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ABSTRACT 1) Passive Power Factor Correction techniques

2) Active Power Factor Correction techniques
A single-phase diode bridge rectifier followed
by a dc-dc converter form a rectifier with active In first technique L-C filter is inserted between
power factor correction (PFC). The dc-dc converter the AC mains line and the input port of the diode rectifier
forces the input current to have same shape as the of AC-to-DC converter [1]. This technique is simple and
input voltage. A PFC boost rectifiers are also explored rugged but has bulky size and heavy weight and the
for near sinusoidal waveforms so that both power Power Factor can not be very high. In the second
factor and harmonic distortion are improved technique, Power Electronic devices are used to shape the
simultaneously. A new variation of current mode input current drawn by the AC-to-DC converter into a
control for high power factor operation of boost sinusoidal waveform and in phase with the input voltage.
rectifier is present. No input voltage sensing, no use of Thus, the Power Factor can reach almost unity and the
multitier, and no inner loop current regulator. It AC/DC interface of power converter emulates a pure
implements a different switching law for modulator resistor. Comparing with the Passive Power Factor
that extends the range of continuous conduction mode Correction methods, the Active Power Factor Correction
of operation as the actual current is equal to the techniques have many advantages such as, High Power
reference current at the end of each switching period. Factor, reduced Harmonics, small size and light weight.
The number of reset integrators used in this One of the most common and more attractive active
modulator for generation of carrier waveforms are Power Factor Correction Circuits than the other is the
two. The steady-state stability analysis of the boost Boost Power Factor Correction operating in Continuous
rectifier with the proposed predictive switching Conduction Mode (CCM) because:
modulator and a low-frequency small-signal model of  The input Current is the inductor current and is
the boost rectifier are evaluated for control transfer therefore easily programmed by current mode control.
function. Controlling method is simulated  The Boost inductor is in series with the AC power line
MATLAB/Simulink. so that the input current has smooth waveform (at
CCM), resulting in much less EMI and therefore
INTRODUCTION reduced input filtering requirements.
Conventional AC/DC power converters that are  The power switch is referred to the ground
connected to the line through full-wave rectifier draw a
non-sinusoidal input current. Harmonic current in a
current waveform flowing through the impedances in the
electrical utility distribution system can create harmonic
voltages. These harmonics distort the local voltage
waveform; potentially interfering with other electrical
equipment connected to the same electrical service and
reduce the capability of the line to provide energy. This Fig. 1(a): Boost DC-DC Converter
fact and the presence of standards or recommendations
have forced to use power factor correction in power
supplies. The various methods of power factor
Correction can be classified as

voltage vm, the output of the feedback compensator. In
contrast to the voltage-follower approach, resistor
emulator with the multiplier approach operates in CCM.
The shortcoming of this technique is the variable
switching frequency.
Fig. 1(b): Boost Power Stages The above shortcoming is overcome by using PWM
Active Power factor correction techniques under Current
The boost is a popular non-isolated power stage topology, mode control. In this approach, an additional inner control
sometimes called a step-up power stage. Power supply loop is used as shown in Fig. 2, where the control voltage
designers choose the boost power stage because the vm directly controls the boost inductor current that feeds
required output voltage is always higher than the input the output stage and thus output voltage. The fact that the
voltage, is the same polarity, and is not isolated from the current feeding the output stage is controlled directly in
input. The input current for a boost power stage is current mode control has profound effect on a dynamic
continuous, or non-pulsating, because the input current is behavior of the negative feed back control loop.
the same as the inductor current. The output current for a In PWM power factor correction technique the
boost power stage is discontinuous, or pulsating, because power switching device operates at pulse-width-
the output diode conducts only during a portion of the modulation mode. Here the switch is turned on at the
switching cycle. The output capacitor supplies the entire beginning of each constant frequency switching time
load current for the rest of the switching cycle. The power
circuit of dc-dc Boost rectifier is shown in Fig. 1(a). period. The control voltage dictates Î l and the instant at
When the switch is on, the diode is reversed biased, thus which the switch is turned off, as shown in Fig. 3. The
isolating the output stage. The input supplies energy to switch remains off until the beginning of the next
the inductor as shown in Fig. 1(b). When the switch is switching cycle.
off, the output stage receives energy from the inductor as
well as from the input Fig. 1(b).


