “B” Filters Pebbles/ Gravel/ Sand
GEODESIC DOMES (Bioaugmentation).
Medium Tunnels Botanical Beds Type “B” Filters Pebbles/ Gravel/ Sand
Lake/ Pond Treatment Systems:
GENERAL DESCRIPTION: A combination of various species of live Bacteria is used for the treatment of Industrial, Agricultural and Residential organically contaminated wastewater. The microorganisms are non-toxic and non-pathogenic live bacteria suspended in a liquid medium that is non-offensive to humans, animals, plants and all types of aqua-culture. The bacterium remains in an adult state after manufacture which gives it ability to quickly adapt to different environments. The combination of these diverse components provides the flexibility to treat highly complex organic components in different systems utilizing aerobic and anaerobic applications. The bacteria have been very successful in the treatment of phenolic waste with large concentrations of oils and fats and extremely offensive odors. MODE OF ACTION: When Bacteria is added to a contaminated area, they immediately revive themselves and begin to feed, reproduce and attack the organic waste in the water. The Bacteria were specifically developed to reduce Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) which causes the odors that emanate from water treatment systems, septic tanks, lagoons and pits. The Bacteria breaks down solids including fecal material, fats and proteins and treats phenolic waters, sewage, biodegradable Hydrogen sulfide and other contaminants. The operation efficiency of lagoons and other treatment facilities is greatly improved when the Bacteria is applied. Contamination is drastically reduced as is the need for 66
• • • • • • • •
expensive cleaning and pumping procedures. The Bacteria can help a treatment facility achieve total compliance with Government Pollution Regulations. LAGOON SYSTEMS: The Bacteria’s unique ecosystem naturally breaks down the odor causing compounds that contaminate surrounding communities and ground water supply. On the farm the Bacteria can keep manure in a uniform pumpable slurry form and enhances it fertilizer value making it more readily absorbable by plants while providing the following benefits. Reduction of Hydrogen Sulfide odors: Reduction of accumulated Gasses. Destruction of Fly and mosquito larvae. Reduction of BOD and COD. Breakdown of waste solids. Creation of healthier environment. Reduction in Livestock mortality. Increase in fertilizer value of recycled water. MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS: One of the most significant tasks faced by City officials is to provide safe, potable water to members of the community and subsequently to transport the used water or sewage away to be disposed off in an environmentally compatible manner. Some of the key areas where Bioaugmentation can be beneficial in Municipal Plants. • Start-up and recovery of Biological Wastewater treatment systems. • Improving organic removal efficiency. Improving performance of systems with inadequate aeration capacity. • Improving Plant Stability. • Establishing or increasing Nitrification. • Expanding Plant capacity without Capital Expenditure. • Improving oils and grease digestion. • Reducing sludge generation per Kg of BOD removed. • Improving cold weather operation. • Improving solids settling. • Improve breakdown of refractory organics. INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER PLANTS: Effluents Treated from Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plants: Table30. # ITEMS ITEMS 1 Chemicals Iron & Steel 2 Petrochemicals Food Processing 3 Refining Leather Tanning 4 Pulp & Paper Mining Typically these Plants represent the highest organic concentrations for which biological treatment is used. Aqua-Clean significantly reduces BOD levels and improves overall operating efficiency. COCA-COLA TRIALS: “We improved the efficiency of our activated sludge facility to over 90% with the use of Bioaugmentation,” says Mr. Juarez, Head of Maintenance, Coca-Cola Factory, Nixapa, El Salvador, Central America.
100 80 60 40 20 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun BOD
SEPTIC TANKS & GREASE TRAPS: Bioaugmentation degrades soluble organics in solution by a combination of aerobic microaerophilic, facultative, aerobic and anaerobic micro-organisms and primarily bacteria. Bioaugmentation provides a higher bacterial population and augments the natural degradation process of organic waste to assure efficient septic tank and grease trap operation. Bioaugmentation digests the waste: • Prevents Overflow. • Eliminates Organic accumulation. • Reduces frequency of regular maintenance procedures. • Eliminates noxious odors and reduces insect larvae. GOLF COURSES - Ponds & Lakes: Bioaugmentation eliminates offensive odors and keeps ponds clear and algae free by two mechanisms: exclusion and the production of a natural inhibitor which is not harmful to other aquatic plants or animals. The photosynthetic bacteria, which are metabolically similar to algae, compete with algae for essential macro nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus. • Keeps Ponds clean and clear. • Reduces Filamentous and Planktonic Algae. • Eliminates noxious odors caused by Algae. • Reduces eggs and larvae of water-breeding insects. • Safe for all Wildlife. MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT: La Costa, Uruguay This Municipal Lagoon receives 2,40,000 liters of domestic sewage per day. A total of 322 Liters of Bacteria was applied over a period of six weeks. The water was purified by 95% and was certified for use in Agriculture, pH was improved to 7.2 and Biological Oxygen Demand was reduced from 40 initially to 13 after treatment. All noxious odors were eliminated as was the presence of insects including flies and mosquitoes.
