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RECTIFIER

Document By

SANTOSH BHARADWAJ REDDY

Email: help@matlabcodes.com

Engineeringpapers.blogspot.com

More Papers and Presentations available on above site

2) Active Power Factor Correction techniques

A single-phase diode bridge rectifier followed

by a dc-dc converter form a rectifier with active In first technique L-C filter is inserted between

power factor correction (PFC). The dc-dc converter the AC mains line and the input port of the diode rectifier

forces the input current to have same shape as the of AC-to-DC converter [1]. This technique is simple and

input voltage. A PFC boost rectifiers are also explored rugged but has bulky size and heavy weight and the

for near sinusoidal waveforms so that both power Power Factor can not be very high. In the second

factor and harmonic distortion are improved technique, Power Electronic devices are used to shape the

simultaneously. A new variation of current mode input current drawn by the AC-to-DC converter into a

control for high power factor operation of boost sinusoidal waveform and in phase with the input voltage.

rectifier is present. No input voltage sensing, no use of Thus, the Power Factor can reach almost unity and the

multitier, and no inner loop current regulator. It AC/DC interface of power converter emulates a pure

implements a different switching law for modulator resistor. Comparing with the Passive Power Factor

that extends the range of continuous conduction mode Correction methods, the Active Power Factor Correction

of operation as the actual current is equal to the techniques have many advantages such as, High Power

reference current at the end of each switching period. Factor, reduced Harmonics, small size and light weight.

The number of reset integrators used in this One of the most common and more attractive active

modulator for generation of carrier waveforms are Power Factor Correction Circuits than the other is the

two. The steady-state stability analysis of the boost Boost Power Factor Correction operating in Continuous

rectifier with the proposed predictive switching Conduction Mode (CCM) because:

modulator and a low-frequency small-signal model of The input Current is the inductor current and is

the boost rectifier are evaluated for control transfer therefore easily programmed by current mode control.

function. Controlling method is simulated The Boost inductor is in series with the AC power line

MATLAB/Simulink. so that the input current has smooth waveform (at

CCM), resulting in much less EMI and therefore

INTRODUCTION reduced input filtering requirements.

Conventional AC/DC power converters that are The power switch is referred to the ground

connected to the line through full-wave rectifier draw a

non-sinusoidal input current. Harmonic current in a

current waveform flowing through the impedances in the

electrical utility distribution system can create harmonic

voltages. These harmonics distort the local voltage

waveform; potentially interfering with other electrical

equipment connected to the same electrical service and

reduce the capability of the line to provide energy. This Fig. 1(a): Boost DC-DC Converter

fact and the presence of standards or recommendations

have forced to use power factor correction in power

supplies. The various methods of power factor

Correction can be classified as

1

voltage vm, the output of the feedback compensator. In

contrast to the voltage-follower approach, resistor

emulator with the multiplier approach operates in CCM.

The shortcoming of this technique is the variable

switching frequency.

Fig. 1(b): Boost Power Stages The above shortcoming is overcome by using PWM

Active Power factor correction techniques under Current

The boost is a popular non-isolated power stage topology, mode control. In this approach, an additional inner control

sometimes called a step-up power stage. Power supply loop is used as shown in Fig. 2, where the control voltage

designers choose the boost power stage because the vm directly controls the boost inductor current that feeds

required output voltage is always higher than the input the output stage and thus output voltage. The fact that the

voltage, is the same polarity, and is not isolated from the current feeding the output stage is controlled directly in

input. The input current for a boost power stage is current mode control has profound effect on a dynamic

continuous, or non-pulsating, because the input current is behavior of the negative feed back control loop.

the same as the inductor current. The output current for a In PWM power factor correction technique the

boost power stage is discontinuous, or pulsating, because power switching device operates at pulse-width-

the output diode conducts only during a portion of the modulation mode. Here the switch is turned on at the

switching cycle. The output capacitor supplies the entire beginning of each constant frequency switching time

load current for the rest of the switching cycle. The power

circuit of dc-dc Boost rectifier is shown in Fig. 1(a). period. The control voltage dictates Î l and the instant at

When the switch is on, the diode is reversed biased, thus which the switch is turned off, as shown in Fig. 3. The

isolating the output stage. The input supplies energy to switch remains off until the beginning of the next

the inductor as shown in Fig. 1(b). When the switch is switching cycle.

off, the output stage receives energy from the inductor as

well as from the input Fig. 1(b).

