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These are : the white mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), the paddy-straw mushroom (Volvariella vovvacea) and the oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sajor-caju). Of these, A. bisporus is the most popular and economically sound to grow and is extensively cultivated throughout the world. However, due to its low temperature requirement, its cultivation is restricted to the cool climatic areas and to the winter in the plains of Northen India. In summer, the tropical paddy-straw mushroom is suitable for growing in most parts of India. Even then it is less attractive commercially owing to very low yield per unit weight of the substrate and an extremely short shelf-life. But, as a kitchengarden crop it is preferred because it is very delicious and nutritous. 0 0 Oyster mushroom can grow at moderate temperature ranging from 22 to 28 C. therefore, it is suitable for most of the places of India. It is a familiar item in the menu of most hotels in Bangalore where it is being grown commercially. In north India, the climate conditions prevailing during different seasons can be exploited for growing mushroom throughout the year. To this a year-wise production schedule is suggested : Mid-November to Mid-March : Agaricus bisporus February to Mid-April : Pleurotus sajor-caju Mid-June to Mid-September : Volvariella volvacea September to November : Pleurotus sajor-caju CULTIVATION
1. Selection of Strains For successful mushroom production, it is necessary for each grower to produce as economically and efficiently as possible the highest quality of mushrooms. This can be accomplished among other requirements, by selecting the best strains which should be high yielding , visually attractive, having desirable flavour, and resistance to adverse climate and pests and diseases. Presently, there are many strains of white, cream and brown varieties in cultivation. The brown variety is the natural mushroom and considered to be the most vigorous form. It tolerates and adverse conditions better than the white variety. A snow white mushroom first appeared amongst a bed of mushroom in the USA and ever since the variety has dominated the mushroom industry throughout the world, although it has a very high limited shelf-life. Where growing conditions tend to be on the dry side and humidity cannot be correctly controlled the brown mushroom should be grown. New superior strains are through selection, hybridization and induced mutations continually introduced by mushroom research laboratories and spawn makers. In India, S 11, S 649 and S791 are the good strains available. These strains were originally introduced from reowned commercial spawn makers, Somycel and darlington. Now these strains are well adapted in the Indian climate and are very popular with the growers. 2. Maintenance of Strains. Three methods are known by which strains can be propagate. these are multispore culture, tissue culture and mycelium transfer. By periodic subculturing of the mycelium on a suitable agar medium, the span strains can be kept for many years in a fairly good state. However, the frequent subculturing of the strain may result in its degeneration. Maintenence of strain by multisporous culture is only possible if new multispore cultures are compared with the original strain before the original multisporous culture would show much genetic variation. In the tissue culture, small pieces of fruit bodies are cut under sterile conditions and inoculated on a nutrient medium. Mycelium growing out of these tissue can provide the
starting point for subsequent spawn production. However, it is commonly observed that tissue cultures often give lower yields than the original cultures. Of these 3 methods, mycelium transfer is most reliable but it is essential that the performance of the mycelium is continually checked in order to detect any degeneration-like slow-growing matted mycelium or fluffy mycelium with abnormal growth rate. Spawn The propogating material used by the mushroom growers for planting beds is called spawn. The spawn is equivalent to vegetative seed of higher plant. Quality of spawn is basic for the successful mushroom cultivation. At present, the pure culture spawn has been the basis of modern spawn production units all over the world. The manufacture of the pure culture spawn is done under scientifically controlled conditions which demand a standard of hygiene as in a hospital operation theatre. Equipment and substrate used for spawn are autoclaved and filtered air is passed during the inocluation ensures complete freedom from contamination. (a) Manure spawn Both composted horse-dung or synthetic compost may be used. The composted manure is thoroughly washed to remove such substance in compost which retard growth. The excess water is squeezed out and moisture content adjusted to 60%. The manure is packed in half-litre milk bottles or heat-resistant polypropylene bags os suitable size. The bottles or bags plugged with non-absorbant cotton-wool and 0 sterlized in an autoculave at 121 C for 2 hr or on 2 consecutive days for an hour each. They are then 0 0 inoculated with a large bit of agar-containing mycelium and incubated at 22 -24 C in a dark place. the spawn can be used to inoculate fresh bottles or bags to obtain the second generation spawn. (b) Grain spawn Ten kilograms of wheat grains are boiled for 15 min in 15 litres of water and then allowed to soak for another 15 min without heating. the excess water is drained off and the grains are colled in sieves. Turn the grains several times with a spoon for quick cooling. The colled grains, are mixed with calcium carbonate. the gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) and 30 g fo calcium carbonate. The gypsum prevents the grains from sticking together and calcium carbonate is necessary to correct the pH. the prepared grains are filled into half-litre milk bottles or polypropylene bags (at the rate of 150-200 g per bottle or bag) and autocalved for 2 hr at 1210C. After sterlization, the material should have a pH value of 6.5 to 6.7. the bottles are inoculated with grains spawn or with bits of agar medium colonized with mycelium and 0 0 incubated at 22 -24 C in a dark place. the mycelium completely permeates the grains in about 2 weeks. Other grains like sorghum and pearlmillet can also be used for spawn making. (c)Perlite spawn This was developed by Lemke (1971). Perlite is a mineral which expands at temperature more than 10000C. The ingredients, of the spawn are : Perlite (1,450 g), wheat-bran (1,650 g), gypsum (200 g), calcium carbonate (50 g), and water (665 cc). The gredients are mixed, filled in bottles and sterlized. Thereafter, the process is the same as for grain spawn. Perlite spawn is easy to disperse and can be produced at a cheaper cost. This spawn can be stored for a long time. 4. Compost The white-button mushroom is grown on a select substrate which provides adequate levels of nutrients to support the crop so that it can successfully complete with other microorganisms. Traditionally, partiallydecomposed horse-manure has been the principal medium for providing the required nutrients in artificial cultivation of the mushroom and it is only in recent times that other materials have also been used successfully. (a) Materials and their functions (i) Base materials. These includes wheat straw, maize cobs and other similar cellulosic plant wastes with or without horse-manure. Conventionally wheat straw either alone or mixed with horse-manure is the most widely used base material. When wheat straw is not available, straws of the other cereals, like rice of barely may be used. the chief function is to provide cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in bulk. These materials also provide proper physical structure to the mixture to ensure the necessary aeration for the build up of microbial population and the subsequent spawn growth in the compost. Rice and barley straws are quite soft and decompose quickly, leaving only a little fibre for imparting a proper physical structure to the compost. Therefore the types and quantity of supplement should be discretely utilized at the proper
time. (ii) Supplements. These are for activating fermentation and can be categorised as : Animal dungs. These include horse- and chicken-manure, the extremely variable manures in composition. Nitrogen cantent may vary from 1 to almost 5% . In addition to nutrients, they contribute greatly to the final bulk density of the compost. cow manure is not considered suitable. Carbohydrate nutrients. From molasses, wet brewers' grain and malt sprouts, carbohydrates are readily available. Concentration meals. These materials are usually used for animal feeds and include wheat or rice bran, dried brewer's grain, the seed meals of cotton, soya, castor and linseed. In these, both nitrogen and carbohydrate are available rather slowly. Nitrogen content may vary from 3-12%. The oil and mineral content of some of these may be significance in mushroom nutrition. Nitrogen fertilizers. Nitrogen in chemical fertilizers (ammonium sulphate, calcium ammonium nitrate and urea) is rapidly released for the quick growth of microbial population. Materials to correct mineral deficiencies. These are muriate of potash and calcium superphosphate. Materials to correct greasiness. Gypsum and calcium carbonate serve to precipitate suspended colloidal materials and neutralize greasiness. The choice of materials within each category is largely determined by cost-factors and their availability locally. Compost prepared from horse-dung mixed with straw are termed as 'natural', whereas they are called synthetic if the base material is used is mainly straw without bulk animal-manure. (b)Wheat straw Straw protected from rain is preferred. One year old straw which is no longer bright yellow and shiny, can be used only if it is tough. Full-length straw must be chopped to smaller size, about 8-10cm length, or else the heap would be less compact. Such a heap would not be able to retain moisture and termentation would be slower. The reverse, if the straw is too short, the heap would be compact and with very little air space inside allowing anaerobic fermentation. Straw, as is sold in the market for cattle feed is quite suitable. Composting is a microbial process requiring biological changes in all parts of the straw tissues and for this, it is essential that the straw tissue be accessible to the appropriate bacteria and fungal enzymes. Microbial action starts as soon as the straw is wetted and stacked in a heap. If the straw is short, fragile and damp, all parts of it will become exposed to microorganisms in a short time ans composting will start early and proceed fairly uniformly. If the straw is long, tough and dry, cut ends and few broken points may start microbial activity, leaving other parts untouched until later, to result in uneven composting. To include speed and uniformly, it needs much more mechanical breakage and wetting treatment at the beginning of the preparation. Horse-manure Stable manure with wheat, barley and hay-bedding must be collected regularly from the stables at intervals not more than a fortnight. Manure that has been collected over a long period of time will not ferment properly. It should be an even mixture of droppings and straw well-soaked in urine. Care should be taken that there is no admixture of manure of other animals, garbage or other trash. There should not be excess water because very wet manure cannot be stored satisfactory. Composting theory Composting for mushroom cultivation has 3 basic purposes : (i) it transforms the horse-manure and straw into the substrate more suitable for the growth of Agaricus bisporus mycelium than for the many microorganisms whose presence in such a substratum cannot be avoided; (ii) to create a favourable medium for the unfavourable microbial flora which does not inhibit the growth of A. bisporus. Protein in the countless dead bacteria and other microorganisms is a vital item in mushroom nutrition; and (iii) its fermentation temperature is high enough to eliminate most harmful pests and diseases. Composting is accomplished by pilling up wetted inputs in the heap. When this is done properly the temperature inside the heap begins to rise due to the aerobic fermentation brought about by bacteria and other microorganisms. It is not unusual to reach a temperature of 700-740C, in the center of the heap on the third of composting. Because of the high temperatures which build up in composting heaps, thermophillic and the thermotolerant organisms quickly dominate over the mesophiles. In the early
stages, the natural mesophile flora subside but the population of the thermophiles and thermotolerants increases. Bacterial population dominates and their rapid increase in numbers coincides with maximum heat generation--consequently, the temperature build up. This is followed by a relatively prolonged stage dominated by thermophiles mainly thermophilic actinomycetes. As the fermenting organisms require both water and oxygen, the heap is watered frequently and aerated by 'turning'. If there is unsufficient moisture, the microorganisms require cannot function properly. If there is an excess of moisture much oxygen is excluded and anaerobic fermentation sets in resulting in a soggy and stinking compost. In such a compost mushroom spawn will not grow. During composting, ammonia gas is liberated and some of it is lost to atmosphere, but some is consumed by bacteria to produce nitrogenous intermediates which are eventually converted into protein by another kind of bacteria. Composting more than necessary results in loss of valuable nitrogen and cellulose.