Origin Chemical Dairy Confectionary Halogenated
SUCCESSFUL APPLICATIONS: Table 31. WASTE Phenols, alcohols, straight chain alkanes and aromatic compounds Fats and whey Sugar wastes and chemicals Chloro and di-chloro phenols Surfactants and other components of detergents Organic components of fish waste and unused fish food Reduction of BOD and odors Petroleum Hydrocarbons Reduction of BOD and odors Spent fermentation media, tabletising binders and extraction solvents Phenols, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, petroleum oils and greases Phenols, cyanide, thiocyanate, ammonia and rolling oils Vegetable tanning wastes Surfactants, starches and organic dyes Liquid sugars, high fructose corn syrups and flavorings
Aromatics Detergents Fish Farms Food Processing Petrochemicals Paper & Cellulose Pharmaceuticals Refinery Wastes Steel Manufacturing Tanneries Textiles Beverages
Project Implementation: a. Project Duration & Cost: Two Year (24 months). Total Project Cost Rs.113.59 million: b. Component IV: Work Plan (Quarterly Activities). Table 32 Start/ End dates of 6-monthly Periods Activities 01-03-210 to 01-09-2010 Conduct planning meetings Construction Purchase of Plant, Machinery & Equipment Installation Trials & Adjustments Training Operation Analysis Reports & Returns 01-09-20010 to 01-03-2011 Over run period 3. Details of Components Activities and their itemized cost of material, labor, machinery etc. 3.1 Component IV: PROJECT BUDGET DETAILS (Rs. in millions): 69
Table 33 Code Object 61-20 Salaries & Allowances 61-21 Other benefits to staff Establishment Transport of Goods Running Cost of Vehicles Transportation Publicity and Advertisement Seminar/Workshop/Field day Meetings/Seminars Expenses Bacteria @Rs.100.00/ Liter x 50,000 L Plants misc. Other Charges Operational expenses Probes & Measurement Devices Bioaugmentation Environment/ Predator Protected Geodesic Domes 20 ft dia @Rs.1000.00 per sq ft x 3 per site x 6 sites Settling Ponds 200x100x8 ft @ Rs. 25/ cu ft x 1 per site x 4 sites Polishing Ponds 200x100x8 ft @ Rs. 25/ cu ft x 1 per site x 4 sites Finishing Ponds 200x100x8 ft @ Rs. 25/ cu ft x 1 per site x 4 sites Horizontal/ Vertical Flow Plant Beds 3x2x100 x 4 per site x 6 sites Fixed Assets Vehicles
Year-I Year-2 6.05 6.65 0.30 6.35
TOTAL 12.70 0.64 13.34 0.40 0.14 0.54 1.35 0.70 0.70 11.25 0.65 14.65 15.19 5.10 0.40 16.00 16.00 16.00 7.20 60.70 6.00 24.00 1.52 92.22 120.74
62-13 62-1 62-60 62-63 62-69
62-6 62 63-12
0.06 0.36 0.60 0.30 0.30 5.00 0.60 6.80 7.16 5.10 0.40 16.00 16.00 16.00 7.20 60.70 6.00 24.00
0.08 0.18 0.75 0.40 0.40 6.25 0.05 7.85 8.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Pre-fabricated Office Buildings 40 ft dia Geodesic Domes x06 @Rs.2500.00 sq ft 10% Operational Expense to Implementing NGO 63 Capital Expenses Total
Project Coordination Unit: A PCU will be formed and located at a central Field office for ease of approach to all six sites. The personnel requirements are as follows:
PCU Employment Details: Table 34 # Title Nos 1 Project Director 1 70
2 Accounts Officer 3 PA to PD 4 Technician Assistant to 5 Technicians 6 Drivers 7 Peon 8 Cleaner TOTAL PCU: Budget Details: Table 35
1 1 3 3 2 1
0.06 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01
0.06 0.03 0.06 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.35
0.72 0.30 0.72 0.29 0.24 0.10 0.07 4.24
0.36 0.36 0.14 0.12
Code 61-20 62-10 61 62-13 62-1 62-21 62-23 62-2 62-31 62-32 62-36 62-37 62-3 62-40 62-42 62-43 62-44 62-4 62-55 62-5 62-60 62-63 62-69S# 62-6 1 62 63-15 63-1 63
Object Year-I Year-2 TOTAL MONITORING INDICATORS Salaries & Allowances 4.24 4.66 8.90 TA/DA to Officers & Staff 1.88 2.07 3.96 The Project is expected to give the Establishment expenses 6.12 6.73 12.85 outcomes for environment protection Running Cost of Vehicles 0.24 0.30 0.54 through science based improvements in Transport of Goods 0.30 0.10 0.40 waste management, to ensure “stable ecoTransportation 0.54 0.40 0.94 systems in an environmentally sustainable Telephone, E.mail & Internet 0.01 0.02 0.03 manner”. The performance/outcome Courier Services 0.01 0.02 0.03 indicators given below will be measured Communications 0.02 0.04 0.06 during and after the successful Stationery 0.06 0.07 0.13 implementation of the project: Printing & Publications 0.30 0.40 0.70 Adoption of an integrated approach, Consumable Stores 0.10 0.15 0.25 i. rational resource use, and the Other Misc. Expenditure 0.05 0.06 0.11 Utilities/Office Supp/Rent 0.51 0.67 1.18 introduction of water efficient Office Building 0.60 0.72 1.32 techniques. Equipment & Machinery 0.40 0.00 0.40 ii. Institutional strengthening, capacity Computer & Office Equipment 0.30 0.00 0.30 building & human resource Furniture & fixture 0.20 0.00 0.20 development. Repair & Maintenance 1.50 0.72 2.22 iii. Improving quality of and easy access to Other Services 0.30 0.40 0.70 water supply, especially for women. Other Services 0.30 0.40 0.70 Publicity and Advertisement 0.24 0.36 0.60 PERFORMANCE INDICATORS : Table Seminar/Workshop/Field day 0.60 0.72 1.32 36 Meetings/Seminars Expenses 0.24 0.30 0.54 Component/Objective Activities Expected Output Expected Impact Other Charges Sanitation 1.08 1.38 2.46 Community Led Total Establish Citizens Community Organizations for Institute Primary Segregation on the part of 50% reduction in MSW Management Solid Waste Management. the Problems Operational expenses 3.95 3.61 Community. 7.56 Streamline Solid Waste Collection. 100% MSW Collection Vehicles 0.00 4.00 Disseminate Environmental Health4.00 Education. Improving the understanding of linkages Increased take up of household sanitation between hygiene and health through Fixed Assets 4.00 0.00 4.00 community education campaigns, especially 10% Operational Charges to Implementing among the women and children. Organization 0.40 0.36 0.76 Demonstrate 4.76 and Transfer Rapid Improved performance and utilization of Capital Expenses 4.40 0.36 Composting Technology. local systems through better planning management and community Total 14.47 10.70 25.17
Composting Nutrient Additives
Compost Soil Amendment Complete Fertilizer for Commercial Cropping.
participation. Reduced Carbon emission Reduced foul odors Pleasing environment Healthy and safe value added (organic) agricultural/ horticultural produce. Improving sanitation through Liquid Waste Management. More water availability Alternate Energy Protection Environment protection Environment Protection Construction repair cost reduction Promotion of Tourism
3 4 5.