The primary tasks of a controller for PFC circuits are to:
 Achieve high power factor during steady-state
operation with a constant load;
 Maintain an output voltage waveform vo(t) around a
specified average value Vo(t)with low ripple;
Fig. 2: Current Mode Control
The above both control goals can be achieved, if
the controller forces the input current wave ig to have the
same shape as the input voltage vg so that input impedance
appears to be resistive, that rectifier is called a resistor
emulator. The resistor emulator not only requires a near-
unity power factor, but also low harmonic contents in the
line current. There are two traditional approaches to
control a resistor emulator, namely, the voltage follower
approach and the multiplier approach.
The voltage follower approach realizes a resistor emulator
with the constant-duty-ratio or the constant-ON-time Fig.3: Constant Freq control with turned on at Clock time
control. The control circuit is simply a voltage-mode
pulse-width-modulation (PWM) chip does not required a There are two basic controllers are proposed for the PWM
current sensor. However, the DCM or the boundary power factor correction technique, namely, Peak current
operation causes a large current stress on semiconductors mode control [6] and Average current mode control [7]
and demands more effort to attenuate the current ripple so to boost converter operating in CCM. The PWM current-
as to have a satisfactory low electromagnetic interference mode-control has many beneficial features [9].
(EMI) to the line. The multiplier approach requires The peak current mode controller and average current
relatively complicated control circuitry. This approach mode controllers are suffering from the stability problem
needs a multiplier, current sensor, sensor of the input due to the presence of inherent sub harmonic oscillations
voltage vg. The control method is based on the current if the duty ratio of the power switch is greater than 50%
mode control. The current reference is rectified line [9] and noise immunity. This problem can be over come
voltage with its amplitude modulated by the modulation

by using the slope compensation technique. In slope
compensation technique an additional ramp is added to the The generalized control objective of a high power factor
sensed inductor current. It increases the circuit boost rectifier can be expressed as
f (i g ) = (1)
In order to simplify the control scheme, several control Re
methods have been proposed in [7, 8] based on the
Re is the emulated resistance of the rectifier and is a
property of Quasi-steady-state operation of the CCM
function of the inductor current. This function can be
boost rectifiers, it may be called the quasi-steady-state
different for different control strategies. For example
approach. The boost rectifier power circuit and the general
NLC implements average current mode controls so for
controller structure of the NLC [8] and the LPCM [7] are
shown in Fig. 4. NLC eq. 2 is the specific expression of f (i g ) . In the
The proposed predictive switching modulator (PSM) [9] case of LPCM, this function represents peak current of
for current mode control of high power factor boost the inductor, i gp , in every switching period Ts, as given
rectifier is proposed. In this strategy the duty ratio of the by eq. 3. In a switching period the current in the inductor
switch is controlled in such a way that the estimated reaches its peak at the end of the ON time dTs, of the
inductor current will be proportional to the rectified input switch
voltage at the end of the switching period (Ts). The Ts
estimation of the inductor current is possible since the
input voltage is practically constant over a switching
f (i g ) nlc = i g ,av ( Ts ) =
Ts ∫i
g dt
period. This enables us to predict the current ripple of the
f (i g ) lpcm = i gp = i g [ dTs ]
subsequent off period during the on time of the switch
itself. The predicted off state ripple current can be added (3)
with the on state actual current to determine the current at In the proposed modulator the duty ratio of the switch is
the end of the switching period. controlled in such a way that the inductor current
becomes proportional to the rectified input voltage at the
end of each switching period. Therefore for PSM the
function of ig is given by eq. 4.
f (i g ) psm = i g [Ts ] (4)

Fig. 5(a) shows the generalized control objective of the

boost rectifier. Fig. 5(b) illustrates the difference between
the control objectives of: 1) LPCM 2) NLC 3) PSM.

Fig. 4: Power circuit of the 1-Φ PFC rectifier with the

generalized control structure of the NLC, LPCM & PSM.
The input current waveform gets distorted in the
discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) operation of the
NLC controlled boost rectifier. The advantage of the PSM
is the extended range of continuous conduction mode
(CCM) of operation compared to the NLC. The PSM
modulator has the structure of a standard current Fig. 5(a) Generalized control objective of the carrier-
programmed controller with a compensating ramp that is based current mode controllers. (b) Switching Laws of
nonlinear. The steady-state stability condition and the Different types of carrier based current mode controllers.
low-frequency small-signal model of the PSM switched (c) Operating principle of the PSM.
boost rectifier are derived by applying standard graphical
and analytical methods of the current mode control. The For a boost rectifier the switch current is equal to the
circuit realization of the PSM modulator is simple because inductor current during ON time of the switch. In a
only two numbers of reset integrators need to be used for switching period Ts, instead of the inductor current, it is
the generation of the carrier waveform. convenient to average the switch current by carrying out
integration only over the ON time of the switch because
PREDICTIVE SWITCHING MODULATOR the switch current is zero during the rest of the period.