(e) Formulations There is no standard pattern in the compost fromulations. However, 3 basic formulations for preparing compost are in use. The horsedung compost is all horse-manure. Synthetic compost is mainly a combination of straw, carbohydrate source (wheat bran), chicken litter and chemical fertilizer. The main objective of computing the formulation being to achieve some of the balance between carbon and nitrogen. The nitrogen level of compost at stacking is adjusted to 1.5% of the dry matter and the carbonnitrogen ratio at the same time is 25-30 : 1. the compost should have 2.0-2.3% N at the completion of the process, which corresponds to 17:1, C-N ratio. There are so many variations in compost formulations. The basis of primarily the cost of availability of the ingredients and suitable supplements in the particular growing states. Some recommended formulae are : (i) Natural compost Basic formula (IARI) (in kg) Horsedung 1,000 Wheat straw (chopped) 350 Urea 3 Gypsum (hydrated calcium sulphate) 30-40 Urea can be replaced with 100 to 110 kg of poultry manure Hayes and Randle (1969) recommended :
(in kg) Horsedung 1,016 Chicken manure 101.6 Molasses 38.1 Cotton-seed meal 15.24 Gypsum 15 Synthetic compost Formulated at IARI, New Delhi (in kg) Wheat straw (chopped) 1,000 Wheat bran 80 Urea 10 Ammonium sulphate or calcium ammoinum nitrate 10 Gypsum 40-50 Optional supplements. Molasses 40 kg or 20 kg molasses + 20 kg cotton seed or groundnut+seed meal; chicken manure 100-150 kg. Molasses should be diluted 20 times with water. Oilseed-meal cakes may be added during the first turning. Poultry-manure is added at the beginning of composting. Formulated by schisler (1974) (in kg) Hay or Wheat straw 68 Corn cobs (crushed) 68 Brewer's grain 13.6 Poultry manure 11.33 Urea 1.18 Potash 1.63 Gypsum 4.5 Formulated by Takahashi (1975) in Japan (in kg) Rice straw 1,000 Urea 5 Calcium cyanide 10 Ammonium sulphate 13 Calcium carbonate 25 Calcium superphosphate 30 Formulated by Shin et al. (1971) in Korea (in kg) Rice straw 1,000 Chicken manure 100 Urea 12-15 Gypsum 20
One ton of dry straw will requirealmost 5. the supplements excluding the gypsum are uniformally scattered over the straw and mixed. The straw can be stacked manually or with a stack mould. It can also be carried out in a shed with open sides to shelter it from rain. The 'long method' is considered primitive and unsuitable for commercial cultivation.000 Ammonium sulphate 18 Urea 4. However. The dimensions of the heap can be adjusted according to the size of straw and air temperature. the long and short method. such a compost tends to dry up rather quickly when the atmosphere turns dry.50 Calcium superphosphate 18 Calcium carbonate 27 (f) Advantages of synthetic compost Synthetic compost is comparable with natural compost because it is capable of producing perfectly normal yields. Some growers prefer to mix half the supplements at the beginning of composting. sometimes even superior yields because of better aeration within the bed. but it has to be protected from rain. and unless it is persuaded to absorp water. since the bed is bettet aerated. The main drawback in horse-manure is that its quality varies and this results in inconsistent yields. After the straw is wetted. The straw is then turned for even wetting.Formulated by Ho (1978) in Taiwan (in kg) Rice straw 1. also pests and diseases become active in such a compost. (g) Method of composting There are two methods for preparing mushroom compost. Fresh dry straw resists water absorption. Composting yard. The principle is that longer the straw. The compost should be prepared near the growing site. If composting is done in the cooler . one meter wide and of indefinite length has been found to be suitable for Delhi during September-October. It is not known whether this practice is in any way beneficial. (h) Composting procedure by long method (i) Wetting the straw. by covering it with polythylene sheet. In practice. till the straw takes no more water. However. gently. The first step in the composting process is to wet straw. The actual time of composting a synthetic compost is about a week longer than that required for composting horse-manure in the normal way by the long method. Synthetic compost is more uniform in quality and texture and supports better spawn run. the synthetic compost is bocoming increasingly popular in many mushroom-growing countries. A heap one meter high.000 litres of water to bring it into saturation. With the scarcity of horsedung. (ii) Mixing and heaping. the 'long method' is still relevant for the growers in India who cannot afford the expensive technology required for the short method. horsemanure compost because it is cheaper is still the most-favoured substrate with the growing units in Europe and America. However. The 'short method' is quick and a definite advance over the earlier technology. on clean concrete or pucca floor at a higher level to prevent the run-off water collecting near the heap. will tend to build up temperature within the bed which is detrimental to spawn run. and unless it softens it will not take more water later. the straw is spread thinly over the entire floor of the composting yard. it will not soften. the water content is 75% and for the composts this point is reached when the compost is just saturated and before any run-off occurs. the mixture is finally stacked in a heap. The natural compost is not pasteurized as per requirements. It is then gradually wetted by sprinkling water. Composting is usually done in the open. At this stage. bigger the heap. After mixing. and the remaining half after the first turn. Again water is sprinkled till it can absorb no more. especially in the far-East. The straw should be firmly but not compactly compressed into the mould.
Open the heap and make it a number of times and for this purpose. The above schedule has been worked out on the basis of author's experience and can be altered if the conditions within the heap so require. . mix the stack the heap 4th day First turning 8th day Second turning 12th day Third turning 16th day Fourth turning 20th day Final turning and filling of the trays Nitrogeneous supplements and carbohydrates are mixed on day zero. The compost is now ready for the phase II or the peak heating. otherwise the compost will lack the necessary nutritive value so essential for a good crop. In such cases. One aspect of the phase II is to promote such conditions in which the pasteurization of the compost. BHC or Lindane can also be used.This is recognised as the microbial-composting stage and is an integral part of the total composting process. During the final turning. It is important to ensure that the heap attains sufficiently high temperatures (700750C) to bring about the correct composting. like DDT. as a rule undesirable acid zones occur inside the compost. For horsedung manure. the temperature difference between inside of the compost and the surrounding air is too small to produce chimney-effect necessary for compost ventilation. the first on day 3. the time schedule is suggested is : Day zero Wet. a small heap would be unable to retain heat and moisture and the composting would be unsatisfactory. Core ventilation does not take place.months when the temperature ranges between 100 and 180C. (iii) Turning schedule. Gypsum is usually mixed at the third and forth turning in quantities. The guiding principle is that the heap should be opened when the temperature within rises no further. for a brief 0 periodof temperatures of about 60 C. BY heating the compost and the surrounding air. thatturnings are given sooner. the second on day 6 and the third day on 9 or 10 when gypsum is added. relatively narrow heaps would be more suitable. 40 ml Malathion diluted in 20 litres of water is sprinkled. the final turning is given is given on day rather than on day 20. The short method consists of two phases : phase I and phase II. any other available insecticide. Care must also be taken to see that overcomposting does not take place. The procedure for phase I is similar to the initial stages of the long method except. virtually all important parasites and pathogens can be eliminated. (i) Composting by short method The method which was developed by Sinden and Hauser (1950) constitutes a general advance in controlled composting. During the hot weather generally and in particular in tropical and sub-tropical regions.