Waste Water Gardens Bioreactors Hydro-Seed Mulching
Construction of Reed Beds Construction of Polishing Ponds Construction Field Applications
Containment of environmental degradation Recycling Water Methane Gas Slope Stabilization Promotion of No-Till Farming Pleasing Aesthetics
Capital cost estimates: Table 37
YEARS Total Y-1 Y-2 0.00 0.00 0.00
61 ESTABLISHMENT EXPENSES 62 63 Sub Total 61 62 63 Sub Total 61 62 63 Sub Total 61 OPERATIONAL EXPENSES CAPITAL EXPENSES ESTABLISHMENT EXPENSES OPERATIONAL EXPENSES CAPITAL EXPENSES ESTABLISHMENT EXPENSES OPERATIONAL EXPENSES CAPITAL EXPENSES ESTABLISHMENT EXPENSES
62 OPERATIONAL EXPENSES 63 CAPITAL EXPENSES Sub Total 61 ESTABLISHMENT EXPENSES 62 OPERATIONAL EXPENSES 63 CAPITAL EXPENSES Sub Total G. Total:
11.42 36.64 48.05 12.17 2.55 180.95 195.67 7.86 14.56 236.73 259.14 6.35 7.16 91.42 104.93 6.12 3.95 4.40 14.47 622.26
10.33 3.70 14.04 13.39 2.91 0.41 16.71 8.65 16.12 7.96 32.73 6.99 8.03 0.80 15.82 6.73 3.61 0.36 10.70 89.99
21.75 40.34 62.09 25.56 5.46 181.36 212.38 16.51 30.67 244.69 291.87 13.34 15.19 92.22 120.74 12.85 7.56 4.76 25.17 712.25
Cost by Component/ Year: Table 38 74
Establishment expenses I II III IV PMU Sub Total I II III IV PMU Sub Total I II III IV PMU Sub Total
YEARS Y-1 Y-2 0.00 0.00 12.17 7.86 6.35 6.12
Total 0.00 25.56 16.51 13.34 12.85 68.26 21.75 5.46 30.67 15.19 7.56 80.64 40.34 181.36 244.69 92.22 4.76 563.36 712.25
11.42 2.55 14.56 7.16 3.95 39.64 36.64 180.95 236.73 91.42 4.40 550.12 622.26
13.39 8.65 6.99 6.73 35.76 10.33 2.91 16.12 8.03 3.61 41.00 3.70 0.41 7.96 0.80 0.36 13.24 89.99
Returns By City/ Day/ Month/ Year: Table 39 # City MSW t/day 52.80 24.00 43.20 62.40 81.60 120.00 384.00 Compost/ day/ t 21.12 9.60 17.28 24.96 32.64 48.00 153.60 Compost/ 50 kg bags Price 300 day/ 000 pd per bag 21,120.00 422 0.13 9,600.00 192 0.06 17,280.00 24,960.00 32,640.00 48,000.00 153,600.00 346 499 653 960 3,072 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.29 0.92 Price pm 3.80 1.73 3.11 4.49 5.88 8.64 27.65 Price pa 45.62 20.74 37.32 53.91 70.50 103.68 331.78
1 Abbottabad 2 Bannu 3 4 5 6 DI Khan Kohat Mingora Mardan TOTAL
Local Cost Table 40 ITEM 75
Total Local Cost b)
Foreign Exchange Cost Equivalent in Pak Rupees: Table 41 # ITEM Y-1 Y-2 Total 1 Component II 82.80 0.00 82.80 2 Component III 54.6 0.0 54.60 TOTAL Foreign Exchange 137.4 0 0.00 137.40 Total: Table 42 ITEM Y-1 Y-2 Total TOTAL Cost 622.26 89.99 712.25 Cost estimates were made in January 2010. The cost of the program is based on market rates of project inputs/requirements and fixed salary package of manpower required. The detailed breakdown and annual phasing of the cost of each component of the project is given in next section. The proposed Project will be implemented over a period of two years starting from the date of actual disbursement. The FEC component is to meet the cost of the equipments to be imported. 8. Annual operating and maintenance cost after completion of the Project After the completion of the project the operation has to continue and the progress and work of the project has to be looked into by the experts for a transition period. The Project will pay for itself by the second year and be in a position to earn handsome dividends to the Cities after that period. No recurring cost is required after completion of this development project. Financing for operation and maintenance of newly established set-up will have to be met by sound commercial operation of the Project on sustainable basis. 9. Demand and Supply Analysis: District wise Sale of Fertilizers, in NWFP, 2004-05 to 2006-07(Tons)11 Table 43
# 1 2 3 4 5 6 District Abbottabad Bannu D.I.Khan Kohat Mardan Swat Total Total 5,273 8,141 17,82 8 2,424 39,37 2 10,90 6 83,94 4 2004-05 N P2O5 4,937 336 7,186 955 15,14 2,594 6 2,354 70 32,65 6,564 2 9,174 1,657 71,44 9 12,17 6 K 0 0 88 0 15 6 75 31 9 Total 6,284 6,397 1,758 3,151 51,29 9 12,31 3 81,20 2 2005-06 N P2O5 5,384 900 5,028 1,369 1,493 248 3,081 44,51 9 11,42 7 70,93 2 70 6,334 780 9,701 K 0 0 17 0 44 6 10 6 56 9 Total 4,245 3,995 2,547 2,917 41,48 9 13,17 6 68,36 9 2006-07 N P2O5 3,287 792 3,340 655 1,749 798 2,700 30,08 6 11,24 0 52,40 2 217 10,76 5 1,841 15,06 8 K 166 0 0 0 638 95 899
District Wise Land Utilization Statistics in NWFP, (2007-08) (In hectares)12 Table 44
Cultivated Area Reported Total
Cropped Area Total Area sown
Un-cultivated area Cultivbl Forest
NWFP Bureau of Statistics. NWFP Bureau of Statistics.
