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It is desired to get rid of the spaghetti of wires connecting the various devices used daily
and so Bluetooth technology provides a low cost, low power and low complexity solution
for ad- hoc wireless connectivity. Bluetooth is a short range wireless technology that
forms the basis of communication platform which needs to be flexible, self organizing,
highly scalable and energy efficient.
The Bluetooth technology is capable of connecting a wide variety of devices like
Personal Digital Assistants (PDA), mobile and cordless phones, headsets, desktops and
notebook PCs, digital cameras, home appliances etc. The applications include eliminating
cables/wires between devices like PCs, printers, modems, projectors, self synchronization
between PDAs and PCs, wirelessly connecting to local area networks (LANs) through
access points and internet through mobile phones, providing home netwo rking solutions
In this paper, the author presents an overview of Bluetooth technology and its
applications. The Bluetooth system is introduced and its various modes of operation are
also discussed. A description of functionalities of Bluetooth layers and the protocol
specifications is presented. The various links for communication among Bluetooth
devices are also illustrated. The author has made an attempt to enlighten various
important issues related to error correction, security and personalizatio n of Bluetooth
devices. The literature is enriched by discussion of other wireless technology, WiFi
working together with Bluetooth. Thus the paper will provide helpful evaluation of
Bluetooth technology, for the budding engineers.

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 Definition of Bluetooth .
 Why Bluetooth ?
 How need arise of Bluetooth?
 History.
 What is SIG ?

What is Bluetooth?
What is it - a technology, a standard, an initiative, or a product?
Bluetooth wireless technology is a de facto standard, as well as a specification for small
form factor, low-cost, short range radio links between mobile PCs, mobile phones and
other portable devices. The Bluetooth Special Interest Group is an industry group
consisting of leaders in the telecommunications, computing, and networking industries
that are driving development of the technology and bringing it to market.

How did the need arise?

In phase with the IT boom , the mobility among people has constantly grown and wire less te chnologies
for voice and data have e volved rapidly during the past years. Countle ss e le ctronic de vices for home , pe rsonal
and business use have bee n presente d to the marke t during re cent years but no widespread te chnology to
address the needs of conne cting pe rsonal de vices in Personal Area Ne tworks (PANs). The demand for a system
that could easily conne ct de vices for transfe r of data and voice ove r short distances without cables gre w stronge r.

Blue tooth wire less te chnology fills this important communication need, with its ability to communicate
both voice and data wire lessly, using a standard low-powe r, low-cost te chnology which can be integrated in all
de vices to e nable total mobility. The price will be low and result in mass production. The more units around, the
more bene fits for the custome r.

Why Bluetooth ?
What will Bluetooth wireless technology deliver to end users?
It will enable users to connect a wide range of computing and telecommunications
devices easily and simply, without the need to buy, carry, or connect cables. It delivers
opportunities for rapid ad hoc connections, and the possibility of automatic, unconscious,
connections between devices. It will virtually eliminate the need to purchase additional or
proprietary cabling to connect individual devices. Because Bluetooth wire less technology
can be used for a variety of purposes, it will also potentially replace multiple cable

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connections via a single radio link. It creates the possibility of using mobile data in a
different way, for different applications such as "Surfing on the sofa", "The instant
postcard", "Three in one phone" and many others. It will allow them to think about what
they are working on, rather than how to make their technology work. The solution
eliminates the annoying cable and its limitations regarding flexibility (often specific for a
brand or pair of devices) and range. But, Bluetooth implies more than that. The technique
provides the means for connecting several units to each other such as setting up small
radio LANs between any types of Bluetooth devices. A number of user scenarios are
described. They highlight more possibilities that reach far beyond just an elimination of
the point-to-point cable.

By the way if, you're wondering where the Bluetooth name originally came from ,
it is named after a Danish Viking and King of Denmark between 940 and 981 A D , Harald
Blåtand (Bluetooth in English), who lived in the latter part of the 10 T H century. Harald
Blåtand united and controlled Denmark and Norway (hence the inspiration on the name :
uniting devices through Bluetooth
The idea that resulted in the Blue tooth wire less te chnology was born in 1994 whe n Ericsson Mobile
Communications de cided to inve stigate the feasibility of a low-powe r, low-cost radio inte rface be twee n mobile
phones and the ir acce ssories. The idea was that a small radio built into both the ce llular tele phone and the laptop
would re place the cumbe rsome cable used today to conne ct the two de vices.

A year late r the enginee ring work began and the true potential of the te chnology began to crystallize.
But be yond unleashing de vices by replacing cables, the radio te chnology showed possibilitie s to be come a
unive rsal bridge to ex isting data networks, a pe riphe ral inte rface , and a me chanism to form small private ad hoc
groupings of conne cte d de vices away from fixed ne twork infrastructures.

The requirements regarding price, capacity and size were set so that the new
technique would have the potential to outdo all cable solutions between mobile devices.
Initially a suitable radio interface with a corresponding frequency range had to be
specified. A number of criteria for the concept were defined regarding size, capacity and
global uniformity. The radio unit should be so small and consume such low power that it
could be fitted into portable devices with their limitations. The concept had to handle
both speech and data and finally the technique had to work all around the world. The
study soon showed that a short-range radio link solution was feasible.

When designers at Ericsson had started to work on a transceiver chip, Ericsson

soon realized that they needed companions to develop the technique. The associates
strove not only to improve the technical solutions but also to get a solid and broad market
support in the business areas of PC hardware, portable computers and mobile phones.
Fear for a market situation with a multitude of non-standard cable solutions, where one
cable is designed specifically for one pair of devices, was one of the motives that made
competing companies join the project. Ericsson Mobile Communications, Intel, IBM,
Toshiba and Nokia Mobile Phones formed a Special Interest Group (SIG) in 1998.