Therefore the modulator of NLC implements the control Rs is the current sense resistance of the converter and vm is
law given by eq. 5. For LPCM and PSM either the switch the input voltage to the modulator. Under closed loop
current or the inductor current can be sensed. It is operation is obtained as the output of the voltage error
advantageous to sense the switch current because of the amplifier loop. In [2] and [3], the right-hand-side
simpler current sense method and the direct protection of expressions of eq. 5 and eq. 6 are converted into suitable
the switching device. The control laws for LPCM and carrier waveforms by replacing the duty ratio term d by
PSM in terms of the switch current are given by t Ts . Similarly the carrier waveform I c ( t ) for the
dTs dTs
1 1 vg predictive switching modulator can be expressed as
di g ,av ( Ts ) = ∫ i g dt = ∫ i dt = d R
s (5) VC ( t )
Ts 0
Ts 0 e IC = =
vg RS
i g ( dTs ) = i s ( dTs ) = (6)    V0 Ts  t  
Re t t
I ref 1 −  +   1 −  (13)
vg  Ts   L  Ts  Ts 
i g [ Ts ] k = i s [ 0] k +1 = (7)
Fig. 6 shows the block diagram of the LPCM, the NLC
It may be noted that the inductor current at the end of and the PSM control schemes. The overall control
period is equal to the current at the beginning of the next scheme resembles that of a current mode control. In the
period, or, PSM the switch is turned on at the beginning of every
i g [ Ts ] k = i g [ 0] k +1 =
switching period and turned off when the duty ratio is
Re such that the condition given by eq. 4 is satisfied.
Since that switching frequency of the converter is much
higher than the frequency of the input voltage we can
assume that the input and the output voltages are constant
in a switching period. Therefore, when the converter is
operating in CCM the slope of the turn-off current can be
predicted during ON time of the switch itself. Then
instead of eq. 7, eq. 8 can be used for PSM
vg  Vo − v g 
i g [ dTs ] k = i s [ dTs ] k = +  (1 − d ) Ts
Re  L 

Fig. 5(c) shows how the switching instant is determined
in PSM. The expression on the right-hand-side of eq. 8
represents the predictive current trajectory, whose initial
( )
value is ( v g R e ) + V0 − v g L Ts and the slope is
equal to V0 − v g L)
, the slope of the off state
Fig. 6: Block Diagram of the carrier based input-current-
shaping controllers.
inductor current. In PSM the switch turns off when the
actual current equals the predictive current trajectory or STEADY STATE STABILITY CONDITION
eq. 8 is satisfied. We can use the boost converter (a) Continuous conduction mode (CCM)
continuous conduction mode input to output conversion
equation of eq. 9 to replace v g in eq. 8 by v o and d. The steady-state carrier waveform, shown in Fig. 7(a), is
configured as a function of d=t/Ts, in the standard
Then we get eq. 10 as the duty ratio control function for
structure of
the PSM
v g =(1 −d ) V0
I c ( d ) = I ref + I comp ( d ) =
I ref − M x Ts d − M y Ts d 2 For 0 ≤ d ≤ 1
V T 
i g [dTs ] = I ref (1 − d ) +  0 s d (1 − d )
V T 
 L  where I comp (d ) = −I ref d +  0 s d(1 − d )
(11)  L 
V0 v m
Where I ref = = = −M x Ts d −M y Ts d
(12) for 0 ≤ d ≤ 1
Re Rs

 M g2 4 
K < K cp =  − M 3g  (21)
 2 3π 
 
It can be concluded from eq. 21, that
M 2
4 
K ≥
− M 3g if the PSM switched boost
 2 3π 

rectifier remains in CCM over the entire duration, i.e. T/2
of the line half cycle. However, if the load resistance is
 M g2 4 
such that K <   2
− M 3g  then the boost rectifier

