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Objective
To draw the performance characteristics of
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single pump
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pumps combination in series
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pumps combination in parallel
Apparatus
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Centrifugal pump apparatus bench
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Stop watch
Procedure
First of all, operation was done for single pump. A pump was operated with control rate of flow
takenfor 0, 10, 15, 30, 30 liters per minute observed in V notch. To assure the exact flow rate,
pipe readingwith stop watch was taken for each case. Correspondingly, measurements
of pressures were taken forsuction and delivery side. Also corresponding power was observed.
Similar operations were done for two pumps arranged in series as well as parallel.
Theory
A centrifugal pump converts the input power to kinetic energy in the liquid by accelerating the
liquid bya revolving deviceÔ an impeller. Fluid enters the pump through the eye of the impeller
which rotates athigh speed. The fluid is accelerated radially outward from the pump chasing. A
vacuum is created at theimpellers eye that continuously draws more fluid into the pump.
The energy created by the pump is kinetic energy according the Bernoulli Equation. The energy
transferred to the liquid corresponds to the velocity at the edge or vane tip of the impeller. The
faster
the impeller revolves or the bigger the impeller is, the higher will the velocity of the liquid energy
transferred to the liquid be. This is described by the Affinity Laws.
it is important to understand that the pump will pump all fluids to the same height if the shaft is
turning
at the samerpm.
Centrifugal Pumps are "constant head machines".
The head of a pump in metric units can be expressed in metric units as:
h = (p2Ô p1)/(ȡ g) + v22/(2 g)
(1)
where
h = total head developed (m)
p2 = pressure at outlet (N/m2)
p1 = pressure at inlet (N/m2)
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ȡ = density (kg/m3)
g = acceleration of gravity (9.81)m/s2
v2 = velocity at the outlet (m/s)
Energy Usage
The energy usage in a pumping installation is determined by the flow required, the height lifted
and the
length and characteristics of the pipeline. The power required to drive a pump (Pi), is defined
simply
using SI units by: by:
where:
Pi is the input power required (W)
ȡ is the fluid density (kg/m3)
g is the gravitational constant (9.81 m/s2)
H is the energy Head added to the flow (m)
Q is the flow rate (m3/s)
Ș is the efficiency of the pump plant as a decimal
The head added by the pump (H) is a sum of the the static lift, the head loss due to friction and
any
losses due to valves or pipe bends all expressed in metres of water. Power is more commonly
expressed
as kW (103 W) or horsepower (multiply kW by 0.746). The value for the pump efficiencyȘ may
be stated
for the pump itself or as a combined efficiency of the pump and motor system.
The energy usage is determined by multiplying the power requirement by the length of time the
pump
is operating.
Performance curve:
The performance curve is the easiest and most satisfactory way to show graphically the
relationship
between head, capacity, horsepower, etc., of any pump. For a given rotational speed and
impeller size,
the performance of a pump can be represented on a headÔcapacity curve of total developed
head in feet
of water versus flow in gallons per minute.
Total dynamic head (TDH) is the difference between suction and discharge pressure and
includes the
difference between the velocity head at the suction and discharge connection. The lines sloping
downward from left to right represent the varying quantities of water delivered by the pump with
variations in head or pressure for a given impeller size.
The intersection of this line with zero delivery line shows the ³shutÔoff head´, which is the
pressure
developed by the pump when the discharge valve is shut

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Starting from the shutÔoff head, as the pump delivers more water, the mechanical
efficiency of the
pump increases until a ³best efficiency point´ (BEP) is reached. Increasing the flow further
decreases the
efficiency until a point known as ³end of curve´ where the manufacturer no longer publishes the
performance. As the impeller gets smaller, the pump efficiency also decreases.
The power requirements are also shown on the performance curve. The horsepower line that
does not
cross the pump curve is called ³nonÔoverloading´ horsepower because operation at any point on
the
published pump curve will not overload the motor.
Parallel Operation
The primary purpose of operating pumps in parallel is to allow a wider range of flow than would
be

possible with a single fixed speed pump for systems with widely flow demand.

Usually there are no more than three or four pumps operating in parallel.

The combined parallel pump curve can be drawn holding the head constant and adding the

flow. Fig.
shows a combined pump curve of a system with three identical pumps operating in parallel.
Curve A represents the headÔflow curve for any one of the pumps. Curve B is the combined
pump curvefor two pumps operating at the same time in parallel and curve C represents the
combined performancefor the three pumps. Notice that at any head value, the flow on curve B is
twice the flow at the samehead on curve A. Likewise, flow on curve C is three times the flow on
curve A for the same head value.Curve X represents the system head curve. Points a, b, and c
represents the flow that is delivered by the
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pumps at the three operating conditions which are: a single pump, two pumps and all (three)
pumps
operating at the same time.

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pumps at the three operating conditions which are: a single pump, two pumps and all (three)
pumps
operating at the same time.

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Series Operation
In series operation, the discharge of one pump feeds the suction of a second pump (Fig 97).
Unlike
parallel operation, series pump curve can be drawn holding the flow constant and adding the
head.
Series operation allows that commercially available equipment can be used in a particular
system
because sometimes a single pump operation would result in a pump with an extremely high
head and
thus an equally high horsepower. For example, distributing pumping schemes applied in chilled
water
plants avoid using to big pumps for chilled water circulation that create unnecessary
overpressure at the
buildings close to the plant. Small pumps situated just at the building they feed mitigate the
overpressure problem and at the same time save considerable pumping energy. Such schemes
are
based on the series pumps operation principles.
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Image 006
Key :
Blue : single
Red: parallel
Green: series

Analysis
From the experiments, characteristics of pumps ran at different conditions are observed and
drawn in
graphs. These characteristics curves are essential in defining the properties of a pump, since
only size
and shape cannot be sufficient to select a pump for certain purpose. Standard test were done
according
to the procedures defined by the lab manual and characteristics curves are drawn.
Initially, we study the variation of head available with change in flow rate.With pumps in parallel
wecan increase the flow almost twice for the same head delivered, while head delivered can be
increasedtwice by arranging pumps in series. Hence, where a single pump is inappropriate for
large flow rate orhigh head, pumps can be arranged in series and parallel or combination of
both to suite our
requirement.
we see that overall efficiency of the pumps against flow rate. It should be efficiency of pumps in
combination is higher than a single pump. Even, efficiency of pumps in series is higher than that
in
parallel. More closely, we can also see that efficiency of pumps in series is better in lower flow
rate ie at
higher head delivered and pumps in parallel is better for higher flow rates and low head
delivered.
The hydraulic power produced by pumps against flow rate are drawn. In case of series
connection thehydraulic power produced by a pump is higher than that of parallel connection at
lower flow rates. Athigher flow rates we can predict that curve of pumps in parallel will cross that
of in series.
As the pumps are connected in series or parallel, the input power to the pumps increases than
that of a
single pump.
In case of field operation to select a particular type of pump or a particular combination of the
pump,first of all the characteristics curves, provided by manufacturer, should be studied
carefully and thenonly it should be use in field.
The main aim of the practical was to drawn up the characteristics curve. With the help of
characteristicscurve and the actual field conditions (ie. Head available, input power required,
required flow rate). Weshould have to compromise in efficiency for the fulfillment of the actual
field condition situations. So thecharacteristics curve helps to optimize the field conditions and
to select a particular type of pump or acombination of pump for a particular site.
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