t Fallow 5,750 53,466 157,123 48,018 29,243 10,243 303,843 57,123 29,969 101,933 46,400 127,449 185,954 548,828
more than once 7,438 9,239 12,254 23,200 43,897 97,668 193,696 122,966 44,762 483,773 223,857 49,290 407,999 1,332,647
e Waste 20,506 15,700 346,641 33,000 3,106 84,049 503,002 83,210 160 3,909 7,270 7,932 136,705 239,186
Abbottabad Bannu D.I.Khan Kohat Mardan Swat Total
178,401 118,958 730,575 295,075 162,085 506,528 1,991,62 2
55,435 74,196 246,80 2 71,218 112,79 5 98,529 658,97 5
49,685 20,730 89,679 23,200 83,552 88,286 355,132
available for cultivatio n 19,250 28,902 133,223 183,587 38,252 187,245 590,459
# 1 2 3 4 5 11.
Financial Plan and mode of Financing: Sources of Funding: The funding of the project will be made PSDP of the NWFP Government. Project Component Cost Details: Table 45 Component Year 1 Year 2 TOTAL Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) 48.05 14.04 62.09 Municipal Solid Waste Segregation/ Processing 195.67 16.71 212.38 Composting of Municipal Solid Waste 259.14 32.73 291.87 Bioremediation of Municipal Liquid Waste 104.93 15.82 120.74 Project Coordination Unit 14.47 10.70 25.17 TOTAL 622.26 89.99 712.25 Project Benefit and Analysis: i) Financial and Economic: a. At a Project cost of Rs. 712.25 millions an annual gross return of Rs. 331.78 is expected ii) Social Benefits with Indicators: a. Streets & City/ Town clean of solid waste. b. Drains & water courses clean of liquid waste. c. Community cooperation for sustainable development initiated. d. Better quality & quantity Kitchen Garden and peri-urban vegetables and fruit. e. Slopes stabilized and afforested. f. Disease vectors controlled. g. Aesthetic environment ensured. h. Increased earnings from tourists/ visitors. i. Reduced health hazards.
Employment Generation (Direct and Indirect): a. Direct Employment: Table 46 # Job Title Nos. Project Director Project Coordinators Accounts Officer PA to PD Office Assistant Technician Assistant to Technicians Mate Drivers Labor Peon Cleaner TOTAL b.
1 18 1 1 6 9 3 18 50 60 1 19 187
Indirect Employment: (6 Cities/ Towns) Table 47 Sr. Activity Persons 1 Compost Sales 60 2 Kitchen Gardens 300 3 Peri-Urban Horticulture 120 4 Produce Sales 120 TOTAL 600 v) Environmental Impact: There is a net positive impact of the Project as it addresses four major environment degradation issues: 1. Eco-Safe Municipal Solid Waste Treatment. 2. Production of Organic Fertilizer. 3. Eco-Safe Liquid Waste Treatment. 4. Recycling of water to agriculture/ horticulture/ aquaculture. 5. Production of Eco-Safe Energy (Harnessed Methane Gas). 6. Reduced tillage through Hydro-seed mulching. 7. Re-forestation/ Re-vegetation of bare slopes/ ground. 8. Reduced Soil Erosion. 9. Increased Moisture Retention in Soils. 10. Increased Soil Biota through provision of compatible environment. vi) Impact of Delays on Project Cost and Viability:
The Project is long over-due and public safety and sustainable habitation is severely negatively impacted. The problem is increasing day by day and will continue to 78
do so unless immediate action is not taken. The proposed Project is but a small step in showing the way forward in order to attain sustainable habitation in harmony with nature. Delays will not only compound the problem but also increasing discontent on the part of the public as well as soaring inflation will make the Project prohibitively expensive to implement. The positive impacts of the Project will serve to decrease inflation through production of eco—safe produce that will command higher prices in the market. 12. Implementation schedule: (a) Starting and completion date of the project:
The proposed Project will be implemented over a period of 2 years w.e.f. it starting date. It is proposed to start the project immediately. The activity wise phasing of physical work is given below in the form of line chart. (b) 13. Result based monitoring (RBM) indicators (Already given in previous sections) (Page 71)
Management Structure and Manpower Requirements Including Specialized Skills during Construction and Operational Phases: The following mechanism will be adopted for implementation, monitoring, review, and evaluation of the project: The executing agency of the project/program will be PARC which has the required skilled staff and experienced staff to deal with all technical aspects of the Project. Project activities will be conducted on-site along with respective TMA’s Staff and Civil Society under the overall supervision of P&D Department, NWFP. An independent Project Director (PD) with some core staff will be appointed to act as a Project Coordination Unit for implementation. Seven Project Coordinators with requisite support Staff will be hired from the localities of the Project Sites for local implementation and onward management of the Units once PARC Staff exits. They will be termed as Bio Environmental Services Teams (BEST).
