Gender Equalty in Major World Religions

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1 Contents
1 2 3 Contents ...................................................................................................................... 2 Introduction................................................................................................................. 5 Hinduism..................................................................................................................... 6 3.1 Hinduism – Basic Facts ...................................................................................... 6 3.2 Teachings of Hinduism which support equality ................................................. 6 3.2.1 Hinduism – Scripture Quotes 1................................................................... 6 3.2.2 Hinduism – Scripture Quotes 2................................................................... 6 3.2.3 Hinduism – Scripture Quotes 3................................................................... 7 3.2.4 Hinduism – Scripture Quotes 4................................................................... 7 3.2.5 Hinduism – Scripture Quotes 5................................................................... 7 3.2.6 Hinduism – Scripture Quotes 6................................................................... 8 3.2.7 Hinduism – Scripture Quotes 7................................................................... 8 3.2.8 Women Sages and God as Female.............................................................. 9 3.2.9 Women priests ............................................................................................ 9 3.2.10 Examples of Famous Hindu Women in History ......................................... 9 3.2.11 Examples of Modern Hindu Women ........................................................ 10 3.3 Teachings of Hinduism which do not support equality .................................... 10 3.3.1 Hinduism – Scripture Quotes 1................................................................. 10 3.3.2 Hinduism – Scripture Quotes 2................................................................. 11 3.3.3 Hinduism – Scripture Quotes 3................................................................. 11 3.3.4 Hinduism – Scripture Quotes 4................................................................. 11 3.3.5 Hinduism – Scripture Quotes 5................................................................. 12 3.3.6 Hinduism – Scripture Quotes 6................................................................. 12 3.3.7 Hinduism – Scripture Quotes 7................................................................. 13 3.3.8 Hinduism – Scripture Quotes 8................................................................. 13 3.3.9 Hinduism – Scripture Quotes 9................................................................. 14 3.3.10 Hinduism – Scripture Quotes 10............................................................... 14 3.3.11 Hinduism – Scripture Quotes 11............................................................... 15 3.3.12 Hinduism – Scripture Quotes 12............................................................... 15 3.3.13 Hinduism – Scripture Quotes 13............................................................... 15 3.4 Hinduism - Summary........................................................................................ 16 4 Jainism ...................................................................................................................... 17 4.1 Jainism - Basic Facts......................................................................................... 17 4.2 Teachings of Jainism which support equality................................................... 17 4.2.1 Jainism – Scripture Quotes 1 .................................................................... 17 4.2.2 Jainism – Scripture Quotes 2 .................................................................... 17 4.3 Teachings of Jainism which do not support equality........................................ 18 4.3.1 Jainism – Scripture Quotes 1 .................................................................... 18 4.3.2 Jainism – Scripture Quotes 2 .................................................................... 18 4.3.3 Jainism – Scripture Quotes 3 .................................................................... 19 4.3.4 Jainism – Scripture Quotes 4 .................................................................... 20 4.3.5 Jainism – Scripture Quotes 5 .................................................................... 20 4.3.6 Jainism – Scripture Quotes 6 .................................................................... 20 4.4 Jainism - Summary ........................................................................................... 21

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Buddhism .................................................................................................................. 22 5.1 Buddhism – Basic Facts:................................................................................... 22 5.2 Teachings of Buddhism which support equality............................................... 22 5.2.1 Buddhism – Scripture Quotes 1 ................................................................ 22 5.2.2 Buddhism – Scripture Quotes 2 ................................................................ 23 5.2.3 Buddhism – Scripture Quotes 3 ................................................................ 23 5.2.4 Buddhism – Recent Developments........................................................... 23 5.3 Teachings of Buddhism which do not support equality.................................... 24 5.3.1 Buddhism – Scripture Quotes 1 ................................................................ 24 5.3.2 Buddhism – Scripture Quotes 2 ................................................................ 24 5.3.3 Buddhism – Scripture Quotes 3 ................................................................ 25 5.3.4 Buddhism – Scripture Quotes 4 ................................................................ 25 5.3.5 Buddhism – Scripture Quotes 5 ................................................................ 26 5.4 Buddhism - Summary ....................................................................................... 26 6 Taoism....................................................................................................................... 28 6.1 Taoism – Basic Facts: ....................................................................................... 28 6.2 Teachings of Taoism which support equality ................................................... 28 6.2.1 Taoism – Scripture Quotes 1..................................................................... 28 6.2.2 Taoism – Scripture Quotes 2..................................................................... 28 6.2.3 Taoism – Scripture Quotes 3..................................................................... 29 6.2.4 Taoism – Basic Philosophy....................................................................... 29 6.3 Teachings of Taoism which do not support equality ........................................ 29 6.3.1 Taoism – Scripture Quotes 1..................................................................... 29 6.3.2 Taoism – Scripture Quotes 2..................................................................... 30 6.3.3 Taoism – Scripture Quotes 3..................................................................... 30 6.3.4 Taoism – Scripture Quotes 4..................................................................... 30 6.4 Taoism – Summary ........................................................................................... 31 7 Islam.......................................................................................................................... 32 7.1 Islam – Basic Facts ........................................................................................... 32 7.2 Teachings of Islam which support equality ...................................................... 32 7.2.1 Islam – Scripture Quote 1 ......................................................................... 32 7.2.2 Islam – Scripture Quote 2 ......................................................................... 32 7.2.3 Islam – Scripture Quote 3 ......................................................................... 33 7.2.4 Islam – Scripture Quote 4 ......................................................................... 33 7.2.5 Islam – Scripture Quote 5 ......................................................................... 33 7.2.6 Islam – Scripture Quote 6 ......................................................................... 34 7.2.7 Examples of Famous Muslim Women through History ........................... 34 7.3 Teachings of Islam which do not support equality ........................................... 35 7.3.1 Islam – Scripture Quote 1 ......................................................................... 35 7.3.2 Islam – Scripture Quote 2 ......................................................................... 35 7.3.3 Islam – Scripture Quote 3 ......................................................................... 35 7.3.4 Islam – Scripture Quote 4 ......................................................................... 36 7.3.5 Islam – Scripture Quote 5 ......................................................................... 36 7.3.6 Islam – Scripture Quote 6 ......................................................................... 36 7.3.7 Islam – Scripture Quote 7 ......................................................................... 36 7.3.8 Islam – Scripture Quote 8 ......................................................................... 37

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7.3.9 Islam – Scripture Quote 9 ......................................................................... 37 7.3.10 Islam – Scripture Quote 10 ....................................................................... 37 7.3.11 Islam – Scripture Quote 11 ....................................................................... 38 7.3.12 Islam – Scripture Quote 12 ....................................................................... 38 7.3.13 Islam – Scripture Quote 13 ....................................................................... 38 7.3.14 Islam – Scripture Quote 14 ....................................................................... 39 7.3.15 Islam – Scripture Quote 15 ....................................................................... 39 7.3.16 Islam – Scripture Quote 16 ....................................................................... 40 7.4 Islam - Summary............................................................................................... 40 8 Christianity................................................................................................................ 41 8.1 Christianity – Basic Facts ................................................................................. 41 8.2 Teachings of Christianity which support equality ............................................ 41 8.2.1 Christianity – Scripture Quote 1 ............................................................... 41 8.2.2 Christianity – Scripture Quote 2 ............................................................... 41 8.2.3 Examples of Christian Women ................................................................. 42 8.3 Teachings of Christianity which do not support equality ................................. 42 8.3.1 Christianity – Scripture Quote 1 ............................................................... 42 8.3.2 Christianity – Scripture Quote 2 ............................................................... 42 8.3.3 Christianity – Scripture Quote 3 ............................................................... 43 8.3.4 Christianity – Scripture Quote 4 ............................................................... 43 8.3.5 Christianity – Scripture Quote 5 ............................................................... 43 8.3.6 Christianity – Scripture Quote 6 ............................................................... 44 8.3.7 Christianity – Scripture Quote 7 ............................................................... 44 8.3.8 Christianity – Scripture Quote 8 ............................................................... 45 8.4 Christianity – Summary .................................................................................... 45 9 Sikhism ..................................................................................................................... 46 9.1 Sikhism Basic Facts: ......................................................................................... 46

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2 Introduction
This essay will focus solely on the status of women in world religions from the following 4 sources: • Scriptural quotations • The sayings and actions of the Prophets / Messiahs / Avtaars / Gurus as recorded by accepted records • Famous women through history • Current examples of famous women and current position / rights of women The essay has divided the points made regarding women using the following categories • Against Equality • Neutral • For Equality Each faith group will also have a summary with regards to its position on equality between men and women. There study into gender equality will be limited to the following religions Indian / Chinese Religion Focus Hinduism Jainism Buddhism Taoism Abrahamic Religion Focus Islam Christianity

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The Mahabharata.2.ProjectNaad. I am the Lord of Brahma. the all.3 Hinduism 3.1 Hinduism – Scripture Quotes 1 God is described as both Male and Female which implies both are equal Scripture: Ekakshara Upanishad Translated by Dr. Yajur. I will take care of them. A. Aryama. Atharva) and Smriti which are written to explain the Sruti writings.com/EkaksharaUpanishad. if he or she dies at Banares. the Year.2. Thou art the boy and the girl. Nothing exists other than Myself. The Ramayana • Yogasutras of Sage Patanjali • Manu Smriti 3. The smriti works include: • 18 Main Puranas • Bhagwad Gita. he attains My Sayujya state." 3. I initiate all with the Taraka Mantra.htm “Thou alone art the woman. the man. Thou art the ordainer.astrojyoti.com/bhasmajabalaupanishad.2 Hinduism – Scripture Quotes 2 Ability for both men and women to attain salvation Scripture: Bhasma-Jabala Upanishad http://www.com Page 6 of 54 . Other sinners www. again. the King Varuna.2 Teachings of Hinduism which support equality 3. G.1 Hinduism – Basic Facts Age of Religion: Number of followers: 5000+ years 850 million Hindu scriptures are divided into 2 categories which include Sruti which is divine revelation and includes only: • 108 Upanishads • Vedas (Rig. Sama.astrojyoti. Vishnu and Rudra. Krishna Warrier http://www. The most corrupt man or woman will attain Moksha.htm “By performing My Abhisheka. Those who want Mukti should live at Banares.

3 Hinduism – Scripture Quotes 3 God is again described as having 2 different facets. A. woman is Savitri.com Page 7 of 54 . Rudra is Veda.astrojyoti.htm “The moon is Savitar and stars are Savitri. Scripture: Savitri Upanishad Translated by Dr. Prostrations to Him and Her. Uma is Svaha. He reaches the full length of life.com/SavitriUpanishad. everybody should try to live at Banares which is My Pranalinga Itself. Uma is Sastra. Prostrations to Him and Her. One needs to exist for the other to exist. Prostrations to Him and Her. Uma is Vedi.astrojyoti. Rudra is Agni.will be fried in burning pits of live coals after death. Rudra is moon. Prostrations to Him and Her. becomes great with offspring and cattle.2. Rudra is Sun. Krishna Warrier http://www.” 3. Uma is Lakshmi. Rudra is Yajna. They form one pair of sources.htm “Rudra is man.4 Hinduism – Scripture Quotes 4 Nature as described as pairs.” 3. and great also with fame. lives gloriously. Scripture: Rudra-Hridaya Upanishad http://www.ProjectNaad.astrojyoti.com/RudraHridayaUpanishad.” www. Uma is star. there are the stars (and vice versa) – these two are twin sources. He who thus knows this Vamadevya Saman as woven in a couple becomes one of the couple and procreates. Rudra is Brahma.com/chandogyaupanishad. both of which are worthy of veneration and praise. Prostrations to Him and Her. Prostrations to Him and Her.2. Uma is Sarasvati. Uma is shadow. Rudra is day.5 Hinduism – Scripture Quotes 5 Women are not to be despised Scripture: The Chandogya Upanishad Translated by Swami Swahananda http://www. Prostrations to Him and Her. Uma is night. G. Uma is woman. Where there is the moon. Man is Savitar.2. His holy vow is that he should not despise any woman. Where there is a man there is a woman and vice versa. Rudra is Vishnu. Therefore. Prostrations to Him and Her.” 3.htm “The Vamadevya Saman is woven in a couple.