The primary tasks of a controller for PFC circuits are to:

Achieve high power factor during steady-state

operation with a constant load;

Maintain an output voltage waveform vo(t) around a

specified average value Vo(t)with low ripple;

Fig. 2: Current Mode Control

The above both control goals can be achieved, if

the controller forces the input current wave ig to have the

same shape as the input voltage vg so that input impedance

appears to be resistive, that rectifier is called a resistor

emulator. The resistor emulator not only requires a near-

unity power factor, but also low harmonic contents in the

line current. There are two traditional approaches to

control a resistor emulator, namely, the voltage follower

approach and the multiplier approach.

The voltage follower approach realizes a resistor emulator

with the constant-duty-ratio or the constant-ON-time Fig.3: Constant Freq control with turned on at Clock time

control. The control circuit is simply a voltage-mode

pulse-width-modulation (PWM) chip does not required a There are two basic controllers are proposed for the PWM

current sensor. However, the DCM or the boundary power factor correction technique, namely, Peak current

operation causes a large current stress on semiconductors mode control [6] and Average current mode control [7]

and demands more effort to attenuate the current ripple so to boost converter operating in CCM. The PWM current-

as to have a satisfactory low electromagnetic interference mode-control has many beneficial features [9].

(EMI) to the line. The multiplier approach requires The peak current mode controller and average current

relatively complicated control circuitry. This approach mode controllers are suffering from the stability problem

needs a multiplier, current sensor, sensor of the input due to the presence of inherent sub harmonic oscillations

voltage vg. The control method is based on the current if the duty ratio of the power switch is greater than 50%

mode control. The current reference is rectified line [9] and noise immunity. This problem can be over come

voltage with its amplitude modulated by the modulation

2

by using the slope compensation technique. In slope

compensation technique an additional ramp is added to the The generalized control objective of a high power factor

sensed inductor current. It increases the circuit boost rectifier can be expressed as

vg

complexity.

f (i g ) = (1)

In order to simplify the control scheme, several control Re

methods have been proposed in [7, 8] based on the

Re is the emulated resistance of the rectifier and is a

property of Quasi-steady-state operation of the CCM

function of the inductor current. This function can be

boost rectifiers, it may be called the quasi-steady-state

different for different control strategies. For example

approach. The boost rectifier power circuit and the general

NLC implements average current mode controls so for

controller structure of the NLC [8] and the LPCM [7] are

shown in Fig. 4. NLC eq. 2 is the specific expression of f (i g ) . In the

The proposed predictive switching modulator (PSM) [9] case of LPCM, this function represents peak current of

for current mode control of high power factor boost the inductor, i gp , in every switching period Ts, as given

rectifier is proposed. In this strategy the duty ratio of the by eq. 3. In a switching period the current in the inductor

switch is controlled in such a way that the estimated reaches its peak at the end of the ON time dTs, of the

inductor current will be proportional to the rectified input switch

voltage at the end of the switching period (Ts). The Ts

1

estimation of the inductor current is possible since the

input voltage is practically constant over a switching

f (i g ) nlc = i g ,av ( Ts ) =

Ts ∫i

0

g dt

(2)

period. This enables us to predict the current ripple of the

f (i g ) lpcm = i gp = i g [ dTs ]

subsequent off period during the on time of the switch

itself. The predicted off state ripple current can be added (3)

with the on state actual current to determine the current at In the proposed modulator the duty ratio of the switch is

the end of the switching period. controlled in such a way that the inductor current

becomes proportional to the rectified input voltage at the

end of each switching period. Therefore for PSM the

function of ig is given by eq. 4.

f (i g ) psm = i g [Ts ] (4)

boost rectifier. Fig. 5(b) illustrates the difference between

the control objectives of: 1) LPCM 2) NLC 3) PSM.

generalized control structure of the NLC, LPCM & PSM.

The input current waveform gets distorted in the

discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) operation of the

NLC controlled boost rectifier. The advantage of the PSM

is the extended range of continuous conduction mode

(CCM) of operation compared to the NLC. The PSM

modulator has the structure of a standard current Fig. 5(a) Generalized control objective of the carrier-

programmed controller with a compensating ramp that is based current mode controllers. (b) Switching Laws of

nonlinear. The steady-state stability condition and the Different types of carrier based current mode controllers.

low-frequency small-signal model of the PSM switched (c) Operating principle of the PSM.

boost rectifier are derived by applying standard graphical

and analytical methods of the current mode control. The For a boost rectifier the switch current is equal to the

circuit realization of the PSM modulator is simple because inductor current during ON time of the switch. In a

only two numbers of reset integrators need to be used for switching period Ts, instead of the inductor current, it is

the generation of the carrier waveform. convenient to average the switch current by carrying out

integration only over the ON time of the switch because

PREDICTIVE SWITCHING MODULATOR the switch current is zero during the rest of the period.