6. clean and well dried rice straws and banana leaves. Bundle the bedding materials 6-8 inches in diameter. Set the soaked-bundled materials. If rice straws are used. However. perhaps due to insufficiency of planting materials and the limited local knowledge about its culture. This article illustrates the fundamental techniques involved in the culture of banana or rice straw type of mushroom. Volvariolla volvacoa. Materials and Methods ± I Dry rice straws and banana leaves are the most common types of bleeding materials. 1. Its present cultivation in this country is limited. evenly and compactly. long. Gather long. Foundation as support for the bed. water hyacinth. closely knit the together. Mushroom can be grown the whole year round provided a good storage of rice straw is prepared. Plastic sheet of gauge No. jute sacks. sugar baggasse and abaca waste materials may also be used for bedding materials. Sufficient water supply and soaking tank or any similar container are used. 5. 2. preferably those that are still standing in the field. 3. Mushroom growing requires little space and time and farmers can make use of their rice straws following harvesting.The culture of mushroom is gaining popularity in the Philippines. corn stalks. Cut the bundle materials 1. empty cement bags and sacks are used to cover the beds. other materials like cotton wastes.5 to 2 ft. . arrange butt ends together. 4. The vegetable and Legume Crops Section of the Bureau of Plant Industry is now producing mushroom spawn in abundance. Avoid using old and contaminated bedding materials. Soak the bundled materials in water for at least 3 hours but not more than 10 hours until enough moisture is absorbed by the materials. Mushroom is a delicacy and is really accepted as vegetable. Procedures 1.
passing same over the bed and along the sides. 10. With adequate maintenance and care. After the removal of the plastic sheet don?t water the bed as the bed is still wet. 9. 8. When a flush is on watering must be avoided. As much as possible care must be taken not to disturb the small buttons. 2. 4. Put the butt ends together in two opposite direction. Harvested mushroom may be placed in trays or in kaings. Cover the entire bed with plastic sheet gauges No. Press the layer to level of surface.6. 3. Care in the Mushroom Bed 1. which would keep the surface moist and its environs humid. Water and press down. Set the second layer of straw on the top of the first layer. Insert thumb-size spawns around the bed. Harvest the whole mushroom including the stump. 7. Follow the same procedure until a six-layer bed is attained. the first flush usually comes and flushes from 13 to 15 days following seeding. 3. When the bed is made. Add sugar at the rate of 33 grams per gallon of water to improve the yield of mushrooms. Mushrooms in the button stage of growth are more succulent. Harvesting is done in the following manner: 1. per gallon of water. hence they are better preferred than the fully opened ones. Watering may be done using a sprinkler. 6 or cement bags or sacks for seven days after which it is removed. 4. Stop watering when the water starts to drip off the bed. Harvesting The growth of mushrooms on the bed come in flushes. Avoid soaking the bed as this condition . Watering is resumed when the flush is over. Don?t leave any stump in the bed as this would rot and in rotting the adjacent mushroom may be affected. Never plant spawn at the middle of the bed. four (4) inches from along the side and four (4) inches apart from each other. it may be well to cover it with plastic sheet. Watering should be done only in amounts. gunny sack or any suitable materials to protect it from the drying effect of the wind and to keep it humid. Water the bed well with the urea or ammonium sulfate at rate of 1-2 tbsp. 2.
water must be stopped until the flush is over. 5. When the mushroom buttons start to form. 6.is equally harmful to the proper development of the mushrooms as insufficient watering. . Resume watering when the flush is over to coax another flush to come.
The latter is measured from the readings of dark bottle. Harvest method: This is the simplest and measuring the productivity of a water body such as fish pond by hervest at the end of the season. This can be added on to the day-time gain to obtain daily gross photosynthesis.3 C14 method: The most accurate method for determining productivity is the method of using radioactive carbon (C14) added as carbonate. The phytoplankton and other elements in the water produce oxygen in the water bottle. This volume should normally be corrected for the loss or gain in oxygen due to concentration gradient over the day. considering the day as the light bottle and night as the dark bottle. This would be specially done while evaluating water bodies (natural or man-made) for stocking(in extensive culture) and also for cage and enclosure culture. . The productivity measured thus is net primary productivity as the carbon fixed in the tissues only are measured here.1 Oxygen measurement method: Primary productivity can be measured from the amount of oxygen consumed by a volume of water in a fixed period of time. However this oxygen production indicates net primary productivity only. 8. 8. Thus from the oxygen produced by photosynthesis of enclosed organism (representing a sample of the water body) can be known. a value forgross primary productivity is obtained. 8. Do (dissolved oxygen) measurement of water is made at the beginning of the immersion period. water for which productivity is to be determined is enclosed in sealed white and dark bottles (bottle painted dark so light would not enter). Labelled carbonate is added into a bottle containing water with the phytoplankton and other organisms and after a short period of time the plankton is separated. The two bottles are then immersed in the water body concerned at the level from which the water is taken. (see separate Practicals Handout on the topic). From the DO difference in dark botfle oxygen consumed by the enclosed organisms can be obtained and when this respiration value is added to the oxygen production in the white bottle.2 Diel method: Estimates of primary productivity can also be made from diel changes in oxygen. where only respiration takes place. The increase in DO in the day time is net primary production and the decrease in the night is half the diel respiration. dried and planchetted and the radioactive carbon fixed can be measured from the radioactive counts made. The productivity given is secondary productivity and indicates net productivity and also quite often fish production given is in net weight giving productivity value. In selecting a water body for aquaculture measurement of primary productivity and estimation of potential yield would be of great assistance in planning the culture activity. but some oxygen disappears due to respiration.Measurement of productivity Several methods are used in measurement of productivity or rate of production.
includes (12) independent countries and (3) major territories. Lake Titicaca. the largest rainforest. and. Angel Falls in Venezuela. Chile. Bolivia. It contains the world's highest waterfall. the driest place on earth. the longest mountain range.879.000 sq km 6. the highest commercially navigable lake in the world. the Falkland Islands. the largest river (by volume). Argentina . Galapagos Islands and French Guiana.Andes Mountains. Puerto Toro.Description South America.959m) . excluding research stations in Antarctica.000 sq miles Percent of Earth's Land: 12% Population: 379. the Amazon Rainforest.000 (2009 estimate) Highest Point: Cerro Aconcagua . the highest capital city.819. the planet's 4th largest continent. Details Continent Size: 17. La Paz. the Andes.22.500. the world's southernmost permanently inhabited community. the Atacama Desert. the Amazon River.833 ft (6.
Argentina coastline -151 ft (-40m) below sea level .Lowest Point: Peninsula Valdes .
income. Fish biotechnology ² structure of DNA and its replication. Aquaculture production at global and national level. Fishing practices. trends. Hatchery technology and growout systems. Water and soil quality management. isolation and identification of causative agents. Non-food aquaculture . biology and behavior. age and growth. Institutional finance in fisheries. food and feeding habits. Fish immunology. Domestic and export marketing of fish and fishery products.culture and breeding of ornamental fishes of commercial importance. Contribution of fisheries and aquaculture to the food.Subject: ars net syllabus III. Monitoring. Common fish diseases. control and vessel surveillance systems. Part B: 09. seaweed and pearl culture. genetic code and protein synthesis. DNA repair. Fisheries extension methods and approaches. channels. Protection of national biodiversity. Taxonomy and biology of commercially important fish. treatment and control. laws of inheritance. pollution and its control. virus and fungi. mortality. production trends. major cultivable organisms and their taxonomy. fish food organisms . Aquatic environment management ² role of probiotics. Fishery . Common property resource management in fisheries and aquaculture. bioremediation. FISHERIES SCIENCE Global commercial fisheries resources. Feeding behavior of fish. trade and non-trade barriers. feed management in aquaculture. FISHERIES SCIENCES Part A : (GENERAL KNOWLEDGE) Fisheries resources of world and India. Aquaculture engineering and farm design. Fisheries and aquaculture related developmental programmes in India. linkage and mutation. Principles of fish genetics ² Mendelian genetics. Importance of commercial fishery in India and its impact on rural economy. Aquatic microbiology ² diseases caused by bacteria.phytoplankton and zooplankton. maximum sustainable yield. Fisheries management. transgenics and their implications. mechanisms. GDP and livelihood securities.
glycolytic and Kreb·s cycle. lipids and fatty acid profiles. grading. freezing. Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries. Fish nutrition and biochemistry nutrients. Principles and methods of fish preservation. genetic variation . Climate change and its impact on fisheries and livelihood. 5 10. Fish catching methods. Mendelian principles ² scope and limitations. prokaryotes and viruses. National and international organizations for food standards. digestibility. FISH HARVEST AND POST HARVEST TECHNOLOGY Craft and gear technology in fisheries. digestive enzymes. refrigeration cycle. cell organelles. Microbial contamination of fish and methods of prevention. Water budgeting. energetics. cold store. feeding rate. processing unit construction and management.physical basis of heredity. Processing engineering. growth and reproductive hormones. sanitary and phytosanitary requirements for maintenance of quality. Waste management. DNA replication. carbohydrates. gametogenesis and mechanisms of sex determination. . Machinery for handling and processing. vitamins and minerals. Technology transfer.economics and marketing. Transportation and marketing.DNA structure and organization of chromosomes in eukaryotes. Fish processing technology ² fish handling. Fish biochemistry ² major and minor constituents of fish ² proteins. Fish Genetics . Quality management of fish and fishery products.causes and measurement. biotechnology . feed and feeding equipment. types of feed. chilling. canning and packaging. post mortem changes in fish.
Slightly more than half of the stocks (52 percent) were fully exploited and. with no room for further expansion. with some trends in the observed exploitation categories (Figure 20). therefore. the proportion of fully exploited stocks remained steady at about 50 percent. with no possibilities in the short or medium term of further expansion and with an increased risk of further declines and a need for rebuilding. The overall examination of the state of stocks and groups of stocks for which information is available confirms that the proportions of overexploited. about one-fifth of the stock groups monitored by FAO were underexploited (2 percent) or moderately exploited (18 percent) and could perhaps produce more. The other 28 percent were either overexploited (19 percent). It is estimated that. depleted (8 percent) or recovering from depletion (1 percent) and. in 2007.What is the state of fishery resources? The source document for this Digest states: Capture fisheries by area (part A) Capture fisheries by region (part B) State of marine stocks The global state of exploitation of the world marine fishery resources has tended to vary. thus. producing catches at or close to their maximumsustainable limits. While the proportion of underexploited or moderately exploited stocks declined linearly from 40 percent in the mid-1970s to 20 percent in 2007. after the noticeable increasing trends observed in the 1970s and 1980s. depleted or recovering stocks appears to have stabilized at between 25 and 30 percent since the mid1990s (Figure 21). . The proportion of overexploited. depleted and recovering stocks have remained relatively stable in the last 10²15 years. yielding less than their maximum potential owing to excess fishing pressure in the past.
