II ~t: II

fi!n:rprqq rii¥ffJPtPlIiff

fj~~ ..


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~To ~o ~l~O er~;r~~;r


51 0 3'it~:q~ q I 0 g~"

Q;+ro -0;0, tftQ,:~O ito, ~r~~<r~~

s:r'fi"T~: "Cf'i~an f.rWfOlCfrf; CfHTurm ~~ : fqmfCfm~ 5f~, cr~r\l{m ~~"{Uf : >r~:t:f, :aero: -=< 0 "=( 1;(

~~~ ".= .... ~

,,> .N_ ,

, _,.. ~

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"4,* .. ~ ~ __ '_,.,,_

~ The C::alowkharliba 'Vidyabh,-,_"V<:"," Post Box No. 69.

Chowk, 'Va.r ariasi-c I ( India) 1967

Phone: 3076


>lCfFf "fiTm~

=€fT~qr ~~~~ fflit:jJ 3nfCfi~ .-rTcn~ ~R~ ~~

CiTo a:rro ~~;:~T, qr~c OffTef;a ~, CfRrOpfT-~






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A Hindi Translation



1\1. A., Ph. D., Sa hltya ra tna.




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fffm: ¥iT m~: iW~ flm ~:W"1Ta:if Ef,T OrfTe;i?:UT ~crf5 rJ~ ~q if (['err!: ~7flT ff5fc{~ iS1h C[)~ OfiT ?1fFFfi +rT5{ "€Trrr ~; f41 .. -g f-{flin ~T o~Fii~u[ 1?"Ofi Ffflr-;j :rrT(€{ tt ~ afT( i?¥i fir'iil?:-mf5f ~ ~r:r it tt afr:r;rr +T€'(C{ WcfT ~ I fcllFf EfiT OlfPJWrrT rr~T W{+m"arr ett dg if "~7qilfq~qQllfCfi"(ut ~:ffl:' ){T~rt;r +r'1~f€r-if enT lj~ q:;~rJ tf~~T m~~1

8=/7:Jf ~ fff C?Jtrr ~lT it ?nCff5 7jff.?r -&lTOfi~ur ~ sfFf ~ fBI? ~rr'1T arNEfi fF7lj ~'1T ff~~ fuq ffflC[ rr~1 ~ I afrr: fCrf3f5f ff(t it ~ fit~ ~){m q~~T'fl{ ~T'1T enT 'G~T'1 arTenffrrr ~an om it ffw g-., it a:TT"( ar~q ff1flj it ti~lirr fllqT f1Wr~ EfiT igrrlfT?7T ffi?T CfiT w~flUJ €)~ C?m arT"( ";fCiT<f ftB'T it ~ffif <fiT f<fl1f07 4t m(~ ~arr I igifl;rj+[ it qrrF(ff iTq.fii;:~ tiwrr CfiT~~ ~ ffcEfirfflrr ~~~ iSTo ~o afT?o ilfsr~r"1 [iff ~it~'T +IT';~+[ it rcnf-qff '(Sanskrit First Lesson" rrTWfi ~fflen enT r£Efimrr @arT I f'q~1_ ~(c[efi 0[,1 ig~'ffi ~ff 8fq~ q~'(cr arT"( iglFl)fmn ~ q:jT~u] ~iTT~~~ ~ tT¥3[iff f.'5T?tl1m~T it fcrWtT >If?I?: ~f I

~en ~ &1q~ fcrmr:r'f it !:JffT "CfBffr ~ fen ig'ffi ~fi1¥i a:lq~ fcrSfrfiT~T <fiT m it ffi¥i{ €T fBfc{T 1J~ ~ I T~ a:qijcr ~T arm ~€ ~ fEli igq"i'ffi ~¥3ffEfj tTt[iff <fiT mtm-Ofj mrr mff 0fi~i1 qT~ ~m1T~ fcfWrmliT ~ ffSf[ +It Cfi+r igf/tfTrtT 'f€T ~ I fff~ arfrrR'ffi

( ~ )

f{l~rrT"l{ f{t~frr ~ ~+7 f\Ei~ clTB o21r r[lffT, ?qfryl5[~, ~~wr aiT~ m?irf ~ r{ffi~ Cfifc!;qr 4iT r~-.=rra:rr ~ a:{(;"l{lfrr 1;r fCEPT ?{Ef~ :q7~ ~m~&if ~ n~q m ;q~ ~rr~ ~srr €T ?t{l~l[ ~ I

i3'~i1l ?ql]1f;rrn en) b4Ff # ?(q Cf)~ ~T ~fr ry:qT'f qfrcrFf ~ lJT6cnT ~ ff+~f-{ qtgff ~fil[7 ~T ?~T ~ I ~ff #t1i~fJ[ €fiT fcrWCfffi l[~ ~ f-:n ~ff# ~(? ar~(t ~ ij!2j (t rjTCJf~ f~;:GT ~ i3'ffCfil &i~cn~ ~t ~irr~; r~tr~ ~w fw:;(r Jfrrr~ clT~ fcmT~1 iff ~ro ~~'?:W'1 ~ qf?*fq Cfi! mff ?oT f-iefi~ I

;q~ ~ff ~tffCfi ~ r1t~n ~ FirsfT~m ai'r~ fr.lmf~:J.1T ~T ~5 +it ~l{Tar ir ff~T 0) ijff~ a1~~TqCfi &iT~ 3l~mCfi ~)'1T it a1q~;qi1

" ..... 1 ...

ttii f{~ f-Firrrr I

"~.HCI~ m~f[crq PHi{ ~T~a: M-;:E~fu.+rr:q~) I ~F-T~ fI~r:tT mqT:er ijrE1~;r f~ \tt~crq_ II"

-~io ~'o f6l"mrrr

\3";::r{·q~~tfr !irr~f <fr tn:<fin: ~ li~ +ra 31q'mn ~ f'fi rrCf~~IlC:

Cfij~\i'f'i ij 3f~ f;:rmr.li:fT ffPJ 1;=[tf,Cf ~ 31~i:f(fi1 <fif \3"'if >r'!ir~ ~ l1ri1M1{i srf:rrPii:li ~ i9Tej"i1~q ij ~qfp:rcr fCfilTI i5ff ij"CliCfT ~ f~ ~~Tq if ~fc:l sft"( m9i 91f 31elFH $fl=~cr 9iZCli ~ I

~:g IIsr=!1p," qr(5T'1 l:t, fjf;:PliT (:fT1ii1r ~T tro ~o 1:!;.,1~:g % "q:j;;:i ~f2:i'"[ Cf1i" ~ 31rQp- 1'1"\ q;r rri:fT ~, 31T~ \!if f1i;gr f'f(:ff+rcr ~~~Q Ol:fT'f."{t'f ~ 31urQrr El1 ~ef q~ :jfl~ ~ f~11: \~ l"r~ ~J ~i1 q-r~r <liT ~"'l'lr ij :jfT frp:r fl1Cf Q1:fFfi~DT'f ij qT(511 iF ~rl1ij 3jr~ur ij ~r orr G~ ~)a l GfDTT ir ~f;:c:r ~ o~qfFfH9i Fr~P:r1 'fT ~i[ ~fu % i~ ~rrr % fc~rz ~T~ fp:rr rrliT ~-~1T\l:'I1 ij ~Gf~ is'i=@ ~FtT-f'11Tl1T en: wc., 31T<i1fqrr f'filTj 'TlTf ~-\rl) Gff'ftf ij !J;CIi ~nq :mij Cfr~ R:r{i ~~T % ~q ij qf~q*r ~ f;';)5;r 'P"T11 ana- ~ I

>l~+rG: \3"i1 ~qr q~ +iT I;1:[T., anCJi"2 feplTj l"f1:[f ~ (WilT f~1Tr % J;f:q'+rTiq 1:!;91Cli:q;; 'fiT ~q) Br'llt CfFfl:fT li qg1IT: !I~tti ~T~ CfT~ ~~ ~n~ \ifra ~ 31T~ fq?!Tf~f <fiT GcCfiH ~B" 31;:1:fT'if <p~~ 'fiT f;~ ~ ~, fijf'lq 31~CIi \5ql:fl<fr ~;~1 CfiT s:a<fr GlH 3TT~fu q;r rr~ ~ fCfi \3"'l~ Wf: ~~ ~~ i5fr~ <fiT ~~Ter;;r 'l~f \Q iiffCff I 5Frfu Cii"(ij it trTq ·tnq ~T,!{ ~~ tT+iCfCf: tf~ an;F~a:f1:reli 3T~~Cf mea Ofi=trrr f'fi q~ SI:Ilm <{i"{ ~~r ~-3i1~ ~~ ~~i:f 5T~~ q~ arfer<fiH meG Cfi~ ~ Ell CfTG q~ tr~crr

( ::; )

B" ~B" ol:fTCfi-'::or ~ wr~ra o:r@ l2:rrrr :m- fcrql:f if; f.rcrFCf ;:i"i'.:tr 5fr<:fi:'i~ ~r ij' >rr<:j;~ l2:Tcrr ~-*B" >rJ~~~ fCf~tr'1 3f'h: fcrf~3f;:~ ~ ol:fTOfi<:tTf l:fT af~ 31"~crT<l; ~f&:a ~~'fil~GT I

<iR ~trr ~r'91 'Jfll:f fCfi S:~q <:ri7g~ crl~ if; l1r'1f~ifi srl:f(,~ ~ a:;q~ CfgCf "!itT ~ ~rm <rl:fr ~-crr ~lif'fir ~u<: l:fl2: ~ fCfi ~~ 3f~<rr~) Cfir '};~Zl 5fliT;;rrr ~crrrT tTrrrmCfi srl:fc~ 'fiT \3~f;rcr Cfi~i'fT ~~ ~ f'Jfa'ii fep ~m~ ql~ if; ~l=Jfuq(!;~ q<: Q;'fi Q:{j fcrq<r 'fiT ~~ fCf~~d ~qt7gr 3l"f~cr 'Ii~f, 'JfT l:ff~ qq:~ l2:T 31q~ ~~r ~2i11 fq~a:T\l ~ ~r~ 5f,,~cr fCfil:f! 'Jffl:f en ~Rr'li<: 3fl~ ~~'TCfirfr ftRl: ~r '6"'lid"T ~ I

~FI n:~ Cfi'ff~;;r }

t;q~f f~j;cr<:, ~ t; X 0


The opinion has been adopted by the Government of the N. \V. Provinces that the study of Sanskrit by the English pupils in the Government Colleges, might be made to furnish a means of mental discipline analogous to that which the study of the Latin and the Greek furnishes in Europe.

In these "First Lessons", the plan of which was suggested by Mr. T. K. Arnold's "First Latin Book", and which are intended to precede the study of any regular Sanskrit Grammar, the etymological rules for the permutation of letters in the formation of words which in the regular grammars the learner encounters at the outset, are remitted to a later division of the work~-attention being called at outset to those syntactical rules only-and to each rule only when a special occasion for it arises-which are of constant application in modifying the appearance of perfect words when they come together in a sentence.

Attention is also confined, in the first instance, to those forms, (such as the 3d person singular of the verb) in which the most constantly recurring words present themselves in sentences, and the pupil is set at once to write exercises, in which a number of useful words are repeated to frequently as to render unlikely their being readily forgotten again. The

( ~ 0 )

pupil, whilst making progress, will here probably have the pleasant feeling that he is making progress-s-and, after mastering this introduction, he will not be so readily repelled by a grammar which starts from the driest elements of the subject-like the grammars of Professors Wilson and Williams, or the Laghu Kaumudi with its English Version.

If it should be thought that too little demand is here made upon the learner for the exertion of mental effort-the reply is this, that the main purpose of these exercises is not so much to provoke mental effort as to imprint on the memory of the learner some of the broadest outlines of a subject which, when first presented in all its details, is apt to prove repulsively bewildering.

Benares College, 1

8th September, 1850. I

JR. B.


J;f~J(f :-

~cr"FT\T cruf.n;;r

~~T % lie:;:rcra-f iJ<ff a:ri'fl:f ~q ~ffi cl:f~<f

rn;:; ~ : ¥if~T ~;~ arl~ '3"rr2p "€.q

Cfia-f CfiH<fi

qr;- .;; : Cfia-T CfiP'Cfi ?i ~TfriJ+r ol:f~rrT % qf~cra:;; qp; ~ : f:;:p<:fT : crchnrr 'l1r~

QI6' '(? : ~frer : fCf~;rf

qr~ Jt : trf.er : HHl'<T ( 'Sji'li~: ) tf' '6 ~ : f~<:lT : +rfcpsqq: 'l1T0 tfl2: .-5J : 9'i1TCfir'{'fi

qi6 t; : f'SlilH : arf.,l:ffq;::r ~q rr'fir~r~W!i ( a:r;trtf ) 5i11'fCff'i;fCfi ( 810trtf )

qr 6 e. : CfiaT"fiT~Cfi Gf@Cf'tf'1 Q'Y(; ~ c : 9i+fCfiT,\9'i cr~CfT·Pf qr;S ~ ~ : <fi~OT Cf)r~9'i

qr6 ~ ~ : ~QCfiT~i{i ii1.trct-1ffil

( Z~ )

qT3 Z ~ : qu~cr·f~<;_

q13 ~i.? : ~~ffi i'~;:<:i-'~CfT' qY(l) ~!f_ : 31olll:f ~~

'H3 ~ ~ : ~:fl:!:f~Vf 31"h: arQTCiFf 'Fr~'fi qT3 ~ ',9 : tp:Gf""f 311-.:: 31f~Ofi<:OT 'fir-.::Ofi 'H(l) ~ ~ : fCf~q-OT

qrz ~ s. : 'fi<ierrrlf trliHI

qro ~:. : ac~~q tr;JTtr q1'6 ~ ~ : tr<irrTli

qTO' ~':( : tf%w, CfiCfI CfiHCfi q,CfiCf'Cf'l 'tr:' 311-.:: t~!Sf:' ij q'Rqcr;;

qrz ~ ~ : Cfi;[qT'Ctf 31Tc+R"Q<t 'Cng;~

qT3 ~ i.? : fil:mlf ~ur OfiT ~m~

'C{T3 ~~ : maTl.! ~OT 9?r '3"qlf)~T f'5filfr~ ... cror<r ~ur <fiT fCf~q ~CffUI'

'<i1~ ~or Cfir fCf~q ~2;1or

q ~ if ~or Cfir fcr~q ('5CffU1'

q§ ~I!f 0fiT fcr~q ~~o'£

w:crif "TOT CfiT fCf~q- ~~l:)J

31E";r "TO'£ 0fiT fq~q' ~~o'£

'lqli ~ur "liT fq~q w~1Jf

<{~1i "1'IJf 'fiT fq~q- ~~

..... '

( ~~ )
qr6 ~ ~ : f~lff31T ~ ferfefer ~qT ~ \ia:r~'{ur ... ~o
Ql0 ~19 : ~~ t:fliHf ... q
qg~T~ ij~Hr ... q
C{i=clf ~~1 ~ qf\er~1 ~~
qlo ;,i:; : ijm qf1.iG: CfiT f€f*ifffilfT ~ 5iclftf ... ~~
qF5 ';, &. : f~tfr ~qT ~ 31tCT ~ c;?~~ qT~ fa-s;,' SRlitf-

era-ilTff tlim ... ... \90
(He ~ 0 : '~~i1' >fclflT ." ... \9'6
qlo ~ ~ : cra+rTffCfirmCfi ~;:cr-'fi+ferr~ \9X
WT;P-fR1Cfi ~;:d - ~~Gfri5zr ... . .. \9~
~ fq~c9irfutfi ~;:Q .,. ... \9~
qr?; ~ ~ : ~q~~f ~ 3m ~1:fr~ ... . .. \9~
~ \iqtJiTT ij ~CfTftr1fi i3qlJrm i3q~~ ... \;Ie;
11io ~ ~ : amrr~91 m~ t?ifin: tpT Sf 0 ~ 0, ~Cfiqi!fif ... c;o
Introd uctien
The Devanagari Alphabet ... 1
Vowels 1
Consonants 1
Medial and Final Forms of the Vowels ,)
Conjunct Consonants 3
Lesson 1 : Nouns and their Forms ... ,1
Nominative case 5
Lesson 2 : Changes of final consonants in the
Nominative case 9
Lesson 3 : Verb: Present Tense 11
Lesson 4 : Sandhi: Visarga 15
Lesson 5 : Sandhi: Visarga ( continued) 16
Lesson 6 : Verb : Future T ense 18
Lesson 7: Accusative case 19
Lesson 8 : Verb: Irregular Forms 22
Negative ( particle) 23
Interogative ( particle) 23
Lesson ~ : Nominative Plural ... ... 24
Lesson 10 : Accusative Plural ... 25 Lesson. 11 : Instrumental Case

Lesson 12 : Indefinite Past Participle Lesson 13 : Verb: 2nd preterite Lesson 14 : Conjunctive Participle Lesson 15 : Indeclimable Words Lesson Hi : Dative and Ablative cases Le§50n 17 : Genitive and Locative cases Lesson 13 : Adjectives

Lesson 19: Karnadharaya compound Lesson. 20 : Tatpurusha compound ... Lesson 21 : Pronouns

27 28



34 36

37 39




Lesson 22 : Changes in mas. nom. sing. ~: and t:!;q: 49

I .. esson 23 : Passive Voice 52

Atrnanepada roots 52

Lesson 24 : Verbs of the 2nd conjugation 53

Lesson 25 : Useful verbs of the 2nd conjugation 55

Characteristic peculiarity of the 3rd conjugation 56 Characteristic peculiarity of the 4th conjugation 56 Characteristic peculiarity of the 5th conjugation 57 Characteristic peculiarity of the 6th conjugation 57 Characteristic peculiarity of the 7th conjugation 58 Characteristic peculiarity of the 8th conjugation 58 Characteristic peculiarity of the 9th conjugation 58 Characteristic peculiarity of the 10th conjugation 59

Lesson 26 : Various forms of the verbs illustrated 60 Lesson 27 : Dwandwa compound ... ... 61

Bahuvrihi compound


Change in a dental consonant . to ... 63

Lesson 28 : Inflectional termination of a Noun... 65

Lesson 29 : Conjugational terminations of a Verb-

Present Tense ... 70
Lesson 30 : Infinitive ... 74
Lesson. 31 : Present Participle Active ... 75
Indefinite Past Participle Active "' 'f' 76
Future Participles ... ... 76
Lesson. 32 : Verbs compounded with Preposition 77
The most useful of the twenty-one Prepositions 78
Lesson 33 : 3rd. pers. sing. of the imperative ... 80 INTRODUCTION !l~:U


The vowels, in the following pages, must be pro, nounced as follows: viz., a as in Roman ; Ii as in father; i as in it,- t as in police; u as in push; u as in Tude; e as in there,' ai as in aisle; 0 as in so; au as ow in now. The consonants are, in general, pronounced as in English. But tli and ph must be sounded as in the words anthill and uphill, not as in this and pizilology,.

VOWELS ~et'l:

er a, err Ii. ~ i, ~ t IS u, ~ u. ~ t. Sit t, ([!, 6,; l, ~ e, ~ ai, an o, it au, . (anusvara) rh.: (visarga) (z.


Gutturals ~u~ tii ka, ~ kha, if ga, ~ gha, G= iui.
Palatals m<:!fQ~ ~ ca, ~ cha, ~ Ja, ifi j/w, ~na.
Cerebrals ~~;:~ eta, (; iha. '€ ¢a, G {lha, OJ {La.
Dentals q:;:c~ ~ ta, ~ tha, if. da, tl dha. if na.
Labials aTI'i!if q pa, t:fi pha, iii ba, ~ bha, +r mao
Semi-vowels ~:~~
~ya, '\ ra, ~ la, C{ ua. [ ~ ]

Sibilants and Aspirate

:'[i sa) q sa, B sa, g: ha.

The above forms of the vowels are used only at the beginning of a syllable. The vowel 8f a is inherent in every consonant, and is sounded after everyone which has not the mark of a pause thus-( viz., .._) subscribed, nor another vowel, in a contracted shape, attached to it. These other vowels, when not at the beginning of a syllable, assume the following contracted shapes.

~e:;U ~ ~q~ f~ nit ~cii <fiT 5f~iJ :q:;e:;~ ~~·~o~ ( fff~~(!l' ) ~ !1T~~~ ~ ~a'r II '8f' ~~ s:rc~<fi Q<.j~" If ~i'FH t a.n~ ~~efiT ~~IJ~ur 'Q:~ ~c1:refi o<.j~'l ~ a:{O:cr It ~crT ~ ~~lt '"' ,!{ff s:r<.fiT~ot;['ffi f<fi~T ~T~ 6fT(!l'T f6{~Tlt ~T f"'l~ .,t't ?rcrr s{T~ if e6T~ cr.~~T ~q~ erq~ ~~R' ~q It ~~r ~crr t I iT i!.~ ~i:l~ ~ijf fefim ;U;'i{.~o:g ~ sm:~+i' It 'lift sn?t m ~~r· fiq- ~~H ~q $:[6:UT efi~ m~ II

MEDIAL AND FINAL FORMS OF THE VOWELS ~etit ~ :r:PQqq~1 ~ef 3l;:~~ ~q

T it, f i, ') t, '" u, e- u, ". 1, ~ [, ~~, ~ r, .... e,

"'" . '"' ....

at, T 0, I au.

Example oj the Vowels following the letter ~ k. ~ iifi ijfT'i{ e.n~ 6fT~ ~6{ij iifi :g~T~, III :-

tfi ka, <fiT ka, fefi ki, <€I ta, f!i ku, 'i kfl, ~ kr, ~ ki, tf~ k{, q:~ kl: % ke, ~ kai, it ko, tf)T kau, ~ kam, 9'l: kab· The vowels u and if, are added to the letter tr thus.~~ ru, ~ rii.

[ ~ ]

............... ......'" .. '3

~ ~ :a-T~ zs am: ~ FJ.;C :{B' 5f"fiT~ ~t~ ~ri:t Q..-~' ~ !

1:,:Vhen two or more consonants meet without the in-

tervention of a vowel, (hey coalesce and become one conjunct character. These compounds are formed by writing the subsequent consoaant under the first, by blending them in 2. particular W:1Y, or by writing them in their usual order, omitting the perpendicular stroke of each letter except the last.

~ar iiI ;qr a;f\::;ro;p oq&{., f~Z'!fff 'ft e:r;~ ::j;;:;~ eTT'Cf itt ~t{~ .,~t ~~n ~ f+;f~~{ I:!"O ~'ffi ;:;~~;:r elf., ;:ria- ~ I ~<i B-~'ffi iCirlt c6r q~~ e{r~ o~&f;;:r ~ ~1~ elff(f ;:H~ ;;~~'1 em f~efi~, is';::~ l1;efi ~R1 i.-r ~ I:!~Hr:l:f fu~n'5f,~ ap·Tetf aTf;:~;a:r o~~., ~ a:{N-R"G~ 'iof ~ o~~<it iT 8frfurit ~~'T ~~r "I5i mq q.;~~ §~ is';::~ is'''~ «Tln;::~ijl~ :;r f&li!2!'f,\ if'1FH ;;mn t I

The letter ;r r, when it immediately precedes a con-


sonant, is written above it, in the form of a crescent,

thus-it rga; when it immediately follows one, it is written as a slanting line beneath it, thus ijl kra, if gra.

:S;ijf'~ efoT f91B'T o~~., ~ 6T91 q~~ amrr t m i{~ is'B O<;j~" ~ ~q~ eifefTf;:~ ~ ~q ;r i{B >r9lT~ fu~T GU~T ~-if; ::::r~ ~~ f9lBT ot:I~" ~ ~·~~rt.1 ~r~ 31HH t m ~t{ is'8" o~~'1' ~ "'I1~ 1:l;"5 fu~~ .. ) ~t~r ~ ~q ;r.r ~~ >r91r~ NrW( ~mrr 1t-~, Q I

The following are among the most frequently recurring of the

CONJUNCT CONSONANTS M;:<lf~furiJ <ii&~: Sj~'ffi ~~ CTr& :{{~'ffi oli~il' ~ :-

"ffi kta, t:f<i koa, q;~Q{ ktoa, ~ ksa, 'qt;f kJya, 'q6{ kJva

r 'I? ]
~1l khya, s:r gra, ~t:i grya, oe., ghna, ~ nka, ~ ilga
~ cca, ccha, ~ JJa, ~ }na:!:, ii<:f Jya, ~ r»,
~ fica, 0:::- =a tta, t.::l tna, '5t:i trya, cOf tva,
~ dda, ;g: ddha, ~ dbha, ~-q dbhya, lij dya, ~ dra,
~'ei dhoa, o:~~ ntya, ;:'?j' ntra, tf pta, ~~ bhya, ::':1 sea,
ST sra, 2 sia, 'E~ sta, ~ stray ;~ stha, ~<!l _rya,
~ hna, ~ hma, ~ hya, ~ hra, Lesson 1. Q'TO' l?

1. A Sanskrit noun, as it stands in the dictionary,

is said to be th,~ cr.ale loon.

;g:~~Q q;iT ~~r ~;q' rGfH ~q ~ ~ese:~;a ~ ~crr l ii~

.. n~"", .. ,&;:r ~'T ",,_,.~;~::?!' ~IT :;J;. r,....,..".::>r =",,::::'" ;'i,~ , ~Ul~~"!!l~c" "'I! "'1i,"''<l '<:'''1 ""! 'i:'~('1 e1JQ" <; I

2. Nouns in the crude form, crul

or in a consonant.

5ITfaqf~~J) <iiI arq;~~r ~ ~r ~~;:ft <liT ar;;:(,{;qr m ~q~ ~ tV"i:H t ;qr <X:I~'1 it I

3. The vowels with which most nouns end are a{ a, SIT a~ ~ i, ~ 2, is' U, and '3Il r.

3ff~<lif~ ;g~r~l ~ etrQ' l:f an~ Q{T~ ~or~ l :-?T, e.tf, ~, ~, ~ ij"%TT '5!l I

4. Nouns are Masculine, Feminine, Neuter, Name of males are masculine, and those of females feminine; but many words are masculine or feminime, which are names neither of males nor of females. For example,

,. Commonly pronounced gya or even dyiia,

~l'n:rF«<r: ~ ~~ (~, .:rT ~ <liT q~ +fl f<!i<rr GiffiT ~ I

[ ~ ]

~~ ratha 'a car' is masculine; and f:;;r<=a-r cinta 'l."eRection' is feminine.

~r ~~ ~~, ~f~, ii1~~i:fif(!1\W ~~. ~ i ~~~i ~ ;;:u+r

.,.... """" ". "' 0.""'''"' ,*, ~ .:::.. 'rl.'::'

~rnrw S1'R: T~T ~ 'l1'+r ~Ir~ ~rn .~; T"i",<=g <i:l'g(i" ~ '-'.«':i ;U~(lf

+iT ~fur:w ~ ~;f(ffW ~ tt ~r o:r ~'T ~~it ~ .,f'll ~afh: if f~~l ~ I i3lU~~!Ji ~ fQiQ: '<:~' ~M~ ~~ a{\~ 'f:;;rrerr' ~fQ1W I

5 B "1' ,. hanzi d

. y a,j.~nng to, or otncrw. -c C . o-nglJ:ig ern e

form of the noun, seven differen forms, with different senses, are obtained. These altered forms are called


a ...... ~"-" "'-.

~r 9) 9.1 rntrrq:<ti ~tr ~ ;ar~ !ic~:t7{ ~f~~~

q~cr'1 Of,;Z:~ ;r::rTiJ M'f~iiii 8T~ ~~ e{f~J' ~i{'f >;~F:: ~ i ~., trR:~~ ~q.r it Cfii~~ ~~~ II

6. The 1 st case is that in which a noun appears when it denotes the subject spoken of in the sentence. This case is called the Subjective, or, more commonly, the Nominative, case.

:qr 7ir<rq ~q~

!:f12i+r Clin::ilfi er~ iTar 't fufflT ~~r ~;;;r.:: erP:f~ ~ :s"'ffi q:;m ~T m~ ~ffi t I ~f1 ~<f, ~ Ff,~!:fI:fFr :!IT aff~<f, !;f<eff~ ~q It ~~T ~T~~ ';fi~ II

7. Words which, in the crude form> end in the vowels set down in NO.3, commonly make the Nominative by altering the terminations thus:-

~ :zyii;it ~ ~rreq~~ ~q % er;a- ~ ~q~ ~ ~ ~cr fil~ iIit ~~ 6lfd- ~ i3iJit ~r~:~:t1 5fClir~ fer~Rn ;;r, 5f~~~ Cf,T qfterrncr Cf;~ <POUT ~ ~'l if;;:r~ ~ :-

[ ~ ]

er a becomes, in the Nominative, er: abo

e' ,; .,. ih

"- . ~ .. '

"i: i . iZl.

'8: ul). eu it.

N. B.-Neuter nouns ending III (-!if a make the Nominative in sf mn. ~~<s~-fu;r "'i~fFfirnw

So ~ , " ~ ~

l3'i'{OfiT Cii'iJ1 r-l er ~, ~FH (>~ I

Exercise 1. ;a:r~~re' ~

8. Write down the Nominative 'case of each of the following words both in Devanagari & English character

::;0. f'1;;rfuf~~ ~tit q;r Cii~it Ofir~~ <:fiT ~q :-

VOCABULARY I ~~~'T ~ spg ( m~T ) asoa a horse.

~r ( feRrH ) icchn wish.

srr:e-:rr [ :rr~o* ] ( ~~ <£f srr'S'il ) iisana ( n.* ) a seat. STm ( alFT ) agni fire.

<£T~ ( ~ ) kiika a crow. +rmr ( +rTC!IT ) mala garland. ~ ( ~fu ) sn prosperity. !!Uf ( f6rSJISf~rr ) gutza a quality. ft«! ( fqQr ) pitr a father.

q-qo:{ I q~O * ] (it'i!l"'l) vacana ( n. ) speech.

* The letter 'n' indicates that the word is Neuter.


[ IS ]

""f;;':~ ( :;;:r~:&:n ) c andra the moon. ~;sr ( ~1$fCft ) deoa a god.

'i.~r ( I:{~r ) pujii worship.

~€! [ ;::j"~o ] ( 'Cf<: ) grha ( ri. ) a house. erii ( 9;u~ ) dharma rneri t.

eTruH ( ;:frau) vli_za a lute.

~~ ( :a-+r+ti ) buddhi understanding. !!'6' ( \S'q~!(lSf) ) guru preceptor.

~<ff ( qTill" ) jala ( n. ) water.

q:)C!r ( 'Cfi~ ) phala ( n ) fruit.

~r6fur ( ~T6fur ) ravai_za RavaI)..a.

~a:J ( q~ ) Vrk5a a tree.

'el'Efi ( 'el'u~r ) baka a crane. ~:~ ( ~:~ ) duhkha ( n. ) pain. ~a (~) satru an enemy_

=r=rr ( ~+rT ) sabha an assembly. ;:p=a- ( ;:p~~6nqrT ) karttr a doer.


T:(ll';>~ ( fu~ ) s(rya a disciple.

~nTQt ( fa~r~ ) sTgala a jackal.

f!im ( qRiSift. ) kula ( n. ) a family. q;:f [ a- ] ( C(;:& ) vana ( n. ) a wood. +rTQ: ( +rTc:fT ) matT a rrio'tlaer',

q;:;e{c:f ( qf{T~ ) parooata a mountain. +r~~ ( ~"q ) madhya the midst.

~~r ( ~c ) himsa injury

q~ [ ;:y~o ] ( q5( ) patra ( rr. ) a leaf. q#r ( ~etrm ) pati a master.

~<! ( ~:q;:YT "fi~~ C(T&tT ) dhatr a creator.

[ :::; ]

l;jT;:~ ( qf~<:fj ) pantha a traveller. s::tT&i1lT ( $Ir~ti'Jl') briihmana a Brahman. ffi~ [ ;;;:r~o ] ( C!e ) tira ( n. ) a shore. i1~ ( ~q- ) nara a man.

~ ( ~2'T ) put-Fa a son.

'€fif I if30 ] ( H;:qfu ) dhana (n. ) wealth. +.!~ ( ~~Uf ) mrga a deer.

ar~ [ i19;0 ] ( 81.,r~ ) anna ( n. ) food. ~R: ( fep;~ ) hari V'ish nu.

~~ ( ~er ) krodha anger.

iiHUlT ( cft:t ) bii~za an arrow.

"i;fPP [ if!i0 ] qfi{,,!T cakra ( n. ) a wheel. +f~~ ( f;a~ ) mastal:a ( n. ) the head. :>f~ ( ~Ql"Tln ) prabhu lord,

:!uRP ( ~Qf ) sakti power'

:a-q ( mq ) sarpa a snake.

~'ffi ( 'l_:siq)) bhakia a devotee. ~~~ ( ~:;;fr ) duhitr

B"~~ ( ;g-~5t ) sarnudra the ocean.

~~"6 [ ~30 ] ( ~;r:~~) pustaka ( n. ) a book ~~T ( ~c€'r ) kanyil a girl.'

O<:fTIr ( "iJT'IOf ) vyiighra a tiger.

CfFl (. ~~C'.{'RffT ) datr a giver.

~ ( ~~ ) hasta the hand.

~r+r ( ~T+r ) riitna Ra~a.

:m~ [ il~o I ~r~ sastra ( n. ) a scripture. ~ ( ~ciT) bhiimi the ground.

~fq ( uri=tR ) .kapi a monkey, '

[ a. ]

gfff [ '1~O ] ( ~~ ) huia ( n. ) a sacrifice. ~~ [ ;:J~o ] ( ~~ ) ( n. > a flower.

~fe.t ( 'fifO( ) kaoi a poet.

~r+r ( ;riTer ) grama a village. ffl;~T ( ~T;q ) kriya action. ~~ ( q;a-o:e: ) ruci relish.

qRrq} [ "30 ] ( qp=!" ) pataka ( n. ) sin. fef~T ( SiT<i ) vidya knowledge.

+if?iq} ( ~r ) musika a mouse.

:;;:rT~ ( ..n~ ) caura a thief

tifHff ( il'T~'fi ) biila a boy.

+rrf~efi ( +!'r~T ) miilika a gardener. sn::.:r+r ( ~qerif ) iiriima a garden. ~Hr ( if8Zi91 ) tlira a star.

Lesson 2. 'Q'(o ~

9. Some final consonants, in the formation of the Nominative case, are changed thus ;-

~ c or ~ .f becomes---Cfi ..... k, 'l.. n is dropped, and preceding vowel ( jf the word is not neuter) is length.ned. \ r is changed to insarga, and the vowel is engthened.

'fi~T'fir~'fi iI':rJ!;:;' ~ ~~ srfra-+r o~~.u it ~e- Q''fil~ lfi:~Rfff Cfi~ fq~r -ma-r i: :-

:;;r._ ~r l{T,",-. q}_ it ~HQr ~ I 'l.. <6f ~q ~ ~iJr i: :aft~ ~~~ r~~ 6iT;r e{'~ ~« it ( ~ftr l{Ti({ ~G~fuf~ li' ~ it ciT ) cft''Ef

[ ~'" ]

~{far~u =&1mr t i \_ ~ P-r~q Cfi\ ~~r "Siren ~ sn\ ~;:H it ?i')~ $~ f~~T ~r~i ~ !

10. An aspirated letter is changed to the corres-

d· ., 1 '

pOll mg unaspiratco letter.

+r~T>!Tur ~Ol ~ i5;e-~ ~+f~q e{+f~T~Tur <:fur ~ lii~Qf ~~i;:::mn t I

11. Some final consonants undergo no change. QfO:Q ~ eH~ Efrm @§'{ o~~<if If' CfiT~ qR6f~"l .,~ ~~H I

Exercise 2. an::qr~ ~

12. Write down the Nominative case of each of the following words in Devanagan and English characters.

VOCABULARY 2. ':i)i't'tCl<!J'l ":(, 6TT"Ei' ( <:fToTT ) »ac a word.


:(r~~ ( U;jf ) rajan a king.

~ft:Qo:,(_ ( ~T~ ) hastin an elephant. frT~ ( :zI;s~ ) gir a word.


\lfiTQ:_ ( ~r~ ) jagat the world.

~ ( f~raT ) dis a side, direction. ~~~ ( atTc+rr ) iitman soul. f6f~Q ( f6f~l') vidyut lightning .

.,r+r~ [ ;:r~o ] ( ;:rr~ ) ndmas: ( n. ) a name. f'<lSlf~ ( R:fC6r~ ) citralikh a painter.

Lesson 3. tilO' ~

13. A Sanskrit verb, as it stands in the dictionary,

appears in the form called the root.

