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Male reproductive organs include: Primary sex organs & Accessory sex organs Primary sex organs (gonads): Testes Pathway for passage or sperms: Testes contain the seminiferous tubules (which produce sperms) Rete testes continue as the vas efferens head of epididymis duct of epididymis vas deferens ampulla (terminal portion of vas deferens) [after joining duct of seminal vesicle forms) ejaculatory duct (passes thru prostate to form) internal urethra.
The bilateral bulbourethral glands also open into the urethra. penis & urethra. o External urethra – continuation of internal urethra thru the penis. The 2 layers glide on one another to allow free movt. • Urethra: consists of two parts: o Internal urethra – which is the continuation of ejaculatory duct. It is formed by 3 erectile tissue masses: paired corpora cavernosa & an unpaired corpus spongiosum (which surrounds the urethra & terminates distally to form the glans penis). o Tunica albuginea: dense fibrous capsule o Tunica Vaginalis (outermost): closed cleft like covering constituted by mesothelial cells. Functional anatomy of testes: • Testes are ovoid having the organization of compound tubular gland. Of testes. • Penis: It is the male genital organ. • External genitalia: scrotum. This layer is formed of: Visceral layer: adheres to tunica albuginea. . Parietal layer: lines the inner surface of scrotum.Accessory sex organs: Seminal Vesicles: situated on either side of prostate gland. Its secretions are emptied into the ampulla of vas deferens. • They located in the scrotum. • Each testis is enclosed by 3 coverings: o Tunica vasculosa (innermost): made up of connective tissue & is rich in blood vessels. • Prostate gland: consists of many secretory glands. Internal genitalia: the remaining sex organs. secretions from which are emptied into internal urethra thru utriculus prostaticus. It contains mucus glands throughout its length – called as Glands of Littre.
which is thickened post. They are the hormone secreting cells of testis. Interstitial cells of Leydig are present in btwn the seminiferous tubules. C. whose limbs are not in the same lobule. In children. only primitive germ cells called spermatogonia are present. They are surrounded & supported by interlobular C.tubules do not end bluntly but. Due to septula testis. The s. They occupy the spaces btwn basement membrane & lumen of seminiferous tubules. From the mediastinum testis. Towards the apex. surface is covered by tunica albuginea only.T septa called septula testis radiate into testis & bind with tunica albuginea at various points. Germ cells (spermatogenic cells): They are the precursor cells of spermatozoa.• • • All the 3 layers cover the ant. different stages of spermatogenic cells are seen: (from periphery to lumen): Spermatogonium primary spermatocyte secondary spermatocyte spermatid. the interior of testis is divided into a no. the convoluted tubules unite with a narrow straight tubule. to form the mediastinum testis. Seminiferous tubules: The stratified epithelium consists of 2 types of cells: germ cells & sertoli cells. where they join & form a network of thin walled channels called the rete testis.T. of pyramidal lobules (bases direceted towards the periphery & apices towards the mediastinum) which are not completely separated & anastomose with one another at many places. & lateral surfaces of testis but the post. form single. Each lobule contains 1-4 coiled seminiferous tubules. double or triple arches. The straight tubules from all the lobules pass into mediastium. • • • • • • Each testis has 200-300 lobules. With the onset of puberty. • • • .
the spermatocytes have a single (haploid) set of chromosomes. The 1° spermatocyte undergoes MD1 two 2° spermatocytes. MRF is responsible for regression of Mullerian duct during sex differentiation in fetus. • • • • • • • . The testosterone must be bound to androgen. a spermatogonium divides mitotically to form two daughter cells: One of these is kept as a lifetime stem cell reservoir. urea. The sperms enter the blood activation of immune system autoantibodies against sperms destruction of germ cells sterility. Functions of sertoli cells: Convert androgens into estrogens via the enzyme aromatase present in sertoli cells.• • • • • • Sertoli cells (sustentacular cells / nurse cells): They are large irregular columnar cells extending from the basement membrane to the lumen. nutritive substances & hormones for spermatogenesis. Stages of spermatogenesis Spermatogonia are primitive sex cells.binding protein (ABP) to cross the barrier. each of which undergoes MD2 4 spermatids ultimately differentiate into spermatozoa. Damage of the barrier: by trauma or viral infection like mumps. The other undergoes several divisions to form a primary spermatocyte. Secrete inhibin & activin– which inhibit & stimulate the release of FSH from ant. Secrete androgen binding protein (ABP) & EstrogenBP (EBP). Functions: Prevents the entry of large molecules (such as proteins & cytotoxic substances. Blood-Testis Barrier It is a mechanical barrier that separates seminiferous tubules of testes from blood & other testicular tissues. Supporting cells that provide protection & nourishment for spermatogenic cells till the spermatozoa are released from them. After MD1. At puberty. Secrete Mullerian regression factor (MRF) or Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS) in fetal testes. galactose) Allows the passage of water. It is formed by tight junctions btwn the adjacent sertoli cells near the basal membrane of s. Pituitary respectively.tubule.