but its state of exploitation is unknown elsewhere. where they could offer some limited possibilities for further expansion of fisheries production. Chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi). Four FAO major fishing areas account for more than 10 percent each and collectively produced about 66 percent of the world marine catches in 2006. which are moderately exploited in the Eastern Pacific. Atlanticherring (Clupea harengus). are fully exploited or overexploited and. . Eastern Central Pacific. However. Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonicus). while other stocks are already fully exploited. with a total catch of 21. Alaska pollock(Theragra chalcogramma).6 million tonnes (26 percent of total marine catches). this may not be desirable as it is nearly impossible to increase skipjack catches without negatively affecting bigeye and yellowfin tunas. which is fully exploited in the North Pacific. some that are depleted and some that are underexploited because of market conditions. which is fully exploited in the Northeast Pacific. followed by the Southeast Pacific. the Western Central Pacific with 11. The percentage of stocks fully exploited.0 million tonnes (15 percent).2 million tonnes (14 percent) and the Northeast Atlantic. Some limited possibilities for expansion are also offered by a few stocks of chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus). with several stocks that are fully exploited. The proportion of overexploited. blue whiting(Micromesistius poutassou). cannot be expected to produce major increases in catches. The Northwest Pacific is the most productive. Western Central Pacific. where it is 10 percent or less. with two main stocks in the Southeast Pacific that are fully exploited and overexploited. overexploited or depleted varies greatly by area. which is fully exploited and overexploited in the Southeast Pacific. The major fishing areas with the highest proportions (71ï80 percent) of fully exploited stocks are the Northeast Atlantic. Southwest Pacific and Southern Ocean. therefore. Western Indian Ocean and Northwest Pacific. and for some species of tunas. which account in total for about 30 percent of the world marine capture fisheries production in terms of quantity (Figure 6 on page 12). Relatively high proportions (20 percent or more) of underexploited or moderately exploited stocks can be found in the Eastern Indian Ocean. The largehead hairtail (Trichiurus lepturus) is considered overexploited in the main fishing area in the Northwest Pacific.Most of the stocks of the top ten species.1 million tonnes (11 percent). which is fully exploited in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and probably moderately to fully exploited in the Indian Ocean. and yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares). Some stocks of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) are fully exploited while some are still reported as moderately exploited. which is fully exploited in the Northeast Atlantic. This is the case for: anchoveta (Engraulis ringens). particularly in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. with 9. depleted and recovering stocks varies between 20 and 52 percent in all areas except in the Northwest Pacific. with a total catch of 12. Western Central Pacific and Eastern Central Pacific.
Fishing mortality has been reduced in cod. both considered fully exploited. The category ´marine fishes non-identifiedµ. cuttlefish and octopuses are important species yielding 1. although there were signs of decline in 2005 and 2006 as compared with catches of more than 2 million tonnes in 2003. The stock of anchoveta has recovered from the severe El Niño event of 1997²98 and is considered fully exploited in most of the area. with the Japanese anchovy providing large catches. the Philippines.Squids. Saithe stocks have also increased since 2000. accounts for most of this increase.4 million tonnes. most dramatically in the Gulf of Thailand and along the east coast of Malaysia. This region is highly diverse. Two other important pelagic stocks. Cod remains depleted in the North Sea and in the Faeroes. with total catches up about 3 percent on 2004. Thailand and Viet Nam) have shown considerable degradation and overfishing of coastal stocks. small pelagics are the most abundant category. sole and plaice. In the Southeast Pacific. the Chilean jackmackerel and in particular the South American pilchard. producing a fraction of the record catches observed between the mid-1980s and mid-1990s. fisheries have grown and most stocks are now considered fully exploited. with most species assessed as either fully exploited or moderately to fully exploited. Tunas and tunalike species make up about 24 percent of the total for this fishing area. its fisheries are mostly multispecies. a 5-percent increase compared with 2004. and the Alaska pollock and chub mackerel. and the stock is considered fully exploited. ´Miscellaneous pelagic fishesµ (including Indian mackerels and various carangids) made up 11 percent of the catches and ´miscellaneous coastal fishesµ (croakers. total catches have oscillated around 12 million tonnes in the last five years. Other important contributors to the total catch are the largehead hairtail. sea . considered overexploited. In the Northeast Atlantic.8 million tonnes. Some sand eel and capelin stocks have become depleted. The status of other species groups is highly uncertain. Analysis of survey information for some countries in the region (Malaysia. A record high has been reached in total landings in the Eastern Indian Ocean. but other stocks are healthier and considered fully exploited. The stocks of South Pacific hake remain under heavy fishing pressure with no sign of recovery. The Western Central Pacific is the most productive fishing area of the tropical regions. while fishing for shrimp seems to have ceased in some areas. There has been no major change in the status of stocks since 2004. representing 50 percent of the total catches in the area.In the Northwest Pacific. remain in a decadal cycle of natural low abundance. Several stocks ofhaddock have shown spectacular increases in biomass since 2000. ponyfishes. and detailed data for reliable assessments are usually not available for most stocks. with a total of 5. catches of blue whiting have stabilized at about 2 million tonnesper year since 2003.
particularly off Namibia.catfishes. modified river runoffs and intensive coastal aquaculture. has declined considerably in abundance and is overexploited throughout the region.1 What are the general trends in trade? The source document for this Digest states: .3 What are the markets for specific types of fish products? 5. The important hake resources remain fully exploited to overexploited although there are signs of some recovery in the deepwater hake stock (Merluccius paradoxus) off South Africa. In contrast. where it is currently overexploited. The status of the coastal fishes remains fully exploited or depleted. under unfavourable environmental conditions. The condition of the Perlemoen abalone stock has deteriorated. the status of Southern African anchovy has improved from fully exploited to fully to moderately exploited. A significant change concerns the Southern African pilchard. While catches of most groups show either a rising trend or are fluctuating slightly with no clear trend. and Whitehead·s round herring is underexploited to moderately exploited. Tuna catches in 2006 were slightly below the sixyear (2000²05) average of 450 000 tonnes. There have been several changes in the status of the stocks in the Southeast Atlantic since the last full assessment made in 2004. and it is currently overfished and probably depleted. etc. which was at a very high biomass and estimated to be fully exploited in 2004. sedimentation. 5. What is the amount of traded fishery products? y y y 5. there are indications that parts of this fishing area could be overfished.) 10 percent. The condition of Cape horse mackerel has deteriorated.2 How does this trade affect the economy of various countries? 5. driven heavily by illegal fishing. with the situation being aggravated by increasing stress from pollution.1 What are the general trends in trade? 5. but which now.
6 percent on 2005 and of 62. The growing exports of the last few years reflect the increase in consumption of fish and fishery products not only in the EU and the United States of America but in many other regions of the world. Export value expanded at an average annual rate of 5 percent in the period 1996²2006. exports peaked at 56 million tonnes in 2005. 194 countries reported exports of fish and fishery products. Fish and fishery products are highly traded with more than 37 percent (live weight equivalent) of totalproduction entering international trade as various food and feed products (Figure 30).1 percent in the period 2000²06. with a growth of 28 percent since 1995 and of 104 percent since 1985.9 billion in 2006. A specific feature of the trade in fish is the wide range of product types and participants. However. However.7 percent on 1996 (Figure 31). exports of fish for human consumption rose a further 5 percent compared with the previous year and have increased by 57 percent since 1996. including Asia (with the notable . This represented an increase of 9. exports of fish and fishery products increased by 32. with a rising share of production from both developed and developing countries reaching international markets. This is expected to influence discretionary spending and sales of higher-value items in the short term. World exports of fish and fishery products reached US$85. Available data for 2007 indicate further strong growth to about US$92 billion. In 2006. In real terms (adjusted for inflation). trade in fish and fishery products plays an important role in improving food security and contributes to fish products meeting nutritional needs. In 2006. However. exports decreased by 4 percent to 54 million tonnes.Production and exports Exports by commodity group Fish trade and commodities In addition to its contribution to economic activity. employment and in generating foreign exchange. In fact.9 percent between 1986 and 2006. In terms of quantity (live weight equivalent). some weakening in demand was registered in late 2007 and early 2008 as turmoil in the financial sector started to affect consumer confidence in major markets. this decrease was due to reduced production and trade in fishmeal. by 26.6 percent in 1996²2006 and by 103. the long-term trend for trade in fish is positive.
in particular as a consequence of the weaker US dollar (which is used to denominate many commodity prices) and the marked appreciation of several currencies (especially European ones) against it. the second-best performance since 200018. prices of various agricultural commodities (particularly of basic foods) have rebounded after a prolonged period of decline. They include the tightening in own supplies. High feed prices have also raised costs for animal production and resulted in an increase in livestock prices. In the last few years.7 percent. handling and transportation has enabled more rapid and efficient trade. it has further consolidated its leading position. adding considerable value in the process. its exports reached US$9. China·s fishery exports have increased remarkably since the early 1990s. and they grew further to US$9. In 2006. progress in processing. exchange rates.7 percent in 1996²2006. packaging. However. caused mainly by the increase in global economic activity. A series of long. with the outsourcing of processing to other countries. At the same time.3 billion in 2007.4 percent in 2006 compared with 2005. Table 8 shows the top ten exporters and importers of fish and fishery products in 1996 and 2006. in particular for feed. An important factor was also the influence exerted by price movements and exchange rates on trade flows. and some have been rising at an even faster pace since then. the intertwining of global markets. Furthermore. China also exports reprocessed imported raw material. This is the first time in decades that real prices of fish have been rising. Since 2004. For more information on this issue. China has been the world·s largest exporter of fish and fishery products. and well above the average annual rate of 8. Despite this. According to the UN Comtrade database. In addition to exports from domestic fisheries production. aquaculture is also experiencing higher costs. Prices for species from capture fisheries are increasing more than those of farmed species because of the larger impact from higher energy prices on fishing vessel operations than on farmed species. WTO indicated that all major regions recorded gross domestic product (GDP) growth outpacing population growth and that global GDP growth had accelerated to 3. Since 2002. real merchandise export growth grew by 13. the growth of international and global distribution channels through large retailers has furthered this development. see Box 14 (page 160). This increase is linked to its growing fishery production. fishery exports represented only 1 percent of its total merchandise exports in 2006 and 2007. reflecting competitive labour and production costs. rising crude oil prices and freight rates. increased fishery exports coincided with an impressive global trade expansion. In 2006. as well as the expansion of its fishprocessing industry. In its World Trade Report 2007. Rising trade quantities (except for fishmeal) and values reflect the increasing globalization of the fisheries value chain.exception of Japan). They rose sharply in 2006.and short-term factors have contributed to this growth.0 billion. Prices of fishery products followed the general upward trend of all food prices in the course of 2007 and early 2008. China has experienced a significant increase in its fishery imports in the past .