3

Therefore the modulator of NLC implements the control Rs is the current sense resistance of the converter and vm is

law given by eq. 5. For LPCM and PSM either the switch the input voltage to the modulator. Under closed loop

current or the inductor current can be sensed. It is operation is obtained as the output of the voltage error

advantageous to sense the switch current because of the amplifier loop. In [2] and [3], the right-hand-side

simpler current sense method and the direct protection of expressions of eq. 5 and eq. 6 are converted into suitable

the switching device. The control laws for LPCM and carrier waveforms by replacing the duty ratio term d by

PSM in terms of the switch current are given by t Ts . Similarly the carrier waveform I c ( t ) for the

dTs dTs

1 1 vg predictive switching modulator can be expressed as

di g ,av ( Ts ) = ∫ i g dt = ∫ i dt = d R

s (5) VC ( t )

Ts 0

Ts 0 e IC = =

vg RS

i g ( dTs ) = i s ( dTs ) = (6) V0 Ts t

Re t t

I ref 1 − + 1 − (13)

vg Ts L Ts Ts

i g [ Ts ] k = i s [ 0] k +1 = (7)

Re

Fig. 6 shows the block diagram of the LPCM, the NLC

It may be noted that the inductor current at the end of and the PSM control schemes. The overall control

period is equal to the current at the beginning of the next scheme resembles that of a current mode control. In the

period, or, PSM the switch is turned on at the beginning of every

vg

i g [ Ts ] k = i g [ 0] k +1 =

switching period and turned off when the duty ratio is

Re such that the condition given by eq. 4 is satisfied.

(8)

Since that switching frequency of the converter is much

higher than the frequency of the input voltage we can

assume that the input and the output voltages are constant

in a switching period. Therefore, when the converter is

operating in CCM the slope of the turn-off current can be

predicted during ON time of the switch itself. Then

instead of eq. 7, eq. 8 can be used for PSM

vg Vo − v g

i g [ dTs ] k = i s [ dTs ] k = + (1 − d ) Ts

Re L

(9)

Fig. 5(c) shows how the switching instant is determined

in PSM. The expression on the right-hand-side of eq. 8

represents the predictive current trajectory, whose initial

( )

value is ( v g R e ) + V0 − v g L Ts and the slope is

(

equal to V0 − v g L)

, the slope of the off state

Fig. 6: Block Diagram of the carrier based input-current-

shaping controllers.

inductor current. In PSM the switch turns off when the

actual current equals the predictive current trajectory or STEADY STATE STABILITY CONDITION

eq. 8 is satisfied. We can use the boost converter (a) Continuous conduction mode (CCM)

continuous conduction mode input to output conversion

equation of eq. 9 to replace v g in eq. 8 by v o and d. The steady-state carrier waveform, shown in Fig. 7(a), is

configured as a function of d=t/Ts, in the standard

Then we get eq. 10 as the duty ratio control function for

structure of

the PSM

v g =(1 −d ) V0

I c ( d ) = I ref + I comp ( d ) =

(10)

I ref − M x Ts d − M y Ts d 2 For 0 ≤ d ≤ 1

V T

i g [dTs ] = I ref (1 − d ) + 0 s d (1 − d )

V T

L where I comp (d ) = −I ref d + 0 s d(1 − d )

(11) L

V0 v m

Where I ref = = = −M x Ts d −M y Ts d

2

(12) for 0 ≤ d ≤ 1

Re Rs

4

M g2 4

K < K cp = − M 3g (21)

2 3π

It can be concluded from eq. 21, that

M 2

4

K ≥

g

− M 3g if the PSM switched boost

2 3π

rectifier remains in CCM over the entire duration, i.e. T/2

of the line half cycle. However, if the load resistance is

M g2 4

such that K < 2

− M 3g then the boost rectifier

3π

will operate stably in the DCM. In this mode a low-

frequency pattern will appear in the steady-state

waveform of Iref. The average value of Iref will be negative

in the DCM. The inductor current will not change its

Fig. 7 (a) Carrier Waveform of the PSM (b) Current conduction state in every switching period Ts. Instead, for

reference Iref and different components of the a few cycles of Ts, in which Iref > 0,the inductor current

Compensating Waveform will be continuous and in subsequent switching periods in

which Iref<0 the boost switch will not conduct at all.