What is SIG?
In February 1998 the Spe cial Inte re st Group (SIG) was formed. Today the Blue tooth SIG includes
promote r companies 3Com, Ericsson, IBM, Inte l, Lucent, Microsoft, Motorola, Nok ia and Toshiba, and thousands
of Adopte r/Associate membe r companies. By signing a zero cost agreement, companies can join

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the SIG and qualify for a royalty-free license to build products based on the Bluetooth

This group represented the diverse market support that was needed to generate
good support for the new Bluetooth technology. In May of the same year, the Bluetooth
consortium announced itself globally. The assignment of the SIG originally was to monitor the
te chnical de ve lopment of short-range radio and to create an ope n global standard, thus pre venting the
te chnology from be com ing the prope rty of a single company. This work re sulted in the release of the first
Blue tooth Spe cification in July 1999.

The intention of the Bluetooth SIG is to form a de facto standard for the air
interface and the software that controls it. The furthe r de ve lopment of the Spe cification still is one of
the main tasks for the SIG, othe r important ones be ing inte rope rability requirements, frequency band
The Bluetooth wireless technology was developed
harmonization and promotion of the te chnology.
by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group, to define an industry-wide specification for
connecting personal and business mobile devices. More than 1,4000 companies are now
members of the Special Interest Group, signifying the industry‟s unprecedented
acceptance of the Bluetooth wireless technology.

To avoid different interpretations of the Bluetooth standard regarding how a

specific type of application should be mapped to Bluetooth, the SIG has defined
number of user models and protocol profiles. These are described in more detail in the
section entitled Bluetooth Usage Models and Profiles.The SIG also works with a
Qualification Process. This process defines criteria for bluetooth product qualification
that ensures that products that pass this process meet the Bluetooth specification.

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 Technology overview.
 Network architecture.

The technology is an open specification for wireless communication of data and
voice. It is low cost short range radio link, built into a 9X9 mm microchip, facilitating
protected ad hoc connections for stationary and mobile communication environment.
Bluetooth technology allows for the replacement of the many proprietary cables that
connect one device to another device with one universal short range radio link. For
instance Bluetooth radio technology built in both the cellular telephone and the laptop
would replace the cumbersome cables used today to connect the laptop to a cellular

Printers, PDA‟S, desktops, fax machines, keyboard, joysticks and virtually any
other device can be part of the Bluetooth system. But beyond untethering devices by
replacing the cables, Bluetooth radio technology provides a universal bridge to existing
data networks, a peripheral interface, and a mechanism to form small private ad hoc
grouping of connected devices away from fixed network infrastructures. Designed to
operate in noisy radio frequency environment, the Bluetooth radio uses a fast
acknowledgement and frequency hopping scheme to make the link robust. The Bluetooth
radio modules avoid interference from other signals by hopping to a new frequency after
transmitting or receiving a packet. Compared with other systems operating in the same
frequency band, the Bluetooth radio typically hops faster and uses shorter packets. This
makes the Bluetooth radio robust than the other system. Short packages and fast hopping
also limit the impact of random noise and long distance links. The encoding is optimized
for uncoordinated environment. Bluetooth radios operate in the unlicensed ISM band at
2.4GHz. a frequency hop transceiver is applied to combat interference and fading. A
shaped binary FM modulation is applied to minimize transceiver complexity. The gross

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data rate is 1mbps. A Time Division Duplex scheme is used for full duplex transmission.
The Bluetooth base band protocol is a combination of circuit and packet switching. Slots
can be reserved for synchronous packet. Each packet is transmitted in a different hop
frequency. A packet nominally covers a single slot, but can be extended to cover up to 5
slots. Bluetooth can support an asynchronous data channel, up to 3 simultaneous
synchronous voice channels, or a channel that simultaneously supports asynchronous data
synchronous voice. Each voice channel supports 64 kbps synchronous (voice) link.

The asynchronous channel can support an asymmetric link of maximally 721 kbps
in either direction while permitting 57.6 kbps in the return direction, or a 432.6 kbps
symmetric link.

The Bluetooth technology answers the need for short range wireless connectivity
within three areas :

 Data and voice access points .

 Cable replacement
 Ad hoc networking

The Bluetooth technology specification specifies a system solution comprising

hardware, software and interoperability requirements. The Bluetooth radio operates in a
globally available 2.4GHz ISM band, ensuring communication compatibility

Data and voice access point :

The Bluetooth technology facilitates real time voice and data transmission. The
technology makes it possible to connect any portable and stationary communication
device as easily as switching on the light. You can, for instance, surf the Internet & send
e-mail on your potable PC or notebook regardless of whether you are wirelessly
connected through a mobile phone or through a wire bound connection (PSTN,

Voice channel use the Continuous Variable Slope Delta Modulation (CVSD)
coding scheme, and never retransmit voice packets. The CVSD was chosen for its
robustness in handling dropped and damaged samples. Rising interference levels are
experienced as increased background noise; even at bit error rate up to 4% the CVSD
coded voice is quite audible.

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The Bluetooth technology eliminates the use for numerous often proprietary cable
attachments for connection of practically any kind of device. Connections are instant and
they are maintained even when devices are not within line of sight. The range of each
radio is approximately 10 meters but it can be extended around 100 meters with an
optional amplifier.

A device equipped with Bluetooth radio establishes instant connection to another
Bluetooth radio as soon as it comes into range. Since Bluetooth technology supports both
point to point and point to multi point connection, several piconets can be established and
linked together ad hoc. The Bluetooth technology is best described as multiple piconet

Piconet is a connection of devices connected via Bluetooth technology in an ad

hoc fashion . A piconet starts with two connected devices ,such as portable PC and
cellular phone and may grow into eight connected devices. All Bluetooth devices are
peer units and have identical implementation. However, when establishing a piconet, one
unit will act as a master and the other as a slave for the duration of piconet connection.


Scatternet, ad- hoc

combinations in a point-
to-multipoint and

Blue tooth units that come within range of each othe r can se t up ad hoc point-to-point and/or point-to-
multipoint conne ctions. Units can dynamically be added or disconne cted to the ne twork. Two or more
Bluetooth units that share a channel form a piconet.