Where women are honoured. clothes.” “59.” “60.” 3. Let your father be a god unto you. and (dainty) food. pronounce a curse.” “62.2. but if she is destitute of beauty. who desire (their own) welfare.7 Hinduism – Scripture Quotes 7 Mother to be treated as God Scripture: Taittiriya Upanishad http://www. not being duly honoured. Let your mother be a goddess unto you. no children will be born.” “57. For if the wife is not radiant with beauty. the whole house is bright. but not the others. Chapter 3 http://www.com/hin/manu/manu03. no sacred rite yields rewards.” www.com/taittiriyaupanishad. The works that are not blameworthy are to be resorted to.2. should always honour women on holidays and festivals with (gifts of) ornaments.htm “55. and brothers-in-law. Where the female relations live in grief. Let your teacher be a god unto you. Let your guest be a god unto you. but if she has no attractions for him. where the husband is pleased with his wife and the wife with her husband. happiness will assuredly be lasting. perish completely. to maintain a family unit and for happiness Scripture: Manu Smriti. Hence men who seek (their own) welfare.” “61. she will not attract her husband.com Page 8 of 54 . If the wife is radiant with beauty.htm “There should be no error in the duties towards the gods and manes.astrojyoti. the family soon wholly perishes. all will appear dismal. there the gods are pleased.3. In that family.” “58. Women must be honoured and adorned by their fathers.6 Hinduism – Scripture Quotes 6 Women must be honoured to ensure the gods are happy. but where they are not honoured.sacred-texts. as if destroyed by magic. husbands.ProjectNaad. brothers.” “56. The houses on which female relations. but that family where they are not unhappy ever prospers.

10 Examples of Famous Hindu Women in History Gargi. Queen of Jhansi . the dawn. She devoted her life to the worship of Lord Shiva. Bring us food and morning's ray. was known as Brahmavadini Akka Mahadevi also known as Akka (elder sister) Mahadevi was a 12th century religious poet. The Vedic pantheon of Gods includes a substantial number of female goddesses.Lakshmi Bai led an uprising against a takeover of her homeland by the British. In Calcutta she became known as the Holy Mother and gave spiritual instruction and initiation to many people.9 Women priests Women can become priests in Hindu Dharma 3. Bring us light.com Page 9 of 54 . Rani Avantibai raised an army of four thousand men and led it herself against the British in 1857 Sarojini Naidu was a freedom fighter and the first Indian woman as Governor of West Bengal after the partition. She became a heroine and a symbol of resistance to the British rule.2.2. much like Meera. the wise and learned daughter of Rishi (sage) Vachaknu.3. Sri Sarada Devi was born in Bengal in 1853 to devout Brahmin parents. White-robed goddess of the morning sky. Her rule became proverbial for justice and wisdom. Mira Bai was a female saint and poetd drenched in the colour of love to Sri Krishna.ProjectNaad. 3.2. all power. is female and is the divine feminine power found in everything. Grant us wealth and grant us day. of which 17 were women In Hinduism. www.8 Women Sages and God as Female There were 407 Sages associated with the revelation of Rig Veda. Shakti. There are beautiful hymns to Usha. Mira was a well known devotee of God n the 16th century Queen Ahilya Bai Holkar ruled the Holkar kingdom from 1694-1766. let night's deep shadows fly. imagined as an alluring young woman: Beautous daughter of the sky! Hold they ruddy light on high.

3. 3. one shall be happy after abandoning worldly life. Woman is the bait stuck in the fish-hook at the string of evil propensity to catch men in the form of fish that are in the pond of worldly life and that are active in the mud of the mind. A. where is the scope for enjoyment to one who is without woman ? Discarding woman is discarding worldly life. A. Ma Yoga Shakti Academic Shakuntala Devi . Women pleasing and cruel. Silly women are the nets spread by the hunter called Cupid to entangle the bodies of men in the form of birds. who are the strong caskets (to preserve) all gems of evil and are the chains of misery. difficult to touch but pleasing to the eyes are (verily) the flames of the fire of sin and they burn men as though they were straw. Anandamayi.ProjectNaad.3 Teachings of Hinduism which do not support equality 3.” www. The Mother.Bhagini Nivedita inspired people in all walks of life through her lectures and writings Mother Mirra developed Integral Yoga 3. Shree Maa. are the fuel for the hell-fires.com/YajnavalkyaUpanishad. Gurumayi Chidvilasananda.11 Examples of Modern Hindu Women Today there are plenty of Hindu women role models is all spheres of life including: Political Indra Ghandi – Prime Minister of India Spiritual Sharda Devi. forever. women.holds an undisputed place in the Guinness Book of Records for multiplying in 1980 two randomly chosen 13-digit numbers and giving the correct answer in 28 seconds. that inflame even at a distance and though juicy (loveable) are devoid of moisture (flavour).1 Hinduism – Scripture Quotes 1 Women are described as evil agents of cupid designed to destroy men Scripture: Yajnavalkya Upanishad Translated by Prof.2.com Page 10 of 54 .astrojyoti. Amritanandmayi Devi.htm “Having (attractive) tresses and putting on collyrium. Ramanathan http://www. Enough of women to me. He who has a woman with him has desire for enjoyment.

4 Hinduism – Scripture Quotes 4 Women are regarded as sin traps who will bring misery to men Scripture: Maha Upanishad Translated by Dr. attains the same world of. though living in the world. Devas and men.ProjectNaad. A. who regards a beautiful woman as a (living) corpse and the endless sensual objects as poison and who has abandoned all passion and is indifferent towards all objects is no other than Vasudeva. he becomes freed at once from all sins.” 3. keeps aloof from human congregation as from serpent.” 3. No better means than this is to be seen in all the Vedas.com/KaliSantaranaUpanishad.) myself.htm “Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare Hare Krishna Hare Krishna Krishna Krishna Hare Hare. These (sixteen names) destroy the Avarana (or the centripetal force which produces the sense of individuality) of Jiva surrounded by the sixteen Kalas (rays).2 Hinduism – Scripture Quotes 2 Having sex with a low caste women is considered a sin Scripture: Kali-Santarana Upanishad Translated by K.com/VarahaUpanishad. or proximity with.com Page 11 of 54 .htm www. or the same form of. He is at once released from all bondage.com/MahaUpanishad.3. These sixteen names (words) are destructive of the evil effects of Kali. Whoever utters three and a half Crores (or thirty-five millions) times this Mantra composed of sixteen names (or words) crosses the sin of the murder of a Brahmana. He becomes purified from the sin of cohabitation with a woman of low caste. Parabrahman (alone) shines. Narayanasvami Aiyar http://www. He becomes purified from the sin of the theft of gold.astrojyoti. utters these always. what are the rules to be observed with reference to it ?" To which Brahma replied that there were no rules for it. That he is at once released from all bondage is the Upanishad. Then like the sphere of the sun which shines fully after the clouds (screening it) disperse." Narada asked: ‘O Lord.astrojyoti. Narayanasvami Aiyar http://www.3.3 Hinduism – Scripture Quotes 3 This Upanishad encourages the practice of looking at women as dead beings to avoid attraction Scripture: Varaha Upanishad Translated by K. Having given up all Dharmas.htm “That Paramahamsa (ascetic) who. Whoever in a pure or an impure state.3. G. Krishna Warrier http://www. He is purified from the sins of wrong done to Pitris.astrojyoti. (viz.3.. or absorption into Brahma.

bones and knots ? Why are you deluded. in the cemetery and corners of the directions. The goal of asceticism is not one (and the same) heaven.com/SannyasaUpanishad.ProjectNaad. and a woman in he courses. spread by the hunter. A.htm “If one sorely afflicted recovers. separate the skin.” 3.com Page 12 of 54 .astrojyoti. flesh. Ramanathan http://www. pleasing to the eye but not to be touched. The Turiyatita and the Avadhuta ascetics attain supreme bliss in themselves by deeply meditating on the true nature of the Self according to the maxim of the wasp.” www.6 Hinduism – Scripture Quotes 6 Women are to be regarded as poison Scripture: Narada-Parivrajaka Upanishad Translated by Prof. The Bahudaka ascetic (gains) heaven (Svarga). the world of truth (Satya-loka). blood and tears and then look at the body. Ramanathan http://www. one fallen from virtue. nor witnessing (temple) festivals. Is it attractive ? The pearl necklace on the breast is like the current of Ganga on Meru (fleeting and ephemeral) – the same breast is eaten by dogs at the due time like a lump of food.htm “On seeing a young handsome woman (he) becomes inflamed with passion. I will have none of this woman who is the basket of all defects – gems – the chain of misery. the string of wickedness to men who are the fish in the pond of birth (life) and moving in the mud of mind. The ascetic has no worship of gods.3. A. The sorely afflicted and the Kutichaka ascetics gain the worlds Bhur and the Bhuvas respectively. Only he with a woman has desire for enjoyment. where is enjoyment for one who has no woman ? Giving up women means giving up the world. Manmatha.“What is auspicious about woman – a puppet of flesh – moved by a machine in the cage of the body – having nerves. have the soot of hair. renunciation in the prescribed order should be embraced.3. A. and drinking liquor he becomes intoxicated. (An ascetic) shall not converse with a low caste woman. they burn man like grass. Women are the traps to catch the birds – men. Women are the fuel lovely.com/NaradaParivrajakaUpanishad. Therefore he shall avoid from afar a woman who is poison to the eye. of the fires of all blazing at a distance whether they have taste (attachment) or not.” 3.astrojyoti.5 Hinduism – Scripture Quotes 5 Speaking with a low caste woman is regarded as a hindrance to Heaven Scripture: Sannyasa Upanishad Translated by Prof. by this one shall be happy. A. Women are the flame of sin. the lump of bait. The Hamsa ascetic. yet harmful.

The man who brought us unto this.com/hinduism/vedas/yajur_veda_kanda2. 19 Cast down thine eyes and look not up.comparative-religion.' The son born of intercourse with (a woman) with stained garments is accursed. but of other sap at will. but in another's he delights.ProjectNaad.comparative. (the son born) of one who cuts her nails has bad nails. 17 Indra himself hath said.' They said. (the son born) of one who weaves ropes is unrestrained. draw his car: High-lifted is the stallion's yoke.com Page 13 of 54 . 'Woman's food is unguent. They took a third of his guilt. hast become a dame. Her intellect hath little weight.' Therefore from the pruning of trees more (shoots) spring up. Or rather of the sap which is red or which comes from the pruning one should not partake [4]. (the son born) of one who drinks from a leaf is drunken. for that was what they chose as a boon. nor eat her food. (the son born) of one who combs her hair is bald and feeble. O Soma-drinker. 16 Neither in thy decree nor mine. Prapathaka V http://www. 'From pruning shall more (shoots) spring up for you. (the son born) of one who cleans her teeth has dirty teeth. rushing on in their wild transport. They took a third part of his guilt. Kanda 2. a Brahman. and enjoy intercourse at will up to birth. for that was what they chose as a boon.3.com/hinduism/vedas/rig_veda_mandala8. He appealed to a concourse of women. therefore one should not partake of sap. let us enjoy intercourse at will up to birth. (the son born) of intercourse in the forest is a thief.8 Hinduism – Scripture Quotes 8 A menstruating women is considered bad Scripture: Yajur Veda.7 Hinduism – Scripture Quotes 7 Women are regarded as undisciplined with little intellect Scripture: Rig Veda http://www.php “He replied. (the son born) of intercourse with a woman bathing is fated to drown.3. 'Take the third of my guilt. (the son born) of one who drinks from a www. it became (a woman) with stained garments. (the son born) of intercourse with a (woman) who turns away is shamefaced and retiring. let us obtain offspring from after the menses. therefore one should not converse with (a woman) with stained garments [5].php “15 O thou Most Lofty One.' Therefore women obtain offspring from after the menses. for it is the colour of guilt. Heavenly Lord. May our libations be most sweet to make thee glad.3. accept our laud as nearest to thine heart. one should not sit with her. More closely set thy feet. The mind of woman brooks not discipline. and there fore one should not accept (from her) unguent. Or rather they say. Let none see what thy garment veils. (the son born) of one who anoints (her eyes) is blind. but anything else (can be accepted) at will. for she keeps emitting the colour of guilt. (the son born) of one who [6] anoints herself has a skin disease. it became sap.religion. for thou.” 3. 18 His pair of horses. 'Let us choose a boon. (the son born) of one who spins is a eunuch.