it was the sixth-largest importer with US$4.6 million tonnes in live weight equivalent) in terms of quantity.5 billion in 2007. Fish trade. it also reflects China·s growing domestic consumption ofspecies. including those on fish and fishery products. other developing countries play a major role in the fisheryindustry.1 billion. 45-48 <-. in terms of quantity. that are not available from local sources.2 How does this trade affect the economy of various countries? The source document for this Digest states: In addition to China. 79 percent of world fishery production took place in developing countries. from 43 percent in 1996 to 53 . An important share of their exports consisted of fishmeal (35 percent by quantity. but only 5 percent by value). 2008 PART 1:World review of fisheries and aquaculture. Source & ©: FAO Fisheries ² The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture. as a consequence of which it lowered import duties. In 2006. However.5 billion) of world exports of fish and fishery products in value terms and 59 percent (31. developing countries contributed 70 percent of world non-food fishery exports. Their exports represented 49 percent (US$42. In 2006. This growth has been particularly noticeable since the country·s accession to the WTO in late 2001. Developing countries have also significantly increased their share of the quantity of fish exports destined for human consumption. The growth in imports is partly a result of the abovementioned imports by China·s processors of raw material for reprocessing and export. mainly of high value. and imports reached US$4.Back to Level 1 Level 2 Questions Top y y y y y y y Level 1: Summary Level 2: Source About Links Glossary Next Sub-Question 5.decade. In 2006. p.
the United States of America and the EU are the major markets. The low-income food-deficit countries (LIFDCs) play an active and growing role in the trade in fish and fishery products. small pelagics as well as high-value fishery species for emerging economies) or for their processing industries.2billion and their fishery net export revenues were an estimated US$10. All major importing markets.2 billion in 1984. world fish imports19 reached a new record high of US$89. to US$16.8 billion in 1976 to US$7. This share expanded to 12 percent in 1986. when their fishery exports were US$17. In fact.6 billion in 2006. Fishery exports of developing countries are gradually evolving from raw material for the processing industry in developed countries to value-added products and also high-value live fish. in value terms. with the EU experiencing a significant 12-percent rise.7 billion. growing from US$1. Preliminary data suggest that world imports of fish and fishery products totalled about US$96 billion in 2007. They have increased significantly in recent decades. In 2006. Exports by developing countries Fishery net exports (i. In 2006. In 2006. an increase of 10 percent on the previous year. A share of these exports consisted of processed fishery products prepared using imported fish. 17 percent in 1996 and 20 percent in 2006. 75 percent of the fishery exports of developing countries were destined for developed countries.7 billion in 1996 and reaching US$24. and of 57 percent since 1996. the total value of their exports less the total value of their imports) continue to be of vital importance to the economies of many developing countries (Figure 32). Japan. The fishery industries of developing countries rely heavily on the markets of developed countries. several developing countries are importing an increasing quantity of raw material for further processing and re-export to developed countries. their exports accounted for 10 percent of the total value of fishery exports. 40 percent of the imports of fish and fishery products by developing countries originated from developed countries. This is mainly due to the significantaquaculture production in many developing countries and the resulting need for feed. but also as suppliers of their imports for local consumption (mainly low-priced. except Japan. not only as outlets for their exports. in value terms.percent in 2006. Fishmeal was the only product for which exports from developing countries to other developing countries (58 percent of the total) were more important than exports to developed countries. with a total share of 72 . owing to the above-mentionedphenomenon of outsourcing. In 1976.6 billion.e. further increased the value of their imports of fish and fishery products.
country exports.or market-based standards and labels on developing. environmental standards and social concerns. With stagnant domestic fishery production and growing demand. This is also the main reason why import tariffs in developed countries are so low and.percent of the total import value in 2006. indicating the higher unit value of products imported by developed countries. Trade flows (part A) Trade flows (part B) Imports and exports for different regions . Not only is the emerging dominance of large retail and restaurant chains in seafood distribution and sales shifting negotiating power towards the final stages in the value chain. the principal barrier to increased exports from developing countries (beyond the physical availability of product) is the lack of ability to adhere to quality. Furthermore. developed markets have to rely on imports and/or on aquaculture to cover a growing share of internal consumption. At present.and safety-related import requirements. retailers are also increasingly imposing private. they are also hindered by importing countries· increasing requirements that production processes respect animal health. about 50 percent of the import value of developed countries originated from developing countries. in recent decades. albeit with a few exceptions (such as for some value-added products). In total. rather than import tariffs. As a result. fishery products from developing countries have been able to gain increased access to developed-country markets without facing prohibitive custom duties. do not represent any significant barrier to increased trade. This is making it more difficult for small-scale fish producers to enter international markets and distribution channels. developed countries accounted for 80 percent of imports in terms of value but only 62 percent in terms of quantity (live weight equivalent). In 2006.
Europe. respectively). However. Africa has been a net exporter since 1985. Over time. about one-third of African countries did not report their trade in fishery products by country of origin or destination.herring. The trade in fish between developing countries represents only 25 percent of the value of their fishery exports. when the factory ships of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe either stopped fishing or ceased landing massive quantities of inexpensive frozen pelagic fish in West Africa. such trade is hampered by the fact that the majority of developing countries apply. and about 45 percent of imports coming from. In addition to the member countries· individual . 97 countries were net exporters of fish and fisheryproducts. This is mostly to generate much-needed government revenue. in general terms. the overall picture presented by these maps is not complete as information is not available for all countries. For example. However. the trade in fish and fish products between developing countries is likely to improve subsequent to a gradual trade liberalization and a reduction in import tariffs following the expanding membership of the WTO and the entry into force of a number of bilateral trade agreements with strong relevance to the trade in fish. Intra-EU trade is particularly significant. with the exception of the Russian Federation. other EU countries in 2006 and 2007. importing and exporting countries are now members of the organization. With the accession of China and Viet Nam to the WTO (in 2001 and 2007. and partly driven by the demographic. In 2006. with the aim of becoming a full member within this decade. some 85 percent (in value terms) of fishery exports from developed countries were destined to other developed countries. The Latin America and the Caribbean region holds a strong positive net fishery exporter position. In 2006. Japan and North America are characterized by a fishery trade deficit (Figure 34). there has been a tendency towards increased intensity of fishery trade within regions. the quantity of data available is sufficient to establish general trends. The latter is a WTO observer and is involved in access negotiations. and about 50 percent of developedcountry fishery imports originated in other developed countries. all the major fish producing.The maps in Figure 33 indicate trade flows of fish and fisheryproducts by continent for the period 2004²06. with more than 84 percent of EU exports going to. Most developed countries trade more with other developed countries than with developing countries despite a growing share of fish consumption being covered by imports from developing countries. partly as a result of the emergence of more liberal and effectively implemented regional trade agreements. This trade should increase in the future. as do the Oceania regions and the developing countries of Asia. mackerel and salmon but also bivalves. In general. social and economic trends that are transforming food markets in developing countries. much higher import tariffs for all imported products than do developed countries. Trade in fish and fishery products among the more developed economies consists mainly of demersal species. However. In recent decades. a significant share of trade among developed countries is of farmed origin.
the negotiations on economic partnership agreements between the African. Source & ©: FAO Fisheries ² The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture. insurance and freight).Back to Level 1 Level 2 Questions Top y Level 1: Summary . expansion of regional trade areas. rising commodity prices in general and their impact on producers as well as consumers. Caribbean and Pacific Group of States and the EU. (free on board) values. 48-54 <-.b. the uptake of ecolabels by major retailers. 18 19 World Trade Organization. World Trade Report 2007. rising energy prices and their impact on fisheries. whereas exports are reported at f. continuation of trade disputes related to shrimp and salmon exports.f. Geneva.commitments on import tariffs. 2008 PART 1:World review of fisheries and aquaculture. (cost. the most important elements of the WTO agreements for trade in fish are those concerning subsidies. Fish import figures differ from export figures because the former are usually reported in c. the multilateral trade negotiations in the WTO. and regional and bilateral trade agreements. antidumping. Fish trade. animal health. global warming and its impact on the fisheries sector. and dispute resolution. p. the growing concern of the general public and the retail sector about overexploitation of certain fish stocks. technical barriers to trade (TBT). 2007. Some of the major recent issues concerning international trade in fisheryproducts have been: y y y y y y y y y y y introduction by buyers and international retailers of private standards for food safety and quality.i. certification of aquaculture in general and of shrimp in particular. environmental sustainabilityand social purposes.o. sanitary and phytosanitary standards.