Se ve ral picone ts can be e stablished and linked togethe r in ad ho c scatte rne ts to allow communication
and data ex change in flexible configurations. If se ve ral othe r piconets are within range the y each work
inde pendently and each have acce ss to full bandwidth. Each picone t is establishe d by a diffe rent freque ncy-
hopping channe l. All use rs participating on the same picone t are synchronized to this channe l.

Unlike infrared devices, Bluetooth units are not limited to line -of-sight communication. To
regulate traffic on the channe l, one of the participating units be comes a m aste r of the picone t, while all othe r
units be come slaves. W ith the current Blue tooth Spe cification up to seve n slaves can actively communicate with

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one maste r. Howe ve r, the re can be almost an unlim ited numbe r of units virtually attached to a maste r be ing able
to start communication instantly.

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 Bluetooth protocol stack & network architecture.

 The Bluetooth architecture strategy.



VCard/VCal WAE




Host Controller Interface


Base band

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Bluetooth radio
Figure 1 The Bluetooth Protocol Stack

Abbreviations Used
OBEX OBject Exchange Protocol
WAP Web Application Protocol
UDP User Datagram Protocol
IP Internet Protocol
PPP Point to Point Protocol
RFCO Serial Cable emulation protocol based on ETSI TS
HCI 07.10
Host Controller Interface
LLCAP Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol
SDP Service Discovery Protocol
TCP Telephony Control Protocol
LMP Link Manager Protocol

This section describes the Bluetooth architecture. The complete protocol stack
comprises, as seen in Figure 1, of both Bluetooth specific protocols and non-Bluetooth
specific protocols. In the figure, non-Bluetooth specific protocols are shaded.

The Baseband and Link Control layer enables the physical RF link between
Bluetooth units forming a piconet. This layer controls the Bluetooth unit's
synchronization and transmission frequency hopping sequence. The two different link
types defined in Bluetooth, Synchronous Connection Oriented, SCO, and Asynchronous
Connectionless, ACL, described in the section Link types, are also managed by this layer.

The ACL links, for data, and the SCO links, mainly for audio, can be multiplexed
to use the same RF link [17].


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Audio transmissions can be performed between one or more Bluetooth units,
using many different usage models. Audio data do not go through the L2CAP layer
(described below) but go directly, after opening a Bluetooth link and a straightforward
set-up, between two Bluetooth units.

Host Controller Interface, HCI

The Host Controller Interface, HCI, provides a uniform interface method for
accessing the Bluetooth hardware capabilities. It contains a command interface to the
Baseband controller and link manager and access to hardware status. Finally, it contains
control and event registers [8].

Link Manager Protocol, LMP

The Link Manager Protocol, LMP, is responsible for link set- up between
Bluetooth units. It handles the control and negotiation of packet sizes used when
transmitting data. The Link Manager Protocol also handles management of power modes,
power consumption, and state of a Bluetooth unit in a piconet. Finally, this layer handles
generation, exchange and control of link and encryption keys for authentication and
encryption [9].

Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol, L2CAP

The Bluetooth logical link control and adaptation protocol, L2CAP, is situated
over the Baseband layer and beside the Link Manager Protocol in the Bluetooth protocol
stack. The L2CAP layer provides connection-oriented and connectionless data services to
upper layers.
The four main tasks for L2CAP are:
 Multiplexing – L2CAP must support protocol multiplexing since a number of
protocols (e.g. SDP, RFCOMM and TCS Binary) can operate over L2CAP.
 Segmentation and Reassembly – Data packets exceeding the Maximum
Transmission Unit, MTU, must be segmented before being transmitted.
This and the reverse functionality, reassemble, is performed by L2CAP.
 Quality of Service – The establishment of an L2CAP connection allows the
exchange of information regarding current Quality of Service for the
connection between the two Bluetooth units.
 Groups – The L2CAP specification supports a group abstraction that permits
implementations for mapping groups on to a piconet.
 An L2CAP implementation must be uncomplicated and implying low overhead
since it must be compatible with the limited computational resources in a small
Bluetooth unit [10].

Service Discovery Protocol, SDP

The Service Discovery Protocol, SDP, defines how a Bluetooth client's
application shall act to discover available Bluetooth servers' services and their. Bluetooth
characteristics. The protocol defines how a client can search for a service based on

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specific attributes without the client knowing anything of the available services. The SDP
provides means for the discovery of new services becoming available when the client
enters an area where a Bluetooth server is operating. The SDP also provides functionality
for detecting when a service is no longer available [11].

 Cable replacement protocol

The RFCOMM protocol is a serial port emulation protocol. The protocol covers
applications that make use of the serial ports of the unit. RFCOMM emulates RS-232
control and data signals over the Bluetooth baseband. It provides transport capabilities for
upper level services, e.g. OBEX that use a serial line as the transport mechanism.

Telephony control protocol

Telephony Control – Binary

The Telephony Control protocol – Binary, TCS Binary or TCS BIN, is a bit-
oriented protocol, which defines the call control signalling for the establishment of
speech and data calls between Bluetooth units. The protocol defines the signalling for
establishment and release of calls between Bluetooth units. As well as signalling to ease
the handling of groups of Bluetooth units. Furthermore, TCS Binary provides
functionality to exchange signalling information unrelated to ongoing calls.
Establishment of a voice or data call in a point-to-point configuration as well as in a
point-to-multipoint configuration is covered in this protocol (note, after establishment,
the transmission is from point to point). The TCS Binary is based on the ITU-T

Telephony Control – AT Commands

A number of AT-commands are supported for transmitting control signals for
telephony control. These use the serial port emulation, RFCOMM, for transmission.

Adopted protocols

This section describes a number of protocols that are defined to be adopted to the
Bluetooth protocol stack. Note some of these adaptations are at the moment incomplete.


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The IETF Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) in the Bluetooth technology is designed
to run over RFCOMM to accomplish point-to-point connections. PPP is a packet-oriented
protocol and must therefore use its serial mechanisms to convert the packet data stream
into a serial data streams.