“ 3. Chapter 3 http://www.sacred-texts. A shepherd.htm “16.10 Hinduism – Scripture Quotes 10 Menstruating women considered bad. For three nights he should keep a vow and should drink from his hand or from a perfect vessel. associates of a remarried woman are bad and a menstruating women should be avoided. For the wisdom.” “239. and the vitality of a man who approaches a woman covered with menstrual excretions. A Kandala. a menstruating woman. the energy.” “147.” “205. Chapter 4 http://www.” 3. But he who.com/hin/manu/manu03. a cock.” “166. by one who sacrifices for a multitude of men. a village pig. alone).9 Hinduism – Scripture Quotes 9 Marriage to a low caste woman is a sin. even in her own house. According to Atri and to (Gautama) the son of Utathya.3. He who has vomited or purged shall bathe. bathing is prescribed for him who has had intercourse with a woman. a dog.” www. according to Saunaka on the birth of a son.sacred-texts. Scripture: Manu Smriti. to guard his offspring. utterly perish. and according to Bhrigu he who has (male) offspring from a (Sudra female. being invited to a Sraddha.mutilated (vessel) is mutilated. A Brahmana must never eat (a dinner given) at a sacrifice that is offered by one who is not a Srotriya. by a young woman. and a carrier of dead bodies. By a girl. a keeper of buffaloes.com Page 14 of 54 . dallies with a Sudra woman. let him only sip water. by a woman. or even by an aged one. and a eunuch must not look at the Brahmanas while they eat. but if (the attack comes on) after he has eaten.htm “41. he who weds a Sudra woman becomes an outcast.com/hin/manu/manu04. nothing must be done independently.” “191. the husband of a remarried woman.3. takes upon himself all the sins which the giver (of the feast) committed. and afterwards eat clarified butter.ProjectNaad. (all these) must be carefully avoided. the sight.” “144. Scripture: Manu Smriti. sex with a women is considered impure and women should not be allowed independence. or by a eunuch. the strength.

for. on the banks of the river www. pay the double of her (nuptial) fee. his master may take his possessions.com/literature/puranas/VISHNU. and. Her father protects (her) in childhood. these three are declared to have no property.htm Many years ago there used to be a king known as Shatadhanu. violates the duty which she owes to her lord. I will now propound the eternal laws for a husband and his wife who keep to the path of duty. but shall pay a fine of two hundred (panas) in order to deter him from a repetition (of the offence). But a woman who pollutes a damsel shall instantly have (her head) shaved or two fingers cut off.3.” “2.3.11 Hinduism – Scripture Quotes 11 Unequal laws for men and women including the death penalty. proud of the greatness of her relatives or (her own) excellence. Together.dharmakshetra. they must be kept under one's control.ProjectNaad. If a wife. Chapter 9 http://www.sacred-texts. A damsel who pollutes (another) damsel must be fined two hundred (panas). as that (slave) can have no property. and a slave.sacred-texts.htm “1. and be made to ride (through the town) on a donkey.” “3.3. and receive ten (lashes with a) rod.” 3. His wife Shaivya was a religious woman.” “370.com Page 15 of 54 .com/hin/manu/manu08.13 Hinduism – Scripture Quotes 13 Women were encouraged to practice Sati (burning of the widow on the funeral pyre) Scripture: Vishnu Purana http://www. and her sons protect (her) in old age.” 371.” “369. her husband protects (her) in youth. Chapter 8 http://www. 416. 3. the king shall cause her to be devoured by dogs in a place frequented by many. if they attach themselves to sensual enjoyments.3. a woman is never fit for independence. a son. A wife. whether they be united or separated. the wealth which they earn is (acquired) for him to whom they belong. they used to pray to Vishnu. A man (of) equal (caste) who defiles a willing maiden shall not suffer the amputation of his fingers.com/hin/manu/manu09. A Brahmana may confidently seize the goods of (his) Sudra (slave).htm “368.12 Hinduism – Scripture Quotes 12 Women should be kept in dependence Scripture: Manu Smriti. body mutilation and no property allowed Scripture: Manu Smriti. Day and night woman must be kept in dependence by the males (of) their (families). 417.

Balarama and other important Yadavas and performed their shraddha ceremonies. And the city of Dvaraka was swallowed up by the sea. 3.Summary Pros • Hindus worship both male and female aspects of God • Both men and women can attain salvation • Mother to be treated as god • Wife is a key for a happy family unit Cons • Women are considered as sin traps for men • Menstruating women are considered impure • Women are considered to have little intellect and discipline • It is encouraged to think of a woman as dead • Unequal laws for women regarding death penalty. Some years later. Arjuna found the dead bodies of Krishna. They were not interested in other things.ProjectNaad. but Shaivya did not. Krishna’s eight major wives died on Krishna’s funeral pyre. The peacock had a bath at the time of the sacrifice. Rohini. Husband and wife went to heaven. The kali era began. body mutilation and property • Low caste women are bad in general • Women to be kept in dependence • Sati (burning of widow on funeral pyre) sanctioned since the time of Krishna as something honourable www.4 Hinduism . The others left Dvaraka with Arjuna. it died. the parijata tree and the assembly hall named Sudharma returned to heaven. Urgasena. When Shaivya reminded the peacock of its earlier life.Bhagirathi. When he died. his son became the ruler of the kingdom of Videha. Revati did the same on Balarama’s . As soon as Krishna died. In this life Shatadhanu performed many sacrifices and gave many alms. with the exception of Krishna’s own dwelling. Shatadhanu died and Shaivya also died with him on the funeral pyre. Shatadhanu spoke to this person. After Janaka died. He had several sons and ruled the kingdom and the earth well.com Page 16 of 54 . It was now born as the son of Janaka and Shaivya agreed to marry him. King Janaka was performing an ashvamedha sacrifice. Shaivya again died on the funeral pyre with him. Devaki and Vasudeva also entered a fire. One day a fraudulent teacher came to them.

&c.2. nor one monk and two nuns. nor two monks and two nuns.htm “During the Paggusan.RULES FOR YATIS http://www. (38) During the Paggusan. &c. But if there is a fifth person. The primary scripture of the Jains are called Agams and are compiled into twelve separate parts. then rub and clean his alms bowl.2 Teachings of Jainism which support equality 4. go to the place where he is lodged. (see § 32. (through the four cases as in § 28). putting his things together. then they are allowed to stand there together. &c. he should. a male or female novice. Samiti-Guptisutra http://www.2. The same rule applies to a nun and a layman. (39)” 4.ProjectNaad. but he is not allowed to pass the night in the former place.com/scriptures/samansuttam26. a Sthavira or a Sthavirâ or if that place can be seen (by those who pass) or doors open on it. he is not allowed to pass there his time with the food he had collected before.1 Jainism – Scripture Quotes 1 Same rules for monks and nuns Scripture: THE KALPA SUTRA OF BHADRABAHU . (see § 32.1 Jainism . then they are allowed to stand there together. down to) tree.com/book/kalpa_sutra/kalpa11.4 Jainism 4. (36) During the Paggusan. acknowledging the beautiful attributes of a mother Scripture: SamanSuttam. It is not allowed that there at the same place should stand together a monk and a lay woman. But if there is a fifth person.com Page 17 of 54 . known as the dwadashangi (twelve parts). 4. (see § 32. while the sun has not yet set. (37) It is not allowed that there at the same place should stand together one monk and one nun. and. or if that place can be seen (by those who pass) of doors open on it.jainworld. The last Jina was Vardhamana also known as Lord Mahavira.jainworld. down to) tree. down to) tree. nor two monks and one nun.2 Jainism – Scripture Quotes 2 The following 8 virtues are called the mother precepts. But he should first eat and dring his pure (food and drink). &c.Basic Facts Age of Religion: Number of followers: 2600+ years 5 million There are twenty-four great Jaina teachers.asp www.

com Page 18 of 54 .asp He observes the most difficult but pious virtue of celibacy. control of speech and control of body (i.1 Jainism – Scripture Quotes 1 The company is women is considered bad. that place is to be used to sleep which is disassociated from women. (and) (monk) should choose right place to dwell. www. animals. receiving and keeping down of things and excreting are five Samitis (acts of carefulnes): control of mind. to perform meditatihttp://www. (113) One. who are goddesses on this earth and are even adorned by gods. etc and (he) should be detached from sounds and beauty (form). 9. speech.2 Jainism – Scripture Quotes 2 Women should be avoided by males if they want to obtain salvation to avoid sexual thoughts in the mind Scripture: Prashmartiprakranam. talking.“(A) Asta-Pravacana-Mata .htm Alms should be accepted in accordance with the rules (prescribed in Acaranga). can easily cross the river Ganges. one is blessed whose grass of youthful life remains unburnt by this fire.htmon (or study).ProjectNaad. who has crossed an ocean. begging alms. purity) must be maintained in respect of walking. can overcome other temptations of his life as easily as a person. utensils. actions) are three guptis. who overcomes desires for association with women. procurement of provisions and taking food.com/book/prasamarati_prakarana/PP24.3 Teachings of Jainism which do not support equality 4. clothing.jainworld. (115) But there are women endowed with stern character. carefulness (Lit. (116) The sexual fire fed by the trees of desires can burn the forest of the three world. (117) 4.jainworld. renowned far and wide.Eight Mother PreceptsVigilance in walk. However it also mentions that some women are goddesses on Earth Scripture: SamanSuttam. Similarly a monk who moves in the company of women looses his character.3. (384)” 4. eunuch. All are eight in number.jainworld. (112) Just as a jar made of lac (sealing wax) when placed near fire soon gets melted and perished.com/scriptures/samansuttam9. for evacuating bowels.3.com/book/prasamarati_prakarana/PP24. (114) Just as women become censurable by men observing celibacy. Ath Aacharadhikar: ll8ll http://www. Dharmasutra http://www. similarly men become censurable by women observing celibacy.e. who does not entertain evil thoughts even after looking at all the organs of woman.

then how is it that. 11.com Page 19 of 54 . in) this or the next world (but only at liberation). 14. in their mind (there is) crookedness of a varied type. Women cannot effect (complete) exhaustion of Karmas.3. The religion preached by great saints (i. 9. Therefore the Jinas have prescribed for them an emblem befitting their nature (i. As a matter of fact. even though they are pure in faith. in between their breasts and in the parts of their naval and armpit. 10. The nature of these (viz.htm “6.e. 8.)? 7.).” www. In their case there is always the mental mobility and fickleness and the periodical oozing of blood (at the time of monthly course) wherein grow subtle human organisms. liberation is not said to be possible for women in that very birth.. their inherent nature and as because they are advised to wear clothing (which will hinder any opportunity of salvation) Scripture: Pravachansara http://www. 116-119. and for him (that monk) who is wholeheartedly engrossed in observing the teachings described in Acaranga. women) is naturally full of negligence (Pramada).3 Jainism – Scripture Quotes 3 Women are not considered capable of salvation due to their menstrual cycle. the Tirthankaras) does not aim at (happiness etc. (and) this code of conduct for monks narrated in eighteen thousand words (in Acaranga) observed in due order roots out the attachment etc. therefore these women (pramada) are said to be plentifully negligent. that are endowed with family. there is never any slit of time. are called nuns (sramani). therefore an alternative (ascetic) emblem is prescribed for women befitting them.. consisting of clothing etc.ProjectNaad. form and age and practise that course. In fact. women are liable to infatuation.jainworld. fear and disgust. and hence they are designated as pramada.He (monk) should serve (other monks) in reciprocal manner.com/book/pravachansara/index. He should have firm faith in five great vows and must be completely free from all kinds of attachments. are endowed with scriptural study and practise a severe course of conduct. and hence they need clothing. in this religion. 12 There is said to be the growth of subtle organisms in the female organ of generation. women are prescribed an alternative ascetic emblem consisting of clothing etc. There is not a single woman. therefore they cannot attain liberation (in that very birth).. 4. their limbs are not closed (?) (samudam). those. in the whole world who is without even one of these above faults.. where he will meet with defeat. then how can selfcontrol be possible for them? 13.e. aversion.