 3π 
will operate stably in the DCM. In this mode a low-
frequency pattern will appear in the steady-state
waveform of Iref. The average value of Iref will be negative
in the DCM. The inductor current will not change its
Fig. 7 (a) Carrier Waveform of the PSM (b) Current conduction state in every switching period Ts. Instead, for
reference Iref and different components of the a few cycles of Ts, in which Iref > 0,the inductor current
Compensating Waveform will be continuous and in subsequent switching periods in
which Iref<0 the boost switch will not conduct at all.
(b) Discontinuous conduction mode (DCM)
The modulator proposed in above section is capable of MODEL FOR PSM
shaping the input current like input voltage as long as the
basic boost converter operates in the continuous State Space Averaging Technique
conduction mode (CCM). The objective of the analysis The goal of following analysis is to obtain a small signal
presented in this section is to determine the condition for v 0 (s) d (s) , where ~
transfer function ~ v 0 and ~d are
the DCM in the PSM switched boost rectifier. small perturbations in output voltage v0 and the switch
In the DCM, the inductor current is zero at the beginning duty ratio d, respectively, around their steady-state dc
In the DCM, the inductor current is zero at the beginning operating value V0 and D. only converter operating in a
of a switching period. Therefore the duty ratio of the continuous-conduction mode is discussed.
period is determined by the modulator equation
v g dTs V T 
= I ref (1 − d ) +  0 s d (1 − d )
L  L 
But in DCM, eq. 9 is no longer valid. Instead
v g < (1 −d ) V0

Fig. 8: Linearized feedback control system
Combining eq. 17 and eq. 18 we get eq. 19 as the
condition for the DCM Using Laplace transformation in and expressing ~
x (s) in
Iref<0 (19) ~
terms of d (s ) results in the desired transfer function
The expression of the average power ( ~ P ) due to the
Tp(s) of the power stages:
ripple current in the inductor (for Iref=0) can be obtained ~
v (s)
= C[sI − A ] [ ( A 1 − A 2 ) X + ( B1 − B 2 ) Vd ] + (C
from eq. 19. It is given by Tp (s) = ~0
~ Vgm Ts
Vgm M g Ts 4 d (s)
P= − (20)
4L 2LV 0 3π Low Frequency Small Signal Model for PSM
First, the low-frequency small-signal model of the boost
When the PSM switched boost rectifier is in the DCM, converter is obtained in the standard form in terms of
Iref<0, and the output power Vo2 R < P
) . The duty ratio perturbation D̂ as the control input.
condition for the DCM can be obtained as Subsequently the small-signal model of the modulator is
derived in order to replace D̂ by the perturbations in the
error amplifier output voltage V̂m and other state

variables V̂0 and Î g . The state space averaged model Since our objective is to derive the control transfer
of the boost converter power stage is given by [11]. We function G v (s) = V̂o (s) V̂m (s) , the rectified input
have used that model at the dc operating point of input voltage Vg is not perturbed.
voltage rms. The control gain transfer function can be obtained as
shown in eq. 23.

 d g   I (1−− D)
 s (1 − D) 2 
− − 
G v (s) =
 1 DR s Ts R s   (1 − D) 2  DR s Ts

 1 
s 2 + s + +  +  1 −
 RC NRCL NL   LC  NL

     Ig 

The analytical model developed in this section is valid at
any input–output and load condition as long as the boost

d  = t L +   V
converter operates in the continuous conduction mode.
For validation of the developed low-frequency small-
signal model the operating point.

 (1− D) − 1     L g
Boost compensator
In the active power factor correction converters, the input
(22) power is defined as
v g2 ( t )
Pin ( t ) = v in ( t )i in ( t ) = v g ( t )i g ( t ) = = Pin [1 − cos( 2ωf

 d 0  V   V0 0
From the above equation we can see that, the input

 
power contain a low frequency component at twice of the
line frequency. This low frequency ripple will appear

 d   C t R  C
across the output capacitor is given by
Io Po
∆v o ( t ) = sin( 2ωf t ) = sin( 2ωf t )
2ωf C o 2ωf C o Vo
where ω f is the line angular frequency (rad/s) and Po is the
output power. This holds provide that the voltage loop has a
bandwidth well below the line frequency [typically 20HZ].
A closed loop boost compensator for the outer voltage loop
can now be designed, based on the model given by eq. 23.
The Block diagram and characteristics of proposed Boost
where Vg = compensator is shown in Fig. 9.
The steady state values of V0 and Ig can be obtained from
V0 = Vg (23)
(1 − D)

Ig = Vg
(1 − D) 2 R

Fig. 9: Boost Compensator

A S + ωZ Fig. 10(b): Harmonic spectrum of the source current at
TC (s) = . (26) R=350 Ohm
S S + ωp
1 1 C1 + C 2
where A= , ωz = , ωp=
R 1 C1 R 2 C1 R 2 C 2 C1
Where A is positive and ωz < ωp . Due to the pole at the
origin, the phase of Tc(s) starts with -90º. The presence of
the zero provides a “boost” to be something greater than
-90º. Eventually because of the pole at ω p, the phase
angle of Tc(s) comes back down to -90º. Fig. 11(a): Source Voltage and Source current at 650
The Simulation work is done by using
MATLAB/Simulink .The simulation diagram for the PFC
Boost rectifier with PSM is shown in Fig. 10. Simulation
result of the input current waveform is shown with the
component values given by below table.