The TCP/UDP/IP standards are defined to operate in Bluetooth units allowing

them to communicate with other units connected, for instance, to the Internet. Hence, the
Bluetooth unit can act as a bridge to the Internet. The TCP/IP/PPP protocol configuration
is used for all Internet Bridge usage scenarios in Bluetooth 1.0 and for OBEX in future
versions. The UDP/IP/PPP configuration is available as transport for WAP.

OBEX Protocol
IrOBEX, shortly OBEX, is an optional application layer protocol designed to
enable units supporting infrared communication to exchange a wide variety of data and
commands in a resource-sensitive standardized fashion. OBEX uses a client-server model
and is independent of the transport mechanism and transport API. The OBEX protocol
also defines a folder- listing object, which is used to browse the contents of folders on
remote device. RFCOMM is used as the main transport layer for OBEX.

Content formats
The formats for transmitting vCard and vCalendar information are also defined in
the Bluetooth specification. The formats do not define transport mechanisms but the
format in which electronic business cards and personal calendar entries and scheduling
information are transported. vCard and vCalendar is transferred by OBEX.

Wireless Application Protocol, WAP

The Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) is a wireless protocol specification that
works across a variety of wide-area wireless network technologies bringing the Internet
to mobile devices. Bluetooth can be used like other wireless networks with regard to
WAP, it can be used to provide a bearer for transporting data between the WAP Client
and its adjacent WAP Server. Furthermore, Bluetooth‟s ad hoc networking capability
gives a WAP client unique possibilities regarding mobility compared with other WAP

The traditional form of WAP communications involves a client device that

communicates with a Server/Proxy device using the WAP protocols. Bluetooth is
expected to provide a bearer service as specified by the WAP architecture. The WAP
technology supports server push. If this is used over Bluetooth, it opens new possibilities
for distributing information to handheld devices on location basis. For example, shops
can push special price offers to a WAP client when it comes within Bluetooth range.he
Bluetooth air interface

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This section describes the Bluetooth air interface. It is a continuation of the
introduction to the air interface and is based on [12].

The Bluetooth architecture strategy

A number of profiles have been defined by the Bluetooth standardization
organization. These profiles have been developed in order to describe how
implementations of user models are to be accomplished. The user models describe a
number of user scenarios where Bluetooth performs the radio transmission. These
profiles specify how applications and devices shall be mapped onto the Bluetooth

A profile defines a selection of messages and procedures from the Bluetooth

specifications and gives an unambiguous description of the air interface for specified
services and use cases. A profile can be described as a vertical slice through the protocol
stack. It defines options in each protocol that are mandatory for the profile. It also defines
parameter ranges for each protocol. The profile concept is used to decrease the risk of
interoperability problems between different manufacturers' products.

The profile defined for exchanging of vCard information is illustrated in Figure 2,

where an application, vCard, is defined to operate over a certain subset (OBEX,
RFCOMM and so on) of the Bluetooth protocol stack. Some of the user models and their
profiles are described in section Bluetooth Usage Models and Profiles.





Base Band

Figure 2: The Object Push Profile

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There are four general profiles defined, on which some of the highest prioritized
user models and their profiles are directly based on. These four models are; the Generic
Access Profile (GAP), the Serial Port Profile, the Service Discovery Application Profile
(SDAP) and the Generic Object Exchange Profile (GOEP). Protocols such as OBEX and
UDP have been included in the protocol architecture to facilitate the adaptation of
applications using such existing protocols. This gives for instance a number of existing
applications supporting UDP an interface to the Bluetooth technology.

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 Software architecture.
 Hardware architecture.
 Link types.
 Authentication, Privacy & Security.


The different functional units in the Bluetooth system are:

 A radio unit
 A link control unit
 Link management
 Software function


As already mentioned, the Bluetooth system support both point to point and point
to multi point connections. In this, each piconet is identified by a different hopping
signal. All users participating on the same piconet are synchronized to this hopping
The full duplex data rate within a multiple piconet structure with 10 fully loaded,
independent piconets is more than 6 mbps. This is due to a data throughput reduction rate
of less then 10% according to system simulation based on 0 dbm transmitting power (at
the antenna).


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The Bluetooth air interface is based on a nominal antenna at 0 dBm. The air
interface compiles with the FCC rules for the ISM band at power levels up to 0 dBm.
Spectrum spreading has been added to facilitate optional operation at power levels up to
100 mw worldwide. Spectrum spreading is accomplished by frequency hopping in 79
hops displaced by 1 MHz, starting at 2.402 MHz and stopping at 2.480GHz. Due to local
conditions the bandwidth has been reduced in Spain, France and Japan.

The baseband describes the digital signal processing hardware-the Bluetooth link
controller, which carries out the baseband protocols and other low level link routines.
Before establishing any network connections in a piconet structure, all devices are in the
stand-by mode. In this mode an unconnected unit periodically „listens‟ for messages
every 1.28 seconds. Each time a device wakes up, it listens on a set of 32 hop frequencies
defined for that unit. The number of frequencies varies in different geographical regions ;
32 is a number for most countries ( except Spain, France and Japan).