Acharya Kund Kund http://www. purified by righteous living and righteous faith. 58. cautious in speech or keeping silent. without ties. and free from possessions.com Page 20 of 54 . and sexless and immoral persons.5 Jainism – Scripture Quotes 5 Women are given the same status as animals and immoral people Scripture: Ashta Pahuda. 23.com/scriptures/ashtapahuda4. Purified by austerity.asp “56.3. women.asp www. (They) endure distress and hardships and always live in uninhabited places. using a stone slab. One who observes the five great vows.ProjectNaad.” 4.jainworld.6 Jainism – Scripture Quotes 6 Teaching and educating women is considered to be a road to hell Scripture: Ashta Pahuda.4 Jainism – Scripture Quotes 4 Women are enjoined to wear a minimum 1 piece of clothing with which they may not obtain emancipation Scripture: Ashta Pahuda. The second class of insignia is said to be that of a holy layman (allowed only a loincloth) who wanders about to beg for food and eats it off a leaf. Even a Tirthankara cannot achieve perfection with clothing. piece of wood or bare ground for all purposes. nudity is the one path to emancipation.” 4. 22. purified highly by right faith. and the three restraints (of thought. Thus has been described briefly according to the Jina's path (renunciation) full of the virtue of self-realisation.asp “20.4. he is on the way to emancipation and is adorable. the (main) vows and virtue. 21. 59. purified by (other) pure attributes. Company not kept with animals.com/scriptures/ashtapahuda2. 57. such is renunciation said to be. Acharya Kund Kund http://www. Acharya Kund Kund http://www.jainworld.jainworld.3.com/scriptures/ashtapahuda7.3. word and deed) is a sanyat (a man of self-control). The insignia for women are taking only one meal (in the day) putting on one piece of clothing even for a recluse and eating with clothing on. such is renunciation said to be. according to the Jina's scripture. the rest are all wrong paths. wicked stories avoided and (time spent in) study and meditation.

imparts instruction to them in faith. 4. lacks (propriety of) conduct.18. Thus has been stated Linga Pahuda as preached by all the Enlightened ones. a recluse though always living among saints and possessed of great learning is one with a lost soul. One who. a lost soul. is a beast and not holy man. one with soul lost. One who. feels a great deal of affection for householders and disciples.4 Jainism . flatters her and nourishes his body acquires a childish nature. not a holy man. winning the confidence of womenfolk.com Page 21 of 54 . knowledge and conduct is also verily fallen and degraded. 20. whoever follows it assiduously reaches the highest status. With such activities. 21.ProjectNaad. 22. not a holy man. devoid of true renunciation. not a holy man.Summary Pros • Qualities of a mother are regarded highly • Rules for Yatis are the same for men and women • Some women are regarded as goddesses on Earth Cons • A menstruating women is considered bad • Women are given the same status as animals and immoral people • Teaching and educating women is considered bad for a male • Women are enjoined to wear 1 piece of clothing which will automatically close the door of salvation • Women should generally be avoided if a male is looking for emancipation www. He who always takes food at the house of a flirt. 19.

All of them had www. Lankavatara. There were also innumerable Bhikshunis headed by Maha-Prajapati.html “Moreover. hundred billions of Bodhisattvas appeared as Sravakas and came to join the congregation. Scripture: Tathagata's Unimaginable State Sutra http://www2. The Tibetian Canan consists of 2 parts including the bKángjur ("Translation of the Word of the Buddha") and the bStan-'gyur ("Translations of the Teachings") The Chinese Canon is called the Ta-ts'ang-ching or "Great Scripture Store” and consists of 1076 texts in 480 cases.com Page 22 of 54 .2." and the Abhidhamma Pitaka or "Basket of Higher Teachings". Ananda. There are 9 main Mahayanist Sutras called the 9 Dharmas which include Prajna paramita. Ganda-Vyuha.5 Buddhism 5.1 Buddhism – Basic Facts: Age of Religion: Number of followers: 2500+ years 376 million Teachings focus on the Buddha (the enlightened one) Buddhist scriptures vary according to the particular type of Buddhism and include: Tripitaka which is the main scripture for Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism. Suvarna-Prabhasa. It is called the Tipitaka or "Three Baskets" because it includes the Vinaya Pitaka or "Basket of Discipline. Dasabhumisvara) 5. Revata. Maha-Maudgalyayana. Aniruddha." the Sutta Pitaka or "Basket of Discourses. All of them had practiced the Six-Paramitas for a long time. Devadatta. Upandanda. Subhuti.fodian. Saddharma-Pundarika. Ajnata-Kaundinya.ProjectNaad. Samadhiraja.2 Teachings of Buddhism which support equality 5. Upali. Lalita-Vistara. The Pali canon is the complete scripture collection of the Theravada school.net/old/English/301. Tathagata-Guhyaka. and had already been very close to the Bodhi of Buddhas.1 Buddhism – Scripture Quotes 1 Buddhist Nuns had achieved Nirvana and their incarnation as a woman was to help inferior living beings. they appeared as Sravakas in this defiled world. Maha-Kasyapa. Rahula. The names of their leaders are: Shariputra. and so on. In order to enlighten living beings.

” 5.org/dharma/amitabhasutra. Shariputra. bisexual persons. black and purple dyes all together. high officials.2. they practice the same mediations. eunuchs.purifymind. Bhiksus. Bhiksunis.2 Buddhism – Scripture Quotes 2 Both men and women are given the opportunity to listen to religious discourse Scripture: Brahma Net Sutra http://www. In the FWBO we feel that no one should be excluded from the process of higher human development [Enlightenment] . what do you think? Why is it called Sutra which all Buddhas protect and bear in mind? Shariputra. prostitutes. formed by blending blue. asexual persons. laymen. or demons and ghosts of all types. everything in the Order is open to women and men. princes. if a good man or good woman hears this sutra and upholds it.com/BrahmaNetSutra. slaves.” 5. and will attain non-retreat from anuttarasamyaksambodhi. libertines. yellow.” 5.3 Buddhism – Scripture Quotes 3 Salvation is open for men and women Scripture: Amitabha Sutra http://www.htm “40. in order to soothe the inferior living beings. “ www. level of education. colour. and hears the names of all these Buddhas.com Page 23 of 54 . or social position. Discrimination in Conferring the Precepts A disciple of the Buddha should not be selective and show preference in conferring the Bodhisattva precepts. the gods in the eighteen Brahma Heavens or the six Desire Heavens. all of you should believe and accept my words and the words all Buddhas speak.2. they exercise the same functions at public centers. red.ProjectNaad.2. Buddhist disciples should be instructed to wear robes and sleep on cloth of a neutral color.already accomplished the meritorious virtues of great and wise men.kings. They are fundamentally committed to gender equality as can be seen in the following passage: “At the [heart] of the FWBO we therefore find a unified Order of women and men. whether on grounds of sex.4 Buddhism – Recent Developments The Friends of the Western Buddhist Order are a group of Buddhists who promote a revised form of Buddhism in Britain (as well as other places around the world). laywomen. this good man or good woman will also be one whom all Buddhas protect and bear in mind.asp “Shariputra. race.drba. Each and every person can receive the precepts -. and so on. they take the same ordination and vows. study the same texts. they appeared as women. Therefore.

Garu-Dhamma. Out of great compassion for the ladies. But when the Venerable Ananda asked the Buddha whether women were not capable of attaining Magga and Phala Insight. suckling him when his mother died. dust-laden with swollen feet.1 Buddhism – Scripture Quotes 1 The Buddha allows women to join the priesthood but only if they follow 8 special rules.bayarea. "It is hard for such a one to be born directly into Buddhist surroundings.5.” 5. dejected. The Buddha continued to stand firm (denied permission). the Buddha replied that women were indeed capable of doing so. Those rules involve a subordination of Bhikkhunis to Bhikkhus. "It is hard for such a one to be born with all his organs in perfect condition. "It is hard for such a one to escape being a woman and be born a man.net/ebooks_s. "It is hard for such a one to be born in China.net/~mtlee/42.3 Teachings of Buddhism which do not support equality 5. Scripture: Guide to TipiTaka .Pali Buddhist Canonical Scriptures http://www. tearful. she should be permitted to join the Order and become a bhikkhuni. "It is hard for such a one to cultivate faith in his mind. the Venerable Ananda interceded with the Buddha on their behalf and entreated him to accept them in the Order. "It is hard for such a one to attain to the Bodhi-heart. standing and weeping. "it is hard for such a one to attain to (the state where) nothing is practised and nothing manifested.txt “36.buddhanet." www. Thereupon Ananda made his entreaties again saying that Mahapajapati had been of great service to the Buddha waiting on him as his guardian and nurse. "It is hard for such a one to come in contact with the Way.2 Buddhism – Scripture Quotes 2 A woman is regarded as lower than a man Scripture: The Sutra of 42 Sections Spoken by the Buddha Translated by Upasaka Chu Chan http://www4.com Page 24 of 54 . let such acceptance mean her admission to the Order. The Buddha said: "It is hard for one to leave the grosser forms of incarnation and be born a human being.ProjectNaad.3. And as women were capable of attaining the Magga and Phala Insight.htm “The venerable Ananda saw them outside the gateway of the Kitagara Hall. The Buddha finally acceded to Ananda’s entreaties: “Ananda if Mahapajapati accepts eight special rules.3. provided they left the household life like their menfolk.

he should not enter into an apartment with her alone. he should.htm 4.4 Buddhism – Scripture Quotes 4 Women are compared to evil destinies and suffering Scripture: Sutra of the Merit and Virtue of the Past Vows of the Medicine Master http://www. but catechise such as keep to the religion. he must have another monk with him or constantly think of the Buddha.sacred-texts. speak freely. He must be constant in avoiding a nun who is fond of banter and chatter. no evil destinies. and immoral men. The merit. always firm and undaunted. 13. and with such as sell meat he should avoid having any intercourse. windows. 6. 7. nor other sensual persons.htm "Moreover. he should also shun the young wives and girls in families. musicians. and adornments of his Buddhaland. and adornments of this land are identical to those of the Western Land of Ultimate miss. But when one comes to him to question him about the law for the sake of superior enlightenment. and no sounds of suffering. With any persons who slay animals of various kind for the sake of profit. Medicine Master Vaidurya Light Tathagata. towers.3.3 Buddhism – Scripture Quotes 3 A monk should avoid talk with women to avoid inappropriate thoughts in the mind Scriptre: SADDHARMA-PUNDARÎKA http://www. He ought not to court conceited men. That Buddhaland has always been completely pure. wrestlers. He must shun the society of whoremongers. palace pavilions. there are no women. www. and other people of that sort. and latticework are all made of the seven treasures. And when the sage has to preach for a woman. 5. 10. He must never address them to ask after their health. 14. He should not frequent whores. virtue. He must also avoid such monks as follow the precepts of the Arhat [of the Gainas].com/bud/lotus/lot13. if I were to speak for an eon or more about the great vows made by the World Honored One. 11. Manjusri. he must also avoid notoriously loose female lay devotees. He must also avoid intercourse with vendors of pork and mutton. 8.5. with golden cords lining the roads. 12.com/OldWeb/resources/sutras/medicine_sutra. studios. He should have no intercourse with women and hermaphrodites. the first is called Universally Radiant Sunlight.ProjectNaad. "Residing in that land are two Bodhisattvas Mahasattvas. When he has often to enter a village in quest of food. 5. at any time. 9.buddhistdoor. nor stay to banter.com Page 25 of 54 . This is called the proper conduct of a Bodhisattva. He should shun any intercourse with such female lay devotees as seek their highest happiness in this transient world. he must avoid any exchange of civility with them. The city walls. The ground is made of vaidurya. virtue. players. when he practiced the Bodhisattva Way and about the merit.3. I could not finish.

edu/Clubs/buddhism/sutras/fmeznbj.4 Buddhism .and the second.ic. belts.com Page 26 of 54 . shoes. They are the leaders among the immeasurable. Because of this drain on the mother's body whereby the child takes milk for its nourishment.5 Buddhism – Scripture Quotes 5 The intellect of a mother is regarded as having little wisdom because they spend large amounts of time looking after children. perfumes. Each child drinks one thousand two hundred gallons of its mother's milk. However this same Sutra talks about the 10 types of Kindness that a mother gives her baby. When women are alive. powders." 5. they put on cosmetics. uncountable hosts of Bodhisattvas in that land and will be the successors to that Buddha. Manjusri. all that is left are their bones. They are able to maintain the precious treasury of the proper Dharma of the World Honored One." 5. so that they clearly assume a male appearance.Summary Pros • Both men and women can attain salvation and listen to scripture • Women can become Nuns • There currently exist Buddhist groups which offer complete equality between men and women. Most women in the world have little wisdom and are saturated with emotion. when men are alive in the world they adorn their bodies with robes. Yet. once men and women die. the mother becomes worn and haggard and so her bones turn black in color and are light in weight. then when they die their bones will be heavy and white in color. hats and other fine attire. How does one tell them apart? Please teach us how you are able to distinguish them.3. all good men and women who have faith should vow to be born in that Buddha's land. "World Honored One. feeling that this is their duty. make obeisance to the Triple Jewel.sunysb. Medicine Master Vaidurya Light Tathagata. listen to explanations of Sutras and Vinaya texts. However these are “new” modified versions of the original system Cons • Women have traditionally been able to join the order as long as an extra set of rules are followed • A woman is regarded lower than a man www. Universally Radiant Moonlight. They give birth to and raise children.html Ananda said to the Buddha. "If when men are in the world. Scripture: Filial Piety Sutra Translated by Upasika Terri Nicholson http://www. and recite the Buddha's names.ProjectNaad. so that they clearly assume a female appearance. Therefore. Each child relies on its mother's milk for life and nourishment. and that milk is a transformation of the mother's blood. and elegant fragrances to adorn their bodies." The Buddha answered Ananda. they enter temples.