~~~a- fE'fit:rf fS'i8" ~q It ~;~it~ 1t it~') { ~it 'eng' ~q It 9i~~ ~ i

14. To make the 3d person singular of the present tense, the syllable To ti is subjoined to the root. Thus,

the example, from the root ,:ffff as, 'to be' is formed

at~Q asti 'he is' .

C{~hrri1 ttiTqr ~ s:r~+r9:~ ~~Q{:q"l cnT ~q if'1r~ ~ fqrQ; eTTg ~ 'm' at8i!\ m~ ~rCfr { I ~~ s:r~r\ ~1:fT~\UTr~ 'SH( ~;:rT at~ ctT I:lT§; it 'a:rff~' ( Q{~ t ) ~q itm I

15. When such a termination as ti (NO. 14) is subjoined, the root generally requires to undergo some change. According to the nature of this change, roots are divided into ten classes or c01tiugations.

~ar 're' (f'1~+r ~~ ) ~aT iT~ >I~~~ it~ GiT~H t m ~+rf~(j: err§; It ~ qf~~., atT~~tti ~ GiTm t I ~~ qftQ{~'l ~ ~i:{~q ~ ~~..=m: eHg;an~) ~~ ;:Jilt ~ ifllTl ~ ifTcf n~r t I

16. Roots of the 1st conjugation interpose the short vowel at a between the final and such a termination as ti (NO. 14), and change a final simple vowel;" in the root into its corresponding improper diphthong.

s:r~+r nor ctT errgit It aWCfif ~oT elT'\ ern' ( f.1~11 ~~ ) ~~ >Ic~~ ~ ifT=q §~er 'at' ~~T . 'lfT~T ~ sTt~ ~T§; ~ at-=;r ;r

* Or a short vowel when a consonant follows.

[ ~O{ ]

3lT~ efl~ ~'~qj' <l:61:t 22:'5 cfit i8'~$ ;g1liTif iEf~'ffi <l:ef\ ~ liP~~ ~~r ~rQr ~ I

17, The improper diphthongs, or guqa substitutes for [he vowels are the following :-

<l:qU ~ ~~ ~'ffi <l:q\ ~r ~Uf ~ SIT'FtU ~ ~ :of ~ i or ~ i the gu~za substitute is Q; e.

- \5 u or '5; U 8fT o.

- ~ r or ~ r SI~ ar.

~ ~T ~ efiT ~ a1~U Q; ~i:TT ~ I

-\5 ~r ~ I,,, " en" "

-'3fr ~T ~"" " SI~" :,


18. The improper diphthong 11; is changed to O{~


!'ry, and ~ 0 to ~ar au when a vowel follows.


~P.if P.ifTq: ~ <iT~ ~q~ amrr t m ~~ffi <r:~\ 'Q;' efiT 'a:r~ ~~T 'an' ~ 'e:r6f' ~ ~Ti:TT ~ I

.." 1:1.1 (2_

Exercise 3. a1+~;g ~

19. Write down the 3rd person singular present tense of each of the following verbs of the lst conjugation, both in Devanagari and English letters, with the meaning in English.

~;:r sr~~ iTllT it errgaIt~' >f~~<ii it ar~hn~ OfiHff ~ srq~ a~ ( ~ q:c~'l ) ~:q.:r it (tiq ap.h.:r~ ~ :-


l!. ( ~'lT ) bhii to become.

SIc" ( ~+Io:rr ) at to rove.

[ ~~ ] a:r(( m~;;;r ~~T )arlz to be fit. f~ ( ~!f! ~<lT ) ksi to decay. 'T.f~ ( <;:fQlOlr ) car to go.

e{f! ( ctIT~Fn ) vad to speak. ~~L ( :C~i1r ) vas to dwell. ~~ ( iti1r )valz to carry.

~~ ( !'{lTOfieJi~~T ) sue to sorrow for. ~ ( B'~T <fi~Olr ) sri to serve.

fu ( ~ij~r ) ji to conquer

~ ( q'f~ <fi<:'1T ) t1' to cross over. ~~~ ( :it~'1r ) tyaj to abandon. ~~ ( ~~FH ) dali to burn.

a. ( "l'1T ) dru to ooze.

q~ ( qeJiRT ) pac to cook.

qij_ ( fl1~'1r ) pat to fall.

tfi'(ff~ ( q:;1'i1~T ) phal to bear fruit. ~er._ ( ~r~~T ) budh to know.

~ ( ~;;:rT ) sr to go.

tl't ( ~~Ofio:rr ) srP to creep.

~~ ( ~T~ ~~;;:rT ) smr to remember.

~B"j ~~FiT ) has to laugh.

[ ( m'1T ) lzr to take.

~'\ ( ~q;;:rT ) khan to dig. ~~ ( ~T;;:rr ) vraj to go.

~;:r'{_ ( ~~~~r;;:rT ) jalp to prate. 'T.f~ ( "qQliiT ) cal to move.

"'I{ ( ~;riiT ) bhram to wander.

[ ~~ ]

Example. The root of 1. bhu, by No. 16, becomes ~Ti bho; and the vowel e1 is to be interposed between this and the termination fer Ii ( No. 14 )-so that we have bho + a + ti ;-and then the 0 being changed to ao by No lS-we have .. ;r;rf;; bhaoati 'he becomes.'

'S'qr6:~OT '~ 'efTg <l?T f.,'-T+i" ~ ~ IDU '..n' mm l3fi~ ~;g~ ;:;~~T 'rn' 5f~~:(l' (f.,~~ ~?? ) ~ ~"'T '81' ;'::6f~ :{~r ~T~nr-~~~ ~T -I- 81 + fu tii~m-;:;er f.,(;f+!" ~t:; ~T~T 'STf' <fit 'al6f' 1l ~~~ ~~ q\-'~e{fu' ~q ~rrr, fqr;atfiT 81~ ~ 'e{~ ~QT t' I

Lesson 4. 'lie $$

20. When one Sanskrit word immediately follows another, some change often takes place in the two letters thus brought together.

~~ ~~CJ:iQ <fiT Q;lJf) ~'ii~ {;g~ ;U;~ ~ GcCfiTQf arr~ awn t ijT ~;g 3iCfiR Q;Cfi B"Tltf f+rqr~ 6fT~ ~ 6fO'f1lt 5Tr~: ~~ qRer~hf ~GT~ I

21. If the former of two words placed next to each other ends in s;: ah, and the other begins with a soft" consonant the 81: a~ is changed to 31t o. For example, ~"l": deoal), the nominative singular ( No.8) of~q deoa 'a god', is placed before ".r~f~ uadati, the 3d person singular present tense ( No. 19 ) of <:f~ vad 'to speak'-the two are written thus-~cn or~fu deoo oadati 'the god speaks'.

----------------"-"- ---

_ * The soft consonants are ga, gha; ja, jha, 4a; dha; da, dha; ba, bha; the nasals, the semivowels, and ha,

[ ~~ ]

~~ ~qi ~T~ ~~ ;rr~ t?t ~;~ it q~ifr ~;~ ~ alva * 'aT:' emir ~ a{l~ crB"~J ~'5~ MiB'T ~~ $ o~~ij' ~ ~n:;~ i;crr t m '81:' ~) 'en' It et~qr ff{~r ~rqr t I :gt;J~~ur ~ f~Q; 'a:ar' 81~fQ ~"lcrT ~~q ~T ~"QT ~r 'Q;"fi5lf'"'T'i ( f.:r~+r t:; ) ~T ~q '~er:' '~' ~«:il"fl ~T§ ~ 5If~+rr"f ~r~ ~ ~~n:r ~~1Sf (STr~ 3li1Sf ) 'Q;~:ero:r ~ ~q 'erf{fi:f' ~ qg:~ 81HH l m ~'1 t?t"fT it ~~ !.lCfiT' fijf~T ::TfTij"T l'-'~ era:m' ~arcrr ;shCiRif ~ I

Exercise 4. ~.~r:a ~

22. Write the following phrases in Sanskrit, both in Devanagan and English letters, taking the words from Vocabularies 1 and 3, and paying attention to the rule-No 21.

The crane wanders. The Brahman cooks. The god laughs. The jackal dwells. The quality becomes. The horse carries. The tra veller knows. The tree falls. The man prates. The leaf decays. The daughter abandons. The father crosses over. The mouse digs. The water oozes. The mother speaks. The girl serves.