Project Coordination Unit
BEST Abbottabad Segregation: Compost: Waste Water Garden: Project Coordinator 3 Office Asst 1 Technician 1 Mate 3 Drivers 8 Labor 10 TOTAL 26 Project Director 1 Accts/ Admin Asst PA to PD Technicians Assistant to Technicians Drivers 2 Peon 1 TOTAL 1 1 3 3 BEST D I Khan Compost: Waste Water Garden: Project Coordinator 3 Office Asst 1 Technician 1 Mate 3 Drivers 8 Labor 10 TOTAL 26
BEST Mingora Compost: Waste Water Garden: Project Coordinator 3 Office Asst 1 Technician 1 Mate 3 Drivers 8 Labor 10 TOTAL 26
BEST Mardan Compost: Waste Water Garden: Project Coordinator 3 Office Asst 1 Technician 1 Mate 3 Drivers 8 Labor 10 TOTAL 26
BEST Kohat Compost: Waste Water Garden: Project Coordinator 3 Office Asst 1 Technician 1 Mate 3 Drivers 8 Labor 10 TOTAL 26
BEST Bannu Compost: Waste Water Garden: Project Coordinator 3 Office Asst 1 Technician 1 Mate 3 Drivers 8 Labor 10 TOTAL 26
Project Steering Committee (PSC): Project Steering Committee will be constituted by PARC for overall supervision of program implementation. PSC will oversee the program implementation, annual operation plan, review progress, provide guidance and resolve operational and financial issues recurring during the project implementation. It will authorize technical revision and re-appropriation of funds within overall approved cost and scope of the project. The composition of the Project Steering Committee (PSC) will be as under: Chairman PARC Chairman Technical Members of PARC Member Member Finance PARC Member Director Planning PARC Member Additional Chief Secretary, NWFP Member Director P&D, NWFP Member Representatives of Stakeholders (Nominated by Chair) Members (s) Project Director/Consultant Member/Secretary Project Coordination Unit (PCU): A Project Coordination Unit (PCU) will be established for overall planning, implementation and monitoring of the project. A full time Project Director (SPS-11 or above) along-with its core staff may be appointed within existing PARC strength with 80
additional financial benefits as notified by GOP for PSDP projects. The PCU will be located at PARC and Project Director/Coordinator will report to Chairman, PARC. The Functions of the Project Director (PD)/PCU will be as under: • • • • • • • • • • • Implement the overall project as per PC-I requirements. Establish and maintain a system of internal administrative and financial controls. Implement the approved work plan, monitor and report the progress on quarterly basis to Chairman, PARC. Organize review of program activities on quarterly basis. Arrange annual and mid-term review of each of the project component and prepare annual progress report. Prepare annual work plan, cash plan, budgetary phasing as per GOP requirement for PSDP projects. Prepare and submission of monthly, quarterly, and annual progress reports of the program. Ensure implementation according to annual work plan/cash plan. Coordinate and facilitate all administrative and financial approvals of the individual research component under the project. Arrange for project evaluation and completion report at end of the project. Act as Member Secretary of PSC, arrange meetings, prepare minutes and follow up on actions to be taken.
The staff of Project Coordination Unit will be appointed by the Selection Committee of PARC on full time basis preferably from existing PARC. (With annual Increment as per GOP/PSDP rules) Remuneration for other Contractual Staff As far as possible, the existing officers will be deployed for project implementation. However, if required skill is not available in the existing system, experts will be recruited. The BS referred above is only for sake of payment of TA/DA to the above contractual officers during out station activities of the project as per existing rules/regulation of PARC. Appointment of Contractual Staff Any kind of regular appointment absolutely will not be made under this program. However, under specified and exceptional circumstances, restricted contract appointments will be made on year to year basis during the life of the project without any financial liability on the part of PARC after termination of project. The contract appointments will be approved by the Chairman PARC, on the recommendations of Selection Committee of PARC. The officers and other staff deployed to the project from the existing strength of PARC will be awarded project allowance.
• • •
Technical Assistance (Consultants): Consultants in areas where PARC lacks expertise will be hired for the implementation of these MOUs on need basis with criteria and remuneration as per GOP/PARC to be approved by Chairman PARC. Annual Planning, Monitoring and Evaluations: All project components will be presenting their progress reports in the annual review and planning meeting. Social scientists will be responsible to implement annual assessments of the field research and development activities that would be jointly implemented through public private partnerships. i) Project reporting: An inception report will be generated after holding 1st annual planning meeting, setting out in detail the plans for the first year and recording the institutional arrangements agreed for each discipline and all components of the project. The PCU will compile the consolidated reports from the project components reports for submission to the Government of NWFP and Chairman, PARC. In addition, individual component pilot studies and thematic evaluation studies will generate a flow of technical reports that will be shared with the participants, passed on to the government and placed in the public domain. ii) Review processes: The above mentioned Project Steering Committee (PSC) will provide direction and management guidance, most crucially through the approval process for Annual Work Plans. In addition technical Committees will be established to review the work on quarterly basis. Technical Committees for each component project will have membership of research mangers from the technical division the scientists concerned leading the component, social scientists, PCU representatives and the private sector as well as the technical experts as deem fit and approved by the Chairman PARC. The periodic reporting system is expected to bring management issues to the agenda of the PSC, both at and between formal meetings. As program managers, the PSC bears the responsibility for applying a constant constructive review process, with the advice and support of head of the organizations from china and Pakistan. End-of-project review will be conducted to capture the achievements of project, to identify lessons learned, and to suggest any follow on program activities that may be appropriate. The intransigent poverty of large numbers of smallholders in the region makes it highly likely that further investments in farmer support modalities will be leveraged based on the present initiative. Independent of the program, project progress will be monitored by internal and external evaluators to produce formal reports gauging program status in a range of standard criteria including relevance, apparent effectiveness, efficiency and potential sustainability. These shall be constituted by the Chairman PARC as and when required. These monitoring reports are intended primarily to capture experience for the benefit of future program design. iii) Impact Evaluation: Above and beyond the regular monitoring and management information exchange processes, project will be subjected to at least one formal performance evaluation exercise conducted by independent specialists. The project impact would be assessed 82
through conducting baseline, medium-term and long-term impact evaluation surveys. The measurable impact evaluation indicators would be economic growth, knowledge and skill improvement, changes in production technologies, farm labor and employment, profitability of crop enterprises, social change, resource conservation, institutionalization of approaches used and policy changes. Program implementation will be compared with the original intentions in a standard approach that is both neutral and constructive in identifying lessons learned. Funding for the external monitoring exercises mentioned above, the external program evaluation work is incorporated as a separate budget at approximately 1% of the total base cost. 14. Additional Project/Decisions Required Maximizing Socio-Economic Benefits from the Proposed Project: A number of crucial factors required to be managed for the successful implementation of the project. The steering committee of the project would be taking these critical decision at different stages of the project implementation. i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix. The Executing Agency will have to identify local institutions and citizen’s organizations that take full responsibility to execute project activities Implementing agency has to appoint some core staff for smooth functioning of the project and successful marketing of products The growers must be supported for the supply of critical inputs for salicornia production and linkages for marketing of outputs and products development The community will provide land for the production of Salicornia and space for establishing field units and storage building spaces The respective TMAs will help in the identification of suitable sites for and provide land. The use and maintenance of equipment and buildings would be the responsibility of the communities and reviewed by a committee constituted by the Steering Committee of the project. Use and maintenance of machinery and equipment after the completion of the project life would be responsibility of the local communities Linkages will be developed with the private sector for product development and marketing Other additional project decision will be suggested based on achievements to be made by implementation of the project. Certified that the Project Proposal has been Prepared on the Basis of Instructions Provided by the Planning Commission for the Preparation of PC-1 for Production Sector Project
Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Consultant, PARC.