ProjectNaad.• • • Monks are encouraged to avoid women to avoid inappropriate thoughts occurring in the mind Women are compared to evil destinies and suffering The Buddha considers a mother to have little wisdom and she spends a large proportion of her time looking after children www.com Page 27 of 54 .

your feet are firmly planted on the path that returns to the Tao. Scripture: I Ching or Book of Changes http://www.2.2 Taoism – Scripture Quotes 2 Women are given the responsibility of maintaining the family unit. When you extend your virtue in all directions without discriminating. also.html www.akirarabelais.1 Taoism – Basic Facts: Age of Religion: Number of followers: 2500+ years 20 million The founder of Taoism is believed by many to be Lao-Tse (604-531 BCE). Together they form a natural tai chi.com/i/i. The first practice is the practice of undiscriminating virtue: take care of those who are deserving.com Page 28 of 54 ." or "The Book of the Way") is believed to have been written by Lao-Tse. the way to peace and how a ruler should lead his life.ProjectNaad. take care of those who are not.awok. It describes the nature of life. These time-honored disciplines calm the mind and bring one into harmony with all things. Chuang-tzu (named after its author) contains additional teachings. Only those who increase their service along with their understanding can be called men and women of Tao.2 Teachings of Taoism which support equality 6.6 Taoism 6. 6.2. a contemporary of Confucius.1 Taoism – Scripture Quotes 1 Men and women can both realise truth Scripture: Hua Hu Ching http://www. Who can enjoy enlightenment and remain indifferent to suffering in the world? This is not in keeping with the Way. True understanding in a person has two attributes: awareness and action. and equally.org/hua_hu_ching/ Men and women who wish to be aware of the whole truth should adopt the practices of the Integral Way. 6. Taoist scriptures include: Tao-te-Ching ("The Way of Power.

Within the family a strong authority is needed. the affection and correctness of behavior existing between the two brothers are extended to a friend in the form of loyalty. and that between elder and younger brother. so that within a small circle a basis of moral practice is created. then the family is in order. if the elder brother fulfills his position.it worships femininity. Used gently. which is the relation of love.2. When the family is in order.sacred-texts. and the younger fulfills his. which is the relation of chaste conduct.com Page 29 of 54 . You cannot have one without the other. The female mystery thus do we name.3 Teachings of Taoism which do not support equality 6. Is called the root from which grew heaven and earth. If the father is really a father and the son a son. which is the relation of correctness.4 Taoism – Basic Philosophy Ying and Yang complement each other. The family is society in the embryo. from which at first they issued forth. The tie that hold the family together lies in the loyalty and perseverance of the wife. Her place is within.htm The valley spirit dies not. that between the husband and wife. 6. The loving reverence of the son is then carried over to the prince in the form of faithfulness to duty. So in this sense both the men and women are given high importance as they are respectively the opposites of one another. and this is later widened to include human relationships in general.ProjectNaad.2. It’s gate. Long and unbroken does its power remain.com/tao/taote. and without the touch of pain. while that of the husband is without. all the social relationships of mankind will be in order.1 Taoism – Scripture Quotes 1 Women are considered the weaker sex Scripture: I Ching or Book of Changes www. Three of the five social relationships are to be found within the family-that between father and son.” 6.3. it is the native soil on which performance of moral duty is made early through natural affection. and to a person of superior rank in the form of deference. if the husband is really a husband and the wife a wife.3 Taoism – Scripture Quotes 3 Female energy is used to describe Tao Scripture: Tao Te Ching http://www. aye the same.“The foundation of the family is the relationship between husband and wife. It is in accord with the great laws of nature that husband and wife take their proper places. 6. this is represented by the parents.

ProjectNaad.com/i/i. all goes well with the family. Nine at the top means: His work commands respect.com/i/i. it would be a mistake for him.' In the end good fortune comes.2 Taoism – Scripture Quotes 2 Women should follow men Scripture: I Ching or Book of Changes http://www. The same attitude is owed to women as the weaker sex.html “A king is the symbol of a fatherly man who is richly endowed in mind.html www.html “A woman should follow a man her whole life long.3.com Page 30 of 54 . If he cultivates his personality so that it works impressively through the force of inner truth. His character of itself exercises the right influence. but who has enough strength of mind to bear his burden of responsibility.” 6. 6. because love governs their intercourse. but a man must always be flexible and adaptable and allow himself to be guided solely by what his duty requires of him at the moment. In the last analysis.com/i/i. In a ruling position one must of his own accord assume responsibility.akirarabelais. Only this combination of inner strength with outer reserve enables one to take on the responsibility of directing a larger social body with real success. order within the family depends on the character of the master of the house.net/~wh/Index.3. Should he persistently seek to conform to the woman.com/i/i. Accordingly it is altogether right for a woman to hold conservatively to tradition. on the contrary.akirarabelais.3 Taoism – Scripture Quotes 3 The male is the head of the household Scripture: I Ching or Book of Changes http://www.akirarabelais. He has the inner superiority and that enable him to tolerate with kindliness the shortcomings of human folly.http://www. the whole family can trust him.4 Taoism – Scripture Quotes 4 A father is able to give his daughter in marriage when he deems suitable.akirarabelais.3. He does nothing to make himself feared.” 6. Scripture: I Ching or Book of Changes http://www.html http://pacificcoast. One must understand them and give them recognition in a spirit of chivalrous consideration. but a man should at all times hold to what is his duty at the given moment.html These lines picture a man who has no external power.

“The sovereign I is T'ang the Completer. just as the moon.com Page 31 of 54 .ProjectNaad.4 Taoism – Summary Pros • Provides both men and women with an opportunity for salvation • Has historically provided more equality for women than Buddhism or Confucianism in China • All the religious and spiritual tools are available to women • Both masculine and feminine imagery it used to describe the Tao Cons • Men are still regarded as the head of a family and household • Women are encouraged to follow their male partners • Women are considered the weaker sex www. This ruler decreed that the imperial princesses should be subordinated to their husbands in the same manner as other women (cf. Hexagram 11. does not directly face the sun. Therefore it is in accord with custom for the girl's family to take the initiative here. and forgetting her rank in her marriage. six in the fifth place).” 6. before it is quite full. We see here a girl of aristocratic birth who marries a man of modest circumstances and understands how to adapt herself with grace to the new situation. takes a place below that of her husband. The emperor does not wait for a suitor to woo his daughter but gives her in marriage when he sees fit. She is free of all vanity of outer adornment.

2 Islam – Scripture Quote 2 The dowry of women is safeguarded and they must be treated with kindness.qmt. that ye may Take away part of the dower www.2 Teachings of Islam which support equality 7.” 7.1 Islam – Scripture Quote 1 A woman who wants divorce must be treated with respect Scripture: Quran http://www. Scripture: Quran http://www. then retain them in kindness or release them in kindness.1 Islam – Basic Facts Age of Religion: Number of followers: 1400+ years 1.” 002. Make not the revelations of Allah a laughing-stock (by your behaviour).usc.qmt.2.3 Billion The prophet of Islam is Mohammad The 3 classic Islamic scriptures include: • Qur'an (primary revealed word of God) • Hadiths (document the traditions of Mohammad) • Kitab Al-Salat 7. Retain them not to their hurt so that ye transgress (the limits).html 002. Nor should ye treat them with harshness.019 YUSUFALI: “O ye who believe! Ye are forbidden to inherit women against their will.ProjectNaad. Observe your duty to Allah and know that Allah is Aware of all things.html 004. whereby He doth exhort you.com Page 32 of 54 .241 PICKTHAL: “For divorced women a provision in kindness: a duty for those who ward off (evil).edu/dept/MSA/quran/002. and they have reached their term.edu/dept/MSA/quran/004.2.231 PICKTHAL: “When ye have divorced women.usc.7 Islam 7. He who doeth that hath wronged his soul. but remember Allah's grace upon you and that which He hath revealed unto you of the Scripture and of wisdom.

usc. and women who surrender. him verily we shall quicken with good life. and www.edu/dept/MSA/quran/033.ye have given them. and men who guard their modesty and women who guard (their modesty).qmt. whether male or female.007 PICKTHAL: “Unto the men (of a family) belongeth a share of that which parents and near kindred leave.qmt.ProjectNaad. and is a believer.038 PICKTHAL: “As for the thief.035 PICKTHAL: “Lo! men who surrender unto Allah.2. whether it be little or much .2.097 PICKTHAL: “Whosoever doeth right. and men who are humble and women who are humble. and men who speak the truth and women who speak the truth.3 Islam – Scripture Quote 3 Women have a legal share to inheritance Scripture: Quran http://www. an exemplary punishment from Allah.usc.” 7.qmt. on the contrary live with them on a footing of kindness and equity. and men who fast and women who fast. If ye take a dislike to them it may be that ye dislike a thing.edu/dept/MSA/quran/004. cut off their hands. and We shall pay them a recompense in proportion to the best of what they used to do.html 005. and men who give alms and women who give alms.qmt. both male and female. and men who believe and women who believe.” Scripture: Quran http://www. It is the reward of their own deeds.2.html 016. Wise. Allah is Mighty.edu/dept/MSA/quran/016.html 004.5 Islam – Scripture Quote 5 Both believing men and women will be provided forgiveness and a vast reward Scripture: Quran http://www. and men who persevere (in righteousness) and women who persevere.4 Islam – Scripture Quote 4 Equal treatment for a male or female thief Scripture: Quran http://www.a legal share.edu/dept/MSA/quran/005.” 7. and men who obey and women who obey. and Allah brings about through it a great deal of good.” 7.usc. and unto the women a share of that which parents and near kindred leave.usc.-except where they have been guilty of open lewdness.html 033.com Page 33 of 54 .

they enjoin the right and forbid the wrong. men and women. she was well educated and established a great institution for religious learning near Damascus.com Page 34 of 54 .Allah hath prepared for them forgiveness and a vast reward. Gardens underneath which rivers flow. Shad Khanum . She became famous for her beautiful recitation of the Quran. Lo! Allah is Mighty.Was a highly respected Sahabiyah. and by the age 14 she was well versed in the exegesis (explanation) of the Quranic verses.6 Islam – Scripture Quote 6 Both believing men and women will be blessed by Allah Scripture: Quran http://www. and they establish worship and they pay the poor-due. Allah will have mercy on them.” 009. wherein they will abide .qmt.7 Examples of Famous Muslim Women through History Ukhtul Mazni .” 7. Umm Salim .The sister of the Muslim General Salahuddin al Ayubbi. www.html 009.2 p 363) Hafsah bint Sireen .usc. As for these.Student of Imam Shafi. That is the supreme triumph. was a highly placed scholar of Islamic Jurisprudence.she had memorized the Quran by the age of 12.” 7.071 PICKTHAL: “And the believers. And . Rabiyah Khatun .blessed dwellings in Gardens of Eden.greater (far)! .A descendant of the famous conqueror Amir Taymur.acceptance from Allah. "Her laudable qualities are too many to mention and she was very famous. are protecting friends one of another.2. Ibn Hajar says. Wise.072 PICKTHAL: “Allah promiseth to the believers. Princess Fatimah Khanum – Successfully completed the complex task of rebuilding the 'Zubaydah canal‘ which involved Egyptian. Syrian and Yemeni engineers and masons. she was a master of calligraphy with no one else in her time being able to match her skills of calligraphy of the Quran." Imam an Nawawi calls her an excellent scholar among the Sahabiyah.2. and they obey Allah and His messenger.ProjectNaad.men who remember Allah much and women who remember .edu/dept/MSA/quran/009. men and women." (tahdhib at tahdhib vol.

