1.5K views

Uploaded by Tomide Olasupo

- Pumps Slides
- Manual on a Reciprocating Water Pump, Federal Poly Ilaro
- Pumping of Liquids
- 20091027085415_TD_3 Series
- New Text Document
- APV_V2_Centrifugal_Pump_7009_01_08_2008_US_tcm11-7151
- Basic Theory of Pump
- Centrifugal Pump write up.pdf
- 5.7-pumps
- Pragatinagar Pump Design
- Kondenzacione Pumpe.............. (1)
- 122293811-pumpcvxbcv
- Performance of Centrifugal Pumps
- Centrifugal Pump Perfance and Efficency Fin 17092011
- Open vs Enclosed Impeller
- Vaccume Pumps Past History
- 20091118144730_Content (SG).pdf
- Heavy Duty Storage 5S Planning
- Extracted pages from NFPA 20-2016.pdf
- Psk2 Manual Including Psk2 100 En

You are on page 1of 6

Objective

To draw the performance characteristics of

single pump

pumps combination in series

pumps combination in parallel

Apparatus

Centrifugal pump apparatus bench

Stop watch

Procedure

First of all, operation was done for single pump. A pump was operated with control rate of flow

takenfor 0, 10, 15, 30, 30 liters per minute observed in V notch. To assure the exact flow rate,

pipe readingwith stop watch was taken for each case. Correspondingly, measurements

of pressures were taken forsuction and delivery side. Also corresponding power was observed.

Similar operations were done for two pumps arranged in series as well as parallel.

Theory

A centrifugal pump converts the input power to kinetic energy in the liquid by accelerating the

liquid bya revolving deviceÔ an impeller. Fluid enters the pump through the eye of the impeller

which rotates athigh speed. The fluid is accelerated radially outward from the pump chasing. A

vacuum is created at theimpellers eye that continuously draws more fluid into the pump.

The energy created by the pump is kinetic energy according the Bernoulli Equation. The energy

transferred to the liquid corresponds to the velocity at the edge or vane tip of the impeller. The

faster

the impeller revolves or the bigger the impeller is, the higher will the velocity of the liquid energy

transferred to the liquid be. This is described by the Affinity Laws.

it is important to understand that the pump will pump all fluids to the same height if the shaft is

turning

at the samerpm.

Centrifugal Pumps are "constant head machines".

The head of a pump in metric units can be expressed in metric units as:

h = (p2Ô p1)/(ȡ g) + v22/(2 g)

(1)

where

h = total head developed (m)

p2 = pressure at outlet (N/m2)

p1 = pressure at inlet (N/m2)

c

ȡ = density (kg/m3)

g = acceleration of gravity (9.81)m/s2

v2 = velocity at the outlet (m/s)

Energy Usage

The energy usage in a pumping installation is determined by the flow required, the height lifted

and the

length and characteristics of the pipeline. The power required to drive a pump (Pi), is defined

simply

using SI units by: by:

where:

Pi is the input power required (W)

ȡ is the fluid density (kg/m3)

g is the gravitational constant (9.81 m/s2)

H is the energy Head added to the flow (m)

Q is the flow rate (m3/s)

Ș is the efficiency of the pump plant as a decimal

The head added by the pump (H) is a sum of the the static lift, the head loss due to friction and

any

losses due to valves or pipe bends all expressed in metres of water. Power is more commonly

expressed

as kW (103 W) or horsepower (multiply kW by 0.746). The value for the pump efficiencyȘ may

be stated

for the pump itself or as a combined efficiency of the pump and motor system.

The energy usage is determined by multiplying the power requirement by the length of time the

pump

is operating.

Performance curve:

The performance curve is the easiest and most satisfactory way to show graphically the

relationship

between head, capacity, horsepower, etc., of any pump. For a given rotational speed and

impeller size,

the performance of a pump can be represented on a headÔcapacity curve of total developed

head in feet

of water versus flow in gallons per minute.

Total dynamic head (TDH) is the difference between suction and discharge pressure and

includes the

difference between the velocity head at the suction and discharge connection. The lines sloping

downward from left to right represent the varying quantities of water delivered by the pump with

variations in head or pressure for a given impeller size.