Dr.Zafar Altaf, Chairman, PARC
ANNEX - I
Figure 1: Present Status Photographs:
Aquifer Recharge Mingora? Welcome to Abbottabad!
Failed Composting Bins? Mingora
Incomplete-5 Years Later! Abbottabad
Bare Slopes Await Compost or Destabilization! Abbottabad
Leachate : GHG : Abbottabad
Humus A few Steps Away! Abbottabad
Loaded With No Where To Go! Abbottabad
Vertical Increase Mardan!
Blood, Waste & Water! Mingora 86
Public Approach! Abbottabad
Material/Item Yard trimmings, mixed Yard trimmings, mixed Grass Grass Grass & leaves Large limbs & stumps Leaves, dry Leaves Leaves Pine needles, loose Prunings, dry Prunings, green Prunings, shredded Other Organics Hay, baled Hay, loose Straw, baled Straw, loose Compost Compost, loose Food Bread, bulk Fat Fats, solid/liquid (cooking oil) Fats, solid/liquid (cooking oil) Fish, scrap Meat, ground Oil, olive Oyster shells, whole Produce waste, mixed, loose Manure Manure Manure, cattle Manure, dried poultry Manure, dried sheep & cattle Manure, horse Wood Cork, dry Pallet, wood or plastic Particle board, loose Plywood, sheet 2' x 4' Roofing/shake shingle, bundle Sawdust, loose
Size/Amount 1 cubic yard 40 cubic yards 33 gallons 3 cubic yards 3 cubic yards 1 cubic yard 1 cubic yard 33 gallons 3 cubic yards 1 cubic yard 1 cubic yard 1 cubic yard 1 cubic yard 1 cubic foot 1 cubic foot 1 cubic foot 1 cubic foot 1 cubic foot 1 cubic yard 1 cubic foot 1 cubic foot 1 gallon 55 gallon drum 1 cubic foot 1 cubic foot 1 cubic foot 1 cubic foot 1 cubic yard 1 cubic foot 1 cubic yard 1 cubic foot 1 cubic foot 1 cubic yard 1 cubic foot average 48" x 48" 1 cubic yard 1 cubic yard 1 cubic yard 1 cubic yard 87
Study* USEPA U.S. EPA U.S. EPA U.S. EPA U.S. EPA Tellus Tellus U.S. EPA U.S. EPA Tellus Tellus Tellus Tellus FEECO FEECO FEECO FEECO FEECO Tellus FEECO FEECO U.S. EPA U.S. EPA FEECO FEECO FEECO FEECO Tellus FEECO Tellus FEECO FEECO Tellus FEECO U.S. EPA Tellus Tellus Tellus Tellus
Annex. LB 108 4,320 25 840 325 1,080 343.7 12 200–250 74.42 36.9 46.69 527 24 5 24 3 30–50 463.39 18 57 7.45 410 40–50 50–55 57.1 75–80 1,443 25 1,628 41.2 24.3 1,252 15 40 425.14 776.3 435.3 375
Shavings, loose Wood chips, shredded Wood scrap, loose Wood, bark, refuse Wood, pulp, moist Wood, shavings Miscellaneous Toner cartridge Rubber Tire, bus Tire, car Tire, truck Rubber, car bumper Rubber, manufactured Rubber, pelletized Textiles Clothing, used, mixed Fabric, canvas Leather, dry Leather, scrap, semi-compacted Rope String Used clothing, mixed, loose Used clothing, compacted Wool Carpet & padding, loose
1 cubic yard 1 cubic yard 1 cubic yard 1 cubic foot 1 cubic foot 1 cubic foot
Tellus U.S. EPA Tellus FEECO FEECO FEECO U.S. EPA U.S. EPA U.S. EPA U.S. EPA U.S. EPA FEECO FEECO Tellus U.S. EPA FEECO Tellus FEECO U.S. EPA Tellus Tellus FEECO Tellus
440 500 329.5 30 45–65 15 2.5 75 20 60–100 15 95 50–55 225 1 54 303 42 1 gram 225 540 15–30 84.4
1 cubic foot 1 cubic foot cubic yard square yard 1 cubic foot 1 cubic yard 1 cubic foot yard 1 cubic yard 1 cubic yard 1 cubic foot 1 cubic yard
*Source acronyms used • CIWMB: California Integrated Waste Management Board • FEECO: FEECO Incorporated • Tellus: Tellus Institute, Boston Massachusetts • U.S. EPA: United States Environmental Protection Agency (Business Users Guide)
Category High-Grade Paper
Material u/c = uncompacted/ compacted & baled Computer Paper: Uncompacted, stacked Compacted / baled 1 case White Ledger: (u)stacked / (c)stacked (u)crumpled / (c)crumpled Ream of 20# bond; 8-1/2 x 11 88
Estimated Weight (in pounds) 655 1,310 42 375-465 / 755-925 110-205 / 325 5
1 cu. yd. 1 cu. yd. 2800 sheets 1 cu. yd. 1 cu. yd. 1 ream = 500 sheets