~;f{rar~'T ~ an~ ~ ir ~;f{ ~Cfi~ (I'~r fij'~+r ~ ~ CfiT I;~To{ ~~~ gi:{ ~ El"TEFtlr eEl ~~'i!i(f It f(!f~ :-

~!!qrT ~+r~n t I ~r~lJ"f QCfiTcrT ~ I ~ar ~B(I'r t I f;g~T~ ~~(I'T t I ~ur ~<:fT t \ m~r i'tcrr t I uifl ~T"f(l'T t I q.~ fn~crr t I ~~q ~~<i{~rQr t i {{'aT rre ~crT t I 9;?f1 ~~<:ft t I TqQT qr~ <O~QT t I :er_ftT ~~(I'T t I {{rOil "iiiT t I +rTi:fT eTtqre-l t I qr~otT BerT <o,((I'T t I

':' ~ ;;~!5'!" ~ iT, 'Cl'; % ~; ;s, (5; ~~ 1il; <if, +1; "21~"lTffiO!i, ~:~21' ~ ~T~ ~ I

23~ 'Write down the' meaning, in English, of the following phrases :-

f<1~.,f~fm t.ijCf~ ~r 61~ fmcit :-

(r+lT ~~fu I ~11Ki?r ~:t::fu I ~fi;,flrrT ~~f~ I 3~: ;;J:n:m I i[~: ~mfu I ~~ ~~fQ I -=rUefltfiJ I rru ~l:lfu I tf~ 'efQlRr I ~rf;iUfr ~+rfiJ I ~m ~~fu I tfTo:iT ~qfu I +ffQT ~;afu" I

Lesson 5. qr~ ".0,

24. If the former of two words placed next to each other ends in oisarga, and the other begins with any hard" consonant ( except a guttural, a labial, or a sibilant -before which the termination may remain unchanged- ) the oisarga is changed to a sibilant. For example, when the word e:i'\ta- tarati comes afetr the word ~rf;iOJ: brahmanah, the two are written thus- ~f~ur;j:q\Ri' briihmanas-tarati 'the Brahman crosses over,'

~flt Q;<fi B"T~ ,~ n~ ~ ~;tft l.r q6:~ ~~~ ~ 8jO:<1 ~ f6r~iT SHij'f t aft~ {~U l(l6~ fOJi~T <f,~ht o~~;:r ~ (eJilJ~, efr~ liT \S't:+f it ~~~-f::iffr~ q6:~ :an;:r emn 61~<1+r S{~~ 6ltf~fij=Q m ,6: ~CfiQr ~ ) Q"r~;~ ~Qr ~, m f«;an it ~;:r ~uT ~ ~qr ~a- ~ I :altTi!,~ur ~ m~ ~if '~:Hffi' ~Qcr '~TiYor:' ~~ ~ ifT~ emrr t m ~ VOfT it ~~ Q"~T\ fm~8'~'~UfiEQ'fu' S{%'{tfl ~T~Uf tff:{: 'ii\QT ~, !

:;: The hard consonants are ka, kha; ca, cha; ta, tha; fa, tha; pa, pha; and the sibilants.

t ~\: ~ ~ :-'1), iI'9; :q, ~; g, 0; q, ~; ti, G'i; e~T i3't~ trot I '~' ~ ~ quf~, 'q' ~~ q1lfT '-.:r' It;:c'<T II

25. A sibilant t must be of the same class as the consonant with which it coalesces-that is to say, :u s is the sibilant when a palatal, such as 'Cf ca, follows; -~nd q l when a cerebral such as 2" fa, follows.

"" '?;';;;:j:l""fuf* \g";gT eyn- ef,Y ~"T :t:H~~ fu:e- eyn q;r 'S'~.~ '~l~ ~~'ffi ~~ 1!{T(!TT o~~~-Q'HQif v.~ t ~ \'ff~ ~T~ Q'riji~ ;:;ruT ;q:<n '~, "fTC{ ~ an~ a:'t ':u: '?;';!;~ CfuT arl~ ~ai- eH~ ~::T;;:;q ;:;roT ~~r 2" eUt:[ ij arr~ <:ir q ?;;'S:j:f Cioi iIQ'T ~ j


Exrcise 5. an::<:iT;a.l(

26-\'\Trite down, in Sanskrit, the following phrases taking the words from Vocabularies 1 and 3.

The devotee crosses over. The tree moves. The Brahman abandons. The jackal creeps. The son remembers.

~crr~Qf! ~ ¢n~ ~ ~ ;a;~ ~C{i~ f'1~;;rfQ'if~~ crrq:~ it ~~~(f ~ f~~ :-

~'ffi 'if;': qj~~f tt I q~ :;r~qT t I ~f&rilJ ~~T t I re'"m: ;g-\~~T ~ I ~ <:rr~ <r.~~r ~ I

27 -Write down the meaning, in English, of the following phrases :--

If':'... r-."" v..." t:::' r-; ~

To:ja:.,TQlTi@i''J eyTq:~"( <:fiT ar~ r1!!'~j :-

+Ill: 'tn:fu I Yll"lT@~\fa- I \r~: ~+r~fQ i !!?I': ,q'CfRr I er~: qa-fa- I <:re{or~c~~f(j I qT;;::~~:J.:fQ 1 o:r,: l$l'~fu I 'l~: ~~f(j I

* ~ is the palatal sibilant. 'IlJ' the cerebral, and ~ the dental.

.. ~ ~

:zr QR?Q~ ~, q ~~ !gfl~ ~ ~<j' I

~ ~To

Lesson 6. tHo q

28 The 3d person singular 2d future ends in ~~fu syati or ~;;~fCi iVati. Thus the verb ~ bhu, which makes +r~fu in the present, makes ~f.l1S;afQ bhaoisyati 'he will become.'

~~"t +l'rq~~ij_ ~T~ ~ $f~lI ~(!q (131;:~ 9;~q) ~ ~q ~ , 8'{;:~:;r '~~fa" ~r <~~fu' 8lfa'f II :{B" SI<f;r~ '~f!'ifl~r ;g f~~"5T t{~+rFf;r '~6/fQ' ~q itiiT t, '+fft{"'~fQ' ( 6/f{ it~-,r ) ~q i!":ola-r t I

Exercise 6. aT~:~~ ,

29. Write the following phrases in Sanskrit :The horse will fall. The Brahman will speak.

The son will wander. The tree will bear fruit. The man will remember. The jackal will take. The Brahman will know. Rama will laugh. The horse will go. Ravana will cross over. Rama will conquer.

folifMlfura- 6/TOfm iT ;g~i1liii lr ~~ :-

il~ fn~fiT I ji;fTiRlJf ~~nr! ~?I ~~m I q.~ ~nr I ~l!iq ~rif ~~l1f I fB';qR ~m I ;:rr&lUT ~r~i1T I ~Pi, ~i{T(r I ..n~r :;:n~m I ~:rt{ur tm: ~~i1T I ~J+r m~m I

30. vVhen the future is formed by ~~Rr syati ( No. 28 ) some change often takes place in the final of the. verb. The following list may be committed to memory:-

[ ~l ]

;s:rar '~~fCl" :ffi~<fi( (fvr~;r:r ~t::;) ~fq~q_ <film ~r ~ ~.,r(;(r Glf<:rT t m ~~r ~ at~cHT ara=J~:;r !lr~: ~~ qf~~;:r itm t I ;::f!~ -v n~ ~:ql ~r~ "6l ~ ;g;ptr'T t :-

~~~;qfct' tyak;ryati 'he will abandon.' er~ ~~m

~'ii<!.lf~ dhak;ryati 'he will burn.' ef~ "ffiffi'ltrrr

jrlS'l.J'Rr dro;ryati 'it will ooze.' ~~ "1.q~U

q~>!IjRr pak;l)lati 'he will cook.' ;::r~ q<fil~;rrr

~t:;;_:rf~ je;ryati 'he will conquer.' ~f£ ~l~:mT

erct:'l.J'Rr vatsyati 'he will dwell.' er~ ~~m

Exercise 7, BH~T;a \S

31. \\1" rite down, in English, the meaning of the following phrases ;-

r-; ,....., r-... ". ('> r-; '"

r;r:!=<i'r(!1'r~tf crrCf<1:fj ~r 3l~ r(ff~ :-

::f~ IDI';~fu I ii1~: q~;e;rfu I oejislr ~~fu I '1'U ~c~~Rr I ~sfl<:,~c~~=!ffu I ~r~~ ~fu~~-lfu I ire(: <F;j:fRl:ierf\, I 'firiT ~ftl';;qRr I fQr;:n ~rM-I;~Rr I

Lession 7. (fro \9

32. The 2d case is that in which a noun appears when it is the object of a transitive verb. The case is caned the Objective, or more commonly, the Accusative case.

~~:(T ~r~"fi q;r f{rcTr t fu:a1.r u~r U;:;~ f1!fj~ ;;g-tj;+fEp f?fi~ ~ ~~ ~ ~q 1t ir<:rT t I ~f[ <Er~Efi if tfiir ~T{~ Efi~~ II

33. A transitive verb is one which gives no comptete meaning, till some person or thing is mentioned, to whom or to which the action was done.

[ ~o ]

Rama killed-( killed whom? ) Ravana,

Bco~or; f~T ~~ ilQ"T ~ ~T ~;g ;g+i;q ~or; it~ '{u 6'f~ .,!ft ~cfl :;;re;r ij'<fi for;;g') 'tti-t otlRn tlT ~S! ~r \'S<r~~ i1@ ?rij'T

f~:a~ $fRf <fiT~ ~~r ~P-H ~ij'T t I

:t:T+f ~ ( f9iB'ir ~Hr ? ) \:T<:fUl ~ ;mJ I

34. The following are the accusative singular endings of nouns that end in a vowel :-

ar a becomes ar am.
alr a art am
~ t ;: zm
t II zm
'l s: '8' U ~ U112

S[ r-(in some words) ali aram, (in others) en~ aramo

fil~iT~f(?F1' ~;;_]'"cr <i~ra{l ~ 95~911<.:;r, ~Cf,Cf'tJ'1 ~ ~q ;r (!!n~ Cflm >i~~~ 'ft :-

8f a:: ?r ~rqr t !
an SiT lj " "
~ ~ " " "
s.. ~
~ ~ " " " \3' i " " ~,

~ ( ~~ ;'{T;;;~ ~ ) a1'~ an;c (~Bi ::rr;~t ~) aut ~ ~ri1r ~ I 35. The anusudra, when followed by a vowel, takes the form of ~ m. When followed by a consonant of the five classes, the guttural, &co, it optionally takes the form as wen as the sound of the nasal belonging to the same class. Otherwise it remains unchanged. 'rhus ~~ <:f~ annmn uahati 'he carries the food'-Slif:j:q-

[ ~~ J

>qfu annam pacati 'he cooks the food'-~~~~f<f annan tyajati 'he abandons the food.'

;:rif lS1~it~H ~ ~T~ iT~ ~~~ IS1r~r t m 1S1~~r~ ~ '::(

,;:-.. * -.. '"' w ~ ::-..;£ Q_! :fTZfT t<..! ::nit' I!{HCf,' <if1'~ 05U~ 3nr~ tn-:;; <:Ii.lf <:f,T ~! '<.

~ "". r-: -. ..... "'" ~ ~

o~~i1 a:jHH Q.. ~n rs{<.f,~q '21' ~~ ~q q:T~f it ~T~ ~~ '!ita e{n:

f'· ~~;}. ,....t:::I,. ""

Cf,T <:.q~;;rr tatfi e.rUf QI :srT('IT ~~ ~i=~P.f1 'SP:;;r~~l'iCla' ~;;:;r <t:€[('I"f ?£ 'I

~G ll"6T{ '~~ ~r~fu' ~~ 1S1~ & :;:[mi ~ '3'f~r.q:;;,yfk' ej~ em ~F5TFri t-'IS1'iif;:~".r;i=rfu' err{ aT~ ~T~'1i ~ I

Observe that the accusative is generally placed before the verb, as in the examples JUST given.

o~ro; ~ f:j; BTl{T;:~Q: tfi~ f~~r ~ qf{~r ~~T mm t ~~r

r-; .... 4,......""". "" ......_. "",.

TEfi a:r "11 rq::zr n~ 'iiq:f~::t:urT 'f{ I

Exercise 8, ei+<H'B' G

36. Write down, in English, the meaning of the follwing phrases ;-

f~~;rrfmf~ij" ~TEfm cnT Sf::f ror~:-

'31~;q:q~ i=f~: I "!~.;:c~Jffu ~5[: I ;zrI~ HI';cRr ~r~Oi: I !2~ ~lejfij" fCi(f~~ I i!j~n;;:(~"S'ffu ::tft:iG!: I ;zri q;;jRr ~T~: I +H~~


HT~fu vrt= I f{R ~r.rf~t(;!fu ~nulTl': I

Exercise 9, ,"n:~H~ Q.,

37. Put into Sanskrit the following phrases :The father knows (his) son. The Brahman will remember the scripture. Rama will abandon the house. The car carries the man. The son will cook the food. The devotee will know the god. The crane will cross

the water. The mouse will dig the ground. The son will serve the father

f.1~.,f&f~ff ejTefm <iiT B~l!1iJ ~ f~ci1 :-

fqcrT ( alq;.r ) 5);51 ir ~r'1~n ~ I ~T~OT ~T~ it ~rq 9i"tnr I ~r+r 'ef, ~~.;n,r! ;C~ 5I~q <:;i) ?ltffl' II 331' at~ qC!)r~nr I ~'ffi ~e{ it \;i'H2iil"!T I <q~~f ~Q'f Cfi') qr~ Ci1~nr i ~r 'cT~ffT ~ ~~;n.r i 9;?f fq;a:r ~r ~~r <fi~rrT I

Lesson 8. 1:n~ ~

38. Some useful verbs of the 1st conjugation form the present and some of the other tenses irregularly. The following roots, with their 3d person singular present, may be committed to memory:-

Sl~+r :rj"ur til ~~ ~q~;rit fil;~riit ~ e{~;ri" 'iifCif ~~r ~~ ~B~ apT<!i"i +11 81f.,~f+I~ ~q ~E ~ I f""'1ftrfuT8" EfT~ar1 it, ~Vi~ e{ij':'liFi ef,TQi $T~'.f~ ~~q (e:r;:li a~Cii' ) t::!;:jl:::r~'o::r ~ ~q ~ B'T~ ~nq fCfilif \j'fT \'1~(11 ~~ :-

~l{ kram makes ~mft' kriimaii 'he walks.' ;:i~ :ej'~HH ~

:rrq:_ gam n:g~Rf gacchati 'he goes.' ~~ \'1I'TCfT ft

~'{ gup mG"rl;~l' gopayati 'he protects.' e{~ ~~T

~ Cf,(!JT Q..

", :\.

'he smells.' q~~~ij"l' l;;i.

'he lives.' er~ \l{Tar ~ 'he gives.' q~ ~Qr ~ 'he sees.' e.r~ ~~~r t 'he drinks.' er~ tlta-r t 'he stands.' ej~ ~~r

ir<:rr ~ 'he hears.' er~ ij'lCfT t


;iter jiv


~r da


f:iiSl'R1' jighrati ~lejffl jivati ;q:;~Rr yacchati q~::qfu pafyati Niffu pibati fcmfu tisihati

39. When the 3d person singular ends in S'{fij- ati, the 3d person plural ends in Sl~cr anti. Thus +i'q~ij' bhaoanti 'they become.'

~1iI' 5f~;rr 9:~"f Q;~5l"~" ~ ~;;:cr ~ 'a::rfa" Slr~H t m !1l!i':&{ ~~l;f iifgar::or., ~ sto:(,!, ~ 'a::rr;a' s:mn ~-'+rorfrij" ~ ira- ~ I 40. The negative is sr na 'not' :-as ;:r '+fCifRr na bhaoati 'he does not become;' ., +reffolff na bhaoanti 'they do not become.'

frlq.ereIT~r~ ~~~ 'Ol' ( ;;:r~ ) t :-~~T, '0; +i'ed6' er~ .,iff

~ ~< ""','" "..:::.~.",.

~WfT i<..; '<Ii! +r;:rr;:a cr ;;:r~i ~I 0 ~ I

41. Interrogatives are f"fill.. kilh 'what '?-~5l' kutra , where '?-"f.~T kadt: ' when '?-~ij': kutali 'whence '?_ Ml~~q_ 'why '?-'6?..fq:_ 'how '?-&c. Examples: P-i:; Cf~fu kii'a vadati 'what does he say '?-~5l' CifBRr kutra vasati 'where does he dwell '? fcp+r~fi:qii~~9?I") ii=f ~+r\fQ kimartham pitaram putro na smarati 'why does the son not remember the father '?

~rl('1Sfr'i:T<ii ::rri$~ 'f:t 'f~+r.:-Cf~T? '~sr' ~~'f? '~i:{r'efi'ii 7 '~:'-efi~r ~? '~~~q_'-Ef~T? 'qi~~-~~? ~~<:!l~ I '3'~T~-;;:ll1 :-f:ii Cifa:fQ-er~ Ef~r efi~ffT ~ ? ®~ e{~fuer~ <lfi~T :t:~a-r ~ ? I f<6+r~n:q~~;;:!!s{r ., HI~fij--9:'5f fqij"T en) EFm 'i~ <;fTF.[ ~nn ~ ? I

42. Verbs signifying 'to go to' require the accusative of the place gone to, Ex. ~rm- n"6~fu ko.1'im gacchati 'he goes to Kasi ( Banares ).'

f~~ ~2fFl qi\' ;;nFn et~ ~~ ~r~') fiji~r~ ~ ;aT~ fqre~2fT" it ~ fliT ~mn ~ ~'H 1t ~~~l~Ofi tta-i ~ I ;g~Tigur:'0fi1~1 'P;;~fil' efiT~') ( ctr~Tur~ ) ~rm ~ I

[ O(~ ]

Exercise 1 0 ~ aT+q,~ to

43. The son smells the flower. They go to KasI.

The crow does not see the jackal. Rama walks to the mountain. Why does the father not protect the son? The Brahman drinks water. He gives the food. The devotee remebers the scripture.

~ ~m ~"efi:H ~ I ~ CfiT~1 'iiT8- ~ I Cfiian fB"~r~ tEl' '1f,t ~~r t I U~ tf~~ it 'iiT~ II fcmr ~31" FfiT ,a:!T Cf~i' <=r~ ~a'r ~ ? ~r~ur tfT'1'T tf'TQ"T t I ;:;r~ a;f&jf a:Q"T ~ I ~T'ffi l{Tr~ ~


~:r;;ur efi~~rr ~ I

Lesson 9 ~ q'(O ~

44. The Nominative plural is frequently formed by changing the termination as follows ;-

aT a or err a ( masculine or feminine) becomes en: ab.

a:r a ( neuter ) enfv:r ani

~ i ar~: aya~

is' U 6{;:;r: ava~.

'Sll r :a1,: aral; or :a:!n:: ara~.

<: r-; ~ :::..

"fj'Qr~~q) er_§tif'efO'l' efiT '!Piq ~T~: ~q !:j'cfiH' alTrQ'+r ijUf q;1

qRq~'1 q;~~ CSf~r~r :s:rrQ"T t :Sf ~r en (!JfSfW ~r lli!fur-w )

a1 ( W:{~B"cn )


au: irqf t I SUM" " "

e;r~: " "

a:l'ilf: " "

'Si~:' ~f 'a:rr:c:' iti:fT 'i: I

[ ~~ ]

45. 'VVhen a soft consonant, or a vowel, comes after an: a~, the visarga is dropped. Ex. 'lU: nara~ 'men' :-irn:r ~n:::rf<;1f narii vasanti 'men dwell' o:t,T a:r~frCf narii arhanti 'the men are fit.'

'Jiiii ~T~ +J:~ ov.~i'f, ~r oir~ ~i'H 'an:' ~ arT-q e:rmr ~

........ r--...s -~ """ ~ "~

crf (i'i ,go I "hi Qll'q sr ~!?,'T ~ I 'S";:;Jg:,UT ''',r: e:r~Tij 3151Sf-

il~T efB'f.ia '!315q' ~~i't ~' "'~r aTi:fo:a- '~15q ~!.t:i l' I

Exercise 11. a1';):~IT~ t ~

49. The mice creep. The thieves take the food.

The men laugh. The Brahmans will prate. The jackals drink water. When will the sons cook food? The fathers do not see the flower. The men go to the shore. The Brahmans will not cross the sea. The flowers fall. What do the men say?

~~ ~.-r~ ~ I ~1~ e:r;:i=f m~ ~~ I 3151;f ~'8"~ 'ft I ~f&lUf QI~~~ff ~ I fuv.n: qr.,t qt~ ~ I 9;'51 al~ Cfi5l qEfiT~ir 7 Ni:TT ~~ o:t{t ~~~ ~ I 3~q B"!I~e q:;r ~T~ ~ I ~r&ri1f ~~?{ <iT 'lft qH Cfiti"t I ~~ f;l~?r ~ I ~~ <F(lf <f,~ II

ftlillq "lU ., F.f-qfrcr I 'l8.1r: Qfu~t4f;:i:T I e:riT S!~r: ~~~~Cf I ~J'lir: ~~ .-r;~r;:cr I eti;:~r ifl( n~§lt1f I 'liF.fiir otfC{'5(ifo:o I Ni:T~~t:i1~ n:;~f;:o I 'l~T: ~~~Q I

Lesson 10. ~no to

47. The Accusative plural is frequently formed by changing the termination as follows :-

31 a becomes 31T~ an ~ i becomes ~o:r.. in

;g' u ~ un ~ r -- ~ In~

[ ~~ ]

~~efm:q) at§Cf'<fo:r q)T ~'l ~rr~:, a:rfr~l1 8laj~ it ~'8" ~<!if\

tfRCfrncr Cf;~ CifilcrT t :-

8l - a:rr~ ~ ~~T t I ~ ~"i_ ~ \liTqT ~ I

'is - ~O{_ """ I ~ Sf{~" " "I

Ex. ~6I'T'\ ;;_:+r~ffi deoan smarati 'he remembers the

gods' ;::r~ ~6I'crTan it ~TF{ Cfi~Qr ~ I ~'3f~ q!(~fu satrun

palyati 'h~ sees the enemies.' 1EI~ :zT:Ja:r"t it ~~ij'r ~ I

Obs. A neuter word is always the same in the accusative as in the nominative.

<:: • r-. "~.l:I 0..

!l~r.,Ti't-"~Hq) r~w J{liF{ <fiT ~lf<fiH~ +I B"F{Cf 6I'~1 ~q

~({8'r l :;ffr ~~TO!ir~"5 T.r ~a-, t I

48. vVhen a soft consonant or a vowel follows, then s: if; becomes ~~ ir; and, in like manner,~: i{z becomes %{ 'ir,. :a-: uf; becomes ~{ ur; q:: el; becomes Q;~ er; 'Tt: ail; becomes Q:;c air; ~!': of; becomes 81T~ or; and--arT: aul; becomes ~~ -~ur. Ex. efi~~F{fu kaoir vadati 'the poet says.'

\i'I"~ eJitt ~ OV~., <:iT ~Cf~ ilifrr ;r ~1f(1r ~ at '~:' iY ~( (f~r ~'8') STEER '~:' ~T 'i~' '~:' ~T '~~l; ''3;:' ~T '~« '11::' cit 'q~'; 'd::' ciT ''iJ;~'; 'an:' it ;en{~ Q~r '~n:' 9if 'efr\'-ir ~'Fn

t i ~~H~,tTJ-<fifef~'t~-<f)fCf ~~'crr ~ I - ~

Exercise 12. ~~~i~ ~~

49. The crows see the jackals. The jackals do not see the crows. Rama sees (his) enemies. The sons protect ( their) fathers. Why do the sons not protect {.t~eir) fathers? Rama protects the monkeys. The

[ ~~ ]

fathers sorrow for (their) sons. The Brahmans remember the scriptures. The boys smell the flowers. When do the men go to the villages?

ei1~ ~P:H(f it ~~~. ~ I fi~~FC -i1 StU ~T ;:r~ ~~?r ~ I ~Fr ( s:rq~ ) ~~afi' ~T ~~~r ~ I ~:;f (s:rq~) N(frs:rr 9lr ~~f 9l:{~ II 9:?f ( a{q~) fq~ra1T em ~~r "fm;:rit ~H?r ~ ? ~r~ ij';;:~U c€'r ~~r ~\(fr ~ I Na-r ( 61q~ ) ~1 ~ fqr~ ~r~ ~~~ ~ I ~r~O'f ~r~T ~r HH:ur E5<:?r II ~~?11 ~~ ~ {'ef~ ~ I ~Trr nTcn OfiT Ef;:U ~T~ ~ I

~?1T: q;~ ~T~TfUr <:+rftl'i~fi'cr I fqa-., "l?Cl:T mqT~lS~f.:~r

r-; 'E. • '"

~r: I f!iSi :rr:;~ro:cr ~?{i.{: I ~.rn~T' ~~ ., q~;jr;;:cr Of,r~T: i

a{f}1~~fil'_ 'Cl~~fcr i 'l~ n:;~ficr ~i~O'lf: I ~~(fr q!(;jfcr N~~q_ I ~fer: H~t :rr:;~f(f I ~~ ~+l~frq rq~H'::! ffi~ :rrf+l's;jf.:cr iifCfir: i ~'?r~ ~'5i q~~fu \T+l: I ~~~ ~<:;~fu ~e:r: I wiT 'Clo:f G:~~i?f :;fl~r: I

'Z, ""

Lesson 11. 'iTo ~ ~

50. The singular of the 3d, or Instrumental, case, is frequently formed by changing the termination as follows :-

~i:il~ a1~qf ;P(Up.'fir~eo epj Q,:9ii3t'tf., <fiT ~q 5j'r~: 8lR=r+f

~ ~

a{?iJ\ <fiT !{fi 5j'~H ~a::~ ~~ if.,r.:rr \'ifmr ~ :-

61 a becomes 0,:" ena, !{ i becomes !{;,:rr ina

'iJ u ~'lT una '5II r ~T r Zi.

'aI' - 'Q;'l' it :jfr~f t I '~' - '!{'1i' ~ ~r t I

~ ':::r'lr'" " "I 'Sfl - ~T " " " I

Ex. f[~~<f f[~fij' hastena harati 'he takes with the

hand'-Of&: f[T2i it mqT t I 61m~T ~f[fu agninZi dahati 'he burns with fire.' Of~ 61FT ~ ~TQT t I

[ "Zt; ]

Exercise 13~ ~+:qm r~

51. T-he men cook the food with fire. The Brahmal). burns the sacrifice with fire. The son, with his hand, carries the flower. Ravana, with anger, sees the enemies. \Vhen does Ravana see the enemies with anger? 'When will the man take the flower with his hand? How will the deer cross over the water? The son, by wealth, proctects (his) father. Men live by food.

3~q ann ;e. Sl~ qC6r~ ~ I lijT&rUf 81FT ~ ~~ ~Qlr~H t I 9;~ arq~ QT~ ~ ~(ff m- GTHH t I ~JCfUJ iter ~ ~3Ofr it ~~T ~ I U;:;rur :v~arT ~T 'fiilT ir.:r ~ ~~ij'T ~ ? 3~q ~iI' erq~ ~T~ ~ ~~ mm ? ~n ~~ tfr~'T ~ tfY<: tfi):m ? !3~ 1:1"'1 ~Jl::T (erq~) fq~T 'fi1 ~aar ~~cH t i iffin 81if ~ '*'~ l I

Lesson 12! tno t ':{

52. The indefinite past participle generally ends in ~ ta, and, like an adjective ending in :or a, takes the three genders, thus :-

~tfiTfufOfi 'i!i~cr ~;~ ~ 81r(f ~ ~n+rrrer 'Q' amn ~ :an~ tt~ fsI'~q ~~ ~ ~:HnOi a{<fiT~ro:Q' i[T~ if ~fr~ Q'T~r f(jfif ~;g >fttiH ~~ It :-

Masculine ~f(ffo Feminine ~o Neuter ;:r~o

Sing. nom q;o;:rotfi~T~: tal} Q'T ta Q'q_ tam

'53. The following list of past participles may be committed to memory :-

~tfiTf(fftfi 'i!i?{~ u;cn <€'r ~~.,f~f~~ ~:;:rT erT~ tfiT ~f ~tfiQ'l t :-

[ ~~ ]
~cr smrta remembered. ~rq fefi~r gSTr I,
B'ffi ukta said. ~~r gOff I
~<:rm tyakta abandoned. :iT~r gOff I
~cr hrta taken. f~~r n~T I
f~q- jita conquered. ~q-r n~r I
om gata gone. n~r gan I
q'D datta given. fq(;{T ;rr(;{r I
?:~ dr~ta seen. ~~r :rT~T !
qRrq- patita fallen. fn~r gSH I
~;;r pita drunk. fq~T n~r I
!lQ' yata restrained. ~I~r n~r I
~(f bhiiia been. gan I
~ij sruta heard. ij'1T :§8lT I
Exercise 14:. aT*;q'i:a' t ~ 54. Translate the following phrases :~+.,f~fulCf etTCfm efiT a"f~CfTq Cfi~ :-

~T~3i ~l&fi!r., ~~Cf~ I ~'=i: fq:;rr ~q'ffi: I ,~~- ~~a-.,. ~crq_ I ~T~uTI ~T~UT fua-: I ~~ $:jIll <iTer: I ~;(;{i fq5lT q'ffr I erif :;:t1~ur ~ccq_ I ~Qt ~T&fiU'i q'fcr,q_ I il ~r +!Offiii f~(f:

The son, abandoned by the father, goes to the village. Ravana, conquered by Rama, will fall. The jackal, seen by the man, will abandon the village. The sons abandoned by the father, will wander. The crow,

. seen, by the jackal, drinks water.

fG-~r i!r ~~r <r~r~:;r nrer c6T ~TCfT ~ I :~nr i!r qf'(ij"f ;r{(;{( ~T6{ur tiF( q~m I ~~ ~ ~~r n~T f«~T~ <rTc{ it ~~n:r I

[ ~o ]

.. ~~ rqcrr it ~~ :::nep~ ~ftrt I f<B'~T~ ~ ~~T rr~r ~STr tIT'll 'q'lcrr ~ I

Lesson 13. Itm; ~~

55. The 2d preterite is distinguished by the reduplication of the root. The termination of the 3d person singular is at a; but if the root ends in iJ1T 11, the terrni-

.. . ~

nation IS en au.

q~a(I' :qcr~TQ1 ;qr ~~ ~Cjir~ 9if ~({ ~~q f:q~ ~ Mi ~~fr efTg iT racer ~TcH ~ I >f~+i~'6q ( e:!';:~~o ) Q;~q:;;r'f Ci1T >C~~~ 'at' t Ni~ ~flf ~rg;;r.; 6f;;:cr ~ 'err' .vCrT t tIT ~nt 5n~~ 'aft: itcrr ~ I

56. In the reduplication of the root, a guttural is changed to a palatal=i.e., ~ k or ~ kh is changed to

..... "-

'<f c.

'"' t:fT§ ~r fa;;C{ <.Ji~}r ~ 'fi\)~ oro} <iT ~T~Q~ Tf ~G[(jl fiZ~r ijfTCff 't-;l.;fllfT 'Of;' ;qr '~, iT ':;cr' 7jf Ejq~ ~~ ~ I

" '" '"

57. Other changes-many of them relating

to single verbs-occur in the formation of this tense. At present the following example rna y be committed to memory:-

~B~ q-Rcr~01 m-~01lt Sff~<.Jii~ fcnBT fC{fu~ fifi~rarl

~ ~+=~~ l-~« <iiTCff ~ tti!J ar.:rr~ ~ it~ l: I ~Hlfu ~'1

~~r~url iT ~r~ ~{§lT ~T B"~crr t :-

~ bhii makes iif+[OSf babhiaa he became

rrq: gam ::q\_ car fqr ji

~m+r jagama he went :;;r:qr~ caciira he went - f~T~ jigaya he conquered.

er~ gan e.r~ :rr~r e{~ 'EfC!lT ~'8"~ iTe-f

[ ~~ ]


~ tr - QQ'H taidra he crossed over. ~B~ G1~ f<f.i~T

~ '.

(<.l'~0'aJ - Q~~r~ tatyaja he abandoned. ~{-T~ ~r~T

~T da - q~ dadau he gave. l3';g~ ffr~T

~~ dab - qqrg: dadnha he burned. l3''E!~ ~mT~f

~;zr drs - qq~ dadarsa he saw. ~{-T~ ~~r

~ dru - ~~rCT dudrava it oozed. '!:Y~ ~n

tiT pti - qqT papau he drank. ~;g~ f'q~T

q~ pac - qqr-q papaca he cooked. ~B~ tiCiiPU

q;:y pat - qqrQ' papata he fell. ~~ fiHJ

~~ budli- ~~1ii bubodha he knew. Sfr~ ~Ht=lT

~'"{ bhram-1flii{r;:r babhriima he wandered. i31"~ +l'eCf.f

er~ vad - SefTq uvada he spoke. o:{~ anqrr

. er~ vas - \g'e.{Tf.J uoiisa he dwelt. q~ \~r

El~ vah - ~erT~ utiiha he carried. l3';g~ ir~r

~~ sue - ~W:q susoca he sorrowed for ~B~ ~T9i fef,~r

f~ sri - f~:s:rr;q !isriiya he served. ~;g~ ~CTr ~T

~ sru - ~»TTe.{ susrava he heard i8''H~ ~;;f

~ sr - BBr~ sasiira he went. Cf~ iJ~T


~q:_ srP - ~f1G' sasarpa he crept.

~~ smt - '3"~+n~ sasmiira he remembered. ~ sru - ~il?Trq susriioa it dropped. fi..~ __ has - ;;rr~TB' jahilsa he laughed. tr hr - qG:T~ jahiira he took.

e{~ ~nr

iit{-T~ ~rf{ f~~ e{~ m~T ~~Br S'8~fm~T

58. Translate the following phrases :fi{o:.,~furQ erTef~l <.tiT a{~e{Tc{ qj(r :-

~T~ f:s:rflT(4 \y;£: I ~t QcH~ epfq: I ~~~T~ fqij'\f{_ I ~o:i{ f"lii{~ if qqTICf i{,: I ~~ti ~Q: qqgr I ifT&Tllf: ~n~ ~~ I

[ ~R ]

iT,: f!iSi arm;r I fllfl'f ~SiijiSfT~ I 1aT'lir 'n:~iSfT~ I qr~ ~~: ~~r~ I, .,~ qrqf Il~ I ~m iSfq:j ~:cm:: I

The horse fell. The man did not cross the ocean.

The Brahman remembered the scripture. The father, abandoned by the son, wandered. The jackal went to the shore. When did the boy laugh? He gave the food. The Brahman heard the scripture. The girl served (her) mother. The fruit, taken by the hand, fell. The thief, seen by the man, crossed over the water. With anger, the enemy burnt the house.

iT~T fuu I !j~q ~ ;g~~ <fiT IlH: 'l{f ~~r I ~f~ur ~ ~nl$f Cfif ~;r~ur ~~r I !jSi §:r~r ~~r if~r fqar +r2'~r I f'li~H: ;g~~~2' q~ if~f I (!l~"Jir <n(if ~~r ? iSB"~ 8l~ ~~r' I ~TQfOT;r ur~ . ~rrr I ~~q)T ~ ( 91Q.,')- ) +fT ~T ~iSfT tf,T I 8:T~ ~ f(ff~r 'l~r tfi(ff m~ ~r I !j<l:if.i ~T~r ~~;rr~ ~~ ~ qr.,)::fiT qr~ fEfi;J;.IT I ~Q" ~ ~~ ~ '€J~ \5f(!lT fc{~r !

Lesson 14. ~:rr~ h~

59. When an action succeeds another-as when "Rama conquered Ravana, and went to his home"the former action is commonly expressed by a participie called the conjunctive, which implies having done so and so.

Gf~ ~oi <fir~ if{.a~ <fir~ ~ lil'r~ ~ij'f ~-~~·"~Jll ~ ~riSfor <fir ~~T an~ CT}[ eTq~ -er~ n~r" m Ili[~ ~;r Q(r~ tf,r~ em '~r+rRij': ~q;:Q ~m:r o~'ffi C!i~~ ~ f=r~ 'l~q)Tf(ffSfl ~f 1aTff};Q{W'li f$~ ~~ ~ eft~ ~B'<fir a{~ ~Qr ~ Q:B'T Cji~~ I

60. The conjunctive participle ends in tOfr tva. Ex. ~Tm ~T~ot f$~T ~ :&ITTHT Ramo, Rava1Ja1'{l jitvii, grha'l'J!>

jagiima'Rama, having conquered Ravana, went to his house ( or home )'.

~ef<F.rfuIq:; f~~r ~ ~q;:('f ~ a:r<=cr ~ 'eery' smrr t :g~J~;cilT';um u-::ui ~cefr ~~ ~.-rrif' ;;T+r ~:refur ;:or ~~~ Slq~ 'Ef~ .-r~ i

61. The following list of conjunctive participles may be committed to memory :-

'i~ 951fi!f;ri fip~r ~ "!5qV:i:'i"r cr.T Ffil'fQ1"furij"~:;:fr ~rq cr.T ~ 'HCfi~T %: :-

blzutvil having become. ""'
;,::r,';:ilT ~TOfi~
;:;:;{'feCfT tyaktvii having abandoned. ~06~
q:~i3fT dattvii having given. ~tfi~
itcerr hrtoii having taken. mtfi~
QTcerr pztvii having drunk. qrOfi~
~~~iSfr smrtvii having remembered. ~rq: Ofi~
n~iSff gatvii ha ving gone. ~rOfi~
~~~QlT dr.'itvii having seen. ~~Cfi~
S3!~i3fr Srutvii ' having heard. ij;;Cfi~
fhHi3ff sthitvii having stood. ~~r itOfi~ Exercise 16. al+;qi~ r~

62. Translate the following phrases :-

The Brahman having gone to the shore, drinks water. The son, having abandoned the father, will wander. The men, having seen the tree, will go to the village. The jackal, having drunk water, went to the shore. The son, having remembered the father, spoke.


[ ~~ ]

f";:'if~f~ij' eHOf<ir cpT e{~errC{ <fi{ :-

~T~UT <:fa' tI~ JfFfi\ tIFft cfrQT t I ~?T fqQ"T OOT ~~~~

~2"llim I ~~Q' ~a:J it ~~{tfi~ iller it \lfTi[~ I f~~r~ i5f~ Gt<fl\ '8"~~<:f2" it n~T I ~?T fq~n cit ~rC{Ofi~ ~mr I

~?T: fq?TT c~Cfm ~~ ~!4Cf~-qT ~f1f(J I SO{r~1Jf: ::aT&T ~+J:~Ofr (J')~ ;rr~err i5f~ 1;[qr I JJ"m.,~ ~l;i!<5\r :;ir:qT~ I -=r~: ~~Q{T ~~TG I

'<!....... ~

~r~uTI ~~ tfl~erf @:;£ nft:I~~fQ I

Lesson 15. ~n~ ~c..,

63. The following indeclinable words, including those given in No. 40 and 41, may be committed to memory.