The connection procedures are initiated by any of the devices which then become
master. A connection is made by a page message if the address is already known, or by
an enquiry message followed by a subsequent page message if the address is already
known. The master unit is the device in the piconet structure whose clock and hopping
frequencies are used to synchronize all other units in the piconet. The devices other than
master are called the slave units. In the initial page state, the master unit will send a train
of 16 identical page messages on 16 different hop frequencies defined for the device to be
paged(slave unit ). If no response, the master transmits a train on the remaining 16 hop
frequencies in the wake up sequence. The maximum sequence before the master reaches
the slave is twice the wake up period (2.56 sec.), while the average delay is the wake up
period (0.64 sec.). The enquiry typically used for finding Bluetooth devices, including
public printers, fax machines and similar devices with an unknown messages, but may
require 1 additional train period to collect all the responses. A power saving mode can be
used for connected units in a piconet if no data need to be transmitted. This power saving
mode is the sniff and hold mode in which the device activity is lower. The master unit can
put the slave units into the hold mode, Data transfer restarts instantly when units transits
out of the hold mode. The hold is used when connecting several piconet or managing a
low power device such as temperature sensor. Two more low power modes are available,
the sniff and the park mode. In the sniff mode, the slave devices listens to the piconet
reduced rate thus reducing its duty cycle. The sniff interval is programmable and depends
on the application. In the park mode a device is still synchronized to the piconet but dose
not participate in the traffic. Such a device is the p arked device and does not have a MAC
address. The MAC address is a three bit address to distinguish the units participating in
the piconet structure. Parked device have given up their MAC addresses and occasionally
listen to the traffic of the master to resynchronize and check on broadcast messages. If we
list modes in increasing order of power efficiency, the sniff mode has the higher duty
cycled followed by the hold mode with a lower duty cycle .


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The link manager software entity carries out link set up, authentication, link
configuration and other protocols. The Link Manager discovers other remote Link
Managers and communication with them via the Link Manager protocol. To perform its
service provider role, the Link Manager uses the service of the under lying controller.
Services provided are :

1. Sending and receiving of data.

2. The link manager has an efficient means to inquire and report a name or device ID up
to 16 characters in length.
3. Link address inquiries.
4. Connection set up.
5. Authentication.
6. Link Mode negotiation and set up, e.g. data or data/voice. This may be changed
during a connection.
7. The Link Manager decides the actual frame type on a packet to packet basis.
8. Setting a device in sniff mode ; In sniff mode, the duty cycle of the slaves reduces. It
listen only every M slots, where M is negotiated at the Link Manager. The master can
start transmission in specified time slots spaced at regular intervals.
9. Setting a link device on hold ; In hold mode, turning off the receiver for long periods
saves power. Any device can wake up the link again, with an average latency of 4
seconds. This is defined by the link Manager and handled by the Link Controller.
10. Setting a device in park mode ; It wakes up at regular intervals to listen to the channe l
in order to resynchronize with the rest of the piconet, and to cheek page messages.

Bluetooth devices will be required to support baseline interoperability feature
requirements to create a positive consumer experience. For some de vices, these
requirements will extend from radio module compliance and air protocols and object
exchange formats. For other devices, such as headset, the feature‟s requirements will be
significantly less. Ensuring that any device displaying the Bluetooth „ logo‟ interpolates
with other Bluetooth devices is the goal of the Bluetooth program. Software
interoperability begins with the Bluetooth link level protocol responsible for multiplexing
, device and service discovery, segmentation and reassemble, Bluetooth devices must be
able to recognize each other and load the appropriate software to discover the higher level
abilities each device supports. Interoperability at the application level requires identical
protocol stacks.

Different classes of Bluetooth devices(PC‟s, handheld, headsets, cellular

telephones) have different compliance requirements. For example, a Bluetooth headset is
not expected to contain an address book. Headsets compliance implies Bluetooth radio
compliance, audio capability and device discovery protocols. More functionality would
be expected from cellular phones, handheld and notebook computer. To obtain this
functionality, the Bluetooth software framework will reuse existing specifications such as
OBEX, Vcard/Vcalender, Human Interface Device and TCP/IP rather than inventing yet
another set of new specifications. Device compliance will require conformation to both,
the Bluetooth specification and existing protocols. The software framework is
contemplating the following functions:

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1.Configuration and diagnosis utility
2. Device discovery
3.Cable emulation
4.Peripheral communication
5.Audio communication and call control
6.Object exchange for business cards and phone books Networking


The link defines “what” of packets can be used on a particular link. The
Bluetooth baseband technology supports two link types:

 Synchronous connection oriented (SCO) type (used primarily for voice)

 Asynchronous connectionless (ACL) type (used primarily for packet data)

Different master slave pairs of the same piconet structure can use different link
types and the link type may change arbitrarily during a session. Each link “supports up to
16 different packet types. Four of these are control packets and are common for both
SCO and ACL links. Both link types use a Time Division Duplex (TDD) scheme for full
duplex transmission.


The SCO link is symmetric and typically supports time bound voice traffic. SCO
packets are transmitted over reserved intervals. Once the connection is established, both
master and slave units may send SCO packets without being polled. One SCO packet
type allows both voice and data transmission ; with only the data portion being
retransmitted when corrupted.


The ACL link is packet oriented and supports both, symmetric and asymmetric
traffic. The master unit controls the link bandwidth and decides how much piconet
bandwidth is given to each slave, and the symmetry of the traffic. Slaves must be polled
before they can transmit data. The ACL link also supports broadcast messages from the
master to all slaves in the piconet.

In orde r to make diffe rent hardware implementations compatible , Blue tooth de vices use the HC I as a
common inte rface be twee n the Blue tooth host (e .g. a portable PC) and the Blue tooth core .

Highe r-le ve l protocols like the SDP, R FCOMM (emulating a se rial port conne ction) and the TCP are
inte rfaced to baseband se rvices via the LLC AP. Among the issues LLC AP takes care of, is segmentation and
reassemble to allow large r data packe ts to be carried ove r a Bluetooth baseband conne ction. The se rvice
discove ry protocol allows applications to find out about available se rvices and the ir characte ristics when e.g.
de vices are moved or switche d off.

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The Blue tooth hardware consists of an analog radio part and a digital part - the Host Controlle r. The
Host Controlle r has a hardware digital signal processing part called the Link Controlle r (LC), a CPU core and
inte rfaces to the host environment
The Link Controlle r consists of hardware that pe rform s baseband processing and physical laye r protocols
such as ARQ (Automatic Repeat reQue st) protocol and FEC (Forward Error Corre ction) coding. The function of the
Link Controlle r includes Asynchronous transfe rs, Synchronous transfe rs, Audio coding and Encryption.