However. improved logistics and increased demand. . gadiformes. trade and consumption of species and products that respond to consumers· needs for moderately-priced white. the share of live.meat fillets and that. fresh or chilled fish was 10 percent by quantity. Live and fresh fish are valuable but difficult to trade and transport. more than 90 percent of the quantity of international trade of fish and fishery products is conducted in processed form. In 2006. only a few years ago. they were practically unknown. trade increasingly in processed form (fillets or loins). Owing to the high perishability of fish and fishery products. Nonetheless. Export growth rates for species such as catfish and tilapia currently exceed 50 percent per year. These species are entering new markets where. With the tremendous growth in aquaculture production of the last few decades. tuna and tilapia. a number of high-volume but relatively low-value species are also traded in large quantities not only nationally and within major producing areas (such as Asia and South America) but also at the international level. 20 bass and bream. Many of these species are farmed.y y y y y y Level 2: Source About Links Glossary Next Question 5. salmon. tuna. Many species. trade in many aquaculture products is not yet well documented as the classification used internationally to record trade statistics for fish does not distinguish species between wild and those of farmed origin. such as salmon. for the most part. the trade focus is mainly on high-value species.3 What are the markets for specific types of fish products? The source document for this Digest states: Commodities In world markets. and they are often subject to stringent health regulations and quality standards. albeit to varying degrees. the absolute and relative contribution of farmed products to international trade has also grown considerably. However. are sold through the supermarket or food service channels. This highlights the potential for further growth in the production. but more than 18 percent by value. Many of the species that have registered the highest growth rates in the last few years are mostly destined for export. trade in live fish has increased in recent years as a result of technological developments. such as shrimp.
International statistics on trade in live fish also include trade in ornamental fish. In 2007. whereas the EU consolidated its position as the leading shrimp market in the world. Exports of frozen fish have increased in the past decade. Fish trade. Despite growing export volumes. while prices for wild shrimp rose in early 2008 (Figure 35). many producers of farmed shrimp are now looking into diversification and value-addition strategies in order to counter the price weakness. a large proportion of which originated from South American countries. representing17 percent of total exports (10 percent in 1996). In 2006. 54 The source document for this Digest states: Shrimp prices in Japan 5. In value terms. the major exporting countries are Thailand.1 Shrimp Shrimp continues to be the largest single commodity in value terms. shrimp imports were weaker in both the United States of America (the main shrimp importer) and Japan. Exports of curedfish accounted for 5 percent of total exports in 2006. Source & ©: FAO Fisheries ² The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture. its share has been declining. all major European countries experienced a stable or increasing trend for shrimp imports. Exports of prepared and preserved fish totalled 9. remaining rather stable in the last decade. which is high in value terms but almost negligible in terms of quantity traded. 2008 PART 1:World review of fisheries and aquaculture.3 million tonnes (live weight equivalent) in 2006. p. from 31 percent of the total quantity of fish exports in 1996 to 39 percent in 2006. China and Viet Nam. with average prices showing a downward trend. accounting for 17 percent of the total value of internationallytraded fishery products (2006). With prices and margins under pressure. 20 Cod and related species.3. exports of non-food fishery products represented 29 percent of total fish exports in terms of quantity. Apart from the United Kingdom. . Prices for cultured shrimp fell owing to softer demand. including cut-backs in output in order to stabilize prices.
Dollar weakness contributed to stable prices in local currency terms in key European frozen-fillet markets in 2007 (Figure 36). Prices have oscillated in line with sudden shifts in supply. in particular in the use of feed. 55 The source document for this Digest states: Groundfish prices 5. 2008 PART 1:World review of fisheries and aquaculture. Fish trade. The increase in demand for farmed salmon is facilitated by the expansion of modern retail channels and the steady availability of product throughout the year.3 Groundfish Groundfish represented 10 percent of total fish exports (by value) in 2006. Fish trade. increasing steadily year by year. Demand for farmed salmon is firm. a problem that has affected some of the larger companies.3. p. 2008 PART 1:World review of fisheries and aquaculture. The relatively stable price situation was also helped by steady Alaska pollock supplies. Hake provisions from some origins (notably Argentina) were . Source & ©: FAO Fisheries ² The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture. reaching record levels in 2006 but returning to more normal levels in 2007 and 2008. This has been driven mainly by the strong growth in salmon and trout aquaculture in Northern Europe and in North and South America. 55 The source document for this Digest states: 5. transition and developing countries. groundfish imports fell as exporters preferred the ´Euro areaµ (given the weak US dollar). with new markets opening up in both developed. In the United States of America.3. but also in the handling of disease.Source & ©: FAO Fisheries ² The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture. Industry concentration is enabling producers to benefit from economies of scale. China consolidated its position in the cod and pollock fillet markets.2 Salmon The share of salmon (including trout) in world trade has increased strongly in recent decades and now stands at 11 percent. Globalization in the groundfish sector is evident with products processed in China and Viet Nam continuing to supply world markets. p.
Fish trade. Tuna markets were rather unstable owing to large fluctuations in catch levels. whereas catfish imports are growing rapidly in the EU. Japan.weaker than in 2006. Import tariffs on tuna remain an important issue for both importers and exporters. 56-57 The source document for this Digest states: . catfish and Nile perch. which made long fishing trips uneconomical for the world tuna fleet. and canned tuna prices soared for the first time in 20 years. 55-56 The source document for this Digest states: Tuna prices 5. 2008 PART 1:World review of fisheries and aquaculture. and they declined in 2007. The main reason for this decline was the increased fuel price.3. Prices increased in all main markets (Figure 37). the ample supply of ready substitutes from farmed sources has prevented prices from rising beyond certain levels. Fish trade. respectively. the market for fillets is being supplied byfreshwater species. the largest market for imported tuna. Tilapia has found a ready market in the United States of America. influenced by buoyant regional demand in South America itself. p. Annual farmedproduction of the first two species exceeds 2 million and 1 million tonnes. saw falling quantities in all categories. such as tilapia. p. Increasingly. as does the impact of preferential access for products from specific countries. Source & ©: FAO Fisheries ² The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture. Source & ©: FAO Fisheries ² The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture. The groundfish market is characterized by a high degree of substitution among the different groundfish species as well as with other species. and the United States of America. the Russian Federation. 2008 PART 1:World review of fisheries and aquaculture.4 Tuna The share of tuna in total fish exports in 2006 was 8 percent. Despite smaller quotas for a number of wild traditional groundfish species.
3. Italy and Japan are the largest importers of this species. Squid prices plummeted in 2007 as traders in Argentina sold at prices much below those of the previous season. . Thailand is the largest exporter of squid and cuttlefish.Tuna prices 5. On the other hand. Spain..5 Cephalopods The share of cephalopods in world trade in fish was 4.8 million tonnes.. Total annual catches of cephalopods are fairly stable at about 3. Morocco is the principal octopus exporter. China and Argentina.2 percent in 2006. octopus production and trade declined in 2007 as a result of limited catches by the Mauritanian fleet.6²3. followed by Spain. .
2010 at 2:11 PM . Dec 17.vivek e s <firstname.lastname@example.org> To: email@example.com> commercially imp fishery of india Tintu Bharathan Bharathan <firstname.lastname@example.org Fri.
Forwarded Message ---From: Tintu Bharathan Bharathan <email@example.com shark Komban-sorrah Sphyrna lewini Scalloped hammerhead shark Komban-sorrah Puli-sorrah/ Valluvan sorrah Galeocerdo cuvieri Tiger shark Scoliodon Spadenose shark Pillai-sorrah laticaudus Rhizoprionodon Milk shark/ Grey dog shark Pal sorrah acutus Skates & Rays Thirukkai 2 Rhyncobatus Shovel nose ray/ Guitar fish/ Palunga/ Padangan/ djiddensis White spotted nose ray Katchu-uluvai/ Paal uluvai Rhinobatus Granulated shovel nose ray/ Kalluvai/ Padangan granulatus Sharpnose guitar fish Pristis microdon .No Common Name Vernacular Name (Tamil) Scientific Name Shark Sorrah 1 Carcharhinus Black tip shark/ Grey shark Kundan-sorrah limbatus Carcharhinus Katta-sorrah/ PerunthalaiBlack tip reef shark/ Black shark melanopterus sorrah/ Karamudi-sorrah Sphyrna zygaena Smooth hammer.----.in Sent: Wed. 8 December. 2010 2:07:27 PM Subject: COMMERCIALLY IMPORTANT FISHERY RESOURCES OF INDIA Sl.in> To: vijibhaskaran@yahoo.
Small toothed saw fish Vezha/ Velaschora Green saw fish/ Small tooth saw Pristis pectinata Velaa meen/ Uluvai fish Bleeker·s whipray/ White tail Saman thirukkai/ Savukku Himantura bleekeri sting ray thirukkai Valvadi thirukkai/ Surul Rhinoptera javanica Javanese cownose ray thirukkai Kurivi thirukkai/ Vaval Aetobatus narinari Spotted eagle ray thirukkai Kombu thirukkai/ Kotuwa Manta birostris Giant devil ray/ Giant manta thirukkai Anchovy/ White bait Nethili 3 Golden anchovy/ Gold-spotted Coilia dussumieri Thogai-meen grenadier anchovy Poruva/ Nedum poruva/ Thryssa mystax Moustached anchovy Kola Thryssa malabarica Malabar anchovy Poruva Thryssa dussumieri Dussumier·s anchovy Semporuva Stolephorus indicus Indian anchovy Nethili Stolephorus Commerson·s anchovy Nethili commersonnii Stolephorus devisi/ Devis· anchovy/ Shorthand Encrasicholina Nethili anchovy .
Sardines & Shads 4 devisi Chalai. Kavalai Peichalai/ Kavalai/ Neethu Sardinella longiceps Indian oil sardine kavalai Sardinella gibbosa Gold stripe sardinella Nonalai/ Kavalai Sardinella albella White sardinella Choodai/ Thatta kavalai Fringescale sardine/ Lesser Sardinella fimbriata Choodai/ Nedum kavalai sardine Sardinella Deepbody sardinella Usi kavalai brachysoma Motha kendai/ Dussumieria acuta Rainbow sardine Poondivirinjan/ Thondan Hilsa ilisha Hilsa shad/ Indian shad Ullam/ Sevva Ilisha elongata Elongate ilisha/ Slender ilisha Poovali Nematalosa nasus Bloch·s gizzard shad Muddukandai/ Koimeen Wolf herring Mulluvalai 5 Chirocentrus dorab Dorab wolf-herring Mullu valai/ Valai Chirocentrus nudus Whitefin wolf herring Karu valai/ Mullu valai Chanos chanos Milk fish Pal meen/ Pal kendai Tuna Choorai 6 Longtail tuna Frigate tuna Thunnus tonggol Kara surai/ Kila valai Auxis thazard Elichoorai thazard Euthynnus affinis .