~~~funf :alQ~~ :zrtii~ i3~T ~o en~ ~~ ~ arrilnil fe:~ rr~ a:r~~ it ~T~ <fi~ mt=1f ~Tffl:~ I

Vocabulary 4 ~~q~ ~
Sf~~;fTQ. akasmiit unexpectedly. Sf'qr.,Efi
Sf~ atra here. ...,
er;q adya to-day. an'Jl'
s:t;:~?T anyatra elsewhere. ~~ft ~.-r~
8{;:r: ata4 hence. [then] ~tffQl~ ( <:f~ )
st~ atha so, thus, well. i'tfH, ~G 5ltfir~, \31:eejT
8{:q;rr adhunli now. Sfat'
ar;:q~T anyathii otherwise. .,~m
~fu iti so, thus. i1:~T, ~B" !1Cf;H
~6f lOa like, as, so. ~
a~ft, :s:r fIT
t1:tJi'5T ekatra in one place. ~<t mnr
~<fierr ekadha ill one way ~tfi !1Cf;r~ it [ ~~ ]
q:crq_ eoam thus. ~e- Q"q;T~
..... doidha in two ways. ~ SlCfiT{ it
'lieH kadii when? ~~
r-; kinca ~~~ arfuR'ffi
feo:;a moreover.
f~l{_ kim what? q:~r ?
kutra where \!.'
~:;r q;~T
~a-: tatali thence, after that. ~ar, \S'~~ ~r1:f
~~T tadii then. ~ar
~~r~ tathiihi thus. ~H ~CfiT{
., na not. ~ift
~r'-l: prayal:J. mostly. ,_.
~~r yada when. ~er
t' saroaira everywhere. B"m ~n~
~~Trftq_ idiintm now. ~-=r ~~=!i
iha here. ""
~~ ~~T
~Cfiqr ekadii at one time. ~Cfi ~H
~i:{ eva also, only. +iT@"
katham how? ""''''
Cfi~q_ Cfi~
Cfi-e:T f::qfl kadiicit sometime. E6m-ep~l
f~rg kintu but. q~rg;
kuta'" whence? '" '"
~~: ep~T ~
~'5tf::qFI_ kutracit anywhere. Cfi~
tatra there. ""
~'5t ~~T
tatlu: thus, so. '"
~~n ~ff ~Cfir{, ~e-T
c[T~Q tavat so for, so much. ~~'f C[iOfi, ~~~r
~rr~ punar again. f~
~~, yatha as. ~~
~llltt samtpe near to., f-,q;2' [ ~q ]

sarnadii hi

always. verily.

64. It will be observed, from the foregoing list, that the interrogatives begin with k, and the relatives with y. The termination of time is dii-e» in ~FH tadii 'then'; that of place is tra-as in i7l'?f tatra 'there',

~~ ~::crT ~ ~~ ~~T ~T~r fCfi !1l(;;:rqr~Cfi ~ii<:r '~~ if ij~r ;8~;;:q!:{T:;;rCfi !(l;~ ';q_' ~ sm':;:l1 ~~ ~ I ~QiaITl-:F'Fi 5f~'-i~ 'Fn' t-~B- '<fqT' ( ij¢i:) lr; ~~Ff6TT:;;rq} 5fclflf '~, ~-:2fir '~~, (QfQT)~1

Lesson 16. qrg ~~

65. The 4th or Dative case; and 5th or Ablative case; of many words may be formed by the following substitutions.

iI'§<f ~ ;U;v- ~ ~g~ ~r ~+>r<:rT'l Cfif~Cfi anfc{f qse+l" ~T

atqT~~ CliHCfi ~~rrfmmCl' 5f~;!Jm "fiT Jj:fr~;zr qi~!t ar.,TlfT

'ffr~T t :-

Sing. Plu.

'Q;~Q ar~Sfo

For final ) Dat. ("'fg~) atT~ iiya 'Q;+;!J: ebhya~.

at a r

at€fin:r;:(f ~ BT~ Ab1. (q:;pfT) a:fP,! iit Q;+~: ebhyah,

For final 1 Dat. (:q§;~1) ~~ aye ~+~: ib!zya~. ~ i

~tfiT~T;:Q ~ ~r~ r Abl. (tf~m) Q;: eli ~+~: ibhya~.

Ex. ~T+rr(;j riimiiya 'to Rama'; ~:r*f if; ucrurn'I_riivazziit 'fr.om Ravana' ~rQfur~; ~h~; narebhya~ 'to or from the

[ ~I$l ]

men' :j:j"~tm if ~r :!1~t:m~; ~~~ haraye 'to Hari' ~R <it, ~~: kaoeh. 'from the poet' <ii~~; q:;f.{~:q: kaoibhyal) 'to or from the poets' Cfi~~T Cllr err "ti~m ~ I

Exercise 17. an:er-rB" ~\S

66. The father gave the book to the son. The girl goes from the house. Unexpectedly a flower fell from the tree. He gave wealth to the Brahmans. Ravana, from anger, will not speak. He took water from the ocean. Then the king gave wealth to the poets. The arrow will fall again.

{qij'T ~ 3':f <it 3~Cf"fi qT I Q'f~c€r en:: ~ ~rQT ~ I ar=;;rTV'fCf) q~ it Q;~ ~~ mU I \3'~;r ~r&ToTt iT ~rr f~~T.1 ~rC{Uf iter i{ o:r~t enmllT I ~a~ ~~~ if ~m fuerT I i1if ~nn ~ efjM~ iT

,-.... r- 1".. r-; .......

~rr ra:~T I errtJT Tq)~ rr~T Tn~rrr I

O{;;r,HiTr( 3:;{~TUq_ qqT(f I fqc=rr ~;;~eH 351T~ ~~ij" q~ I c=rm nc~r ~r~Ufr~ Cfri" er:e~fcr I q:;~ cr~rr( qfij-cr ~(!",qr ftfij'r ~'5Ir;q q~T I Ofi~ ~~ ~~Rr ;g~~nt I ~,:Hfltr ~2:H~H ;g~~rij_ ~~ ~G:F( I

Lesson 17. qre; ~\S

67. The 6th or Genitive case; and the 7th or Locative case; of m2.ny words may be formed ~by the following substitutions.

efga ;g ~6i:t1 B- q2 erT <B;itrej" qq ij'~T ~n:rfl ~H aTf\il::ti~ur <iif~"fi; ff{;.,f~fufiJ ~p::(~r "fiT an~!{T Cfil:~ ef'l!7.r ~T~ ~ :-

[ -~ ]

Plu. ar~ e{O

Gen. (q~l)) an:~ asya sn.,r


Lac. (;gam) I:t Gen. (qgT) ~:

Lac. (;gH+i'T) ta1T

esu. iruim,

Ex ~T+{~~ riimasya 'of Rama' \T+r <fiT; B~~ samudre 'in the ocean' -l1~~ ~; ~Pr~ tire 'on the shore' ij"c q,; ~e{r.,t deviiniim 'of the gods' e:~mTaT) <:fiT; ~T~~ griime§u 'in the villages' OiT~ it; ~1:: harek 'of Hari' ~R <:fiT; <:ficn.,r kaoinsm 'of the poets' tfifsrm <ETi a:m'T agnau 'in the fire' a{f~ it; qfu~ pati~u 'among the masters' ~o{Tf+{.n ~ I

Exercise 18. a:r+~T~ ~<::

68. Rama dwells in the wood. He saw the house of Ravana, He sees a garland of flowers in the hand of the Brahman. Men dwell in houses. The family of the jackal dwells in the wood. He stands in the midst of the fires. He saw the crow on the shore of the sea. He sees the flower fallen into the fire.