The CPU core allows the Blue tooth module to handle Inquiries and filte r Page re quests without involving
the host de vice. The Host Controlle r can be programmed to answe r ce rtain Page messages and authenticate
remote links.
The Link Manage r (LM) software runs on the CPU core . The LM discove rs othe r LMs and communicate s wi th them
via the Link Manage r Protocol (LMP) to pe rform its se rvice provide r role and to use the se rvices of the unde rlying
Link Controlle r.

There are three error correction schemes defined by the Bluetooth baseband
 1/3 rate Forward Error Correction code (FEC)
 2/3 rate Forward Error Correction code
 automatic repeat request (ARQ) scheme for data


The purpose of the FEC on the data payload is to reduce the number of
retransmission. However, in a reasonably error free environment, FEC creates
unnecessary overhead that reduces the throughput. Therefore, the packet definitions have
been kept flexible as to whether or not to use the FEC in the payload. The packet header
is always protected by a 1/3 rate FEC; it contains valuable link information and should
survive bit errors.

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An unnumbered ARQ scheme is applied in which the data transmitted in one slot
is directly acknowledged by the recipient in the next slot. For a data transmission to be
acknowledged, both the header error check and the cyclic redundancy check must be
maintained otherwise a negative acknowledge is returned.


The Bluetooth baseband provides user protection and information privacy
mechanism at the physical layer. Authentication and privacy is implemented in the same
way in each Bluetooth device, appropriate for the ad-hoc nature of the network.
Connections may require a one way, two ways or no authentication. Authentication is
based on a challenge-response algorithm. Authentication is a key component of any
Bluetooth system, allowing the user to develop a domain of trust between a personal
Bluetooth device, such as allowing only the owners notebook computer to communicate
through the owners cellular phone.

Encryption is used to protect privacy of the connection. Bluetooth uses a string

cipher well-suited for a silicon implementation with secret key lengths of 0, 40 or 64 bits.
Key management is left to higher layer software. The goal of Bluetooth‟s security
mechanism is to provide an appropriate level of protection for Bluetooth short-range
nature and use in a global environment. Users requiring stalwart protection are
encouraged to use stronger security mechanisms available in network transport protocols
and application programs.

Bluetooth security
Introducing the Bluetooth technology as a cable replacement technique exposes
the need for security functionality in the wireless solution. By replacing the cable and
introducing radio signals there is a need for the Bluetooth device to have built- in security
to prevent eavesdropping and falsifying the message originator. Therefore, functionality
for authentication and encryption has been added to the Bluetooth technology.
Authentication is used to prevent unwanted access to data and to prevent falsifying of the
message originator. Encryption is used to prevent eavesdropping. These two techniques
combined with the frequency hopping technique and the limited trans mission range for a
Bluetooth unit, usually 10 m, give the technology higher protection against
eavesdropping.. Since the need for security is dependent on what kind of application is
executed, three levels of security are defined in the Bluetooth concept.

1. Non-secure: This mode bypasses functionality for authentication & encrypt-

2. Service- level security; Security procedures are not initiated until L2CAP
channel establishment.
3. Link- level security; Security procedures are initiated before the link set-up at
the LMP level is completed.

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Service-level security
In the Service- level security mode, it is suggested to introduce a Security
Manager that controls the access to services and units. This security mode provides the
possibility to define trust levels for the services and units used respectively. The access is
restricted according to the defined trust levels.

Link-level security
The Link- level security mode is based on the concept of link keys. These keys are
secret 128 bit random numbers stored individually for each pair of devices in a Bluetooth
connection. Each time two Bluetooth units communicate, the link key is used for
authentication and encryption.

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 The frequency hopping technique.

 Bluetooth networking.

The Frequency Hopping Technique

Interference is avoided by using a frequency- hop, FH, spread spectrum
technology. This technology is well suited for low-power, low-cost radio
implementations and is used in some wireless LAN products. The main advantage with
Bluetooth's choice of parameters is the high hop rate, 1600 hops per second, instead of

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just a few hops per second. The shorter packet length in the Bluetooth technology is
another benefit. The frequency band in FH systems is divided into a number of hop
channels. Every hop channel is just a fraction of the total frequency band. In Bluetooth
one channel is used in (one slot) followed by a hop in a pseudo-random order to another
channel for another transmission, repeated constantly. In this way the hopping spreads the
Bluetooth traffic over the entire ISM band and a system with good interference protection
is achieved. If one of the transmissions is jammed by, for instance, a microwave oven, the
probability of interference on the next hop channel is very low. Error correction
algorithms are used to correct the fault caused by jammed transmissions.

Modulation/Transmission and packet definition

A Gaussian shaped binary FSK modulation is used to reduce the transceiver
complexity in Bluetooth units. Full duplex transmission capability is achieved by using
time division duplex, subsequent slots are used for transmitting and receiving. The
Bluetooth baseband protocol is a combination of circuit and packet switching.
Reservation of slots can be done for synchronous packets. One packet typically uses one
slot, but a multi-slot method is also defined in the Bluetooth specifications. Multi-slot
packets can cover three or five slots. Packets are always sent on one single hop channel.
That means that when multi-slot packets are transmitted the hopping frequency is reduced
and there is no hop until the whole packet is sent. This is illustrated in Figure 5. The
channel using the white packet. starts the illustrated sequence with a multi-slot packet
covering three slots. Note that the hopping channel after the multi-slot packet is the same
(compare with Figure 4) as if there had not been a multi-slot packet.