The intersection of this line with zero delivery line shows the ³shutÔoff head´, which is the

pressure

developed by the pump when the discharge valve is shut

Y Y

c

Starting from the shutÔoff head, as the pump delivers more water, the mechanical

efficiency of the

pump increases until a ³best efficiency point´ (BEP) is reached. Increasing the flow further

decreases the

efficiency until a point known as ³end of curve´ where the manufacturer no longer publishes the

performance. As the impeller gets smaller, the pump efficiency also decreases.

The power requirements are also shown on the performance curve. The horsepower line that

does not

cross the pump curve is called ³nonÔoverloading´ horsepower because operation at any point on

the

published pump curve will not overload the motor.

Parallel Operation

The primary purpose of operating pumps in parallel is to allow a wider range of flow than would

be

possible with a single fixed speed pump for systems with widely flow demand.

Usually there are no more than three or four pumps operating in parallel.

The combined parallel pump curve can be drawn holding the head constant and adding the

flow. Fig.

shows a combined pump curve of a system with three identical pumps operating in parallel.

Curve A represents the headÔflow curve for any one of the pumps. Curve B is the combined

pump curvefor two pumps operating at the same time in parallel and curve C represents the

combined performancefor the three pumps. Notice that at any head value, the flow on curve B is

twice the flow at the samehead on curve A. Likewise, flow on curve C is three times the flow on

curve A for the same head value.Curve X represents the system head curve. Points a, b, and c

represents the flow that is delivered by the

c

pumps at the three operating conditions which are: a single pump, two pumps and all (three)

pumps

operating at the same time.

c

pumps at the three operating conditions which are: a single pump, two pumps and all (three)

pumps

operating at the same time.

i

Series Operation

In series operation, the discharge of one pump feeds the suction of a second pump (Fig 97).

Unlike

parallel operation, series pump curve can be drawn holding the flow constant and adding the

head.

Series operation allows that commercially available equipment can be used in a particular

system

because sometimes a single pump operation would result in a pump with an extremely high

head and

thus an equally high horsepower. For example, distributing pumping schemes applied in chilled

water

plants avoid using to big pumps for chilled water circulation that create unnecessary

overpressure at the

buildings close to the plant. Small pumps situated just at the building they feed mitigate the

overpressure problem and at the same time save considerable pumping energy. Such schemes

are

based on the series pumps operation principles.

c

cc

c
cc
c

cc

cc

c

cc

ccc

c
c

cc

ccc

c

ccc

c

Image 006

Key :

Blue : single

Red: parallel

Green: series

Analysis

From the experiments, characteristics of pumps ran at different conditions are observed and

drawn in

graphs. These characteristics curves are essential in defining the properties of a pump, since

only size

and shape cannot be sufficient to select a pump for certain purpose. Standard test were done

according

to the procedures defined by the lab manual and characteristics curves are drawn.

Initially, we study the variation of head available with change in flow rate.With pumps in parallel

wecan increase the flow almost twice for the same head delivered, while head delivered can be

increasedtwice by arranging pumps in series. Hence, where a single pump is inappropriate for

large flow rate orhigh head, pumps can be arranged in series and parallel or combination of

both to suite our

requirement.

we see that overall efficiency of the pumps against flow rate. It should be efficiency of pumps in

combination is higher than a single pump. Even, efficiency of pumps in series is higher than that

in

parallel. More closely, we can also see that efficiency of pumps in series is better in lower flow

rate ie at

higher head delivered and pumps in parallel is better for higher flow rates and low head

delivered.

The hydraulic power produced by pumps against flow rate are drawn. In case of series

connection thehydraulic power produced by a pump is higher than that of parallel connection at

lower flow rates. Athigher flow rates we can predict that curve of pumps in parallel will cross that

of in series.

As the pumps are connected in series or parallel, the input power to the pumps increases than

that of a

single pump.

In case of field operation to select a particular type of pump or a particular combination of the

pump,first of all the characteristics curves, provided by manufacturer, should be studied

carefully and thenonly it should be use in field.