epiphyseal cartilage & ejaculate formation. Spermiogenesis: Process by which the matured sperms are released form sertoli cells into the lumen of seminiferous tubules. estradiol & inhibin inhibit the secretion of FSH (-ve feedback). removal of extraneous cytoplasm etc. SHBG). In females: testosterone is synthesized by Ovaries & adrenal cortex. Induces the formation of LH receptors in the interstitial cells of Leydig.. Gn-RH also induces the release of FSH which: Stimulates the secretion of inhibin Induces the expression of androgen-binding protein (ABP) in Sertoli cells of the testes. spermatogenesis & sperm growth. The testes secrete also small quantities of DHT and estradiol (E2). Activin inhibits FSH secretion. e. Testosterone cannot induce spermatogenesis without the help of ABP. in males is 15 times higher than in females. • • • • • • • • • • Androgens (male sex hormones): They are C19 steroid hormones. Testosterone & estradiol inhibit LH & Gn-RH secretion (-ve feedback). formation of acrosome.Stage of transformation: Spermeogenesis: it is the process by which the spermatids become matured spermatozoa. Regulation of Testosterone secretion: It is regulated by LH (also called ICSH – interstitial cell stimulating hormone). the pulsatile secretion of which is controlled by Gn-RH. Larger quantities of DHT (via 5-α-reductase) & estradiol are synthesized from testosterone (via aromatase) by their respective target cells. They include potent hormones like testosterone (T) & 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and Less potent 17-ketosteroids (17-KS) such as DHEA. Effects of testosterone: Target organ of testosterone – Testes It affects male sexual differentiation. Estradiol influences many functions in the male. There is condensation of spermatozoa. DHT and testosterone bind to the same intracellular receptor. Testosterone.g. 98% of testosterone circulating in blood = bound to plasma proteins (albumin and sex hormone-binding globulin. • • • • o o o • • • . In males: synthesis of testosterone: 95% by the testes 5% by the adrenal cortex. DHT. LH stimulates the release of testosterone from Leydig’s cells in the testes. Plasma testosterone conc.
of testosterone. Its clotting enzymes convert fibrinogen (from seminal vesicles) into coagulum. neck. body & tail.Seminal plasma. • During intercourse.High conc. which is a collection of fluids form: o Prostate gives milky appearance to semen (due to alkaline secretion). o Seminal vesicles & Bulbourethral gland provide mucoid consistency to semen. The coagulum is dissolved by fibrinolysin of the prostatic fluid so sperms become motile. PG’s stimulate uterine contraction.. prostate & seminal vesicle. The germ cells (spermatogonia) then migrate into the gonads. procreative capacity (fertility) and coital capacity (potentia coeundi) in the male.g. Fluid expelled during ejaculation (2–6 mL) contains 35–200 million sperm in a nutrient fluid . • Sperm count = 100 – 150 million / ml. descent of testes into scrotum).• • • • • It influences the functions of genitalia. of the sex-specific gonads (gamete-producing glands). cause aggressiveness. It stimulates hematopoiesis & has anabolic properties muscle mass in males. • 90% . • Sterility occurs when the sperm count falls below 20 millions/ml. essential for holding the sperms in uterine cervix. It also has CNS effects & can influence behavior— e. The genetic sex determines the devp. • . • • • • • Prostate: The acidic vaginal secretions in the females are neutralized by the alkaline secretions of the prostate. the alkaline seminal plasma vaginal pH sperm motility.g. Male development requires the presence of testosterone in both steps with or without the aid of additional factors (e. • • • • Sexual development and differentiation.seminal plasma. C:N . either natural or synthetic (anabolic steroids) masculinization (virilization) of the female. Semen White or grey fluid that contains spermatozoa..sperms from the testes. Structure of Sperm Has 4 parts: head. It is necessary for normal sex drive (libido). CGRP) in certain stages of development (e..g. • Semen: 10% . The somatic sex is female when the somatic sex development & sex differentiation occurs in the absence of testosterone. It induces the secondary sex characteristics that occur in males around the time of puberty.