(b) Discontinuous conduction mode (DCM)

The modulator proposed in above section is capable of MODEL FOR PSM

shaping the input current like input voltage as long as the

basic boost converter operates in the continuous State Space Averaging Technique

conduction mode (CCM). The objective of the analysis The goal of following analysis is to obtain a small signal

~

presented in this section is to determine the condition for v 0 (s) d (s) , where ~

transfer function ~ v 0 and ~d are

the DCM in the PSM switched boost rectifier. small perturbations in output voltage v0 and the switch

In the DCM, the inductor current is zero at the beginning duty ratio d, respectively, around their steady-state dc

In the DCM, the inductor current is zero at the beginning operating value V0 and D. only converter operating in a

of a switching period. Therefore the duty ratio of the continuous-conduction mode is discussed.

period is determined by the modulator equation

v g dTs V T

= I ref (1 − d ) + 0 s d (1 − d )

L L

(17)

But in DCM, eq. 9 is no longer valid. Instead

v g < (1 −d ) V0

(18)

Fig. 8: Linearized feedback control system

Combining eq. 17 and eq. 18 we get eq. 19 as the

condition for the DCM Using Laplace transformation in and expressing ~

x (s) in

Iref<0 (19) ~

terms of d (s ) results in the desired transfer function

The expression of the average power ( ~ P ) due to the

Tp(s) of the power stages:

ripple current in the inductor (for Iref=0) can be obtained ~

v (s)

= C[sI − A ] [ ( A 1 − A 2 ) X + ( B1 − B 2 ) Vd ] + (C

−1

from eq. 19. It is given by Tp (s) = ~0

2

~ Vgm Ts

2

Vgm M g Ts 4 d (s)

P= − (20)

4L 2LV 0 3π Low Frequency Small Signal Model for PSM

First, the low-frequency small-signal model of the boost

When the PSM switched boost rectifier is in the DCM, converter is obtained in the standard form in terms of

(

Iref<0, and the output power Vo2 R < P

~

) . The duty ratio perturbation D̂ as the control input.

condition for the DCM can be obtained as Subsequently the small-signal model of the modulator is

derived in order to replace D̂ by the perturbations in the

error amplifier output voltage V̂m and other state

5

variables V̂0 and Î g . The state space averaged model Since our objective is to derive the control transfer

of the boost converter power stage is given by [11]. We function G v (s) = V̂o (s) V̂m (s) , the rectified input

have used that model at the dc operating point of input voltage Vg is not perturbed.

voltage rms. The control gain transfer function can be obtained as

shown in eq. 23.

d g I (1−− D)

s (1 − D) 2

− −

NRC NCL

G v (s) =

1 DR s Ts R s (1 − D) 2 DR s Ts

1

s 2 + s + + + 1 −

RC NRCL NL LC NL

0

Ig

(23)

[]

The analytical model developed in this section is valid at

any input–output and load condition as long as the boost

d = t L + V

converter operates in the continuous conduction mode.

For validation of the developed low-frequency small-

signal model the operating point.

(1− D) − 1 L g

Boost compensator

In the active power factor correction converters, the input

(22) power is defined as

v g2 ( t )

Pin ( t ) = v in ( t )i in ( t ) = v g ( t )i g ( t ) = = Pin [1 − cos( 2ωf

d 0 V V0 0

Re

(24)

From the above equation we can see that, the input

power contain a low frequency component at twice of the

line frequency. This low frequency ripple will appear

d C t R C

across the output capacitor is given by

Io Po

∆v o ( t ) = sin( 2ωf t ) = sin( 2ωf t )

2ωf C o 2ωf C o Vo

(25)

where ω f is the line angular frequency (rad/s) and Po is the

output power. This holds provide that the voltage loop has a

bandwidth well below the line frequency [typically 20HZ].

A closed loop boost compensator for the outer voltage loop

can now be designed, based on the model given by eq. 23.

The Block diagram and characteristics of proposed Boost

Vgm

where Vg = compensator is shown in Fig. 9.

2

The steady state values of V0 and Ig can be obtained from

1

V0 = Vg (23)

(1 − D)

1

Ig = Vg

(1 − D) 2 R

6

A S + ωZ Fig. 10(b): Harmonic spectrum of the source current at

TC (s) = . (26) R=350 Ohm

S S + ωp

1 1 C1 + C 2

where A= , ωz = , ωp=

R 1 C1 R 2 C1 R 2 C 2 C1

Where A is positive and ωz < ωp . Due to the pole at the

origin, the phase of Tc(s) starts with -90º. The presence of

the zero provides a “boost” to be something greater than

-90º. Eventually because of the pole at ω p, the phase

angle of Tc(s) comes back down to -90º. Fig. 11(a): Source Voltage and Source current at 650

Ohm

SIMULATION RESULTS

The Simulation work is done by using

MATLAB/Simulink .The simulation diagram for the PFC

Boost rectifier with PSM is shown in Fig. 10. Simulation

result of the input current waveform is shown with the

component values given by below table.