Ream of 20# bond; 8-1/2 x 11 White ledger pads Tab Cards: Uncompacted Compacted / baled Material u/c = uncompacted/ compacted & baled Cardboard (Corrugated): Uncompacted Compacted Baled Newspaper: Uncompacted Compacted 12" stack Miscellaneous Paper: Yellow legal pads Colored message pads Self-carbon forms; 8-1/2 x 11 Mixed Ledger/Office Paper: Flat (u/c) Crumpled (u/c) Refillable Whole Bottles: Refillable beer bottles Refillable soft drink bottles 8 oz. glass container Bottles: Whole Semi-crushed Crushed (mechanically) Uncrushed to manually broken Category Plastic Material u/c = uncompacted/ compacted & baled PET (Soda Bottles): 89
1 ream = 500 sheets 1 case = 72 pads 1 cu. yd. 1 cu. yd. Volume
6.4 38 605 1,215-1,350 Estimated Weight (in pounds) 50-150 300-500 700-1,100 360-505 720-1,000 35 38 22 50 380 / 755 110-205 / 610 14 22 12 500-700 1,000-1,800 1,800-2,700 300 Estimated Weight (in pounds)
Category Other Paper
1 cu. yd. 1 cu. yd. 1 cu. yd. 1 cu. yd. 1 cu. yd. -1 case = 72 pads 1 carton = 144 pads 1 ream = 500 sheets 1 cu. yd. 1 cu. yd. 1 case = 24 bottles 1 case = 24 bottles 1 case = 24 bottles 1 cu. yd. 1 cu. yd. 1 cu. yd. 55-gallon drum Volume
Whole bottles, uncompacted Whole bottles, compacted Whole bottles, uncompacted Baled Granulated 8 bottles (2-liter size) HDPE (Dairy): Whole, uncompacted Whole, compacted Baled HDPE (Mixed): Baled Granulated Odd Plastic: Uncompacted Compacted / baled Mixed PET & HDPE (Dairy): Whole, uncompacted Aluminum (Cans): Whole Compacted (manually) Uncompacted
1 cu. yd. 1 cu. yd. gaylord 30" x 62 gaylord -1 cu. yd. 1 cu. yd. 32" x 60" 32" x 60" semi-load 1 cu. yd. 1 cu. yd. 1 cu. yd. 1 cu. yd. 1 cu. yd. 1 full grocery bag 1 case = 24 cans 1 cu. yd. 1 cu. yd. 1 case = 6 cans Volume
30-40 515 40-53 500-550 700-750 1 24 270 400-500 900 42,000 50 400-700 32 50-75 250-430 1.5 0.9
Ferrous (tin-coated steel cans): Whole Flattened Whole Material u/c = uncompacted/ compacted & baled Yard trimmings*: Leaves (uncompacted) Leaves (compacted) Leaves, vacuumed Grass clippings (uncompacted) Grass clippings (compacted) Finished compost Scrap Wood: Pallets Wood chips Food Waste: Solid / liquid fats
150 850 22 Estimated Weight (in pounds) 200-250 300-450 350 350-450 550-1,500 600 30-100 (40 avg.) 500 400-410
1 cu. yd. 1 cu. yd. 1 cu. yd. 1 cu. yd. 1 cu. yd. 1 cu. yd. -1 cu. yd. 55-gallon drum
Tires: Car Truck Oil (Used Motor Oil) 1 tire 1 tire 1 gallon 12-20 60-100 7
*Density of yard trimmings is highly variable depending on moisture content. Conversion Table Sources Brown University Summer Internship Program, Guide for Preparing Commercial Solid Waste Reduction and Recycling Plans, prepared for Ocean State Cleanup and Recycling (OSCAR), Providence, Rhode Island, 1988. Draft National Recycling Coalition Measurement Standards and Reporting Guidelines presented to NRC membership, October 31, 1989. Fenedick, Al Jr., Kimberly Henderson, and Jay Birgamini, Office Recycling Handbook, Region 5, USEPA and General Services Administration, 1990. Hunt, Robert, Franklin Associates, personal communication, April 18, 1991. New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Office of Recycling. Steps in Organizing a Municipal Recycling Program, 1988. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Recycling: A Planning Guide for Communities, Division of Solid Waste, January 1990. Reynolds, John, Business Waste Reduction Audit Handbook, Spokane Regional Council, Spokane, Washington, February 1989. R.W. Beck and Associates, Commercial Waste Reduction Audit Manual, prepared for the City of Seattle Solid Waste Utility Under the Environmental Allowance Program, January 1989. Scheinberg, Anne and Dee Cotherman, Business Recycling Manual, prepared for Westchester County Association, Inc., White Plains, New York, November 1989. Conversion factors are adapted from Information In: “Recycling Is Everybody's Business”, Morris County Municipal Utilities Authority, April 1989 and “Recycling Manual: Oneida and Herkimer Counties Solid Waste Management Project”, William F. Cosulich Associates, 1988.
Prefabricated Office Structures:
Project Sites: 1.