~r+{ if" * \q:~r t I i3'a~ ~re:{Uf tfiT 'if\ ~~r I "i1[ ~rmOT ~ ~~ :tt ~mr em I:t<fi +{T(!fT a:~Qr t I +r~\;~ 'CfU it (~~ ~ I m.:rT\ <fiT QR5fT,{ 1:{" It ~1[ij"r t I e{~ 81m.:rr ~ ~T:cr ~ ~~r ~ I vgg;r ~I:t iT B!I~ ~ ~"T~ a:{SlT I e{~ 81m It fl1~ gl:t 'tim "fiT 1t~m t I

[ ~l ]

~~ efiTit ~B"fu I Ci)r<;jT B"~~~~ ~il~ f~~~;:n 'q";:t q~~m I etT:{T+f n~;;{T ~?l!Tq_ qfcr(j ~c3n ;nfm<fi: ~:W~ I ifl&1: <fi6{lifT 1l",;_r f€~ce{r cr~f~ I eoTCfiFif lj"1::;_r ifi'r rr qB"fu I <fi~~'q;:i ~ciS\'T ~T~T fl:Bf~ I

Lesson 18. q,{a' t ~

69. Adjectives, when declined, are declined like nouns. They are very commonly, however, prefixed in their crude from to the noun-and then they remain unaltered throughout the declension, forming a class of compounds termed Karmadharaya. Thus the adjective 'li'GUf kr;~1Ja 'black,' with the noun B~ sarpa 'a snake,' may be written "li~UT: B+ kr!1Ja~ sarpah, or ~~Uf~:P~: kr;1Jasarpa~ 'a black snake; and again <li15i!r;;:r B"qor kr!1Jena sarpena, or ~~ur.gqur kr;l~zasarpe1Ja 'by a black snake.'

t~~qur ;u;ql <fir ~q ~~T31T ~ B+:rFf @ ~nn t I ~f'!i: '3~~ 5l"TfClG"f?:<£ ~q ~ ~~T ~ q~~ it~ fq~r :s:tHH t an~ ij"if ~ B~T eoT~~T ~ ~G" If atqR:~f~Cf \g~~, EF~Tf"ti ~ff a~~ Q,:"ti Wf,T~ CfiT B+rTff iFf 'l'mrr ~ f5'fit Cfi~1oTT~-.r <fi~J 'l'fTcH t I \'gqT~~ur ?6 fQfQ; '~ttI!' 31~TFJ:. tETCilT lrH fer9JlSfUf it 'ffll' 8T~Tff. BTG" ~ BT~ '~'GU]: ;aq.:' ~T '''l>'Curf{1~:' ( CfiTC!fT BIG" ) fC!f~T ~l ~OficrT ~ ~'h: ~fiT ~<tm: '~c;itr;:r .aqUT' ~r 'ca'<:lJ!r-IqlJf' (<fir~ BTq it ) +iT fQf~T ~r ~tiiCfI ~ I

70. The following list of adjectives may be committed to memory. An opposite meaning is given to an adjective by prefixing at a or :at~ an. Thus sr§.~~ atulya

[ ~o ]

"unlike; a:r~f::q~ anucita 'improper'. In the neuter gender they may be used as adverbs. Thus wEi" ;rr:e~fu sIghrati_2 gacchati 'he goes quickly.'

R~qaIT l:fi') ~~ qT ;rr~ ~'9') iT ~rtr efi~ &-=rr ~r~!J.: I ~B') fOf~qur it 'at' ~r '3i~ ~~ e:?r q:t: B'~"5r fQfqfTEf ar~ r{T :::;Ti:ff ~ I ~~, '31g(;'-l' ar~Ti'( ~iTFT '1~; 'ar~f:;;ra-' snITi'( B'Rrti' ift{t I ~~B"efifulw ~ ~~Cfir 5fmif f~ljHH~~qur qJ ~q ;r fefi~r ~r ~l:fiQT t ~~f '~,)r:t :n'B~fu' qf?: ~~ ;srfi?fT ~ i

'[.1i:Uf kr ~l.za black.

~Efqr if)q{

'{ern +li['ij_ ifg arc;:q

~'ls.r +l;:(f



~~i?f f>r~ :aI~;:Ef f:q:;r g;;:~ ~')-eT ~;:"'f ';1Cl'

sukla white.
nila blue.
rakta red.
mahan: great.
bahu much.
alpa little.
slghra swift.
manda slow.
sadhu good.
samskrta polished.
priya beloved.
anania infinite.
citra variegated.
tulya like.
dirgha long.
hrasva short.
nava new. Q1Tqr


arfer"5 ~T~T





r.~m:r 8fB'lfl;~ 8f~~ ~;rr Ofir ~HrF=r


t This becomes +!QJ mahn in compound words. ~l1r~ if ~ (~r' m ~FfT ~ I

[ 'I?~ 1
;;~r~~ vyakula perplexed. '<lii~r~f garr
,_ empty. ~r"&1
~:!j' sunya
~;:~~ sundara beautiful. l1.n~7.:
~l'-1 yogya suitable. i);p
'l~ vrddha aged. ~T
c;:f~OT daksina southern. ~f~ur Rlftr
. ~~ ksudra mean . §:;~
~~ ~
tt;_: dura distant. ~~
fE{~.-rcr vismita astonished. ~fOf,;;
sthula bulky. "
~~ lff2"f
r-; sthira firm.
r~~~ 'l~
~~Tor f)ura~za old. ~~Fn
r-; ucita iT:::p
;a'f"iQ proper. Like the participles mentioned at No. 52, the adjectives that end in a generally make the feminine in a and the neuter in am. Thus TQ-<:!T €fj;;::<lT priya kanya 'a beloved girl'; ~f~crH:n:O"~ dak:'iitzamara~ryam 'the southern forest'.

BO !('<. ~ <if(fr~ :rr~: ~q;;::a' % ~+rFr ~ eY'liHTrCf Rf~uTf * 'an' i!~tfi~ ~lf~* ~l~ '31l.{' crn~tfi( '1~ffer;m- ~q if;:HH ~ I ~H 5l"Cf.in: 'fsr<lT cp;::!:!!' ( tT.frn ~~"fil ), qfa:JUT+r~o;.:i'_qf?~ur ;PI 1il<l 1

Lesson 19. I'Ho \ ~

71. In the formation of Karmadhilraya ( No. 69 ) and other compounds (as well as in cases where one word in a sentence immediately follows another-see No. 20 ) some change often takes place in the two

[ ~~ ]

letters thus brought together. Some rules and remarks in regard to these changes here follow.

~~~H~ (fif(l~ ~ a ) i:fl!.lT :a:[;;:lj" B"~rffT <it ijf;:rT~ Bif~ ( ~2fT it~ ~~mT q~ :s;g:T qFf(l i:i' It''ii ~Q~ ~-f~ :(1Qi,'[ ~ i_nefiT~ ifT1'{ a;FIf ~-f;::r;q~ ~o) ~B" !i"fiFC tJ:oti 'HTl!.l 8H~ ~H~ c{r'lr 610fT :;r ~~ qfbf~if ~8'r t I ~if qft6I~o:it ~ fq~(l it ~~ fu;r_nl ~of +lrr:re~ ;q6:T ~~ :s;r~ ~ :-

72. Similar vowels are those that differ only in length. Thus a and a are similar; i and i; ti and ft; &c. others-as i and u-are dissimilar.

q;qFT ~6f\ ~ l: fu.,lf ~QT~ f1r~r (g~1;f, ~r 1'{T-cT ) <i5T a;;:i1l.: ~n:rT ~ I ~fI' l1<fin:: '81' en, 'an' B+rT'1 ~::t~~; '~' afr~ '$" i:f:?TT ,~, an~ '-;;' iI::1~T'l ~:H: ,%:, ~c~Tfq: I 81;:(ll!.iT '~' SfT~ ,~, 3n:n::rr'l ~C{~ II

73. Two similar vowels meeting, combine and form one long vowel. Ex. a + a =: it; a + [j =: a; a + a = if; a + a =: a; i + i = i; &c.

~ ;a'1"Tiri ~~iT <fiT Bf.:I:T ~~ q\ ~f f~~Ofi\ It<fi r.Der ~er:c ~ :s;r~ II '8'~i[\OT Sf + Of =: Off; Of + OfT =: aH; an + 8{ = sn; S1f + arT = au; ~ + ~ ==~ ~c~r~ I

74 If a word ends with a or [j and the next begins with a dissimilar vowel, then a gU~la substitute ( see No. 17) takes the place of the two concurring vowels. Thus a+i==e; a+ u= o.

~fi,'[ fOfiBT ;UQF{ % 8l;:(f It car' ~r 'arr' STT~ sTT~ \3'B~ iilT(f "iiT ;Uiiie: fCiiB'T e1'B+rfOl ~QT~ ~ >lH.j:+r ~ ~ It<fi ~rl!.i e1'T~ 6I'T~

[ $!~ ]

~'iT 'FOTU ~ ~~Fl '1, ~ur 151r~u (~~) f'l(;f;f ~\jl ) it~r t I ~~r~\or ~ + ~=Q;, a1 + ~;:: an I

75. If a word ends with a or lJ. and the next begins with a diphthong; then a substitute called vrddhi takes the place of the two concurring vowels. The orddhi substitute of e or ai is ai; and that of 0 or au is au.

(;ffq- fep~'T :n<$C{ ~ eT;:Q" 1:f 'at' <:IT 'an' at'~ al1\ ~'l1% ~rq"tiT :n;~ r~~T B~'ffi 'FOT~ ~ !1T~~ ~hn ~ ~ Q;<fi ~r~ f+r'!f;r ~~ V~T 'Fern ~ ~?'{FT q\ i[f:rr '1'Hl <fiT aH~;zr ~tijr ~ I '(1;' (;f[ 'Q:' <iiT i[f;a a1ia:u '0:' taft, '81T' (;fT '811' <iiT '311' I

76. If a word ends with i, u, or r-short .or 10ngand the next begins with any other dissimilar vowel, then i is changed to its semivowel y, u to v, and r to r.

<:IR fOfi~T :n;~ ~ ar;:ij' *~, :g ~r ~-§fOT ~T ~~ an~ a1"'h: :gB~ ~T~ <iiT :n;~ fCfiB'T {B:~ aTBtiT'1' ~OT\ ~ !1T,~~ ~r ~ ij'T ;s:' <fiT ~B"~ a1;:~;f~!!.loT'~;r ''8'' iT '~ It ij'?{T ~ iT '~ ~ uF{Q'f fq-<:If ~TQT %: I

Exercise 19. :et~~~ ~'<.

77. Turn the following pairs of words into Karmmadhiiraya compounds-paying attention to the rules indicated as applicable to each-and putting each compound in the nominative singular.

M~fQ'ff~o ~;?) ~j ~t~1 ~ Q"c;qC}i % B:r~ ~i1~ en~ f"~+lT q, ~(;JT'1 a:~ §Q;--tf,~~T\~ ~+:rm er<'lratT ~\ ~~~~ ~;fr\1 it S1~+IT Q;lfiCJ'if'l ~ ~~T I

[ '15'6 ]

B-~~cr smnskrta + 'SfEi:cr ukti (No. 74), 'polished speech> 'qfi.~~6'+l'rq'T; ai;::r;:('f ananta + 81r~+i;:;: iitman (Nos. 73 and 74), 'the infinite soul', o:rq~:f+r6' ~"F'+ir; ;:rlQi nila + ~~q~ utpala, 'a blue lotus' ;f!Q'lT<.fi+fCr!; ii~r mahii + ~~ 1ft (Nos. 74 and 17), 'a great sage' ~~rc~T I

Lesson 20. qT;:; ':(0

78. When the case of a noun depends upon another noun or participle, the dependent noun fmay be prefixed in its crude from to the other, making the compound called Taipurusa. For example 'the shore of the sea' ~~~~ ffi~ samudrasya tiram, may be expressed thus ~~I~Q')~ samudrattram 'the sea-shore.'

:Jfef ~~T B'~r ~~ <f.T qjT(qi fOfie1 ~~{t ~~ ~r ~~;:<T q~ a1Tf~ij itur ~ m ~Tf~ij W~ 6I"f&1 ~i~r Of)f !.nfa-q~Cii ~q it ~{1fr ~~r ~T ~~;:(f ~~q %' q~ it~r ~r B"Of)cH t an~ ~:eSi"liT\: '6'c~~l3f' .,Tii "liT B+lHi ~rjar t I '3'~r~~ur %' fu'Q:-B~~ 'F.T fOfi.,rU 'B~~~"1 q')~' 3.iT 'ff~i(a')~' +1"1 fQl~r :JfT BEfi6'T t I

79. In a Tatpw'u§a compound the first term, in the crude from, has sometimes the force of a Genitive, sometimes of a Locative, &c. For example-in the compound q~+i~ pankamagna 'mud-sunk', the word 'mud' has evidently the force of the Locative-the meaning being 'sunk in the mud'. Again-(!fT~T9!iJ2 lobhi'ikrfta 'greed-attracted' evidently means 'attracted by greed-e-the first term having the force of the Instrumental case.

[ $.?!.! ]

Cf~S~q ~+rrB" * 5{TfflQfG:cp ~q It ff~tf 5{~+f q~ if cp~l m ;:f~;:erotiH:Cfi ~'T en~ <ii~') STN"q;,ur ~T~~ eHf~ "6') ~RP i.tcrl t I ~qT~~UJ' ~ f<!!'~-'q~~:n:r' '~'ij~ * ~in gau' ~ q~ <:iT 05T~~ ~;~ ~. ar~C6\11f ~') ~fu; l-f~ffetr 6l~ ~ :-'cfi)~~ ~ i:a'lT ~an' I ~~: 'QTr~r"liE' ~J ~qE ar~ t '~~ i;r f~:qT §:e:rr'_ ~;ar.r 5f~Hr q~ ;r Cfj{IJfCflRCil e€r :rrf'ffi t I

Exercise 20. an:(;fTB" ~o

80. Turn the following pairs of words into Tatpurusa compounds-writing each compound in the Nominative singular.

'The influx ( 31rrr+f iigama ) of wealth (SI~ artha. )'_ No. 73 'A hundred ( ucr sata [n.]) of fools (~~ murkha)'. 'Sport (~i$T krt¢a) in the water.' 'The shore of the Ganges Crr~r ganga)'. '[\Nho has] come (31F1Cf dgata ) for refuge CU'\Uf sara~la)'. 'Deserted (~');:r kina) by learning (f~~r vidya)'. 'Covered (~f2cr v('i#ta) with clothes (E1~ oastra». 'A couple (~l!' dvaya [n.]) of verses (~ep sloka)'. 'Lord (qf(?f pat i) of the earth ('lf~elT prthivl)'. 'The bank ofa pond (~n:'8'_,saras)'.

fil ;WifQrf~~ ~;~t ~ :m~ i;r ~~~~!if ~+{T~ ~<=I'Tan ell~ 5:IctrCfi B+l"Fa <Er Ofi"aT2f.HOE u.ep~:q;;; It f(!1~ :-

';-~<=I' (ar~) Cfir 81FH (atFT~ )'-B'o <.9~ if~l ( +!~ ) tf,f U.Cfl ij2f.~T ( ~~ [.,~o] ) I qT;:fr ( ~(?! ) 1t ~~ (~~T) I nwr efir f<fi<lTU I ~r ~\Uf ~ fQ'fu. 3iP:H ?r (SIrna-) I fer~r ~ iT~ n~T ( ~;::r )' I efiq~ (C!~) ~ G~T §61T (~f2a- ) I ~it CflT ~<fi ~~r ( g:<:i ["30]) I er~~') ( 'lP.refr ) ~ ~cum ( qfu' ) I ~n'ijiT~ ( ~H~) <fiT feliiWiHT I

[ ~~ ]

Exercise 21. a:P:'!:ff~ ~ ~

a~: ~n:~€I~ <1~qr s:rf&lurT '1')~~q~ l.'{~d I 3:;f f6r~rt{1tf ~cejr ~r~lJ1) ~:~., o7.iTf!i-&T ~f~I';;I.lfQ I m~r~~ 1::n;:~ q~~.tf ~!;;;:~T ~'(1f~1' I jjH&lur~~ i5f~ <i ~~;:n ~~r fe{~i{~r E'P{Cf I

Lesson 21. QTo ~~

81. The Pronouns are declined in most respects like nouns. The lst and 2nd personal pronouns are very irregular. The following, being some of the most useful forms in whieh these present themselves, may be committed to memory.

etf!;j"fih{l~: B~'1T+lr "fiT ~q ~i~T811 <fi') ~\i{ :;;r(!{~T ~ I ~~Hr
~~n +l~~~ 9:~ ~ ~l.;qCfT~'-fi ;acf'lTm <fiT ~q ~~r arf'i~f;:ra
~T t I f.,~.,fijrf~Q (6:q ~.,~ B~tfu~ +f~~c{,!uT ~q l t,;;:~
~Tl.'{ "6\ m.,r :;:nf6:Q; I
Nom. <fi~T ar~ aham 1. ~
C{~ vayam we. ffi{
Ace. 0:- +rr ~+niT
~lf mnm me.
8{~~T'l. asmiin us. f[+r<it
Inst, maya by me. ...,
0fi'\U1' :q-;qr !;+FiB"
r-; asmnbhih. by us. iIlT~
Gen. B~S!;::i:f +:Pl mama my. ;r\T
8l~;r.rToi asmiikam our. f[~T\T
N. ~=al ~ci ioam thou. g+{
~ yilyam you. g+l: mrr
Ace. <:: cCfT toiim thee. g~ChT
~1S+tT~ YUfman you. g+£ wm.m [ ~1.51 ]
I. efi~OJ ;:~;qT ' tvaya by thee. ~+{ir
~tliTf+f: yu~mabhi~ byyou. g;~ ~iT1 it
G. B'~arrq '1i!f iaoa thy. g;;:~ru
. yusmdkam. your. §;lI~mlq;r
N. <li~T B:: sal) he (or 'that'). ~~
~ te they (or 'those') ~
Ace. 0:- (f tam him. i3'~<iT
FfT~ tan them. ~'10fi')
I. <fi~OJ ~vr lena by him. ;ge-ir
~ tai~ by them. '"'
~: '3'''~
D. ~srq:T" ~ tasmai to him. "-
qHf :a~Cfir
~4:~: tebhyal) to them. srrefi'r
Ab. a1qrq:Trr q~+{I('{ tasmdtiioto: him. :a;air
~h~: tebhya~fromthem. ;gOl~
G. ~Wi(;:q Q"Pi tasya his. i3'BOfiT
~ tesiim of them. :a-0iCfij'
R. arMOfi~ur ;:r~+tor.. tasrnin in him. i3'e-~
~~ tesu in them. ~q~
82. The feminine of this pronoun is :tfT sa 'she' or
'that'. In the neuter we have ~i!: tad 'that' and 6rR
tani 'those'. ~e- Bc{rrn:r <fiT ~Tfurn 'ar' t I vr~~Of.fuw ~ 'ttcr' ar~'ht ~~ an~ 'arfOl' a1~Trr. ~ ~ar t I

83. A useful demonstrative pronoun is formed by prefixing q: e to the foregoing. Thus !l;q: efa~ 'he') 'that' Q;tt~ etad'that'. The pronoun ~ idam 'this', makes S{~ aya1'{7- in the Nominative singular masculine.

[ ~t: ]

~Cfi i8'q~m ~~crQTl=qej) ;a~"irq a:r~T erroT~ ~ef.,rm % qi[~ '~' mnr"fi~ \i'FiT~r ~r6'r ~ I ~'8" J:lefiH: 'Q;ilJ:' ~~, '~il~' qg I ~cf '~~' ~~'iHf ~ en't!l ~Cficr~'1 3r§T~ if 'S;;q' ~q-

¢T.,a"l' ~ I

84. As observed at No. 64, the inierrogatu.es begin

with k, and the relatives withy. Thus <;;;: kaZI '\v:'o' ? ~~;n"'t kasmat from whom'? or 'from what'? :;;,: ya{z 'who'; -.:j~:r.rm yasmiit 'from whom' or 'from which'.

*i8"T f"fi f'i~+f ~~-? ~ ~~f ;rr~r ~ ~~;;erT~9? '::j)l:q ~~ ~\i'f;;:~6tT=q~ '~, ~hH~~~ iT~ i , ~;r,f '!:T9?T~ '<fi:' :il;;:r ? 'y;;:r.+rn:r' f<fiB" :S'-iRn i?r 7 ~r f<fiB~ ? '~:' m, '~(7lTF1' f:n<:f o'TRE ~ ~r fu~~ I

85. The Nom. sing. neut of es: kal) is fcfi kim 'what'?

'<fi:' <fiT <fi~lej)H':C6 Q;9jq::;:r.; 'iSBenfq{w ~ fef;, CF~r? ~~H ~ I

86. The indeclinable affixes cit; api, and cana,

added to the several cases of the interrogative pronoun, give them an indefinite signification. Thus i;f,OOi1_ kascit (No. 25) 'somebody' or 'anybody'; ~'if~rr.. kenacit 'by some one'.

~iEf) J:I~.,qr'tf~ i8"~'ir+iT ~ BT~ 'Rr~ 'arM' atT\ ':q;;::r" Sl~m it, ~~~ tf:( 'S'i<;T Sl~ 61f'1~;qcrr'iT;:p ~ ~Tij'r t I' ~~ >i"CfiTt Cfimrt (Fr~+r~!{) er~lij_ etl'~ o:Jlf'tili, '~o:jf:;;r~ f<iiW o~fui ~ I

Exercise 22. :an:~r'8' ~~

87. Write the following phrases in Sanskrit.

Where is my son? Where is the book? The jackal, seen by thee, will abandon the forest .: The crow, seen

[ ~t ]

by me, abandons the tree. When ( was) this heard by him? By whom (was) the speech of the Brahmana heard? Where does their father dwell? This is our house. Where is your house? Who sees you? Some one sees you. Who dwell in those houses? This speech ( was ) heard by a certain Brahmana, The king gave wealth to him.

f.:p:;:rrnrer;;r 6lT"fm it ~~(f if fijf~r :-

ir~T !!~ ~tff' l. ? ~~a-~ q;~T t ? g;lli~ ~~ ;'f~T f~~ q.:r it ~~ ~nT I ~+fj~ ~~r rr~T ehlsn tr~ ~ m~r II ~f{ ~;g~ ,<6if ijt=TT "f~ ~r ? ;;rmur ~T Elrur'T fetioo ij;ft rr<fi ~ ? ~t=Tq;r fq;;rr "f)~ ~~a-f ~ 7 ~f{ ~+rHT ~H t I $!~U 'ei\ ~ t ? ~ ~Fr it~T t? iT~ g~ ~tfr tis;; 'efij ~ ~;r ~ t ? ~~ CfJtlfT f;;P~T ~tl"f it ijm iI~ ~'TI ~T\}iT ~ iJ~ eTvr ~~T I

Lesson 22~ qro ~~

88. The mas. nom. sing. B: sal} 'he,' 'that' and ttl;{: e~alJ, 'this' drop the visarga when a consonant follows, Thus :a- iT:g~fu sa gacchati 'he goes'; ~q ~~: esa manu va!;. 'this man'.

~~, CJi~TCfiR~, ~CJi6l":qt=T ';g:' (~) tf~r '~q:' ~ ifr~ iT~ o:q~., :an'tfT t m ~iJ~ fer;g;t"fir ~q ~ ~mf t I i!.1~r-B' i1:g~fu ( 6I"&: ~T~n l: ) tJ.q' lf~f.i~: (.~~ alT~m ) I

89. The conjunction 'and: is expressed by sr ca; which is placed after its word. Thus fqa-r ~ pitli putralca 'the father and the son'. Same is the case with the conjunction Elf va 'or'. Thus fCffiT ~ en pita putro vii 'the father or the son'.


[ :.to ]

;a~~urtcr~ l'(I~ 'an:(' iT (:q' ID~f o~'ffi F:fi~r ~ar ~ I f~it l'(I~q: ~ (ij'T~ ~~r 'SiTar {I ~~n-fqaT ~~ «(qaT afT~ ~ ); ~r' (~r) ~ ~~<if;;:1:l ~ ~ ~~ ~mf~; ~l!fr-fqar s;m ~ ( fqar ~T ~ ) I

'VOCABULARY 6. ~;~tq<lf1: ~
fenrg kintu but. ~fq:;~ 6ffq api also. .ft
~fF{ yadi if. ~R ~Q cet if. ~fq:
a-~ tar hi then. a-~ .,') ~Fl no cet if not . .,it ill
q~rg parantu but. fq:;;:g; re: hi because. Ef~ft6 90. when the subject or object of the verb is a whole clause, the clause is concluded by the conjunction ~ro- iti 'thus'. For example :-~ril:{OlT ,ritor ~~ ~fij' lf~T ~ij'q_ rava7}o rlime7}a jita iti mayli srutam 'Raval}.a was conquered by', Rama=-thus ( has been) heard by me'-or ,term ,ritor f:jfij' ~fcr 6f~fcr '~~mf"ii: riiva1Jo rame1Ja jita iti vadati viilmikil} 'Valmiki says Ravana was conquered by Rama.'

- ~iI' fi5:!ir CfiT ~t :!if "ii~ ~t6 ;a~uT :gqoTTOf~ ~~rr t m 13';a :gqqTEfli cnr ~q~iU~ 'fRr' (Q:{=IT) m~Of)~ f"fl<:ff ~miT ~ I :g~~Uf ~ f<lf~-~T~OTI UlfUf f~Q ~Rr ~<:fr ~~ ( ~:reror ,T+f


mr ~r iferT l!fr-tt~T ~~B- ij:rrT nv,r ~ )-arl!fSfr ',reTufT

~T;ror f:jfij' ~fcr 15{q:fcr ~~i{lfq:;;' (~wmf% "ii~a-l foF; U6fUT ~T+f ~ ~~n n~r l!fT )

Exercise 23. an:~r~ ':(\

A tiger also dwells in the southern forest. Then he dwelt.in a garden, but now he wanders on the sea-shore. Something fell again. In our village is a master of

[ :(~ ]

poets. When is an empty house beautiful? The girl and her aged father and mother are here. The poet says· the tiger went to KasL Is this man or that boy suitable? Unexpectedly a mouse fell from the seat. Again the Brahmanas cross over the water. Everywhere he conquered the enemy. Thus the monkey will burn their houses. The horse went, but the jackal even now stands. Sometimes the devotee wandered here. The traveller heard the the sound of a lute somewhere. That man knew the scriptures. After that he went slowly to the old tree. Thus he took the book and the arrows, with ( his) hand, from the thief. Among the Brahmanas is a good preceptor. He will sometimes cook the food 'suitably. The preceptor says who laughed then?

qfa30y <{~ it ~'Efi arroer m -=~~f t t ~;r <{~ ~<li ~q<{Ol i ~~~T :?H, €it~<=r eiif r.{~ B'~;: ~ f~it ~;r€!"r ~ I iT~ <{~S fq:;~ fntT I ~~R ffTtIT it trifor~r <fiT Q<6 ~<{f;I')ll Q;'6 ~rm'T ~ <fiiI ~~ ~~T t? m~~'T aih: ~B"~ ~ rqij'f ~~T meH ~1iTll q;f6r <fi~cn ~ f~ (ffT'Cf ~TW 'GmT ff~r I ~it affq;r') iti~ t ~r '€l'~ Qi~'fir? B'~<JT Q;tE ~~J a{fB"Ol ~ mu I ~r~ur !2~: qr~ <ir 1:fT~ tfi~~ II ~B;r ;allY qrff~ ~air it <it€!" R!r~r I ~<J 3{~T~ '«T~~ ~~~ oer~t~) qrcm :gr#it I m~r "imr n~r, fCfi~ fq~T~ aTi[ ~Y (?f~ {I Q;m-C6m ~'ffi ~~ ~+r~rr ~r I "i[T ~ <6@' cfTurT ttl eHe{r~ ~;:ry I e{~ 3~1;f :nr~ ~rOlCl'r l!il I ~a~ anq: e{~ li;;:~ nfiI ~ ~~r~ ~ ~ filefie n~r I ~B" 3{<6T, is"B"it a{q~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~cri;fi an, ttrTur ~ fm~ I ~~urllt r.{~ sr;~f ~~ t I 'e{~ <tim STir at~ GW ~ qi;fiT~m I ~~ <ti~~ l is"B" ;ai[~ <tilii ~B"r ~r ?

( !(~ ]

Lesson 23. tirO' ':(~

91. In making the passive voice of the present and some of the other tenses, the letter ~ ya is added to the root-and the terminations called the iitmane-pada are subjoined. Thus, the iitmame-pada termination of the 3d pers. sing. present being a- te, we have ~&rft dahyate 'it is burned', q::;~a pacyaie 'it is cooked', &c.

1:{'~hHrrejlfQf a~r ~~ S{"h: ~r~1 if Cfi+Terr:e~ iiFrr~ % fqrtt eH~ ~ '~, efol ~~f ~mH {-aft\: SlH+i~q~ it sn~~ it~ "1fi~ ~ I ~~ STCfiT\: efa;rrrr CfiT~ ST~f1!I~~ (Si;:~!I0) Q,;<fiefTirr ~f STH+r~q~ CfiT SH~~ 'a' ~ rih: ~:a~ '~ff' (~l:! ~Qfi~r Gil~T t ) 'q::;~a' ( ~nt q'fjFn ~T~r =t ) an~ ~q crrra- ~ I

92. Some verbs are conjugated, in the active voice, with the terminations called the iitmane-pada. For example :-

!'!i~ \:lTS!ari ~ <ti~qT::;~ It ~q Slr(;r~q~ sr~~m ~ frr~tm" ~~ II \S't{T~~ur ~ f~lt :-

~n: yat 'to strive' sr~a;r ~~.,l makes ~Q~ yatate

'he strives.' q~ ~~~;:r ~~Qr t

~q_ ram 'to sport' i§'Ql"Y makes ~+r~ ramate

'he sports.' q~ i§'c.mJT t

qU'C[_ loc 'to see' ~@rrr makes ~~ locate

'he sees' q~ ~~r It

~q vrt 'to be' itrrT makes q:ij~ uarttate

'he is' q~ t

~~ lubh. 'to shine' =qiftfirrr makes m~ sobhate 'he shines.' qi{ ::er;r~qT ~

[ .l(~ ]

'l1~,", sah 'to endure' ;a~VT <li~o:rr makes ~~~ sahate 'he endures.' Off{ ~t?:Qr ~ ~CI' seo 'to serve' BCI'f Cfi:C'1T makes irer~ senate

-.. 'he serves.'t<:i~ ;8-erT q)~8'T t

~::r smi 'to smile' ~;atii~rVTr makes ~+f;q~ smayate 'he smiles.' 6fi[ aftiiUcrT ~

Exercise 24. :an:~i~ ':(~

Translate the following sentences :

The crow is seen by the jackal. The father is abandoned by the son. The oblation is burned by the fire. The food is cooked by the man. The deer sports in the forest. The Brahmana endures pain. The girl smiles. He sees crows on the tree. The king shines in the assembly. Why is the gardener perplexed?

~4jffmf~a- E{TCfm ~r 31~ii:I"r~ etlU :-

<Elan f;a;rm: ~ ~~f \iiFU ~ I fq~T ~~ ~ ~~ ;;ffra-r t I angrn en;rr ~H:r ;;ffQH~ ~r~T t I at~ ~~F.f ~m tftiiFU \iiRfT t I ~n e{tt if a{r.,;:~ +Fn~T t I ;rJ~ar <lie ;a~., eJi~a-r ~ I ~~e€t ~~"fi~rQ') ~ I 6ft{ q.~ ':f\ eJi"lafT it ~~{'n =t I U~T ~r+Tlif ~+r9i~r ~ I +rr~ er:m 'C:fi{~r;qr ~f ~ ?

fq8'T ~~Uf i:;qijiT ~:~ iEft?:ff I uqrr <fi~ef'if.t l3T~e{T ~+r~ I Q'C{ ~~a-<i ~:;:{ e.{;:t~ I CJ);;:;qr ~n:~cfft ft:~~E{r .,')m~qqf ffl1'ifff I a~ar iEf~~Ql"t ft~neH ;l'lQTIcq<!t ®':E;q~ II

Lesson 24. 'lR; ':(~

93. Verbs of the 2d conjugation do no insert with vowel before the tense-affixes (No. 17). Thus the verb ata as 'to be' makes stfi::Q' asti 'he is'.


[ :('I? ]

~1~ .-rUT Cfi'T ~Tgsn ~ f6r~Rr.'ij'1 (fii'o ~\9) ~ q~~ ~~ ~~1 :m~ ~Tff! ~:a- ~<fiT~ 'sn.:r: ( ~~T) ~rf! i=t '81fuij' ( i:i;1[ ~ ) ~q ~;:r~n ~ I

Of the verb 'to be' the following portions may be committed to memory.

'~;:rT' f~~r ~ f~+;:rfufurff (tic!" <:4T~ Cfi~ m~ 'tffl%:o: :Present. ~~hH;:r



6f~cr asti he is. i;{~ 't :a~cr santi they are. ~ ~

1 st Pr et erit e. ~<fiTQi, ~.§TCfiT~

Slml'fl. i1Sit he was. Cf~ ~r an:a~ iisan they were. ~ it

Imperative. a:rrm

6f~g astu let it be. Cfff ~~ B;:§ santu let them be. ~ ~~

Potential. ~f~re~,

~ril syat he may ( or should )be. ~~: syub they may be

~ it.,r :;:rT~~ w~ ~.,r ~n~Q;

Exercise 25. an:q~ <{to.,

There is in that wood a certain tree. Thy father is not in the house. There was water everywhere. Thus let it be, said the Brahmana. The SOIl should not be perplexed. In the empty village was an aged jackal. Let the horses be beautiful. The garden is distant. The preceptors should be good men. He says it is proper. That map said it was improper. Having seen the deer sunk in the mud, the jackal laughed.

[ ~:t ]

;r~ ~~ qrr ~ ~~ q~ t I g~~ NCfT 'Cl~ if ;:r@ II ~ ~+r') ~FT~ \ff~:ij"T I i'fr~crr ~ <fi~r Q;~r lV" ~) I 9;'3i ~') 'Efiif~TiiT rr~t "qr~q: I :terr~'T ilTtf if q:Ofi <[_ffr f~lfR ~T I ~ Wi{~ ~6i I ~qtf., f{\ ~ I ~~311 OfiT ~., ~rrr ~Tre:q: I tf~ Efi~r t fcfi ~~ ~f:qq ~! ~a 9;~q' ~ ~~T ~~ eraRm ~r I ~~ it <€f~~ it ~T ~~~ f6lfTt: ~~r I

~'5f ~f.:Cf ~+r !!~qOfirfrr I erraTF[ Q~~~ <f.f Cfi~'9., ~rqr: I ~fi{ Q~r ~~nt q~ fqa-r olfr~m +rf6t~fu I q~~ q'q'.t ~Cqr Efi:4 otir~~T: ~3: I

94. In addition to the rules for the treatment of visarga given in Nos. 21, 24 and 48, it is to be observed that er: ab, when err a follows, drops the visarga. Thus ~m~ SlTe1n_ srgiila iisit 'there was a jackal.'

fq~ ~ ~ * 'i(_~, 'i(_j? q~T ~t; it ~ ~ f.t~m ~ STfoft'ffi ~ lim., ~ mnr i: fOfi :jfii' 'sr:' ~ ifTq: 'SIT' er~ m fai~.-t <fiT mq it ~mn ~i ~~T '~~ en~ (q:<ii f~m~ :ij"T) I

95. The vowel at a drops when it comes after a word ending in sit 0 or q: e. Thus -=tus~ nero: dya 'the man to-day;' as'5f;:r B"frcr te'tra na santi 'they are not here.' T-he character S serves, like an apostrophe, to mark the place of the expunged vowelL

~if 'st' ~tf~ f"ii;a') 1t~ ~~ ~ ii'rq: erT(fT t ftn_:ri$ Sfr(f it 'sit' ~T 'q:' ~T m ~'Ef'lir <ffiq it ~TqT t; ~~T olUS:u ( !!~ sn~) '~S'5f ., B"fr(f' (a- ~~r c:rit t ) I ~~<ii f"qO:~ ~ ~~T., S f'q'~ ~8' §Q; ~tf~ ~ ~~R CfiT frr~u ~Qr t I

Lesson 25, 'QTQ ':{~

The following are useful verbs of the 2d conjugation.

[ ~q ]

O1~rf1rrrur Cfi"t ~ :gq~rrT I:.ng~ R;j:;:rfm~cr l :-

s;r bri: to speak ( or say ). ~~;u


~~ briiie he speaks. tfi[ ilr(!l~r l

er:er oac to speak. ~g;:rr

-c, 'qf'\'fi oakti he speaks. et~ efii3:~r t

~T ylJ. to go. ~Flr

~Tfu ylJ.ti he goes. er~ ml:Tr ~ ~.,T snii to bathe . .,Efr;:rr

~'=nfu sndti he bathes. 6I'~ "~rcrr ~ ~o:r_ han to kill. ~::m:"r

~fr~ hanii he kills. et~ +rT\~r t

96. The characteristic peculiarity of the 3d conjugation is reduplication of the radical syllable. For example :-~T da 'to give' makes a:~Tfu dadati 'he gives',