Output Voltage, V0 400 V

Source Voltage(100V/Div), Source Current(1A/Div)

Input Inductor , L 2.5e-3H

Switching frequency, Fs 50000 Hz Fig. 11(b): Harmonic spectrum of the source current at

Gain Constant, K 0.208 R=650 Ohm

Boost Capacitance, C 470e-6F Source V

Source C

oltage

urrent

15

Load Resistance, R 1200Ω

10

5

Source Voltage(100V/Div), Source Current(1A/Div)

-5

-10

T

ime(s)

15 Source Voltage

Source Current

Fig. 12(a): Source Voltage and Source Current at (350-

10 1000) Ohm

5

-5

-10

-15

0.38 0.39 0.4 0.41 0.42 0.43 0.44 0.45 0.46

Time(s)

current at 350 Ohm

Fig. 12(b): Harmonic spectrum of the source current at R

= (350-1000) Ohm

CONCLUSION

In this thesis, a PSM for high power factor operation of

boost rectifier has been proposed. The modulator

implements the switching function in such a way that the

actual current lies on the top of a reference current profile

that has the same shape as the input voltage waveform.

This is achieved without sensing of the input voltage and

7

without the use of a multiplier in the control circuit. The [12]. F.Dong Tan and R.D. Middlebrook, “A unified

advantage of PSM is that it is able to extend the Model For Current – Programmed - Converters”, IEEE

continuous conduction mode of operation over a wide Trans. Power Electron., Vol. 10, pp.397-408, July 1995.

range of variation of, i.e., for, compared to NLC. Circuit

realization of the PSM is simple. It requires two reset

integrators instead of three as would be required for NLC. Document By

It is shown that structurally the PSM can be configured as SANTOSH BHARADWAJ REDDY

a current mode controller, with a dc reference and a linear

and a nonlinear compensating ramp. The steady-state

Email: help@matlabcodes.com

stability condition for the PSM switched boost rectifier is Engineeringpapers.blogspot.com

obtained by graphical analysis. Small-signal low-

frequency model of the boost rectifier is derived by More Papers and Presentations

perturbing the converter states and inputs at the nominal available on above site

operating point of input voltage rms.

REFERENCES

[1]. O.Garcia, LA. Cobos, R. Prieto, P. Alou, J. uceda,

“Power Factor Correction: A Survey”, IEEE Trans.

Power electron. 2001, pp.8-13.

[2]. Ned. Mohan, Tore M.Undeland, Williams P.

Robbins, “Power Electronics Converters, Applications

and Design”, John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pvt Ltd. Second

Edition, 1995

[3]. A.Panday, B. Singh, P. Kothari, “Comparative

Evaluation of Single phase unity phase unity power factor

ac-dc Boost Converter Topologies”, IE Journal-EI, Vol

85, September 2004, pp:248-353.

[4]. Zheren Lai, Keyue Ma Smedly, “A Family of

Continuous Conduction-Mode power- Factor-Correction

Controllers based on the general pulse-width modulator”,

IEEE Trans. On power electronics, Vol.13, no.3, May

1998, pp 501-510

[5]. Robert Mammano “Switching Power Supply

topology, Voltage Mode Vs Current Mode”, Unitrode

Design note. DN-62

[6]. Lioyd Dixon “Average Current Mode Control of

Switching Power Supplies” Unitrode Design note. DN-

140

[7]. J.P.Gegner and C.Q.Lee,’ Linear peak current mode

control: A simple active power factor correction control

technique for continuous conduction mode”, in Proc.

IEEE PESC’96 Conf., 1996, pp.196-202.

[8]. D.Maksimovic, Y.Jang, and R.Erikson, “Non-linear

carrier control for high power factor boost rectifiers”,

Proc. IEEE APEC’95 Conf., 1995, pp.635-641.

[9]. Souvik Chattopadhayay, V. Ramanarayanan, and V.

Jayashankar, “A Predictive Switching Modulator for

Current Mode Control of High Power Factor Boost

rectifiers”, IEEE Trans. On Power Electronics, vol. 18,

No.1, Jan. 2003

[10]. Unitrode Application Note “Modeling, Analysis and

Compensation of the Current Programmed Converters”,

U-97

[11]. R.D. Middlebook and S.M.C’ui, “A general unified

approach to modeling switching converter power stages,”

in Proc. IEEE PESC’76 conf., 1976, pp. 18-34.

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