usc. And if two men be not (at hand) then a man and two women. Give glad tidings to believers.qmt.” www. and send (good deeds) before you for your souls. Truly Allah loveth those who turn unto Him. and loveth those who have a care for cleanness.3. so that if the one erreth (through forgetfulness) the other will remember. and know that ye will (one day) meet Him. and diminish naught thereof. and let him observe his duty to Allah his Lord. from among your men.7.edu/dept/MSA/quran/002. And when they have purified themselves. two witnesses. then go in unto them as Allah hath enjoined upon you. Let a scribe record it in writing between you in (terms of) equity. But if he who oweth the debt is of low understanding.223 PICKTHAL: “Your women are a tilth for you (to cultivate) so go to your tilth as ye will.qmt.edu/dept/MSA/quran/002.3.” 7.html 002.com Page 35 of 54 .ProjectNaad. and let him who incurreth the debt dictate.usc. record it in writing.edu/dept/MSA/quran/002.2 Islam – Scripture Quote 2 Menstruation is regarded as an illness during which time women should be left alone Scripture: Quran http://www. then let the guardian of his interests dictate in (terms of) equity. No scribe should refuse to write as Allah hath taught him. or weak. so let women alone at such times and go not in unto them till they are cleansed. or unable himself to dictate. and fear Allah.usc. And call to witness.qmt.3 Islam – Scripture Quote 3 Women are regarded as a piece of land (tilth) Scripture: Quran http://www.282 PICKTHAL: “O ye who believe! When ye contract a debt for a fixed term. so let him write.222 PICKTHAL: “They question thee (O Muhammad) concerning menstruation. Say: It is an illness.1 Islam – Scripture Quote 1 Testimony of 2 women is equal to the testimony of 1 man Scripture: Quran http://www. And the witnesses must not refuse when they are summoned.html 002.3 Teachings of Islam which do not support equality 7. (O Muhammad).3.” 7. of such as ye approve as witnesses.html 002.

003 PICKTHAL: “And if ye fear that ye will not deal fairly by the orphans. and men are a degree above them. and if ye fear that ye cannot do justice (to so many) then one (only) or (the captives) that your right hands possess.3.html 004.3. keeping themselves apart.228 PICKTHAL: “Women who are divorced shall wait. call to witness four of you against them. three (monthly) courses.edu/dept/MSA/quran/004.015 PICKTHAL: “As for those of your women who are guilty of lewdness.usc.com Page 36 of 54 . It is a decree of Allah for you.024 PICKTHAL: “And all married women (are forbidden unto you) save those (captives) whom your right hands possess.qmt.html 002.edu/dept/MSA/quran/004.html 004.” 7.html 004. And it is not lawful for them that they should conceal that which Allah hath created in their wombs if they are believers in Allah and the Last Day. Lawful unto you www. Allah is Mighty.7 Islam – Scripture Quote 7 Women who are captured in war can be sexually violated even if they are married Scripture: Quran http://www.4 Islam – Scripture Quote 4 Men have a degree over women Scripture: Quran http://www.qmt.7. Thus it is more likely that ye will not do injustice.” 7. marry of the women. Wise.usc.qmt.3. who seem good to you.usc.5 Islam – Scripture Quote 5 Polygamy is allowed Scripture: Quran http://www.edu/dept/MSA/quran/002.edu/dept/MSA/quran/004. And they (women) have rights similar to those (of men) over them in kindness.usc.qmt. two or three or four.6 Islam – Scripture Quote 6 Death is the punishment for an unfaithful woman Scripture: Quran http://www. And if they testify (to the truth of the allegation) then confine them to the houses until death take them or (until) Allah appoint for them a way (through new legislation).” 7.ProjectNaad.3. And their husbands would do better to take them back in that case if they desire a reconciliation.

because Allah hath made the one of them to excel the other. And those of whom ye seek content (by marrying them). then they (all) may be partakers thereof.usc.edu/dept/MSA/quran/004.edu/dept/MSA/quran/006.html 033.edu/dept/MSA/quran/033. and scourge them.3.usc.html 006. He will reward them for their attribution (of such ordinances unto Him).We are Aware of that which We enjoined upon them concerning their wives www. and those whom thy right hand possesseth of those whom Allah hath given thee as spoils of war.are all beyond those mentioned.8 Islam – Scripture Quote 8 Men are in charge of women Scripture: Quran http://www.qmt.3.qmt. Aware. so that ye seek them with your wealth in honest wedlock. Scripture: Quran http://www.10 Islam – Scripture Quote 10 Women that have been won through war do not have the same rights as normal women.ProjectNaad. Exalted. not debauchery. As for those from whom ye fear rebellion.139 PICKTHAL: “And they say: That which is in the bellies of such cattle is reserved for our males and is forbidden to our wives. Then if they obey you.9 Islam – Scripture Quote 9 Certain food reserved for a male Scripture: Quran http://www.” 7.qmt.com Page 37 of 54 . Lo! Allah is ever High. Great. and the daughters of thine uncle on the mother's side and the daughters of thine aunts on the mother's side who emigrated with thee. give unto them their portions as a duty. and the daughters of thine uncle on the father's side and the daughters of thine aunts on the father's side. Wise. admonish them and banish them to beds apart. and because they spend of their property (for the support of women).3. And there is no sin for you in what ye do by mutual agreement after the duty (hath been done). but if it be born dead.html 004.034 PICKTHAL: “Men are in charge of women. and a believing woman if she give herself unto the Prophet and the Prophet desire to ask her in marriage .a privilege for thee only. He is Wise. seek not a way against them.” 7.usc. Lo. guarding in secret that which Allah hath guarded.050 PICKTHAL: O Prophet! Lo! We have made lawful unto thee thy wives unto whom thou hast paid their dowries. Lo! Allah is ever Knower. So good women are the obedient. not for the (rest of) believers .” 7.

com Page 38 of 54 .html “Narrated Ibn 'Abbas: The Prophet said: I was shown the Hell-fire and that the majority of its dwellers were women who were ungrateful. Volume 1. I have not seen anyone more deficient in intelligence and religion than you.ProjectNaad.html www.usc. Number 28 http://www. "Why is it so. O Allah's Apostle ?" He replied." It was asked. 'I have never received any good from you.edu/dept/MSA/reference/searchhadith. "This is the deficiency in her intelligence. If you have always been good (benevolent) to one of them and then she sees something in you (not of her liking). "O women! Give alms. Book 6. for Allah is ever Forgiving.3. as I have seen that the majority of the dwellers of Hell-fire were you (women).3. "Do they disbelieve in Allah?" (or are they ungrateful to Allah?) He replied. Book 9. "This is the deficiency in her religion.” 7.” 7. nor that thou shouldst change them for other wives even though their beauty pleased thee.052 PICKTHAL: It is not allowed thee to take (other) women henceforth.12 Islam – Scripture Quote 12 Women are regarded as deficient in intelligence and religion Scripture: Sahih Bukhari Volume 1. A cautious sensible man could be led astray by some of you.usc. 7.that thou mayst be free from blame. Merciful.and those whom their right hands possess .usc.13 Islam – Scripture Quote 13 Women are likened to dogs and donkeys Scripture: Sahih Bukhari. Number 490: http://www. "They are ungrateful to their husbands and are ungrateful for the favors and the good (charitable deeds) done to them. "You curse frequently and are ungrateful to your husbands." The women asked." They asked.3. 033.edu/dept/MSA/reference/searchhadith.edu/dept/MSA/reference/searchhadith.11 Islam – Scripture Quote 11 Women assumed to be bad as majority in hell are women Scripture: Sahih Bukhari. Then he passed by the women and said. Volume 1. "O Allah's Apostle! What is deficient in our intelligence and religion?" He said. "Is not the evidence of two women equal to the witness of one man?" They replied in the affirmative. save those whom thy right hand possesseth.html “Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri: Once Allah's Apostle went out to the Musalla (to offer the prayer) o 'Id-al-Adha or Al-Fitr prayer. Isn't it true that a woman can neither pray nor fast during her menses?" The women replied in the affirmative. she will say. And Allah is ever Watcher over all things. He said. Book 2. Number 301 http://www. He said.

a donkey and a woman (if they pass in front of the praying people). He came (to the house) and I also came (to the house). and I did not like to awaken you. but I too concealed it from you (for he did not come to you). that you are out of breath? I said: There is nothing. he (the Holy Prophet) entered the (house). and then returned and I also returned. As for those from whom ye fear rebellion. for I disliked to face him. and said: Why is it.15 Islam – Scripture Quote 15 Men are allowed to beat / scourge their women Scripture: Quran http://www. Exalted.usc. "Prayer is annulled by a dog. Lo! Allah is ever High. and then said: Did you think that Allah and His Apostle would deal unjustly with you? She said: Whatsoever the people conceal. I saw the Prophet praying while I used to lie in my bed between him and the Qibla. I responded to his call. because Allah hath made the one of them to excel the other.ProjectNaad. They said. O 'A'isha. He said: Gabriel came to me when you saw me.034 PICKTHAL: “Men are in charge of women. admonish them and banish them to beds apart. and as I lay down in the bed. He then lifted his hands three times. I would slip away.net/library/hadith/muslim/004c_smt.com Page 39 of 54 . He ran and I too ran. I.e." 7. Great. and then I told him (the whole story). He said: Tell me or the Subtle and the Aware would inform me. may my father and mother be ransom for you. and scourge them. So good women are the obedient. 7. and because they spend of their property (for the support of women).html He stood there and he stood for a long time. Whenever I was in need of something. He struck me on the chest which caused me pain.“Narrated 'Aisha: The things which annul the prayers were mentioned before me.” www.14 Islam – Scripture Quote 14 Prophet Mohammad struck his wife Aisha on the chest Scripture: KITAB AL-SALAT.3. I thought that you had gone to sleep. Then if they obey you. guarding in secret that which Allah hath guarded. I said: Messenger of Allah. Allah will know it. as you were not fully dressed.html 004. "You have made us (i. however. fearing that you may be frightened.3. He said: Was it the darkness (of your shadow) that I saw in front of me? I said: Yes.qmt. He called me and he concealed it from you. Book 4. preceded him and I entered (the house).edu/dept/MSA/quran/004. seek not a way against them. Number 2127 http://isna." I said. women) dogs. He hastened his steps and I also hastened my steps.

youtube.7.3.com/watch?v=Wp3Eam5FX58 7.4 Islam .com Page 40 of 54 .ProjectNaad.16 Islam – Scripture Quote 16 A U-Tube clip from an Islamic scholar with regards to the rules around wife beating http://www.Summary Pros • Both believing men and women will be blessed by Allah • Women have a legal share to inheritance • Dowry of women is safeguarded • Men and women thief's are given the same treatment • Women wanting a divorce must be treated with respect Cons • Testimony of 2 women = testimony of 1 man • Menstruation is regarded as an illness • Men have a degree over women • Women are regarded as a tilth and compared with dogs and donkeys • Women regarded deficient in intelligence and religion • Women assumed bas as majority in hell are women • Women that have been won in war have fewer rights than average Muslim women • Death is the price for an unfaithful woman • Polygamy is allowed for a Muslim man • Men are allowed to scourge / beat their wife www.