~~~ ( ~~c~T~ ) nOT efit ~~ f6tful! ~~ur t fop a1r,f:F+rCf.i aT~~ epf fg:Cet ~T t I ~~r~~ur ~ fmtt :-~r (~.,r ) i=r 'qqrfu' (Cl~a:~Tt)1

97. The characteristic of the 4th conjugation is (:J ya. Examples :-

~S~ R~~ irur SPT f?{~q f~~ '~, t I ti5qf~OJ :~~ kjip to throw. ~Cfi.,r

~tlifff kfipyati he throws. E{~ ~Sfi~T t ~"'l:_ jan to be produced. \3'cQif it;:rr

~~:a- jqyate it is produced. 6{~ ~cQii' it~T t ifU nal to perish. .,~ sp~o:rr


il~tifu na1yati he perishes. q~ if~ ~t t

[ :(.5) ]

q~ pad to go. ~rv:rr

q~~ padyate he goes. ef{t ~mfT i: ~~ yudh to fight. &~~T

~l:l~~ yudhyate he fights. ert=r ijf~6"r t far{ vid to exist. Iit"lr

fq~~ vidyate it exists. er~ t

98. The characteristic of the 5th conjugation is the syllable ~ nu-changeable, under certain circumstances, to if l' no. Examples:-

q~+r (~srTR) ~or <liT ~fu! f:q~ t '~' ~ ®~ ~2ffu~1 ;r '#1-' ~ ilq_-QT ~HH t I '3~r~~or:-

e:rr'!._ lip to obtain. qFfT

81l";.nfa- lipnoti he obtains. qi[ qmr t UCfl...... sak to be able. ~<fi.,r

~~#1-fu saknoti he is a able. qi[ ~Hl~ ~ 99. The 6th conjugation, like the Ist, takes a short at a but does not, like the 1st, substitute gU1Ja (No. 17 ) Examples :-

-a:srTR nor ~ ~+rT., 1if1d ( S!~Tf~ ) <Iot ~ ~'T §~er 'Q{' ~~ ~mr ~ rorg s:J~T+f ~Uf ~ ~+rr'l ~alt uor ( m~+r ~\SI) if~ ~crT I ~~nguy :-

<i't_ trP to satisfy. BO:ge: Ofi('lT

q:qfQ trpati he satisfies. C{~ B;:S!~ Ofi~T t to wish "lr~.,r

~~fu icchati he wishes. q~ 'qT~ar ~ 3l:;~, pracch. to ask. I{_~.,T

'l:;~fu Prcchati he asks. q'f! ~QT t

[ 3(t; ]

to die. +r~;:rr

f;r~~ mriyate he dies. ~~ ~H:(l"T t to touch. ~'1r

~~fcr sprJati touches. ef~ ~a-T t

100. The 7th conjugation, in certain tenses; inserts VI' na before the final of the root. Examples:-

~H+r ( il:ienf~ ) nor it, ~~ OfifQfT ~; errg; ~ i3lfrij~ efOT ~ 'i~ ~ iI~r ~nijr t I :at:rr6:~OT :-

~ bhid to break. m~r

f~Rr bhinatti he breakes. e{~ m~crr t

ffl:~ his to injure. :;;fTc q~'Cfr'1r ,

ft-;~cr hinasti he injures. 6n~ :ql-e Ofi~crr t

101. The 8th conjugation adds :a u (which in certain cases becomes an 0 ) Example:-

8T~+r ( cr<rrft:r ) n'CIJ ;r ':a' qrr~ ~mr t (qrr ~~ ~~fu~l ~ 'an' ~ ~r t) I :aqT~or:-

~ mr

~ kr to do or make. Cfi~'1T. if;=fr.,r

CfiUrn karoti he makes. Cl~ if"l'rCfr t Other parts of this verb are 'Cf<iiH cakara 'he made'; q;ft~fij- kari~yati 'he will make'; ~~tf{ kuryyat 'he should make.'

~~ f~~T ~ i3l;:~ ~q l :-'=qCfiH:' ('8'~~ ar;:rT~r) '<fift~~Rr'

( ef6: ar"l'T~nr ); '~~~Tft' ( :a~ if'lr;::rT 'Cfr~~ ) I

102. The 9th conjugation subjoins "fT ns. Examples:;:re{+r ( !f~~ ) nor it ';:rr' ~ qrTCfT t 1 igt:rT6:~OT :-

~-. grh to take. m'1T

Wftr grh~lati he takes. ~cn t

[ !(l ]

~r jna to know. ~T;:r;rr

m;rrRr janati he knows. ~;rcrr t

103. The 10th conjugation subjoins ~ i, which is liable, among other things, to be changed to its semivowel. Examples:-

({Uii" ( ~ufer ) <rur ;r '~' ~T~T ~mrr ~ I m S'{i=~ liI"T<fl ~ ~r~ Of;;:cr:~~ ~oj * qft~cr ~ ~rcrT t I \3'~T~,or :-

Ofi~ kath to tell. Ofi~;:rT

Cfi~~fa' kathayati he tells. Cfi~crT t

f:qq_ cit to think. m'q";rT

f~cr~fa' cinta)lati he thinks. ~T'q"crT t ;::r~ matr to advise. ~T~ ~<=Ir

~;qfcr mantrayati he advises. ~T~ ~crT t

Exercise 26. an:~f:a' ~~

Translate the following sentences.

The son says. Rama kills Ravana. The king gives welth to the Brahmana. The girl throws the flower. How is a blue lotus produced here? Ravana fights, but, conquered by Rama, he perishes. An enemy of that man does not exist anywhere. He obtains wealth. Not anyone is able. He satisfies the sons with food. What does that man wish ? Why does not anyone ask him? The man, having gone to the sea-shore, dies. The girl does not touch the flower. The son breaks the fruit from the tree. The good man does not injure any one. What is he doing? He takes the book. No one knows. Why does he not tell? Thus he thinks. He does not thus advise.

[ ~o ]

f.:I~f~f~a- ~r<Fm CfiT a{~erTq: tfiU :-

~ tfif{a-r t I Uil UC{OT en) +ir\~n ~ I ~T~r SJfr~ur it I:T~ ~q-r t I (Yf~OfiT ~1ff ~<ficr') t I o:r')~T ~+Tqr ~S:T ~it ~~q~ ~31T ~ ? ~:r5I'OT <i1~crr ~, M;rg \r+r ~ ~crr \1fTon, q~ '1~ tt ~'Hcrr ~ I i3'ff o<:rf~ <of;!(l3 <6tft ~') rr@ t I 5f6: '!ifil qrq-f t I cfir~ m B+T~ .,ift t I ~ ~:it ;fir ar~ ~ Brgg tp\crr ~ I 5f~ arr?:llY <PH ~r~~lT t ? iT~ ~~B Ef~ ;;:rtft ~~6'r ( ? 5f~ SfTf{+fr \1~~at! q, \1fTCfi\ +I,crr ~ I Q1~enT ~1ff ~.,tft ~ay ~ I ~~ q~ ~ 'f.Q'f ~r~ar t I B~., fOfiB'l iT :;r'Tc o:r~l qj:;;rTCfT I ~s: Ef~r <f.\ \~T t? e{~ ~~q-Cfi ~mr t I tfiT~.,tff S'fr.,~H t I ~6: Ef<it.,it tfi![~n t I Cf6: U:fH BT:;;raT t I 51'6" rtBY ,T<:r ;:nff ~cH t I

Lesson 26. ~+:qm ~~

In the following exercise the verbs given in the preceding lesson are exhibited in the various forms treated of in Nos: 28,30, 39, 52, 55, 57, and 61-a reference to which rules may enable the learner to translate the phrases.

Rmfurf~ 6l+tir~ * fq~~ ~no ~ 'ifT n~') fiji~arr <liT ~RN ~.n * ft{~Ttir ntif t-f~"<fiT R~'e'fif ~t:;, ~o, ~l, .!(:Z, '!(l!, !lit i:T~ ~ ~ * fiifi~ ~T ~Cfir t I ~., fii~Hn ~ eterWctii=f ~ ~~~ <rr~ tf1t ~~ Slwrrr.r * B"~:r~i:Tr f;r~ B~') t I

Exercise 27. aT+'(lm ~1.9

~:{ ~~~ .,Ytmcqm-rf.:r I W ~t~e{r rr:e~fu' I Cfi~., ~~f(l· ~(lRr I ~~ ~c:af(lcerr ~f{fu I qQj ~rrc6fr ~a~~~ n:e~fu I cti~Tf~ij_ er~T rr @-::~tt. I fqerr ~~ "l~'T(eI"T ~~ n:e~cr I ~<FQir: <liT~r ., feI:~i.=r ~;;{f~q_ I iTs(:~~~ rr~: I '3~qmTM' Cf;;{ ~mrr~ ;:ft~nfii ., ~frCI' q~c:§; ~::.f(ilrfrr I tfjq[ ~ifT(erT qr1i n:;~fu- r ~~ ~ftr I ~qr ~il~~fq I

[ ~z ]

If the disciple shall ask, then he will obtain; if not, he will not obtain. Having seen the ocean, he goes to. the mountain. The monkey sports in the garden, and in the wood, and on the bank of the pond. They say the traveller will die. Why do the boys break the garlandsjSometimes he speaks improperly. The beautiful girl bathes in the ocean. Having drunk water he goes to. the secrifice, Thus he wandered and there he dwelt. The father, having seen ( his) son, smiles. Everywhere and always disciples thus serve (their) preceptors. They endure great pain. The Brahmana, deserted by learning, does not shine in the assembly. Sin is produced by anger. Good men quickly obtain great prosperity.