Mavulasi Scomberomorus Katta-cheela/ Cheela/ Indo-pacific king mackerel guttatus Naimeen/ Vanjiram Scomberomorus Narrow-barred Spanish Ah-ku-lah/ Vanjiram/ commerson mackerel Nettaiyan cheela Scomberomorus Streaked Spanish mackerel Mavuladi/ Naimeen lineolatus Mackerel Ailai.Kawakawa Yellowfin tuna Big-eye tuna Skipjack tuna Seer fish 7 Choorai Thunnus albacares Kila valai/ Choorai Thunnus obesus Kila valai/ Choorai Katsuwonus Choorai pelamis Vanjiram. Kanangeluthi 8 Rastrelliger Ailai/ Augalai/ Indian mackerel kanagurta Kanangeluthi/ Kumla Rastrelliger faughni Faughn·s mackerel Ailai / Augalai Rastrelliger Short bodied mackerel Ailai/ Kanangeluthi/ Kumla brachysoma Carangids Parai 9 Kilisai/ Parai/ Semaparai/ Torpedo scad/ Hardtail scad/ Komaraparai/ Pulli parai/ Megalaspis cordyla Horse mackerel Thenga parai/ Vengadai parai Indian scad/ Russell·s scad/ Decapterus russelli Paarai/ Kilichai .
Naked breast trevally Caranx Bigeye trevally/ Dusky trevally Usi parai/ Parai sexfasciatus Carangoides Malabar trevally Thol Parai malabaricus Vaththava parai/ Manchal Caranx ignobilis Giant trevally/ Yellowfin trevally killu parai Carangoides ferdau Blue trevally Tanga parah Alepes djedaba Shrimp scad Kilisai/ Komaraparai Atule mate Yellowtail scad Parai Atropus atropos Cleftbelly trevally Kunni-parah Seriolina Ponnarameen/ Mosala Blackbanded trevally/ Butter fish nigrofasciata parai Silverbellies/ Ponyfish Karal 10 Sudumbu karal/ Kuthippu Gazza minuta Tooth pony karal Leiognathus Karai/ Kalikaral/ Kaaral/ Common ponyfish equulus Soorokoonam-kare Leiognathus bindus Orangefin ponyfish Karal/ Theevetti karal Leiognathus Splendid ponyfish Karal/ Kulli-karai splendens Leiognathus Dussumier·s ponyfish Veri-karai/ Karal dussumieri Lizard fish Thumbili .
11 Brush tooth lizard fish Greater lizard fish Indian lizard fish Variegated lizard fish Catfish 12 Giant seacatfish Uluvai/ Thumbili Saurida undosquamis Saurida tumbil Thumbili Synodus indicus Thumbili Synodus variegatus Thumbili Keluthi.fish/ Arius dussumieri Mondai keliru Dussumier·s cat fish Small-eye catfish/ White catfish Arius jella Vellai-keliru/ Keluthi Blackfin sea catfish Spotted catfish/ Sea catfish/ Arius maculatus Keliru/Keluthi Sea barbel Osteogeniosus Soldier catfish Ponkeluthi militaris Clarias batrachus Walking catfish Keluthi Silurus wynaadensis/ Freshwater catfish/ Malabar Pterocryptis silurus wynaadensis Giant river catfish/ Short-nosed Pona-keluthi/ Nedunthalai Mystus seenghala catfish kelutti/ Naddu-keluthi Walagh/ Vazhai/ ValaiathiWallago attu Shark catfish . Keliru Keluthi/ Mondai keliru/ Arius thalassinus Mandal keliru/ Venkeliru Blacktip sea cat.
valai Stinging catfish Eel 13 Indian pike conger talabonoides Vlangu Conger cinereus Indian conger eel Vlangu Indonesian shortfin eel/ Shortfin Vellanagoo/ Serum pambu/ Anguilla bicolor eel/ Freshwater eel Vlangu Flying fish Para kola. Kola 14 Cheilopogon Paravai kola/ Para kola/ Margined flying fish cyanopterus Kola Cheilopogon Paravai kola/ Para kola/ Spot-fin flying fish furcatus Kola Paravai kola/ Para kola/ Exocoetus volitans Two-winged flying fish Kola Full beak/ Gar fish Mural 15 Flat needle fish/ Barred longAblennes hians Mural tom Tylosurus Hound needle fish/ Forktail crocodilus Pahmum kola/ Mural alligator gar crocodilus Heteropneustes Thaylee/ Thailimeen fossilis Vlangu Congresox Kotah/ Kulivi pambu/ .
Ma-kala 20 Eleutheronema Four-finger threadfin/ Indian . Ooli 18 Pick-handle barracuda/ Banded Sphyraena jello Seela/ Kara ooli/ Thiriyan barracuda Sphyraena Great barracuda Seela/ Ooli/ Thiriyan barracuda Mullet Madavai 19 Mugil cephalus Flathead mullet/ Grey mullet Madavai/ Kasmeen Manalai/ Sarya/Madavai/ Valamugil seheli Bluespot mullet Madavakendai Liza parsia Gold-spot mullet Madavai/ Avelameen Threadfin Kala. Kopparan 17 Istiophorus Indo-Pacific sail fish Mayilmeen/ Thalapaththu platypterus Makaira indica Black marlin Kopparaikulla/ Kopparan Makaira mazara Blue marlin Kopparaikulla Barracuda Seela. Mural Hemirhamphus Usi kola/ Mural marginatus Hemirhamphus far Blackbarred half beak Usi kola/ Mural Rhynchorhamphus Long-billed half beak/ Malabar Usi kola/ Mural georgii half beak Sail fish/ Marlin Thalapaththu.Half beak 16 Barred half-beak Usi Kola.
Koduva 21 Ambassis ambassis Commerson·s glassy perchlet Selanthan Giant sea perch/ Barramundi/ Lates calcarifer Koduva/ Painee meen Sea bass Tiger perch Keechan.Kala/ Ma-kala tetradactylum salmon Polynemus Seven-finger threadfin Kala/ Ma-kala heptadactylus Polynemus indicus Indian threadfin Kala Sea perch Selanthan. Noolani 23 Karuvalai/ Parithi velameen Lutjanus johnii John·s snapper Lutjanus gibbus Humpback red snapper Sankara meen Lutjanus rivulatus Blubberlip snapper Cuttu-pirium/ Karuvalai Lutjanus Malabar red snapper Seppili/ Noolani malabaricus Lutjanus lutjanus Bigeye snapper Seppili/ Noolani Seppili/ Vekkattai/ Thokkal/ Lutjanus Mangrove red snapper argentimaculatus Pullikarayan/ Noolani Grouper/ Reef Cod Kalava 24 Epinephelus Thorny cheek grouper/ Six- . Keeli 22 Jarbua terapon/ Crescent tiger Keechan/ Kovakeechan/ Terapon jarbua perch Keeli Terapon puta Small-scaled terapon Pootankeeli/ Keechan Snapper Seppili.
Kalava diacanthus barred reef cod Epinephelus Malabar grouper/ Malabar reef Kalava malabaricus cod Epinephelus Giant grouper Kalava lanceolatus Epinephelus Comet grouper/ Banded-cheek Kollu kalava morrhua reef cod Epinephelus Greasy reef cod Thala kalava tauvina Bulleye Kakkasi 25 Moon-tail bulleye/ Dusky-finned Priacanthus hamrur Kakkasi bulleye Priacanthus Glasseye/ Blood-coloured Kakkasi cruentatus bulleye Emperor bream/Pigface Vilaimeen 26 bream Spangled emperor/ Starry Lethrinus nebulosus Koranguvela/ Vilaimeen emperor bream Lethrinus ornatus Ornate emperor Goat fish 27 Yellowstriped goat fish Vilaimeen Navarai Upeneus vittatus Navarai .
Upeneus Gold band goat fish Navarai moluccensis Upeneus Yellow goat fish/ Sulphur goat Sen navarai/ Kal navarai sulphureus fish/ Sunrise goat fish Parupeneus indicus Indian goat fish Sen navarai/ Kal navarai Grunters Korukkai. Kandal 31 Nemipterus Japanese threadfin bream Changarah/ Kandal japonicus Nemipterus Delagoa threadfin bream/ bipunctatus / . Seraiah maculatum Pomadasys hasta Lined silver grunt Kaakka meen Ribbon fish Valai. Seraiah 28 Pomadasys Silver grunt Korukkai. Savalai 29 Lepturacanthus Savalani hairtail Chavalai/ Savalai/ Valai savala Trichiurus lepturus Largehead hairtail Chavalai/ Savalai/ Valai Pomfret Vaval 30 Pampus argenteus White pomfret/ Silver pomfret Vellai vaval Pampus chinensis Chinese silver pomfret Vellai vaval Parastromateus Black pomfret Karuppu vaval niger Threadfin bream Changarah. Seraiah argenteus Pomadasys Saddle grunt Korukkai.
toothed croaker Kathalai/ Panna Otolithes cuvier Lesser toothed croaker Panna Protonibea Blackspotted croaker/ Spotted Kathalai/ Vellikathalai/ diacanthus croaker Kooral Mojarras Udagam. Sudumbu 34 Lactarius lactarius False trevally/ White fish Guthippu. Nakkumeen 35 Kotaralu/ Nakkumeen/ Cynoglossus lingua Long tongue sole Manangu Cynoglossus Malabar tongue sole Nakkumeen/ Manangu macrostomus . Sudumbu Flat fishes Manangu.Changarah/ Kandal Bleeker·s threadfin bream Nemipterus bleekeri Croakers Kathalai. Velludan 33 Whipfin silver biddy/ Whipfin Udagam/Velludan/ Oodan/ Gerres filamentosus mojarra Poonanthartha Udagam/Velludan/ Oodan/ Gerres Bigeye mojarra macrocanthus Poonanthartha White fish Guthippu. Panna 32 Johnius dussumieri Spotted croaker/ Sin croaker Varikathalai Johnius carutta Karut croaker Pullikathalai Johnieops aneus/ Greyfin croaker Karun kathali Pennahia anea Kathala axillaris Kathala croaker Kathalai Otolithes ruber Tiger.