You must purge the evil from among you. 8.1 Christianity – Basic Facts Age of Religion: 2000+ years Number of followers: 2.com Page 41 of 54 . but no one shall be put to death on the testimony of only one witness. 4 and this has been brought to your attention.2. If it is true and it has been proved that this detestable thing has been done in Israel. 7 The hands of the witnesses must be the first in putting him to death. Whereas thy servant worketh truly. Change not a friend for any good by no means. neither a faithful brother for the gold of Ophir.crosswalk. entreat him not evil.com/christianity/deuterocanonical_apocrypha/book14/ Humble thyself greatly: for the vengeance of the ungodly is fire and worms.1 Christianity – Scripture Quote 1 The grace of a good woman is above Gold Scripture: Deuterocanonical Apocrypha.2 Christianity – Scripture Quote 2 Equal treatment for an evil man or woman Scripture: Bible. then you must investigate it thoroughly. 6 On the testimony of two or three witnesses a man shall be put to death.com/OnlineStudyBible/bible.ProjectNaad. Forego not a wise and good woman: for her grace is above gold.cgi?passage=de+17:5&version=niv& context=1&showtools=1 1 Do not sacrifice to the Lord your God an ox or a sheep that has any defect or flaw in it. 7:18 – 7:21 http://mobile. www. nor the hireling that bestoweth himself wholly for thee. and then the hands of all the people.8 Christianity 8. for that would be detestable to him.ishwar.2 Teachings of Christianity which support equality 8. 8. 5 take the man or woman who has done this evil deed to your city gate and stone that person to death.1 Billion The prophet of Christianity is Jesus Christ and the main Christian scripture is the world famous Bible which comes in four parts. Deuteronomy 17:1-7 http://bible.2. bowing down to them or to the sun or the moon or the stars of the sky. 3 and contrary to my command has worshiped other gods. 2 If a man or woman living among you in one of the towns the Lord gives you is found doing evil in the eyes of the Lord your God in violation of his covenant.

com/OnlineStudyBible/bible. he took one of the man's ribs and closed up the place with flesh.crosswalk.3.com/christianity/deuterocanonical_apocrypha/book14/ www.actress.1 Christianity – Scripture Quote 1 Woman created from the rib of a man Scripture: Bible.2 Christianity – Scripture Quote 2 Woman is regarded as wicked Scripture: Deuterocanonical Apocrypha.8. and they felt no shame. and while he was sleeping.cgi?passage=ge+2:23&version=niv& context=1&showtools=1 21 So the Lord God caused the man to fall into a deep sleep.Compelling preacher and co-founder of the Salvation Army Mother Theresa: Saint and Charity Worker Joan of Arc: Saint Janet Lynn: Olympic Figure Skater Rosalyn Sumners: Figure Skater Margaret Thatcher – Prime Minister for Great Britain 8. she shall be called 'woman. "The Facts of Life"("Blair) Catherine Booth . Genesis 2:21-25:21 http://bible.' for she was taken out of man. 22 Then the Lord God made a woman from the rib he had taken out of the man. 23 The man said.3 Teachings of Christianity which do not support equality 8. 8. "This is now bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh. 25:12 – 25:20 http://mobile. and he brought her to the man.3 Examples of Christian Women • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Kim Alexis: Supermodel Connie Seleca: Actress Della Reese: Actress Whitney Houston: Singer Kathie Lee Gifford: Talk show host Alice Cooper .2.ishwar.american pop star Anna Chlumsky: Actress Lisa Whelchel .com Page 42 of 54 .ProjectNaad. 25 The man and his wife were both naked. and they will become one flesh." 24 For this reason a man will leave his father and mother and be united to his wife.3.

than to keep house with a wicked woman. [Give me] any plague. if she maintain her husband. maketh an heavy countenance and a wounded heart: a woman that will not comfort her husband in distress maketh weak hands and feeble knees.ishwar. but the wickedness of a woman: And any affliction.3.ProjectNaad. Give the water no passage.4 Christianity – Scripture Quote 4 Husband to rule over wife Scripture: Bible. is full of anger. 25:20 – 25:26 http://mobile. and there is no wrath above the wrath of an enemy.crosswalk.cgi?passage=ge+2:23&version=niv& context=1&showtools=1 “To the woman he said.“The fear of the Lord is the beginning of his love and faith is the beginning of cleaving unto him. and darkeneth her countenance like sackcloth. I had rather dwell with a lion and a dragon. Genesis 3:16-16 http://bible.com Page 43 of 54 . impudence.” 8. and let her go. "I will greatly increase your pains in childbearing. Stumble not at the beauty of a woman. so is a wife full of words to a quiet man.3.5 Christianity – Scripture Quote 5 Menstruating woman is considered unclean Scripture: Bible Leviticus 12:1-5 www.com/OnlineStudyBible/bible. Of the woman came the beginning of sin.” 8.3. The wickedness of a woman changeth her face. A woman. All wickedness is but little to the wickedness of a woman: let the portion of a sinner fall upon her.3 Christianity – Scripture Quote 3 Women is regarded as the source of sin through which we all die Scripture: Deuterocanonical Apocrypha. Her husband shall sit among his neighbours. As the climbing up a sandy way is to the feet of the aged. and give her a bill of divorce. and he will rule over you. Your desire will be for your husband. neither a wicked woman liberty to gad abroad. A wicked woman abateth the courage. There is no head above the head of a serpent. so is a wife full of words to a quiet man. and through her we all die.” 8. and desire her not for pleasure. and much reproach. but the affliction from them that hate me: and any revenge. cut her off from thy flesh.com/christianity/deuterocanonical_apocrypha/book14/ “As the climbing up a sandy way is to the feet of the aged. If she go not as thou wouldest have her. with pain you will give birth to children. but the plague of the heart: and any wickedness. but the revenge of enemies. and when he heareth it shall sigh bitterly.

5 If she gives birth to a daughter. 22 Whoever touches anything she sits on must wash his clothes and bathe with water. 21 Whoever touches her bed must wash his clothes and bathe with water.com/OnlineStudyBible/bible.7 Christianity – Scripture Quote 7 Anything a Menstruating woman touches is unclean Scripture: Bible. She must not touch anything sacred or go to the sanctuary until the days of her purification are over. 2 "Say to the Israelites: 'A woman who becomes pregnant and gives birth to a son will be ceremonially unclean for seven days. and he will be unclean till evening. for two weeks the woman will be unclean.crosswalk. 20 "'Anything she lies on during her period will be unclean. Leviticus 15:19-33 http://bible. he will be unclean till evening.cgi?passage=le+12:4&version=niv&c ontext=1&showtools=1 1 The Lord said to Moses. just as she is unclean during her monthly period.6 Christianity – Scripture Quote 6 Menstruating woman not allowed to go to a sacred place Scripture: Bible.3.http://bible. 8. 24 "'If a man lies with her and her monthly flow touches him. any bed he lies on will be unclean. 4 Then the woman must wait thirty-three days to be purified from her bleeding. 23 Whether it is the bed or anything she was sitting on. 3 On the eighth day the boy is to be circumcised. 5 If she gives birth to a daughter. 2 "Say to the Israelites: 'A woman who becomes pregnant and gives birth to a son will be ceremonially unclean for seven days. just as in the www. she will be unclean as long as she has the discharge. as during her period. 25 "'When a woman has a discharge of blood for many days at a time other than her monthly period or has a discharge that continues beyond her period.cgi?passage=le+15:19&version=niv& context=1&showtools=1 19 "'When a woman has her regular flow of blood.” 8.com Page 44 of 54 .crosswalk. 3 On the eighth day the boy is to be circumcised. and anything she sits on will be unclean.crosswalk. and he will be unclean till evening.ProjectNaad. and anyone who touches her will be unclean till evening. when anyone touches it. for two weeks the woman will be unclean. 4 Then the woman must wait thirty-three days to be purified from her bleeding.cgi?passage=le+12:2&version=niv&c ontext=1&showtools=1 “1 The Lord said to Moses. Then she must wait sixty-six days to be purified from her bleeding.com/OnlineStudyBible/bible. he will be unclean for seven days.3. the impurity of her monthly period will last seven days. as during her period. just as she is unclean during her monthly period. She must not touch anything sacred or go to the sanctuary until the days of her purification are over.com/OnlineStudyBible/bible. Leviticus 12:1-5 http://bible. Then she must wait sixty-six days to be purified from her bleeding.

and after that she will be ceremonially clean.com Page 45 of 54 . Reply Obj.. 28 "'When she is cleansed from her discharge.8 Christianity – Scripture Quote 8 Woman regarded as defective and misbegotten Summa Theologica. she must count off seven days.. and anything she sits on will be unclean. art. woman is defective and misbegotten. as during her period. 29 8. while the production of a woman comes from defect in the active power.wikiquote. He gave birth to the Thomistic school of philosophy. 27 Whoever touches them will be unclean. 1 http://en. He is the most famous classical proponent of natural theology.3. and he will be unclean till evening.org/wiki/Thomas_Aquinas Saint Thomas Aquinas was an Italian Catholic philosopher and theologian in the scholastic tradition. known as Doctor Angelicus.. for the active power of the male seed tends to the production of a perfect likeness in the masculine sex.4 Christianity – Summary Pros • There are lots of examples of famous Christian women through history and today • There are a number of Modern Christian groups who follow equality between men and women • The qualities of a good woman are held in high esteem Cons • The Bible regards a menstruating woman as bad in many ways • The husband/male is generally given a higher status than a wife/female • The early church fathers did not regard women as good • Genesis and the fall of Adam and Eve does not support gender equality as sin is regarded as the fault of a woman www. which was long the primary philosophical approach of the Catholic Church.days of her period. as is her bed during her monthly period. Hew rote the following: "As regards the individual nature." 8. 1. 26 Any bed she lies on while her discharge continues will be unclean.Q92. he must wash his clothes and bathe with water.ProjectNaad.

Dwelling among all is my ever-youthful Beloved.” (page 223) 9.9 Sikhism Major World religions provide certain degrees of freedom to women. The True One does not die. I do not see any second.1 Sikhism Basic Facts: Age of Religion: 500+ years Number of followers: 20+ Million Founders of the faith were 10 Gurus starting with Guru Nanak Dev Ji The main Sikh scriptures are: • Shri Guru Granth Sahib Ji (primary) • Bhai Gurdas Vaars (explanation of primary text) • Shri Dasam Granth (parts of this are works of the tenth master and other parts are non-Sikh sources) 9. His Body is forever fresh and new. I see His Light. He casts His www. His Light is shining.srigranth. Among all the women and the men. So what does Sikhism say about Equality between Men and Women? 9.1 Sikhism – Scripture Quote 1 The light of God sits equally within both men and women Scripture: Guru Granth Sahib Ji http://www.ProjectNaad. sayings of the prophets or current examples of women achievers.2. and shall not go. ||3|| In the lamps of the sun and the moon.2 Sikhism – Scripture Quote 2 Both men and women are described as beautiful soul brides of God Scripture: Guru Granth Sahib Ji http://www.org “Her Husband Lord is Beautiful.com Page 46 of 54 .org “In the earth and in the sky. ||4|| In His Mercy. But they ALL fall short of providing complete equality whether that is from a scriptural point of view.2.2 Teachings of Sikhism which support equality 9. He continually enjoys His happy soul-bride.srigranth. He attuned my consciousness to the Lord.

So why call her www. This is the direct opposite view held by the other Indian religions with their focus on asceticism and shunning of women.srigranth. ||5|| She is the most beautiful among women. The Lord God.com Page 47 of 54 . man is born. ||1|| I am a sacrifice to those. Scripture: Guru Granth Sahib Ji http://www. The Gurmukhs are united in the Lord's Union. and she abides in His Will. ||4|| The bride braids her hair with Truth. the future generations come. has extended His Mercy. her clothes are decorated with His Love. When his woman dies. whose minds are filled with the Lord.org “The women come and sing the songs of joy.2. They obtain eternal glory.3 Sikhism – Scripture Quote 3 The cessation of suffering is available to both men and women Scripture: Guru Granth Sahib Ji http://www. The men and women celebrate. peace is obtained. within woman. lasting peace is obtained. through woman. and the Temple of the Tenth Gate is opened. man is conceived. Meeting with the humble servant of the Lord.2. to woman he is bound.org “The Transcendent Lord has given me His support. Har. She enshrines love for the True Guru. Other than her Beloved Lord. The house of pain and disease has been demolished. The lamp of the Shabad is lit. upon her forehead she wears the Jewel of the Lord's Love.5 Sikhism – Scripture Quote 5 A challenge to men to accept women as equals and as being inherently good. You Yourself come to dwell in their minds. Meeting with their Beloved. Like the essence of sandalwood. ||1||” (page 627) 9. Her glory and her wisdom are magnificent. Har. her love for the Infinite Lord is True. Scripture: Guru Granth Sahib Ji http://www.srigranth. ||6||” (page 54) 9. Woman becomes his friend. ||1||Pause|| They are always imbued with Your Joyful Love. and the Name of the Lord is her necklace. he seeks another woman.Gracious Glance of Truth upon her.ProjectNaad. she knows no man. to woman he is engaged and married. He permeates her consciousness.srigranth.4 Sikhism – Scripture Quote 4 Both men and women regarded as women of God. O Dear Lord.2. ||2||” (page 798) 9.org “From woman. and one intuitively sings the Glorious Praises of the Lord.