Bluetooth networking
When Bluetooth units are communicating, one unit is master and the rest of the
units act as slaves. The master unit's system clock and the master identity are the central
parts in the frequency hop technology. The hop channel is dete rmined by the hop
sequence and by the phase in this sequence. The identity of the master determines the
sequence and the master unit's system clock determines the phase. In the slave unit, an
offset may be added to its system clock to create a copy of the master's clock. In this way
every unit in the Bluetooth connection holds synchronized clocks and the master identity,
that uniquely identifies the connection. Hops synchronized with the master can therefore
be achieved as described in Figure 6. 79 hop carriers have been defined for the Bluetooth

Technology except for France and Spain where 23 hop carriers have been defined,
because the ISM-band is narrower there. Slave

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Hop selection

slave Phase


Off set

Master identity

Figure 6 The hop selection

The Bluetooth packets have a fixed format. A 72-bit access code comes first in
the packet. The access code is based on the master's identity and the master's system
clock, i.e. it provides the means for the synchronization. This code is unique for the
channel and used by all packets transmitting on a specific channel. A 54-bit header
follows the access code. This header contains error correction, retransmission and flow
control information. The error correction information can. be used for correcting faults in
the payload and in the header itself. Finally
Comes he payload field with anything between zero and 2,745 bits, i.e. up to 340 bytes.

f n+2

f n+1 Access Packet

code header
72 Bits 54 bits )-2745 bits

625 ms

Figure 7 The Bluetooth packet format

Radio parameters
Bluetooth units operate on the ISM band, at 2.45 GHz. The transmitting power is
between 1 and 100 mW. The radio- frequency transmitters are very small. Ericsson's 1
mW Bluetooth radio module is only 10.2x14x1.6 mm. The low power consumption
implies that a Bluetooth unit can operate on the power from a small battery for a long
time (months). These hardware characteristics make it possible to fit a Bluetooth unit in
many electrical devices. The maximum Bluetooth range is 10 m, with a possibility to
extend it to 100 m. The maximum bit rate is 1 Mbit/s. Maximum effective payload is
lower because the different protocol layers require data payload for signalling to their

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Corresponding layers in the unit with which the device is communicating.
Estimates have indicated data transfer rates up to 721 kbit/s.

Data packets are protected by an Automatic Retransmission Query, ARQ, and

scheme. This scheme implies that at every packet reception an error check is done. If an
error is detected, the receiving unit indicates this in the return packet; thus lost or faulty
packets only cause a one-slot delay. In this way, retransmission is in this way selective,
only faulty packets are retransmitted. Since retransmission is not optimal for voice
transmissions due to its vulnerability for delays, a voice-encoding scheme is used. This
scheme is highly resistant to bit errors. The errors that cannot be corrected result in an
increasing background noise.

Piconet and Scatternet

Any two Bluetooth devices that come within range of each other can set up a so-called ad
hoc connection. When such a connection is established a piconet is formed. There is
always a master unit in a piconet and the rest of the units act as slaves. Up to eight active
units can form a piconet, which is defined by the channel these units share. The number
of devices in a piconet is actually unlimited even though you can have only eight active
devices at any given moment. There is no difference in hardware or software between a
master and a slave, hence any unit can be master. The unit that establishes the piconet
becomes the master unit.

The roles in a piconet can change but there can never be more than one master.
The master unit controls all traffic in the piconet. It allocates capacity for SCO links and
handles a polling scheme for ACL links. Slave units may only send in the slave-to- master
slot after being addressed in the preceding master-to-slave slot. If the master does not
have any information to send in the master-to-slave slot, a packet with access code and
header only is sent. That is, every slave unit is addressed in a specific order, and polling
scheme, and may only send upon being addressed. In this way, packet collisions between
sending slave units are eliminated.

Establishing network connections

Before a unit has joined a piconet it is in standby mode. In this mode, an
unconnected unit periodically wakes up and listens for messages every 1.28 seconds.
Paging messages are transmitted on 32 of the 79 (16 of 23 for Spain and France) hop
carriers which are defined as wake-up carriers (the unit's identity determines which of the
hop carriers it is). A connection is made by a page message if the address is already
known, or by an inquiry message followed by a subsequent page message if the address is

The wake-up sequence is transmitted by the master over the 32 (or 16 for Spain
and France, below is the 32 hop carrier system described) wake up carriers. Initially, the
16 first hop carriers are used, if there is no response, the rest of the carriers are used. The
slave's system clock determines the phase in the wake- up sequence. The slave listens for
18 slots on the wake-up carrier and compares the incoming signal with the access code

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derived from its own identity. If there is a match, the unit invokes a connection-set-up
procedure and enters Connected mode. The master unit must know the slave's identit y
and its system clock. This is required to calculate the proper access code and the wake-up
sequence and to predict the wake-up sequence phase. To keep track of the slaves' system
clocks, a paging procedure is defined for the master unit. It defines how identities are.
transmitted between master and slave units and how the slaves' current system clocks are
distributed to the master. To connect units with an unknown address an inquiry signal is
transmitted initially. This signal is used to inform the master unit of the slave's identity
within transmission range. The paging unit on the inquiry wake-up carriers sends an
inquiry access code. Units receiving this message respond with their identity and system
clock. The inquiry message is typically used for find ing Bluetooth devices, including
public printers, fax machines and similar devices with an unknown address.

Power saving modes

Three different power saving modes have been defined, Hold, Sniff and Park.
They can be used if there is no data transmission ongoing in the piconet. A slave can
either demand to be put in Hold mode or be put in Hold by the master unit. In Hold mode
only an internal timer is running. Data transfer restarts instantly when units make the
transition out of Hold mode. The mode is used when connecting several piconets or
managing a low power device such as a temperature sensor. In the Sniff mode, a slave
device listens to the piconet at reduced rate, thereby reducing its duty cycle. In the Park
mode a unit remains synchronized in the p iconet but does not participate in the traffic

To optimize the use of the available spectrum, several piconets can exist in the
same area. This is called Scatternet. Within one Scatternet all units share the same
frequency range but each piconet uses different hop sequences and transmits on different
1 MHz hop channels. Thus, a way to optimize the data transmission capability is to keep
the piconets small (i.e. few units). All piconets share the 80 MHz band, where each
piconet uses 1 MHz, thus, as long as the piconets pick different hop frequencies, no
sharing of 1 MHz hop channels occurs.
Why B

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 Bluetooth usage models.

Bluetooth Usage Models

In this section a number of Bluetooth usage models are described. For each usage
model there is one or more corresponding profiles defining protocol layers and functions
to be used. The profiles are not described in detail in this document, for more information
refer to the Bluetooth standardization documents.