Carrot tongue sole/ Large Cynoglossus dubius Nakkumeen/ Manangu tongue sole Indian spiny turbot/ Indian Psettodes erumei Erumai-nakku halibut Cobias 36 Black kingfish/ Cobia Trigger fish 37 Kadavara Rachycentron Kadavara/ Kadal viral canadum Clathy Odonus niger Red-tooth trigger fish Clathy/ Karuppu clathy Abalistes spp Starry trigger fish Clathy Rhinecanthus spp Rectangular trigger fish Clathy Balistes spp Grey trigger fish Clathy Whitings Kelangan 38 Sillago sihama Silver whiting Kelangan Moonfish Ambattan para 39 Amattikatti/ Ambattan para/ Mene maculata Moon fish Kannadi karak Swordfish Kadu koppara 40 Xiphias gladius Swordfish Kadu koppara Fingerfishes/ Moony fishes Parrandan 41 Monodactylus Moony fish/ Silver bat fish Parrandan/ Moolen argenteus Carps Carp 42 .
Katla/Thoppa meen/ Japan Catla catla Catla/ Thick lips kendai/ Koora kendai/ Yamaneri kendai/Karavai Cirrhinus mrigala Mrigal Mrigala/ Gudu kendai Ctenopharyngodon Grass carp Pullu kendai idella Cyprinus carpio Common carp Carp Labeo rohita Rohu Rogu/ Kennadi kendai Palli kendai/ Sallkendai/ Puntius carnaticus Carnatic carp Sihelle Cichlids 43 Sethakendai/ Palincha/ Etroplus suratensis Green chromide/ Pearlspot Karassar Orange chromide/ Spotted Sellakasu/ Paradi/ Challai/ Etroplus maculatus etroplus Boorakas Oreochromis mossambica/ Tilapia Tilapia/ Jilabi-meen Tilapia mossambica Climbing perch Sennal 44 Anabas testudineus Climbing perch Sennal/ Panaiyerikendai Snakeheads/ Murrels Vraal 45 Channa marulius Giant snakehead Aviri/ Puveral/ Iru vraal Asiatic snakehead/ Bengal Parakoravai/ ManiamChanna orientalis snakehead korovai/ Pothi meen Channa punctatus Spotted snakehead Korava Channa striatus .
Madakku eral 47 Green spiny lobster/ Rock Panulirus homarus Thala eral/ Singi eral .Striped snakehead Shrimp/ Prawn 46 Giant tiger prawn Indian white shrimp Kuruma shrimp Vraal/ Karuppu veral Eral Penaeus monodon Karuvandu eral Penaeus indicus Vellai eral/ Naaran Penaeus japonicus Kathamba eral Penaeus semisulcatus Green tiger prawn/ Flower Vari eral shrimp Penaeus Banana shrimp Vella eral merguiensis Metapenaeus Chemmakkara eral/ Flower-tail shrimp/ Pink shrimp dobsoni Poovalan Kazhanthan/ Kal eral/ Metapenaeus affinis King prawn/ Jinga prawn Chaya valucha eral Metapenaeus Brown shrimp/ Speckled shrimp Valucha eral monoceros Parapenaeopsis Kiddi shrimp/ Marine shrimp Karikadi/ Vandu eral stylifera Solenocera spp Deepsea mud shrimp Rani karikadi/ Kall eral Acetes indicus Jawala/ Paste shrimp Chenna kunni Macrobrachium Giant river prawn/ Scampi Aathu eral/ Scampi rosenbergii Lobsters Singi eral.
lobster Panulirus Mud spiny lobster/ Rock lobster Thala eral/ Singi eral polyphagus Ornate spiny lobster/ Rock Panulirus ornatus Singi eral/ Mani eral lobster Flathead locust lobster/ Mud Matta singi eral/ Kal eral/ Thenus orientalis lobster Madakku eral Puerulus sewelli Whip lobster/ Deepsea lobster Singi eral Crab Nandu 48 Pachai nandu/ Kazhi nandu Scylla serrata Mud crab Olakkal nandu/ Pulli nandu Portunus pelagicus Blue swimming crab Mukkannu nanadu/ Olakkal Portunus Three-spotted swimming crab sanguinolentus nandu Charybdis cruciata Christ shell crab Siluvai nandu Cephalopods 49 Loligo duvaucelli Indian squid Oosi-kanavai Kadaman / Muttai/ OttuSepia spp Cuttlefish kanavai/ Vari-kanavai Octopus spp Octopus Pai kanava Bivalves 50 Pachai aali/ Chippi/ Perna viridis Green mussel Kallukka Perna indica Brown mussel Aali/ Chippi/ Kallukka Meretrix meretrix .
Yellow clam Matti Meretrix casta Yellow clam Matti Vellorita cyprinoides Black clam Matti Anadara granosa Blood clam Vari matti/ Ratha matti Paphia malabarica Textile clam Matti Crassostrea Edible oyster Vella aali madrasensis Pinctada spp Pearl oyster Muthuchippi .
North American Countries y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Antigua and Barbuda Bahamas Barbados Belize Canada Costa Rica Cuba Dominica Dominican Republic El Salvador Grenada Guatemala Haiti Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Panama St. Vincent & the Grenadines Trinidad & Tobago United States y y . Kitts & Nevis St. Lucia St.
the world·s largest island. Mexico. Trinidad & Tobago . Dominica. in the southeast by the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. and in the west by the Pacific Ocean. in the east by the Atlantic Ocean.North America. Barbados. Grenada. Positioned in the planet's northern and western hemispheres. Canada. It contains all Caribbean and Central America countries. it's bordered in the north by the Arctic Ocean. Kitts & Nevis. St. Vincent & the Grenadines. as well as Greenland . St. the United States of America. Lucia. Additional North American countries (not shown on this map) include: y y y y y y y y y Antigua and Barbuda. St. Haiti. includes (23) countries and dozens of possessions and territories. the planet·s 3rd largest continent.
while affecting metabolic rates (see Q10). However. no know archaea is photosynthetic. the availability of light. such as Sargassum. The availability of water. eubacteria are important photosynthetizers in both oceanic and terrestrial ecosystems. including green algae. ranging from single floating cells to attached seaweeds. and a diverse group of unicellular groups. . temperature. with a small fraction contributed by vascular plants and other groups. and mineral nutrients. the building blocks for new growth. obviously. the majority of primary production in the ocean is performed by free-living microscopic organisms called phytoplankton. play crucial roles in regulating primary production in the ocean. Similarly.brown algae and red algae. where they can attach to the underlying substrate but still be within the photic zone.Oceanic production Marine diatoms. an example of planktonicmicroalgae In a reversal of the pattern on land. Vascular plants are also represented in the ocean by groups such as the seagrasses. but the vast majority of free-floating production takes place within microscopic organisms. There are exceptions. almost all primary production is performed by algae. Larger autotrophs. ranges less widely in the ocean than on land because theheat capacity of seawater buffers temperature changes. Algae encompass a diverse range of organisms. however. The factors limiting primary production in the ocean are also very different from those on land. They include photoautotrophs from a variety of groups. such as the seagrasses and macroalgae (seaweeds) are generally confined to the littoral zone and adjacent shallow waters. is not an issue (though its salinity can be). and the formation of sea ice insulates it at lower temperatures. Unlike terrestrial ecosystems. in the oceans. the source of energy for photosynthesis. A number ofeukaryotes are significant contributors to primary production in the ocean.
In tropical regions. . light may only vary slightly across the year. The maximum depth of the mixed layer in which net growth can occur is called the critical depth. such as during large storms or hurricanes. the thickness of the photic zone is typically defined by the depth at which light reaches 1% of its surface value. to being much deeper than the photic zone. Net photosynthesis in the water column is determined by the interaction between the photic zone and the mixed layer. The deeper the mixed layer. the lower the average amount of light intercepted by phytoplankton within it. and mixing may only occur episodically. varying with both incident light at the water's surface (reduced in winter) and the degree of mixing (increased in winter). As long as there are adequate nutrients available.and time-scales. primary production in temperate regions such as theNorth Atlantic is highly seasonal. For practical purposes. The most characteristic of these is the seasonal cycle(caused by the consequences of the Earth's axial tilt). an example of attached macroalgae The sunlit zone of the ocean is called the photic zone (or euphotic zone). net primary production occurs whenever the mixed layer is shallower than the critical depth. Both the magnitude of wind mixing and the availability of light at the ocean's surface are affected across a range of space. Turbulent mixing by wind energy at the ocean's surface homogenises the water column vertically until the turbulence dissipates (creating the aforementioned mixed layer). Light is attenuated down the water column by its absorption orscattering by the water itself. although wind magnitudes additionally have strong spatial components. This is a relatively thin layer (10²100 m) near the ocean's surface where there is sufficient light for photosynthesis to occur. and by dissolved or particulate material within it (including phytoplankton). When it is much deeper than the photic zone. this results in phytoplankton spending too much time in the dark for net growth to occur. Consequently. The mixed layer can vary from being shallower than the photic zone. such as the gyres in the middle of the major basins. Light A kelp forest.