Scripture: Guru Granth Sahib Ji http://www. which is independent of the condition of ones clothing or physical body cycles. O Siblings of Destiny. those faces shall be radiant in the Court of the True Lord. so he remains a Hindu. so does falsehood dwell in the mouth of the false.2.8 Sikhism – Scripture Quote 8 Blessings of a mother Scripture: Guru Granth Sahib Ji http://www. Only people with God in their mind are considered pure. From woman.2.srigranth. who sit down after merely washing their bodies. If God wished me to be a Muslim. only the True Lord is without a woman. ||3|| Give up your holy books. That mouth which praises the Lord continually is blessed and beautiful. They are not called pure. O Nanak. Kabeer has grasped hold of the Lord's Support. month after month. and remember the Lord.srigranth. it can only be cleansed by the Love of the Name. and the Muslims have utterly failed.org “As a woman has her periods. there would be no one at all. soap can wash them clean. But when the intellect is stained and polluted by sin. Only they are pure. it would be cut off by itself. ||2||” (page 473) 9.bad? From her. again and again. kings are born. O Nanak. and she does not leave him.6 Sikhism – Scripture Quote 6 A woman is regarded as the one half of man Scripture: Guru Granth Sahib Ji http://www. you fool. ||2||” (Page 472) “When the clothes are soiled and stained by urine.com Page 48 of 54 .” (Page 4) 9. they suffer forever.org “Because of the love of woman. and stop oppressing others so badly.ProjectNaad. I don't believe in it.7 Sikhism – Scripture Quote 7 A menstruating is not considered impure. woman is born. without woman.org www.srigranth. within whose minds the Lord abides. then what about a woman? She is the other half of a man's body. ||2|| If circumcision makes one a Muslim. O Nanak. ||4||8||” (page 477) 9. circumcision is done.2.

||2|| 9.12 Sikhism – Scripture Quote 12 God as a man and a woman Scripture: Dasam Granth Ji http://www.srigranth.org/ www. In just the same way.“Fruitful are the lives of those who walk in harmony with the Will of the True Guru. ||3||” (page 28) 9.sridasam. ||1|| He has been described. but it is difficult to accept Your Will.2.com Page 49 of 54 .11 Sikhism – Scripture Quote 11 The Guru is associated with the nurturing and caring qualities of a mother Scripture: Guru Granth Sahib Ji http://www.2. Let Truth be your brother these are your best relatives. but He cannot be described at all. ||1||” (Page 168) 9.srigranth. Inside of all. Har.2. Your All-pervading creative nature cannot be estimated. who love their Beloved Lord.10 Sikhism – Scripture Quote 10 The nature of a mother is associated with Wisdom Scripture: Guru Granth Sahib Ji http://www. and outside of all. You are our Self-sufficient Father. You are my Father and Mother.org Like a foolish child. the True Guru protects His GurSikhs. ||1||Pause|| I stand tall.org Let wisdom be your mother. those who are so blessed. she caresses him. she puts food in his mouth. feeds him and keeps him in her vision indoors and outdoors. You are my Strength. O Lord.org “Just as the mother. Har. I have made mistakes. ||1||Pause|| 9. having given birth to a son. I know that You are mine. each and every moment.srigranth. By His Will He grants His Grace.2. Their families are saved.ProjectNaad.9 Sikhism – Scripture Quote 9 God as mother and father Scripture: Guru Granth Sahib Ji http://www. ||1|| It is easy to speak and talk. and contentment your father. meditate on the Name of the Lord. blessed are the mothers who gave birth to them.

who die from the shock of separation.org “They are not said to be husband and wife who merely sit together. the soul-bride shall win.srigranth.do not cover your face with a veil. 9. They serve their Lord. Scripture: Guru Granth Sahib Ji http://www. only if she passes her life singing the Lord's Praises. stay.15 Sikhism – Scripture Quote 15 Marriage is considered an integral part of the spiritual journey to realise God. O daughter-in-law . "What a noble bride has come". All other family duties should also be shared equally. dance and sing the Glorious Praises of the Lord.14 Sikhism – Scripture Quote 14 Hindu tradition of Sati (burning of alive widow on funeral pyre) redefined Scripture: Guru Granth Sahib Ji http://www.2.srigranth.2. O Nanak. this shall not bring you even half a shell. somewhere tamas (morbidity) and somewhere sattva (rhythm).org “Stay.2. ||3|| Says Kabeer. A married couple must live together as equals. ||4||1||34||” (Page 484) 9. ||2|| Your veil shall be true only if you skip. ||1|| They are also known as 'satee'. Somewhere He takes the form of a woman and somewhere man. do not follow in her footsteps. In the end.Somewhere He bears the quality of rajas (activity).ProjectNaad.” www. Rather they alone are husband and wife who have one soul in two bodies.org “Do not call them 'satee'.13 Sikhism – Scripture Quote 13 The veil as a useless outdated piece of clothing Scripture: Guru Granth Sahib Ji http://www. who abide in modesty and contentment.srigranth. and rise in the early hours to contemplate Him. they alone are known as 'satee'. people will say. ||1||Pause|| The one before you used to veil her face.com Page 50 of 54 . It is the duty of both husband and wife to share the responsibilities of rearing Children. ||2||” (Page 787) 9. who burn themselves along with their husbands' corpses. ||1|| The only merit in veiling your face is that for a few days.

9. During the time of the 3rd Guru.ProjectNaad. In. with the latter losing her identity.2. • No area is made exempt • Women are always an integral part of the Congregation 9.17 Hereditary Rights for a woman Hereditary rights have never been an issue in Sikhism. in Sikhism it is not the woman who is blamed for causing sinful thoughts in men. Sikhism had established 22 centres around the country. This frees the woman from having to take her husband’s surname after marriage. Sikh women have full rights to contest any hereditary claim.2. However in Sikhism the Guru considers the woman a Princess and has given her the surname Kaur. the property of the father/mother is equally divisible amongst the children.Women Bishops / Priests Each of the Gurus contributed to the enhancement of equality between the sexes. but the men who let Lust dominate their mind.s www. The Sikh Code of Conduct states.com Page 51 of 54 . ‘Women’s Property Rights – A Sikh Perspective’. for the inability of a man to remain focused on God.2. 4 of the leaders at these centres were women.2.20 Restrictions on Clothes for a Woman The only restriction placed on a woman is that she must NOT wear a veil. ‘It is not proper for a Sikh woman to wear a veil or keep her face hidden by veil or cover’ – Article XVI. 9. when a man marries a women.18 Identity of a Woman In most cultures.This is a subtle form of superiority of the male over the female. However. Any woman can: • Enter a Gurdwara and is accepted in all prayers.2. ‘Since all children both male and female are equal in all respects. 9. it is customary for the woman to adopt the man’s surname.16 Sikhism . Prof Dalip Singh writes.19 Opportunity to Pray for a woman Many religions blame women. (Only religion to have equivalent of 4 Bishops in 15th Century) The 3rd Guru sent out over 100 missionaries.’ 9. Just under half were women.

mother of Maharaja Dalip Singh. Mata Tripta was Guru Nanak's mother and encouraged Guru Nanak to pursue his life long mission. son of Abdali near Amritsar and established the Khalsa Kingdom.9. Bibi Khem Kaur A general of Sikh forces that supported a revolt against British in 1849. Mai Bhago Fought side by side with Guru Gobind Singh. www. Sikhism – Famous Sikh women through History Sada Kaur described as a first woman commander-in-chief and a leader of unprecedented qualities. Mai Bhago kaur survived to remain a member of the Khalsa army.com Page 52 of 54 . wife of the fourth Guru (Guru Ram Das). During the first Amrit ceremony of the Khalsa on Vaisakhi 1699. She played a vital role in sustaining and spreading Guru Nanak's spiritual message. Bibi Sahib Kaur Phulkian A Princess of Patiala. Mata Sahib The Spiritual Mother of the Khalsa.ProjectNaad. She added sugar wafers (Patasae) in the preparation of the Holy nectar (Amrit) in order to infuse mercy and benevolence into the preexisting properties (courage and strength) of the Amrit. She led and fought in many battles for Guru Gobind Singh. She led armies into many battles and was the only woman in Indian subcontinent to win a battle over a British General. was the lone survivor of the battle in which Fourty Mukte defeated Mughals. Rani Jind Kaur married to Maharaja Ranjit Singh. and also served as his bodyguard. She led a battalion of 40 men in the battle of Muktsar. She helped create a new social consciousness in Sikh women. dedication. a reality. Mata Gujari was an illuminating force behind her husband Guru Tegh Bahadur (the ninth Guru) and her son Guru Gobind Singh (the tenth Guru). and mother of the fifth Guru (Guru Arjan Dev). She was the daughter of the third Guru (Guru Amar Das). first female freedom fighter in the struggle to drive out the British from India. humility and fortitude.2. She tried her best to stop British from annexing her kingdom. Mata Khivi was Guru Angad Dev's wife and she occupies a special place in Sikh history. Bibi Bhani has a unique position in Sikh history. Her most important contribution is that she made the concept of langar (community kitchen). She along with her son in law Ranjit Singh defeated Zaman Shah. Bibi Bhani was an inspiration during the formative period of Sikh history and symbolizes responsibility.21 Famous Sikh women through History Mata Nanaki was Guru Nanak's sister and perhaps the first Sikh. Mata Ajit Kaur nurtured and guided the Khalsa for forty years after the Guru's (10th Master’s) death. She played a critical role in the second Guru's life.

1 Why have all the Gurus been Male? If Sikhism preaches Equality. 9. Bibiji Inderjit Kaur Khalsa . www.Bibi Rajinder Kaur Princess of Patiala. displayed her chivalry in numerous battles. Blissful: A Spiritual Path to Pregnancy and Birthing.22 • • • • • • • • • • Famous Modern Sikh women Dr.First Indian Woman Union Health Minister: (1954) Bibi Jagir Kaur . At the same time Hindu’s did not consider women to be equal to men and engaged in Sati (burning of the widow on the funeral pyre) and sell this idea as something which was honourable and considered to be the duty of a widow. Happy and Holy organisation 9.Bhai Sahiba of Sikh Dharma of the Western Hepsiphere Gurmukh Kaur Khalsa is director of Golden Bridge in Los Angeles. then why have all the Gurus been male? Answer: During the time of Guru Nanak. the ruling community of people were Muslims.First Indian Woman to perform a solo flight in 1994 Kiran Bedi .First Indian Woman (and 1st Sikh) to go into Space (1997) Harita Kaur Deol .3.New Age Grammy Award Nominee for her Spiritual music Dr.com Page 53 of 54 . Beautiful. installing women as head of preaching centres. giving the opportunity to women to lead armies etc.First Indian Woman IPS Officer (1974) Kamaljit Sandhu . So the 10 Sikh Gurus were male and each of them helped to consolidate and improve the condition of women by sending women missionaries to various parts of India. With this form of government and thinking within the minds of local people it would have been extremely difficult for a woman to have made the four great journeys to the various parts of the world which Guru Nanak Dev Ji made or to take part in the religiouspolitical atmosphere without danger of being undermined simply on the basis of one gender. Siri Sikdar Sahiba Guru Amrit Kaur – joint head of 3HO Healthy. Author of The Eight Human Talents. Bountiful.2.3 Teachings of Sikhism which are equality neutral 9.and postnatal yoga. and three DVDs on Kundalini Yoga and pre.First Indian Woman to win an Asian gold (1970) Rajkumari Amrit Kaur . Kalpana Chawla .First woman President of the Shiromani Gurudwara Prabhandak Committee (SGPC) which is the Sikh parliament of India Snatam Kaur Khalsa . some of whom were fundamentalists and would impose harsh treatment on non-muslims.ProjectNaad.

com Page 54 of 54 . In this way the temporal Guru after the 10th master became the collective body of both men and women forming the Sikh community and this is the system we have until the present day.Summary Sikhism preaches complete equality between men and women in all spheres of life www.4 Sikhism .ProjectNaad. 9.The culmination of the Sikh Gurus teachings came with the Guruship being bestowed jointly on both the scripture (spiritual guruship) and the Sikh community as a whole (temporal guruship).

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