~~ fUlIlt ;q-fiTm, m e{~ qT~Ti lt~ ifit (;rfiTnr) m ef&,: vril' qT~r I ~~~ <iiT ~~<fil.: e{~ ~a- it :&fTCfI i: I ifrcrl.: iilqCf., ~, ;:r., ~ oft~ ij"T~Ti{ ~ f<ti"T~ 8fT.,r:cr ;q-.,ra- ~ I ~ "fisa-l f?f; ~nft lI"~ ~rltT[r I qr~~ lI"Tq{raTI ~ Efm m~a- t ? et~ <fi+f'r-Ofim ~f::cra- ~mij'r t I g;:1{~ m~effi B"~~ :ij ~i1T., q;~~T t I qRT Ifrq;;,: OT~ ~~ it '5fFH =t I ~~ ~~T;': OT~ 'el.~Cfr ;,:~ 8fT, Cl~r iil~~ f.:r~nf f'iiltT I NO'T ( Qfq~) ~ ~ ~~<fi;': ~Pli~Tor i: I ~m qfT[6: aTt~ B ~OT fl{Tt~ ( O{q~ ) ~~an ;p') ~B" ~FfiT~ ~EIT ~~ ~ I ~ alNOIi ~ B"~~ t I ~~T ~ ~f%:a- ~mur ~P:H ~ mn:ra- c:r@ itQI t I qTq ~'i:T ~ &1{T ita-T l: 1 S'{:e;~ ~f'm :~f'!sr lif~ ~~Hr t:[TFt~1

LessonTi ; '1to ':(.\9

104. Two or more words coupled together by the conjunction 'and~ may be made into a compound called

[ ~'< ]

Doandoa. If there be only two words in it, the compo ound takes the terminations of the Dual number. The nom. dual termination of a noun ending in ::If a is 81T au. - Thus -Rama and Lakshmana' may be expressed by ~T+!'~~+ioTI riima-Iak:)ma1Jau.

~ ~H ~ ~ SlM'<fi ~~~ w;r I1:Efi Br~ "8ft~" ~i~ ~ ~~ ~~ l it :a'~ S;:O:a "'iT+!' ~ B+TTB' If ~~T ~T ~Efiij'T ~ I ~~ ~er~ '~ @ :(l;~ i.t eft ~B' B+Hff ~ S1o:Q ;r ~c{"'f;:r <111 f~f:ffi ~'1q') t I 8T<fiTU;:cr :a~r;PT q:;:trlEfiHtfi f[C{'q" e€r fer+Tf'ffi Tt 'aft' I ~f( 5TEfiH u+r eTI~ (!RfI"Uf it "\T+T~+raTI" r~~T ~r B"Cfii3'T ~ I

105. 'When a Doandoa compound contains more than two terms, it generally takes the terminations of the plural. Example :-;:fi&fUf~f:i~fEf2'...._~~r: brtihmasak~atriya.vit~ludr{j~ 'the Brahmana, and Ksatriya, and Vaisya, and Sudra.'

crrar f<fiB') a;:$! B+fTB * ~ ~ 81fl:lCfi 'l~ ~a- l m 5Trrr: ~~ ar~~ ~T ~ I :a'~T~~Uf :-;:fr~ur~fulffSr~~T: C ;:frmUf, 'a'!f;;{~, ~~~ an~ W ) I

106. Verbs, as well as nouns and pronouns, have a dual number. The 3d pers. dual of the present tense ends in ~: tah, Thus U+i~~+roft <:t;:r i!fB'cr: rdma-laksma .. tzau vane vasata~.; 'Rama and Laksmana dwell in the forest' :-~re€t 'l~ e.rffCf: kakau vrk~e uasatah. 'two crows dwell in the tree.'

&~rit, cr~r ~ait l1:e{ B..rOlrm esT ~<:t~;:r ~ij'r { I ~mv:f<firn ~ 5TllHr~q rn:13f:q"'i ~ 81rCf;r 'cr;' sTr(:TT t I ~~ ~ "u;r~+rurT e.r;:r EiBij":" (~T+r sft~ ~~Uf 13ft={ If ,~a ~ )-~r.m ~ <:tGcr: ( ~ ciTq ~ q~ ~~ ~ ) I

[ ~~ ]

, ,

107. When two or more ",words are put together to

form an epithet, the compound is called a Bahutmhi; For example :-im:r~~, nlimad/zeya meaning a 'name" we may have the epithet qrcRn!:!~ifT~~~ piitaZiputra~ n1imadheya 'the name of which is Pataliputra', Such an epithet, like an adjective, agrees with its rioun. Thus qr2."fuI!:!?{OlT+i~ti if1R pataliputra·namadheyar(L nagaram 'a city named Pataliputra' :-w-as:~cft 0'1"\: kula-haste narah: 'a man withkusa-grass in his hand'.

::lfif ~ ~T ~ if alM-<fl :'{T;r;n it tt~ ~T~ \~91~ fsfit'lOf iilifr~r ~Ta-r t ~ B"+Ifff it 'iil§si'r~' ~~a- II ~'ff\[~crr ~ fu~ - "T;q-~~-f~R10fl T 6{~ t .,r+f, ~ffif r~(ij ~ ~Cfia-r t qTefur!:!':fifr~~~ (T5fW£T '1'T+f qrcm~ t) ~fl' !l<fiT~ "fiT ~ur, fc{~qor ~tr ~ ~m;:r ~T ~ al~~Qf ~a-T t I ~m -qTcTQl!1'T"f+{~ti '1n~-( qrcri'ff!I':f '1Tll Cfif .,rr~), '@l(Ji[~~ ,q~:' ( ~T:?f it ~l(J <€l 'qTB" m<:fT galT o~f'ffi ) I

108. The changes (referred to in No. 71) when heterogeneous letters come together, in compounds or in sentences, are not confined to the vowels. The principal rule in reagard to the changes of the consonants is the following.

( ~q~ rOlo IS ~ It ~rffif~q) qRE{a-Ol :jfGf ~9) ~+IFr E{aI ~r~ B'T:?f alTff t ~ ~ B"RTff ~ ~ ~r erTEf~ ~, ~~Qf ~~U ~C6 ~ :a"lfRQ' '1~ ~~ I o~~ifT ~ qfter~~ ~ :a+~'eJ ~ !I!t~ f~(l;r ~ l:-

109. A hard consonant (No. 24) before a soft 'consonant is changed to the soft of its own class; and

[ ~~ ]

vice versa. Thus +f~ mahai+ ~~q:_ bhayam:::;+r~((~t.:j'1t mahadbhayam 'great fear'. <>

~efi ~ ;~~ ~ q~~ Sfr;r CfT~ ~it~ Ot.:j'eif'1 ( ;:fo ~~ ) iT ~~ Cf~ t ~ o(l~'l it il~m ~~r ~mrr t: o:Tl!TT Tt~ ~ ~B"~ fEfqU~ ?r~ q~ m 1 li~Pl. + ~~q_ = +f6~+r~q:_ I

110. A dental consonant coming before a palatal or cerebral is changed to a corresponding letter. The pronunciation is not so much altered by this, but that one who knows the separate words can readily recognise them when so combined. The same remark applies to the change of rr na to OJ 1Ja in certain cases-as when preceded by ~r.

qo:c~ oti~Tl' mi'ilot:i ~T ~~~ ~ q1tm STT~ q~ ~+fT~ CfoT it ~ ~T ~r~r t I i';g~ ~Har it SfM-Of) sr.=ff~ 'lit ~T fq;;:g Gft ot:if'ffl f+r;w ~Qi~ it \lTTifij'T ~ Ci~ ~'lr.ir B~er ~;:r q\: ~~ (f~CflrQf q~T;:r ~<f)~n {I ~tT ilf~ ~~ ful1Tfum *;:r ~ 'OJ' ~ q~Cf~;:r t:i~T ':c' ~ q~& SfR q~ ~~ ~ fsfq-~

1t +r'T t I "'

111. The letters f.!. t and ~ s meeting become ~ cch, The commonest instance of this occurs in ~i tat + ~~OiT srutva:::;(f=;~~r tacchrutva 'having heard that'.

'q_' sfI\: '~: <it ~frer it~ q~ '=;~~ it :jfr~r ~ I ~B<f)r BCflferOfi ~'qfurij' '3'-U~\O'f ~ Cf('[ + ~~eH :::; cr=;~~r ( q~ ~efi~ ) I

Exercise 28. al+:q'r~ ':(<:::

The two sons go to the sea-shore. The crow and the jackal dwell in the forest. Having heard that, the deer abandons the forest. There is, on the bank of the

[ ql< ]

Ganges, a city named Kasi. Why do the preceptor and the disciple again go to the garden? ·When will the snake, the mouse and the horse dwell in one place? Men of slow understanding are infinite. A man of great wealth wishes thus. A boy and a girl of good family are here. A village of empty houses is not distant. A man of great merit says so. A boy beloved by ( his) mother and a girl beloved by ( her) father are here.

?J 3~ ~~;:a2' Ci>T \jnn- II <fi'l sn :aTI~ fu~r~ "1"'1 it ~~~ II ~?t ~ff~~ ~n "1"" ~T ~~a-r ~ I TfWT ~ a2 q:z <t.TUt ;:rr~ -sr ~<fi ;;;rf~ \1 n~ sn~ f~l5<:r f?fi~ crO'f <f,) t.Fm ;jfjff l ? ~'fq, ,,~r afI~ ~~r e'f,¢f Q,:"-f, P:CT"f q~ ROfrg "5~~ ? arii'q~~ ~r~ ;r~IS(i ar;8~<i 'ft I 81flOf<fi 1Of'1 EfT(!l'T olifffi~« !1"CET\ ~::e~r <1i~o:fT t I Q:Ofi 81:;~ ~U <fiT tlOfi (!i~<1iT :aTI~ Q:<ii qr~Ofi') "1~T ~ I ~rqrr 'CJU cH(ilT q;:p <iYEf ~\ o:rtff ~ I ~"-f, i1~Til_ 30:q~TQlr o<:ff'ifi ~l3" >rOjir~ <fi~Cfr ~ 1 +:mH <fiT f~<J; Q,;~ Q1~<fir Cf'~r fl1aT OfiT f>r<:r q~ Qf~<fi'l <J;~rll

Lesson 28. qro";(~

112. In the native Sanskrit grammar, all the varieties of declension are educed from a set of technical terminations which the learner will find it worth his while to commit to memory. They are to be read across the page-thus "su, au, jas" &c.

~:W~ t.f~Q o~Ffi(ur ;ij. ;a+l"'r ~Ofil~ ~ ~'5q~q ~c~lil ~ O:<fi ~f~~ Ef.T;e- G{rtT~ ~T:a-~, f~~ ~')~~ ~T~ ;:POC;P.f <Ii~~ itlR! qT'ijit I ;gr~ ~~ >rCfiH q~"'r =qrf~Q,;-ij-aT'-~ft,~~~Hf~ I


[ q~ ]
Sing. Dual. Plur.
~Cfi~::cr., rn:~=er;:r 7if§~:;:r~
Nom. ~ suo af~i au. ~B'
Of,('! l ~ Jas.
Ace. ~ ~" aut. f
::f.ll 01 am. ana: :UB' sas.
Inst. OE,ur 2"T f- ~<:jt hh;yam. f+{~ bhis.
Dat. '"' {leo blry,7m. bhyas,
fj<=J;fqTiT :g: ~~r ~t:l~
Abl. r-; iiasi. ~<:if bliyiim. ~;qH bhyas.
8lGYqr;r :~nff .....
Gen. ;8~;;:e.r :S:ff __ iias. 3ita -c, as. elf ilm.
Lac. a:{feTOf,~ur fs: o' '"' sup.
m. eHft as. ~tt_ 113. The vocative has no separate termination, being considered as a modification only of the nominative.

B~~er~ <fiT f~~f~~?f"~ ~m aft, \S'~ 9iliT 9iT~'li <fiT ~ ~'li ~q +rFn ~rl1r t I

114. Now, of these inflectional terminations it is to be remarked that some of the letters serve only to form syllables and facilitate enunciation: they are rejected, therefore, when those letters which are essential are applied to the word to be declined. These auxiliary letters are the u of su; the j of jas; the 1 of sas; the * of aut and fa; the ii everywhere; the i of itasi; and the p of sup. It is also to be observed that a final ~s is changed to oisarga. The actual terminations, therefore, will be:-

eT~, ~;:r ~;~fEr;qfffi<lt ~ ~if;\ f2<uT ~C{~ ~t£ STaJ~ iifOlT~ t{ef ~!ijf~ur <tT ~fErerT ~ f~tr Z~ ~~ ~; a{(fltiSl' ~~ ~ ~q ifOlT~ ~ a{r~l1:~<fi iSl'uTf it ~~r ~mr ~ m ~q~'m s:r<fif~?ti

( ~~ ]

;;:url <tiT t?:2"T f~~ 'ifTcH t I ~ iTTur quI ~ 'g' ~ 'i3"', '~\1.' ;r '~ ';zTB':_ ~ 'J{r;, 'aile::' aTI\ 2T ;r '~'; Bcf'3T ~, :&fB' er,T~, sft~ ~'t Cf,T etC I ~t?: m -e;qro:r ~;:r ;[J7l;l_;J ~ f"fi a:rf<:cHi 'B: ~r ~Bn- <ti~ fq~r ~Fn ~ I alCl"t:t"l" C'.fr~a-RfOfj !:WPl ~ ~it :-

Nom. Cfi'IT
Acc. ~ at
lnst. q;~UT arT
Dat. ~snn'l Q;
Abl. 8lQTqr., e:r:
Gen. ~;:q aT: Zz ~"\ alJ
a:rT au 81:
am en au 81: a~
li '4:~t b/zyilm fu: bhi~
e +;l_;JT bll)'am +"4: bhya~
a~ +~r b/z)111m '4:;l_;J: bh)1a~
ab sn: oZ~ alT am
z 81'): o~ ~ su Loc. e:rN<fi\UT ~

115. In applying these terminations to the final letter of the word to be declined, recollection must be preserved of the rules for the permutation of vowels and consonants. For example, in declining the word ;;:fr nau 'a ship', it must be rernemberedtthat an au, followed by a vowel, becomes 3n;;;r_ iio; and that 'ff_ s becomes "! 5 when it follows any other vowel than a or a and is not final. Thus :-

'"' ::-:.. ....... r-.. (::...._

r~;;r::r :zr;;;q- <fiT ~q :;:r(!lT'lr ~I ~Gq; e.:rr;:ij+f;rUT ;:p Br~ ~-=r

~~l!m it ~~ff ;fn:p~ ~ern crll·H o.:f:r.,T <fiT BT;:er ~ f.,lT+rT it ~Tq ~~;:rr ~nT I ~qr"t~ur ~ ~Q; ';ril' ( ;:fF:r ) !(T(iq "61 ~q- ~rff

r-; r-; ,~,~ -... ~t'

~~;l_;J "4~ ~rq- ~~rrr "tf!nsQ; T€Ii an I % ~rq ~ar epl~ ~Ef~ e:ry'Ir

~ m "aft" it 'aner' ~ ~TCjT ~ an1.: 'oa:.' :crrar 'at' :£iT 'en' ~ e{fijft'ffi ir~ 8l;:~ ~6f~ ~ ifTe: e:rT'IT ~ afI1.: q~;'{1;q ~ ~;q

[ ~t:; ]

~ .,{t ~T(jT ~ '3~ (Sl~rFt '~t' ~) '''!: ~ ~T~T t i ~~ Q"f-n: :-

Sing. Dual Pluy.
Nom. .:n: naul..z, '" .,TCf: navab,
<=ITcH niiuau,
'" a ship. Q:~ <-IN two ships. ~. <-1T~ ships . .,T~
Ace. .-;p:::r niioam, .,ren niioau, ¥=!T'E{: nilvalz,
., hi <,
'il+l" a s ,If'. <11'5f Cf,]
Inst. .,mr »aoa, ;:fl+~r naubhyiim ~1f+r: naub hil},
Cfi~U1 by-. <=lIef B
Dat. O:H~ nave, .,"'h::qf naubhyam ..fh::q: naubhyah;
~i=31° to--, TiTi5f ~T
Abl. OfTe{: navab, "", bh oi'h:<::: naubhyab,
"n+~r nau ryam
e:rqro from- . .,Tef ~
Gen. 'lief: naval}, .,r;:l): naval}, 'lefT navam,
.'" of-, "T"q <tiT
Loc. ;;rfEt navi, "'lTen: navol}, _",
.,l~ nausu,
r- in-. TirE{ ~
SlT'eIO Exercise 29. an:~1'9 ~~

Write down, with the signification, the following cases of the following words, viz :-

el~ ~ BT~ f.,~f~f~a- l{1;S~ ~ '3f~~~ ~q fqrffi :Inst. sing., in st. plu. and lac. plu. of igRf; ukti tspeech'. Gen. sing. and inst. sing. of an~~?{_ iitman 'soul' or 'self'. Loc. sing. and gen. plu. of f~;zr dis 'a side' or 'direction'. Loc. sing. of;q.,~t monas 'the' ~ind'. lnst. sing. and inst. plu, of e1fu agni 'fire'. Nom. dual and loco plu. of ,:rC{T nad: 'a river' . Loc. plu. of ~I stri 'a woman'. Dat. sing., lust. plu. and loco plu, of fqQ: pit! 'a father'. 111st. sing., dat, sing., abl. sing., inst. plu, and gen. plu. of E{T~ vae

[ ~~ ]

€speech'. lust. sing. of +H';rr_ marut 'the wind'. Loc. sing. of :{H'r larad 'autumn'. Gen. plu. of tfl+rrr_ dhimai 'sensible'. Loc. sing. of ~:n::~L saras 'a pond'. Gen. plu. of +r:?!~~" madlzulih 'a bee'.

\B'Rn ( efTUfT ) Cfir efi(lTf, 11;91i'.t~~; 9l~ur ar§Cfo Q~r 8TNO iifgi5fo I 8Tr~+r'l.. ( em~r ) 9lT ~~;r;:I:f, ~Cj)ti~., Q~r <li~ur i:t<liti0 I ~~ ( fctUT ) 9lT atferCj)~ur ~<fiti° ij'~r B'+=<ifrl:f ;r§:ti~'1 I '+rrr~: ( ~., ) <liT 8lfero Q;OTii'.to I 8Tm ( snrr ) tfiT <li~ur ~Cj)6fo ij'~r q:;~ur iif§:efo I rr?,fT <liT <liCiT f[i5fo q~l e:rfer~~ur 'iI'&;CfO I '&1)' <'.fiT S;fer<6~UT if:§6f~<'f I fqQ: (Na-r ) efif ~;!;fC[f if 11;q)C{:q." ~\ur ifgef~~ ij'~T erfer<li\OJ ifgCf~rr I 6fr~ ( 6frurr ) "fir q)~1lJ Q;<fi6f:;:r." ~~!;f~T<'f Q;"fi6f'9rr, alCff?Ho:r ~Cfi6f"'f<=r, i:f,~ur ifg6f""fif en~ ~;Uf;:er ifgCl"'fif I +r~Ft ( Cfr~) <fiT ~~OJ ~if,Cf:;;r., I 'U\~' <:fiT SlM<f;\1lT ~~Cf'9'1, ~;:rq_ ( ~RJ:iTFr ) <liT ~;:iif;:er il'g6f'9" I ~~ff", ( crrqrrif) <fiT 8ffq"fi~OT ~"fiCf~;:r I +r~rorf!"" ( +rTn ) <fiT ;;g <=iij";':I-:r afg6f"if'i I

Lesson 29. ~ne ~Q,

116. As the native Sanskrit grammar present one scheme of termination, which, by means of the requisite substitutions, may be accommodated to all nouns, so it presents one scheme of terminations which, with the requisite substitutions, becomes applicable to an the tenses of every verb. These terminations are enunciated in a different order, as regards person, from that to which the European reader is accustomed.-e-the person applicable to what is spoken of being the first, and that a pplicable to the speaker being the third. Instead of

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naming the persons by numbers, therefore, it may be advisable here to give them the epithets appropriated to them in the native grammar-calling that which is spoken tifthe 'Lowest', the one spoken to the 'Middle' and the speaker the 'Highest' person.

~ti !l<f,P': ~:6'1~ .g~'['iQ Q~l ~~ur f6f+~f~~l <fiT Q;0Ii !1<fiT~ ~'Y m\'ifo:rr !1~g;Q OIi~i:ii ~ ~ ~§l; sna:~1 ~ ~T~ <a+fl B~T~iii~T ~ ~T~ (ff:n~ ~, ~~f'r !l<}iT~ ~B":;r Q,:Cfi ~e- !l<}ir~ ~ fe:r+ff~l!T ~T ~r m\'if'iT ~ :n~ t \jfT ~§l; 8lferz:l,lco 8lr~ul ~ 'Hr~ !1ctr<fi f~~r ~ ~m ~TQil ~ QFI~ ~ I qj'f'{T Qq) ~~ISJ ~T ~~~r'CJ t ~., !fc~m ~ IlSB' ~l1 ~ f~?r ~q l.t m"T~r :n~r {, fiTB' i'Pl1 it ~~qT~ QT(5"ti B"l1~~ ?t 61+~~Q ~-~B'ij fu'H~ fcrq~ ;r ~~r \'ifHH l: 1lSB- q~~ 61T~ ~ c{'ffiT % f6fISJ~· ~ ~i:ir ~ ~B- ~ft-E{'t ~~Fi q~ ~~T :n~T t I !:!~~ <fiT '1"m ~~(;j'r ?t 6Htl"H q~ :(~~?t pn;:r q~ ~6:T ~o:~ ~~~ o~T<fi~Uf lr f~~ ~ F-riUqur ~.,r ilOE it.-rr-f~B"?t f~~ ~ Cfi~T ~r~ ~~ !.T~Hf ~~q' (liT f.,~~), nn.1~ <fi;rr ~Tl{ \g"~ +r~~11 stT~ 6f'ffiT Cfi) '8''6+f ~~!ii ~ ~~T ~T~ I

117. The terminations are as follows :f~<tr ef.T fcr +rf~~T ~;g !.T<fiT~ ~ :Sing.

SI~+f~~ Lowest. ~'€~+f~~ Middle. ~l1~~q Highest.

Q.:<tEl'O fi:i~ tip. fB~sip. f+r'l mip.

Dual. faCiO

i:iB" tas.


~iEL thas.

O{~ vas.


ifgOfO fu; jhi. ~ tha. +fB"mas.

118. In these, as in the inflectional terminations of nouns, some of the letters serve to indicate certain

[ ~~ ]

operations; and these are rejected when the termination is affixed to the verb. After the requisite rejections and substitutions, the terminations appear as follows :-

~~r31r ~ P.t+rf'ffi 5f~~m ~ ~~Fr ~'11.t +rT ~~ a:ra:g: ~~«f <iifuq~ <firm ~ ~~ij' ~~~ l sn~~;r~;r 51c~~T <i'r erTga1T ~ BT~ m~?f 1: at 'O:i:t Sl&=JU ~ ~2"r fq~T :err~T t I sn~~~q; ~q en~ a:ri~l{T <fii::;:r ~ ~q\r;:Ff ~.,OfiT ~q ~B" 5fCfiH ~ ~T~:-

fa- ti. a-: tab. e;fra- anti.

fff st. ~: thah ~ tha.

f+r mi. ~: oal). rr: mali.