The main aim of the practical was to drawn up the characteristics curve. With the help of

characteristicscurve and the actual field conditions (ie. Head available, input power required,

required flow rate). Weshould have to compromise in efficiency for the fulfillment of the actual

field condition situations. So thecharacteristics curve helps to optimize the field conditions and

to select a particular type of pump or acombination of pump for a particular site.

c

- Pumps SlidesUploaded byfahad670
- Manual on a Reciprocating Water Pump, Federal Poly IlaroUploaded byAyoola Olanrewaju
- Pumping of LiquidsUploaded byahmedyashar
- 20091027085415_TD_3 SeriesUploaded bybird99
- New Text DocumentUploaded byhamizan
- APV_V2_Centrifugal_Pump_7009_01_08_2008_US_tcm11-7151Uploaded bythoma111s
- Basic Theory of PumpUploaded byJoon Eeo
- Centrifugal Pump write up.pdfUploaded byD Vamsi Gopala Krishna
- 5.7-pumpsUploaded byMohamed Rafeek Ghani
- Pragatinagar Pump DesignUploaded byBhagwan Ratna Kansakar
- Kondenzacione Pumpe.............. (1)Uploaded byMirza Mesanovic
- 122293811-pumpcvxbcvUploaded byAmir Chip
- Performance of Centrifugal PumpsUploaded byvisitabhinav
- Centrifugal Pump Perfance and Efficency Fin 17092011Uploaded byVarun Patel
- Open vs Enclosed ImpellerUploaded byKhởi Nguyên
- Vaccume Pumps Past HistoryUploaded bykeyur1109
- 20091118144730_Content (SG).pdfUploaded byshare irga
- Heavy Duty Storage 5S PlanningUploaded bydfz138
- Extracted pages from NFPA 20-2016.pdfUploaded bychylerg
- Psk2 Manual Including Psk2 100 EnUploaded byJose
- FAPC-108web.pdfUploaded bysorenarya
- One Hour Centrifugal Pump UniversityUploaded byPaul Maposa
- Example Pumps PresentationUploaded bysonpvms
- Vertical Pumps.pdfUploaded bysiva242245
- jurnalUploaded byHafiz Al Bajiri
- Www Engineeringtoolbox ComUploaded byVinoth Kumar
- Region 5Uploaded byEthicalhacker Cracker
- Positive Displacement PumpsUploaded byRKYADAVNITRR
- lec37.pdfUploaded byAli Alengineer
- ACW Booster Pump CalculationUploaded bygreenenergykolkata

- Chapter 2Uploaded byVivian Papas
- 5-Unsymmetrical Fault AnalysisUploaded byvirenpandya
- Rigid ClothUploaded bybdtmp01
- ANSYS_HFSS_L06_2_HFSS_3D_bcUploaded byFabiano Silveira
- accerleration practice problemsUploaded bydotyjm
- 1t1Uploaded byZankar Parikh
- ATS Test Report 34Uploaded byRami Badran
- Electrical Test EquipmentsUploaded byB Girish
- Converting Sound Energy to ElectricUploaded bysoobra
- Mini-Landslide - Activity - TeachEngineeringUploaded bycathy mojica
- Chapter 4 Electronic.pptxUploaded byThomas Cheah
- cie-a2-physics-9702-znotes.pdfUploaded byIlincaVasilescu
- 0625 s07 qp 2Uploaded byHubbak Khan
- 20620041 Electrical MotorsUploaded byAbah Hafiz Hadif
- Friction PDFUploaded byChandra Sekhar
- science standards nc 7th gradeUploaded byapi-369419673
- EC-VII-Sem-Microwave Engineering.docUploaded bysachin b
- STATIC SYNCHRONOUS SERIES COMPENSATOR (SSSC) _ Power Quality In Electrical Systems.pdfUploaded byBhushan Mankar
- Formulario de AerodinamicaUploaded byFrancisco Santiago
- 55886aaUploaded byNaveenKumar
- Sir Isaac Newton and the Three Laws of DeterminismUploaded byshayfiq
- _HW1Uploaded byCaio Cezar
- Energy Stored in Permanent MagnetsUploaded byFernandoMartínIranzo
- Mil Std 1275dUploaded byJansanem Jular
- Direction Finding SystemUploaded byBulat Bulat
- fsc xi physics chapter 8Uploaded byapi-240708799
- DFIGUploaded byShanthi Bhushan
- FM42 - ManualUploaded byAmy Farhana
- ASNT Q&A Book E Electromatic Testing 2nd Ed. Jul09 (1)Uploaded byazrulazman
- CapacitorsCapacitorsUploaded byadmircela