It also contains hyaluronidase & proteolytic enzymes essential for fertilization of ovum. species-specific spermbinding receptors on the ovum are exposed & the proteolytic enzyme acrosin is thereby activated (acrosomal reaction). Just before ovulation. • • • • • Fertilization Fusion of sperm & egg. Ovum of mature follicle in the ovary is in the primary oocyte stage with diploid no. The sperm bind to receptors on the envelope surrounding the ovum (zona pellucida) & enters the egg. The membranes of both cells then fuse. Rapid proteolytic changes in the receptors on the ovum (zona pellucida reaction) prevent other sperm from entering the egg. of chromosomes. The mucous plug also acts as a sperm reservoir for a few days. Fertilization usually takes place on the 1st day after intercourse & is only possible within 24 hours after ovulation. Sperm ascension: Small percentage of the sperm expelled during ejaculation reaches the fallopian tubes. which • • • • • • • • • . It is done during the time required for the sperms to reach the ampulla of fallopian tube (about 5 hours).• • The ant. Sexual response in the male Impulses from tactile receptors on the skin in the genital region (especially the glans penis) & other erogenous areas are transmitted to the erection center in S2–S4. Capacitation: The sperm must undergo certain changes to be able to fertilize an ovum. 2nd meiotic division takes place forming 2ndary oocyte which is haploid. The ovum now undergoes a 2nd meiotic division. It is made up of mucopolysacharide & acid phosphatase. Acrosin allows the sperm to penetrate the cells surrounding the egg (corona radiata). 2/3rd of the head is like a thick cap – acrosome (Galea capitis). Aspermia: Lack of semen due to retrograde ejaculation of semen into the urinary bladder. When a sperm makes contact with the egg (via chemotaxis). The mucous plug sealing the cervix has to be penetrated for sperm ascension. which concludes the act of fertilization. Oligospermia: Low volume of semen (congenital) Hematospermia: Appearance of blood in semen due to infection of urethra. which develops from golgi apparatus. After ovulation the ovum is released into the abdominal cavity & enters the fallopian tubes via fimbriated end. Occurs in the ampulla of the fallopian tube. Azoospermia: lack of sperm in semen (congenital or due to excess use of corticosteroids) Oligozoospermia: Low sperm count < 20 million/ml of semen infertility Teratozoospermia: Presence of sperms with abnormal morphology.
efferent sympathetic impulses trigger the partial evacuation of the prostate gland and the emission of semen from the vas deferens to the post. part of the urethra. BP & skeletal muscle tone. the erectile tissues of the clitoris & vestibule of the vagina engorge with blood during the erection phase. the internal sphincter muscle closes off the urinary bladder while the vas deferens. efferent impulses lead to dilatation of deep penile artery branches (helicine arteries) in the erectile body (corpus cavernosum). Via nitric oxide. Sexual response in the female Due to impulses similar to those in the male. voluntary & involuntary contractions of the ischiocavernosus muscle the pressure in the erectile body above the Ps. Uterine contractions begin shortly after orgasm (& are induced locally by oxytocin). The cervical os also widens & remains open for about a half an hour after orgasm. seminal vesicles and bulbospongiosus & ischiocavernosus muscles contract rhythmically to propel the semen out of the urethra. Sexual arousal is decisively influenced by stimulatory or inhibitory impulses from the brain triggered by sensual perceptions. HR. where sympathetic impulses trigger orgasm (climax). • • • • • • • . Immediately prior to ejaculation. Moreover. During ejaculation. The effects of orgasm are reflected by perspiration & an increase in respiratory rate. while the veins are compressed to restrict the drainage of blood.• • • • • • • conducts them to parasympathetic neurons of the pelvic splanchnic nerves sexual arousal. afferent impulses are transmitted to the lumbar spinal cord. This causes the penis to stiffen & rise (erection). On continued stimulation. The vaginal walls contract rhythmically (orgasmic cuff). This triggers the ejaculation reflex and is accompanied by orgasm. both of which lubricate the vagina & the nipples become erect. imagination etc. Erection and orgasm are not essential for conception. The ejaculatory center in the spinal cord (L2 –L3) is activated when arousal reaches a certain threshold. thereby creating a space for the semen. the vagina lengthens & widens. and the uterus becomes erect. Sexual arousal triggers the release of secretions from glands in the labia minora & transudates from the vaginal wall. the apex of sexual excitement.
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