# City Populatio n (millions) 0.11
Abbottabad: Biodegradable MSW & Liquid Waste:
MSW tons/ day 52.80 MSW million tons/ per month 0.0016 MSW million tons/ per annum 0.019 MLW million gallons / day 11.00 MLW million gallons/ month 330.00 MLW million gallons/ year 3,960.00 AcreInches AcreInches AcreInches
ID – Ad: 119 km - about 1 hour 48 mins. Hassanabdal – Ad: 72.6 km - about 1 hour 11 mins The current situation in Abbottabad is that an Open Air MSW Dumping Site is in use at the entrance of Abbottabad City. The refuse is being burnt emitting deadly dioxins and leachate is escaping into the stream flowing out of the City and already heavily polluted with Liquid Waste. The front of the Site is being converted into a Bus Stand, whereas a composting Plant was sanctioned for the Site and inaugurated in 2005. The work is incomplete and lying abandoned. Raw sewage from heavily populated Urban 94
centers is escaping into the waterways and polluting the soil and aquifers on a daily basis. There is A Sewage Treatment Plant off Nathiagalli Road which is not being used. The Site is ideal for a combined Waste Water Garden and MSW Segregation/ Composting Plant.
Mingora: Biodegradable MSW & Liquid Waste:
City Populatio n (millions) 0.17 MSW tons/ day 81.60 MSW million tons/ per month 0.0024 MSW million tons/ per annum 0.029 MLW million gallons / day 17.00 MLW million gallons/ month 510.00 MLW million gallons/ year 6,120.00 AcreInches AcreInches AcreInches
The City is heavily polluted as MSW is being dumped in the open. Municipal Site is under Peshawar High Court Stay order and alternate site is only allowed for 3 months. Raw sewage is released into the Streams/ Canal flowing through the City to make its way into the aquifer and Swat River. A Slaughter House situated in the heart of the City is also polluting the stream and can be converted into a MSW Segregation/ Composting Plant. 96
Id – Mingora: 250 km - about 3 hours 14 mins. Hassanabdal – Mingora: 190 km about 2 hours 35 mins
Mardan: Biodegradable MSW & Liquid Waste:
City Populatio n (millions) 0.25 MSW tons/ day 120.00 MSW million tons/ per month 0.0036 MSW million tons/ per annum 0.044 MLW million gallons / day 25.00 MLW million gallons/ month 750.00 MLW million gallons/ year 9,000.00 AcreInches AcreInches AcreInches
Mardan City has no Slaughter House, Sewage Treatment Plant or MSW Dumping Site. The MSW is currently being sold to Farmers of the area while Liquid Waste is being dumped into Streams/ Canals in the City. The Agriculture department has a Model farm Services Center that could be used for MSW Segregation/ Composting.
Id – Mardan: 152 km - about 1 hour 41 mins. Hassanabdal – Mardan: 91.3 km about 1 hour 2 mins
Kohat: Biodegradable MSW & Liquid Waste:
City Populatio n (millions) 0.13 MSW tons/ day 62.40 MSW million tons/ per month 0.0019 MSW million tons/ per annum 0.023 MLW million gallons / day 13.00 MLW million gallons/ month 390.00 MLW million gallons/ year 4,680.00 AcreInches AcreInches AcreInches
City MSW Dumping ground is disallowed to be used by the current Tehsil Nazim and Cantonment Board/ P.A.F. are using an open air site on Dhoda Road. There is a huge Sewage Treatment Plant on Rawalpindi road but it is not fully connected to the sewer system. As such, raw sewage is flowing throughout the City. At one point streams are flowing along the abandoned narrow gauge rail Track and as it is Govt. property can be used for Waste water gardens combined Horizontal and Vertical Flow beds until such time as sewage lines are not connected. The STP site can be used as a garden Site and efficiency can be raised through Bioaugmentation and plantation of appropriate plants.
Id – Kohat: 251 km - about 3 hours 5 mins. Hassanabdal – Kohat: 193 km - about 2 hours 28 mins
Bannu: Biodegradable MSW & Liquid Waste:
City Populatio n (millions) 0.05 MSW tons/ day 24.00 MSW million tons/ per month 0.0007 MSW million tons/ per annum 0.0088 MLW million gallons / day 5.00 MLW million gallons/ month 150.00 MLW million gallons/ year 1,800.00 AcreInches AcreInches AcreInches
Bannu city is using the River Kurram’s bed as a dumping site. The bed is also heavily mined for gravel and sand. This situation is extremely detrimental to environmental health. The City’s dumping Site was situated in the Tribal Area and is disused due to unsettled circumstances. There is a need to select a Site for the MSW Segregation and Composting Project as well as earmark locations for waste Water gardens or beds. There is another huge STP near the City but is also not fully connected to sewage system. An enterprising Contractor has converted the site into a Children’s and family park as well as Duck Shooting Reserve.
Id – Bannu: 303 km - about 4 hours 50 mins. Hassanabdal – Bannu: 319 km - about 4 hours 14 mins
Populatio n (millions) 0.09
MSW tons/ day 43.20
MSW million tons/ per month 0.0013
MSW million tons/ per annum 0.016
MLW million gallons / day 9.00
MLW million gallons/ month 270.00
MLW million gallons/ year 3,240.00
D. I. Khan: Biodegradable MSW & Liquid Waste: The City of DI Khan is using the Bund along the River Indus as a Dumping Ground leading to many problems. The TMA has recently acquired a MSW Dumping Site on Bhakkher Road and this can be readily used for MSW Segregation and Composting. The DI Khan Slaughter House is situated in an area where effluent is approaching the River and can be used for Waste Water Gardens.
Id – D. I. Khan: 387 km - about 5 hours 40 mins. Hassanabdal – D. I. Khan: 401 km - about 5 hours 41 mins
Kohat – Bannu: 131 km - about 1 hour 56 mins Bannu – D. I. Khan: 171 km - about 2 hours 7 mins
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