THE HEART

PARTS AND FUNCTIONS OF THE HEART Aorta: It is the largest artery and carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body. Superior Vena Cava: Deoxygenated blood from the upper parts of the body returns to the heart through the superior vena cava. Inferior Vena Cava: Deoxygenated blood from the lower parts of the body returns to the heart through the inferior vena cava. Pulmonary Veins: They carry oxygenated blood from the lungs back to the heart. Pulmonary Arteries: They carry blood from the heart to the lungs to pick up oxygen. Right Atrium: It collects deoxygenated blood returning from the body (through the vena cavas) and then forces it into the right ventricle through the tricuspid valve. Right Ventricle: It collects deoxygenated blood from the right atrium and then forces it into the lungs through the pulmonary valve. Left Atrium: It collects oxygenated blood returning from the lungs and then forces it into the left ventricle through the mitral valve. Left Ventricle: It is the largest and the strongest chamber in the heart. It pushes blood through the aortic valve and into the body.

HOW DOES THE HEART FUNCTION? The right side of the heart collects de-oxygenated blood from the body into the right atrium and then via the right ventricle pumps it into the lungs so that carbon dioxide can be dropped off and oxygen picked up. Extrinsic cardiomyopathies ² cardiomyopathies where the primary pathology is outside the myocardium itself. Cardiovascular disease Cardiovascular disease is any of a number of specific diseases that affect the heart itself and/or the blood vessel system. From the left atrium the blood moves to the left ventricle which pumps it out to supply oxygen to the body. because by far the most common cause of a cardiomyopathy is ischemia. Most cardiomyopathies are extrinsic.e.. such as coronary vasospasm. the actual heart muscle) for any reason. The World Health Organization calls these specific cardiomyopathies Intrinsic cardiomyopathies ² weakness in the muscle of the heart that is not due to an identifiable external cause. pathy= disease) It is the deterioration of the function of themyocardium (i. Angina pectoris (chest pain) and myocardial infarction (heart attack) are symptoms of and conditions caused by coronary heart disease. especially the veins and arteries leading to and from the heart. The left side of the heart collects oxygenated blood from the lungs into the left atrium. . People with cardiomyopathy are often at risk of arrhythmia and/or sudden cardiac death. Coronary heart disease is most commonly equated with Coronary artery disease although coronary heart disease can be due to other causes. Cardiomyopathy Cardiomyopathy literally means "heart muscle disease" (Myo= muscle. DISEASES OF THE HEART Coronary heart disease Coronary heart disease refers to the failure of the coronary circulation to supply adequate circulation to cardiac muscle and surrounding tissue. Coronary artery disease is a disease of the artery caused by the accumulation of atheromatous plaques within the walls of the arteries that supply the myocardium.

Heart failure Heart failure. Hypertensive heart disease is heart disease caused by high blood pressure. also called congestive heart failure (or CHF). and congestive cardiac failure (CCF). The most common structures involved are the heart valves. There are four major heart valve which may be affected by valvular heart disease. Valvular heart disease is disease process that affects one or more valves of the heart. Inflammatory cardiomegaly Myocarditis ² inflammation of the myocardium. as well as the mitral and aortic valves in the left side of the heart. the muscular part of the heart. including the tricuspid and aortic valves in the right side of the heart. Conditions that can be caused by hypertensive heart disease include: Left ventricular hypertrophy Coronary heart disease (Congestive) heart failure Hypertensive cardiomyopathy Cardiac arrhythmias Inflammatory heart disease involves inflammation of the heart muscle and/or the tissue surrounding it. . Therefore leading to the heart and body's failure. the endocardium.Ischaemic heart disease ² another disease of the heart itself. characterized by reduced blood supply to the organs. especially localised high blood pressure. Endocarditis ² inflammation of the inner layer of the heart. is a condition that can result from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the heart to fill with or pump a sufficient amount of blood throughout the body.

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