119. Adding these terminations to the root 'alcr ad 'to eat', and changing its final soft consonant to a hard one ( No. 109 ) when the affix begins with a hard consonant, we have

~.,iT '31~' ( ~T.,r ) erTg ~ i8"T~ m~;:r q~ an:( ~if 5f~~~ ~il~ o~~'1 ~ 5fT~++T it~n t Cf~T err§; <fiT alfrcr+r ~~ o~~., it ~m~ o~~., It GRi;1fciij' Cfi~~ q~ ( f.,~+r ~ o~ ) ~ ~q it~ :-

:aIR; atti, he eats. q~ ~nTT t

el'il: atiah, they

two eat. ~ ~"T ~r~ ~

Slice atsi, thou Slc~: atthah, you two

eatest, ~ @i8"T t eat. §;+r ~"T ~T~ ~

:arf~ admi, I eat.

~ ,',

+r ~Tij"T ~

8la: adoah, we two eat. ~+r ~.n ~T~ ~

8l1fTra- adanti, they eat.

~ ~TFt ~

a:r(~ altha,

you eat. g+r

:::-:.. ,,~

'(iWl mT;:; ~n

~~: admah, we eat. t[+r

<nTn ~T~ ~

120. When a vowel precedes the m or o of a tenseaffix it is lengthened. Thus we have +rQl'rfu bhaudmi 'I become':-41~f:~Tfu bhavil,Yami 'I will become.'

~;r ~<if ~ !1(~~ % '~it~ i~ % q~~ il"w ;e{~ emIT l m ia'~ ~1~ qi~ ~~ II ~~r-+r6{rf+f ( ~ ~cn ~), ~F.ic~Tfu (~~~l1r ) I

121. In order that the foregoing set of terminations may serve for other tenses than the present, they require to be variously modified, For instance, as may


be gathered from No. 28, the syllable ;~ .rya requires to

be interposed when the sense is to be future. Again, to express time past, (that of the 1st preterite) the final i of the singular is dropped, and the vowel 8{ a is prefixed to the verb as an augment. Thus 3141~l'( abhaoat 'he became'.

:::"'0-" ,,~ ",.", ",." <:: '" "&::;"

q~ ~ I ~<:f 'T~' I ~~l'8{r "ii !1<:~'.:IT <ilT <:{Q'+fT., OfirQi ~ 3ircr I (_ "'Qi

31r~ "firm-r ~ >f~'ffi q;\~ ~ R1Q; \5'1'it at~<ii !1"tH % tffh.ra-'1 ir~ II lS'~r~:(ur % f~% ~~r fi:li BO ~:; it ~~T 751f

"",," <::,!)., """ , ,.,!).,

~q)qT 'i{ T~ ~lJiI' +rrcr.;~i:l. Ofirc;:r "fiT e;r~ ~ rsr f~ crt ~'lj' '::11 ¥OilT

q~r t I !I": ~i1~TQf ( ~r:qr;;:~ ~lQ' qr~~ ~q;T\ ) CET a:r~ 'iicr~ ~ fq1~ Q;9?:sr~., % a:rr;iJ+r '~' it ~2"T R~r ~Ta-T ~ sih: faf,~ ~ q~~ 'at' ~~ a1FHf ~ ~q ~ ~~ fq~T ~TQ'T ~ I ~~an:r~q_ ( ~ gan ) I

122. 8l~ '1', cei" 'thou', and B': 'he', are declined in the dual as follows :-

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s:r~ ( ~ ) ~tf ( ~) Q~r 'G:' ( cr~ ) <fiT fg:~"ft1' 1t ~iij' ~CliH ;~q "'t~(JT t :-

Nom. ~ijl 8He{f ~qf ~


Acc. ~lf

112st. <fi\Uf erTcn+~t ~Cll+~r Qr+~r

Dat. :H!:fo

Abl. aTqTo

Gen. Lac.

Exercise 30. an:~r'e' ~o Translate the following sentences :-

vV ho art thou? I go to the village. They two will go to the village. Do you two go to the wood? Shall we two go to the sea-shore? Thou seest my house. ',Vhat dost thou do? \Vhat dost thou wish? What dost thou say? I do not say anything. Art thou able, or .not > I am not able. I saw thy son.

M<;r~~rr qT<fm <fiT Q1C)'CfT1: ~it ;-

"" .

g;J1 cfi't'l ~? ~ <1T<:f ir ~Kn ~ I ~~.n ifif6f iT ~r~~!' q:~T ~+r ~'1T iTT~ it ~i~ it? 'f~r ~+r V.,l B~c:re <it 'ffTQ:n? it ~h:r 'On: ~@Cir ~: I ~ 'f~r Ofif::efT t? ~ "Rf ::qr~ ~? ~t.':f~r "lit'{a-T ~? ~ ~i3f +1"1 '1'{r ;;p~qT t I ~ ~~~ ~T ~r .,@ ? ~ ~+r~ '1~ t ! ~~ ~"t ~::r <fiT ~~T I

Qf~ e{~ ~ n:;~l+r: I ~~ B!!~ ., ~f~ I crT ~~in~ ~crcr: t ~6[T"l. q;fcr;t e{T I er~fin~ Rr;:(f~nfif I et~ ~r+i ~.,nfin;~T~ t ~r~~ ~d~ if.it I 81€l:m~~ <ti~~+ftfu i:e{ l!i~ ., e{~f« I

Lesson 30. QTo ~o

123. The infinitive is formed by adding § tum. Ex. ~m yatum 'to go'.

qnn..rr 6l'8"r{rfq~T f~;!_;frq1t ~~~Q ~ 'ij' ~~Cfi~ i4;:rrm ~'T t I ~1tT~~IlT-(:H§ ( :Jfr:;r ~ furQ; ) I

Many verbs insert ~ i before jj, Ex. ~f@r~ bhaoitum 'to become'.

:a:r~cp ~t:JrafT ~ '~' % q~m '~' i!Ff ~HH ~ I ~~ro +rfctIT tir;:r ~ Th1Q;' I

The following is a list of infinitives :

§ ~~t:J~ t{r~ ~~ ~cif ~ ~~T f;;?Tf(!f~Q ~ :-

'li kr Makes ~:fr karttum, to make. «r"T~ ~ f<!f~


n;:ff ganium, to go. ~r~ ~ f~fQ;


~§ jetum, to conquer. ~TQ~ % f<R~

qT§ datum, to give. ~~ ~ furQ:

~"i:4" drastum, to see. ~~~ % R;rQ:

~~T~ sthiitum, to stay. o~~~ % f'<R~

et'CF§ uakium, to speak. an<!f~ % f<ff~

"fl{_ gam-

f:.n ji

~J da -

~drS - 'f~T stha-


Exercise 31. ar+~r~ ~ ~

Translate the following sentences :-

Ravana is not able to conquer Rama, The father wishes to give the book to the son. The two sons wish to go to the wood. Dost thou wish to go to the seashore? I wish to see thy father. Do you two wish to

[ ~1( ]

stay here? What dost thou wish to do? It is improperto do thus. To speak thus is unsuitable.

f'liifur~~ enCf~ <fiT ~fq: <fiiT :-

~Tc{ur \T+f <fiT '5ftil~ ~ fultt ~+f~.,@ t I fq~r ~~ <it ~~<:i91 ~~ <fi'T ~:;~r qj~r t I ~ ~~ e{T1 iT ~FH ~T~~ II q:~T ~ ~~.<:i2" <tiT ~T.,r ~ar ~? ~ ~~ fq<:iT 91T ~~"li 'qYfl:a-r ~ I Cf~T ~if von ~~r ~<f,'lr ~r~~?t? ~ EF~r qj~.,r ~rg?'"r l ? u:~r q)~.,T OGf:qa t 1l):\iT ~t~FH 8fm:J~ t I

~'ffir: qo~cf IF$!fir~~f;:a- I cef ar~;~m end ~!;~ ., ~itftr t "Te{<_:q')~ ~r~ ., ~iiir: I 8l:;J t=~.n$!~f~aq_ I (f~ ;P.fT~ m;~f+rf~ fqa-r ~Cf,)fu I ;r;:~ Cfq:g~Rffi;rf~ I ~~~m ef.r ~T~ ~~~q:_ I

Lesson 31. ":IB ~t

124. The present participle active ends in atQ_ at.

Thus +tCfq bluuiat 'being', n::;:;~q_ gacchat 'going', fugij_ tisiha; 'staying.

e.ra:+iT.,tf,T~Cfi Cfi~e.rT::;:;~ ~'€{O:1J ~ 8f;:;;:r l:t 'erij_' SlT1JT ~ I ~« Sf<f,T~ '+tCf~ ~~ §Q;, 'n::;:;~q_' :S:T~ §% 'fu~ij_' ~Cfi~ §~ I

This participle is declined as follows :-

~F:I 'li~o:;;:r <tiT ~q ~B" Sfq)r~ 'qQ'f<:iT t i

Sing. Q;<f,C{'9" Nom. <fii:!T n::;:;~~ gacchan, 'going'.

Ace. <fi+t iT::;:;~;:~ gacchaniam.

Dual. Nom. and Ace. iT::;:;~;:ql gacchaniau.

f~Cf:q., tE~T an~ Cfi~

Plu. tif~€Rl" Nom. Cfi~T ll::;:;~o:ij: gacchantah:

The rest of the declension may be effected bysubjoining the terminations from No. 114.

[ ~~ ]

r~"i ~q ~ ~ ~ it ~~~~ if ~~Ofi~ ~<=rr~ ~ ;a'~~ t i

125. The indefinite past participle active ends in "'fi5if( laoa: :-as ~q'5(~ kitaoa: 'was making'. It is declined like the present participle (No. 124) except that it takes a long vowel in the nom. sing.,-thus i:[.rr~f,\ krtavan. It is commonly used with an auxiliary vcrbthus 3l~ ~~QfFrff'll aham krtavanasmi 'I was doing.'

4I.~oprf~Ffi qj~~T'E~ ~~ ~ er.:cr:q. '~orrt an~rr t; ~~ '9!i~q~ ifii1r ~~r :?oTf I ~B~ ~q ~;;.y ~ i§qra- (Z~~) ~ :a"41T'1 ~~r t, ~E{i:!f aTrij'~ ~~ t fell ~Blt 'li~i Q;~~'i:f'1 ~ ~C1~ cft-er it ~mfT t-~~r ~ff~ I ~~~ !>fmrr BH1F~~: t:ttfi tnn~op f~1.ir ~ ~r~ ~ffr ~ Gfil-~ ~CfQfr'1R=ll (~op~ ~~P:rr) I

126. A class of future participles, most extensively employed, is formed by the affixes Cfo;q tavya, O1'1T~ an'fYa_, and ~ ya. Examples: ~fcfflo~ bhavitavya 'what is to be or ought to be'; ~~tilT~ sahan1jya 'what is to be -endured'; Q1+~ labhya 'to be acquired'.

~~t~c;;prm ~ '!i1{;:a- opT I"{<f) er.r, f~G"efir !>f~~ ~~m ~Tcn t, ijotl, 61rrl;>_:f an~ ~ !>fc~~ qrmqj~ iiiifr~T '$fQ"f t I :gqrt{~or+{~Q;tl (~t ~.,r {, ~ it ~~r 'ii:fT~~)j '1J~OlTlf (f.'~ ~~'n t ), ~+~ ( f:!1?t ~rH q)\i{f ~ ) I

The following are further examples :-

f.,;rfqrr~cr ~~ errffmn ~~~ur ~ :-

vaktavya bhajya sakya

to be spoken.

to be worshipped. possible.

" "

tfi~r ~Ff ~rt~

'i_jff ;:p~~ ;J.ftHI'

~~er ~~ ~HI

( \SI19 ]
~~ sah)'a endurable. B"~o:r Cfi~~ ~;i'tt~,;
CfiI~~ karyya to be made. Cfi\~ ~;J."{
~~o:l;J dra;tav_ya to be seen. ~:t<lit ..nn:r
rr;:;:r6;>;f ganiaoya to be gone. ::;rr~ ~1't{
127. The future participle is much used in the nom. sing. neuter. Thus ~ljT ;nii=ij"o;.i tvaya gantaoyam 'it is to be gone by thee--c-i. e., 'thou art to go':--cr:!fT -q~q;xja., 'thus it is to be become by him'-e-i, e. 'thus must he become'.

+rferl';~~CfiTfif ~ ~~~ <fiT Cfi~il~T~<6 Q;CfiCf"CfO'"f .,~e-Cfifuf<r ~' if§,:,!, ~~~f itqT t I ~~ '(5f~ ilrij'o~' (~~~ <:{~J ~rii1r ~ ) (f~r ~~Qo~ ao:r ( ~~ lt~T ito:rll: 8l~ffi:. ig~ Q;;ar a:r~l('-l ~r: ~r~Q; ) !

Exercise 32. ~~ ~':( Translate the following sentences :~~fB"~ 6{T::f~ ~ ~ ~-

q~T q5q:Tfq o:r li~T <fi~~rt! e-rt ~um:uir rr~o:r_ ~~o~T~;.JcPP~1{ I B" o~r$.i: ~~f~ ~~ !'!i!{I~'Ehl cr(ffu I ~ qTO:~ ~~. ~cr~r 'l;;:Qo'-l~ 1 ~:~. ~;rl'1~~ n~o:r I f~ Cfi~o~ li+r ~~: I

Lesson 32~ qJO ~':(

128. Verbs compounded with prepositions sometimes retain the meaning of the original; more frequently they have the sense of their component elements; but in many instances they have significations which. depart widely from those which they might be expect-

[ ~l:; ]

-ed, from their composition, to convey. T-he explanation of such compounds is the province of the dictionary.

i3"~H:f"ll ~ ~r~ ~¥~ q~ <6m~=o+r1 f?f.;~rsft ~ iftr&<6 31~ ~ <:i'[~ l aft~ ~r<:i~: ~'1'iir Si~ ~o:r~ ~+&f~ ij'~;it <fiT ~i;r t; fif.o:g 8l~<6 ~~@ tI\ ~.,~ ~ir sr~ m ~~ l ~ 'a"~ sr~?r f~~~ r~~ it~ l f~B' 81~ 'iir ~ij' Sf~+rr"1 OIi\ff t I ~B" !:{~R ~ ~~i11 <iiI o<:iT~<:iT ~Q~;:fi'r:a CIlT ~q1:i t I

129. Of the twenty-one prepositions, the most useful here follow, the sense being exemplified in verbs or in derivatives of frequent occurrence from verbs compounded with the prepositions.

~~B' ~qB'f[l ~ B'El'Tftf<ii ~qmrn ~q:arr ofr~ ~~ ~r~ { ~'1'iifi 8l~ it fS1l<:iTm ·~HJ <:iT ~qwT it ~'q) ~~ran it oj~q~ ~~T ~m:·EilH 51"~'q) ~~ eTf~ :a~ ~ ~i{ri[~Of i;:TU ~ql! -~~r f[~r ~ I

eire- ati 'beyond'. ~Hi'[~ SfrnijiT+rRr atikramati 'he goes beyond'. e{i'[ ~B~ ijfTi'[\ ~ar ~

.8ifer adhi 'over'. ~'H 81N'liI adhigata 'gone over' (as a book when read through). ~'H iT<:iT gaff ( ~~ ~:e~"t 51";m\ qifr rrt ~:tG~ )

·ST~ anu 'after, like' ~r'{, G~~ Sf~:q\fu anucarati 'he goes after' (as a disciple goes after and imitates his preceptor ). Cftr q)~ <;;fQ{cfT t (~~ fu"':I.f ar'i~ ~~ <iiT e:r~t6~ur 9i~?'"T t )

-arq apa 'off'. ct( Sfq~dij- apaharati 'he carries off'. ~{~~~Tij"T~

[ IS~ ]

:'3ff~ abhi 'opposite'. a.Tt~ 61Mrr:;;~fa' abhigacchati 'he approaches'. Cftt qr;a- :JiTa-r t

$fY a 'reversing'. P-rqnQ' arm:;5SRr iigacchati 'he comes'.

Cfff 3fTQ'T t

3fFF{ffa- ildadati 'he takes'. 6fff ~qr ~

~q upa 'near'. f;:r<pe ig'qfug';f upati;rthate 'he stands

near. q~ ~<pc ~ ~~r ircH ~ I

f~~"" nir 'without'. ~:r;:rr f.,ir'1 nirdosa 'without fault' f.:j'1T ~q ~

.qfi: pari 'around'. 'tfT~ en~ qfH~.:r paridhi 'perimeter'. ~U !q'fu prati 'again, back' 9;":, ql~ 5I<fT<pT~ pratikara 'retaliation'. afq:C!fT 5IRrM:;:f pratidinam 'day by

d ...."

a y'. 5I('~;;O r~o:r

~ vi 'apart'. t{ f-:r~r~ oikiira 'change of form'. ~q;;or qft:er~., f5r~:ir<r viyo ga 'disjunction'. 61C!fiTTEf

~ sam 'with'. ~n:2f

~W:j:f saiigama 'associatioll'. f:j:j'~.,r

130. Of prepositions used separately or without verbs, ~fu prati 'towards' governs the accusative; iR"~ saha 'with' the instrumental, and ~'1r vina 'withou4 except', either the accusative or the instrumental.

'l:2f~ ~q ~ ~r ~qrarT ~ forifr !1g'ffi ~ Ci~ aro7.j~ ( fu;::~ <:fi~~or'e!"l<:r 9'i~r '51r~r l) It !1fu (arr~) ~ mIT it ~9'iH:q; ~('fr ~, '~~' ( BP.f) ~ ~m it cti\UJ an~ .&~'lT' i6 mrr It ~T at <Ii;f ~ij"T t ~T C}i~ur CiiT~<p I

[ :;0 ]

Exercise 33. Qn:;qr~ ~~ Translate the following sentences :-

This book is to be gone over by thee. The disciple goes after his preceptor. Ravana carries off 811:::1. The traveller approaches the tiger. The traveller does not approach the tiger without fear. The father, with the SOD, stands near the tree. The crow does not associate with the jackal. Day by day the crow and the jackal associate with the deer. How is their disjunction to be made?

r>, 1""'\ f"........ ......

F1~r&r~Q cner~r Clii 61~Cl'F{ qi~r :-

~B' 9;~Q"f) it §+~ q~ ~r"H 1t I f~lS~ ~q~ ~~ ~ ql~ rq~a-l t I ~JClur B'T~n it ~ +rF1<::rr Wt I ~rf{l an'Cf ~ qr;a ~rQr t I U@ 6!"T'eT ~ qTff R'1T +r~ % o:r~t ~TQr ~ I rqcrr 3~ ~ idl~ ~ ~ .,l~ ~~r ~Qr ~ I ~aH fu~H ~ ~r~ ~it f+r~qf t I 5Tfuf~o:r ~~T afh: ffl~f\ ~lT ~ ~i~ ;r~ ep~~ ~ I ~;;~f NmiT ~ CIi~01f ~ ?

~Hhffu~T~fu 5Tfufi5["1~ I f~~t:lT ~~"i'fR,,~f;i.'f ~~q_ I 1Jamr+p:{qr~J~ ~rClur: I +r-.:i milT o~Tm ~qf{;::cro(:f: I !2~: fqQ~ijqf~~~ I 01~ 5TaT<tiTU ., CIi=aQ(:f; I ~Q SiFTffis~ ~ilTQf: i ~(:f ~Hn~ ft[Q"T ~~ij~~Tq:q:Tfu I e;.,M-JTij;zTT&TT lfif 9;?Tr: f~; ~:tI~Cl~ I

Lesson 33. Q'T(!; ~~

It would have been observed, in Lesson 24, that the 3d pers. sing. of the imperative ends in @. In the passioe the termination is QT tam-preceded by the ~ yet

of the passive ( No. 91). Thus ~~'fft lruyatam 'let it be heard'; ffl;l!:mt kriyatam 'let it be done'; ~!(:?:j''ffr d!Syatiim 'let it be seen'; i3':;;~Cfr ucyatam 'let it be told'.

QT'O -<'6 ~ ~1 '?:~r n~r ~lTT f6fi a:rr~r~<fi ~~r ~q ~ $llli+f- 3lilif, ~Cf,o:r::q;;:r ~ alr'ff i:t 'g;' anm t; e:f)i=I'err:;~ ~ ~~ '<Irq_' ~ \j'HcrT t, f~a~ q~~ ~~:hH:;;~ ~r .~' (f<l~+r t~) ~~r ~nCfr ~ I ~~r-'~~Qt-( ~g: ~~T i:.ifr~); ~;qQr ( ~ff. fOfi<lT ';jff~ ) ~l{~crt (, ~6 ~@T qrr<l' ) ~:;;qCft \ i!i~ <fi~r i:.ifr~ ) I

132. In Lesson 24, the potential is exhibited ending in <l'Hiyat-as ~:Ci!iTFt kuryyiit 'he should make' :-but the form in which it is more commonly met with is that of the Ist conjugation, where it ends in \1;'1. ct. Thus ~i't bhaoet 'he should be'; +rar3: bhaveyulJ 'they should be'.

qr'O -<\? ~ fcrfuf(!I:g:.._ ~ at;;cr ~ '~TF( ~~T~T n~f t ~i=r~:C;J;j'tQ (~~ Ofi~T 'i'.fT~Q;) f~;:g; f~q ~q ~ <t~ ~:H+rrr<tQ: tfr;qT i:.ifTcrT t ~ ~~+r 'TOT;PT il<Jr l fC1~;r ~~~ atrQ It 'u:f(' SfT'ffT~; ~~r +r~ (i3'~ ~~T :qTff'[~) '+r~f2:' (~;:~ m'1T ~nf~Q; ) I

Exercise 34. :an:<if:a- ~~ Translate the following sentences :-

The preceptor should be a good man. The horse should be white. The disciple should not be perplexed. Let the wish be heard by the fathter. Let the deer sport in the forest. Let the beautiful girl smile. Let the crow . go. Why should it be improper to do thus? He should

obtain merit. They should go home. Let not injury be

done to anyone.

( r:;'Z )

f.:r;:rf~f{OfQ eHerm ~i 8T~Cfrq Ofi~ :-

~~ it ~~ ~~r ~rf-~Q; i ~~T;a~ ~.,r ~r~~ i f;w:;q it ~~~FH .,~ :;:rr~Q; I rq;;r C!iT s~r iT t!~ I ~<r C!iT Q'1 ~ Sn"lrq ~.,r~ ~ I ~;:~~ (i1~e€r efiT ~~Cfi~r~ ~ I OfiT~ <iT ~n~ ~r I ~6: ~o:rr ::f~ a1~f:crcr t ? \3?r 9;0<1 smr <fi~"r "'frfu~ I '!i;:~ 'Ef~ ::rrFrr "'frrn:Q; I f<Ji~') it Ofi!'!! o:r ~T~ ~ I

e.f~ qT;:~ .,. "~~F( i +rr~HS;;:;q~r \Jfr.,');qrfI. I mli;q: ~~: 9;~QOiirf., ~ilil ~TF( I efOflT \Jf~ ~r~rf1 I ~ ;;qi~ o:r ~p:rrFt I fq~~~ 'i~r f!.~<11ij_ I STFf ~:t<:Ffi~~ f~~f\~+n"l; q~.fHq_ >iOj1Tfu~T ~~('{_I