Rectified Input Voltage, Vg 220V

Output Voltage, V0 400 V
Source Voltage(100V/Div), Source Current(1A/Div)
Input Inductor , L 2.5e-3H
Switching frequency, Fs 50000 Hz Fig. 11(b): Harmonic spectrum of the source current at
Gain Constant, K 0.208 R=650 Ohm
Boost Capacitance, C 470e-6F Source V
Source C
Load Resistance, R 1200Ω

Source Voltage(100V/Div), Source Current(1A/Div)



0.85 0.86 0.87 0.88 0.89 0.9 0.91


15 Source Voltage
Source Current
Fig. 12(a): Source Voltage and Source Current at (350-
10 1000) Ohm



0.38 0.39 0.4 0.41 0.42 0.43 0.44 0.45 0.46

Fig. 10(a): Wave form of Source Voltage and Source

current at 350 Ohm
Fig. 12(b): Harmonic spectrum of the source current at R
= (350-1000) Ohm

In this thesis, a PSM for high power factor operation of
boost rectifier has been proposed. The modulator
implements the switching function in such a way that the
actual current lies on the top of a reference current profile
that has the same shape as the input voltage waveform.
This is achieved without sensing of the input voltage and

without the use of a multiplier in the control circuit. The [12]. F.Dong Tan and R.D. Middlebrook, “A unified
advantage of PSM is that it is able to extend the Model For Current – Programmed - Converters”, IEEE
continuous conduction mode of operation over a wide Trans. Power Electron., Vol. 10, pp.397-408, July 1995.
range of variation of, i.e., for, compared to NLC. Circuit
realization of the PSM is simple. It requires two reset
integrators instead of three as would be required for NLC. Document By
It is shown that structurally the PSM can be configured as SANTOSH BHARADWAJ REDDY
a current mode controller, with a dc reference and a linear
and a nonlinear compensating ramp. The steady-state
stability condition for the PSM switched boost rectifier is
obtained by graphical analysis. Small-signal low-
frequency model of the boost rectifier is derived by More Papers and Presentations
perturbing the converter states and inputs at the nominal available on above site
operating point of input voltage rms.
[1]. O.Garcia, LA. Cobos, R. Prieto, P. Alou, J. uceda,
“Power Factor Correction: A Survey”, IEEE Trans.
Power electron. 2001, pp.8-13.
[2]. Ned. Mohan, Tore M.Undeland, Williams P.
Robbins, “Power Electronics Converters, Applications
and Design”, John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pvt Ltd. Second
Edition, 1995
[3]. A.Panday, B. Singh, P. Kothari, “Comparative
Evaluation of Single phase unity phase unity power factor
ac-dc Boost Converter Topologies”, IE Journal-EI, Vol
85, September 2004, pp:248-353.
[4]. Zheren Lai, Keyue Ma Smedly, “A Family of
Continuous Conduction-Mode power- Factor-Correction
Controllers based on the general pulse-width modulator”,
IEEE Trans. On power electronics, Vol.13, no.3, May
1998, pp 501-510
[5]. Robert Mammano “Switching Power Supply
topology, Voltage Mode Vs Current Mode”, Unitrode
Design note. DN-62
[6]. Lioyd Dixon “Average Current Mode Control of
Switching Power Supplies” Unitrode Design note. DN-
[7]. J.P.Gegner and C.Q.Lee,’ Linear peak current mode
control: A simple active power factor correction control
technique for continuous conduction mode”, in Proc.
IEEE PESC’96 Conf., 1996, pp.196-202.
[8]. D.Maksimovic, Y.Jang, and R.Erikson, “Non-linear
carrier control for high power factor boost rectifiers”,
Proc. IEEE APEC’95 Conf., 1995, pp.635-641.
[9]. Souvik Chattopadhayay, V. Ramanarayanan, and V.
Jayashankar, “A Predictive Switching Modulator for
Current Mode Control of High Power Factor Boost
rectifiers”, IEEE Trans. On Power Electronics, vol. 18,
No.1, Jan. 2003
[10]. Unitrode Application Note “Modeling, Analysis and
Compensation of the Current Programmed Converters”,
[11]. R.D. Middlebook and S.M.C’ui, “A general unified
approach to modeling switching converter power stages,”
in Proc. IEEE PESC’76 conf., 1976, pp. 18-34.