File Transfer
The File Transfer usage model offers the capability to transfer data objects from
one Bluetooth device to another. Files, entire folders, directories and streaming media
formats are supported in this usage model. The model also offers the possibility of
browsing the contents of the folders on a remote device. Furthermore, push and exchange
operations are covered in this usage model, e.g. business card exchange using the vCard
format. The File Transfer model is based on GOEP.

Internet Bridge
The Internet Bridge usage model describes how a mobile phone or cordless
modem provides a PC with dial- up networking capabilities without the need for physical
connection to the PC. This networking scenario requires a two-piece protocol stack, one
for AT-commands to control the mobile phone and another stack to transfer payload

LAN Access
The LAN Access usage model is similar to the Internet Bridge user model. The
difference is that the LAN Access usage model does not use the protocols for AT-
commands. The usage model describes how data terminals use a LAN access point as a
wireless connection to a Local Area Network. When connected, the data terminals
operate as if it they were connected to the LAN via dial-up networking.

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The synchronization usage model provides the means for automatic
synchronization between for instance a desktop PC, a portable PC, a mobile phone and a
notebook. The synchronization requires business card, calendar and task information to
be transferred and processed by computers, cellular phones and PDAs utilizing a
common protocol and format.

Three-in-One Phone
The Three- in-One Phone usage model describes how a telephone handset may
connect to three different service providers. The telephone may act as a cordless
telephone connecting to the public switched telephone network at home, charged at a
fixed line charge. This scenario includes making calls via a voice base station, and
making direct calls between two terminals via the base station. The telephone can also
connect directly to other telephones acting as a “walkie-talkie” or handset extension i.e.
no charging needed. Finally, the telephone may act as a cellular telephone connecting to
the cellular infrastructure. The cordless and intercom scenarios use the same protocol

Ultimate Headset
The Ultimate Headset usage model defines how a Bluetooth equipped wireless
headset can be connected, to act as a remote unit‟s audio input and output interface. The
unit is probably a mobile phone or a PC for audio input and output. As for the Internet
Bridge user model, this model requires a two-piece protocol stack; one for AT-commands
to control the mobile phone and another stack to transfer payload data, i.e. speech. The
AT-commands control the telephone regarding for instance answering and terminating

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 Competing techniques.
 Bluetooth strength.

Competing techniques
There are a number of competitors to the Bluetooth technology. However, there is
no obvious single competitor in all the market segments in which the Bluetooth
technology can operate.

The main competitor in the cable replacement market segment is IrDA. IrDA is an
infrared interface standard providing wireless solutions between, for instance, mobile
phones and PDAs. The technique is well known in the market but has had problems
because some IrDA manufacturers have made implementations incompatible with
standard implementations. The maximum payload in the IrDA technology exceeds the
maximum Bluetooth payload. The two main disadvantages with IrDA are that it is limited
to point-to-point connections (only two parties in a connection) and its need for line of
sight (since it is based on infrared light).

Implementations based on IEEE 802.11

The main competitors in the market segment for wireless LAN are the
implementations based on the IEEE 802.11 standard. Some of these implementations also
use the frequency hopping technology. The main differences between Bluetooth and
these implementations are: I mplementations based on IEEE 802.11 have higher
transmission capacity

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* The number of simultaneous users is higher for IEEE 802.11-based systems
* The Bluetooth hardware size is considerably smaller
* The five Euro unit is 10 to 20 times cheaper than an IEEE 802.11 unit
* The number of frequency hops is considerably higher for Bluetooth than for
an IEEE 802.11 implementation.

Ultra-Wideband Radio, UWB

Ultra-Wideband Radio, UWB, is a new radio technology. The concept is similar
to radar. Short pulses are transmitted in a broad frequency range. The information is
modulated by the pulses' time and frequency. The technique is not fully developed but
might be a threat to the Bluetooth concept since its superiority in capacity and power
consumption. UWB prototypes indicate payloads up to 1.25 Mbit/s with 70 meters range
at just 0.5 mW power consumption.

Home RF
Home RF is a technique developed by a consortium with, among others,
Microsoft, Intel, HP, Motorola and Compaq. The technique is developed from the. DECT
concept and operates in the 2.4 GHz frequency band (the same as Bluetooth). The
intention has been to develop a technique for the home market. There are many
similarities with Bluetooth, price per unit, range, transmitting power etc. The major
differences are that Home RF can handle up to 127 units per net and it uses just 50
frequency hops per second. The figures for Bluetooth are 8 and 1600 respectively.


Packet oriented for data applications,max

full duplex data rate is 432 kbps,
Bluetooth 1 mbps(gross rate) arranged as 64 kbps channels for speech
Primarily designed as noice service, not
packet, expensive (typically $100 for a
DECT 144 kbps
handset and home base station)
Very cheap (now ariund $1 to $2 per
IR 4 mbps installation) low range (~1m) and line of
sight only

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Bluetooth strengths
The Bluetooth concept offers several benefits compared with other techniques.
The main advantages of Bluetooth are:

* The minimal hardware dimensions

* The low price on Bluetooth components
* The low power consumption for Bluetooth connections.

The advantages make it possible to introduce support for Bluetooth in many types
of devices at a low price. The diversity in product offerings (mobile phones, PDAs,
computers, computer hardware, notebooks etc) from companies in the Bluetooth SIG and
their broad support for the technique creates a unique market position. Both hardware and
device manufacturers will work for the introduction of Bluetooth in many different

The capabilities provided by Bluetooth, approximately 720 kbit/s, can be used for
cable replacement and several other applications such as speech, LAN and so on, as
described in the use cases, described in the section entitled Bluetooth Usage Models.
Figure 8 indicates in what areas the Bluetoo th concept can be used. Defining of specific
user models and corresponding profiles combined with the four general profiles will most
likely lead to a market situation where applications covered by the user models will use
the defined user models and their profiles. Furthermore, it is likely that new applications
will use the standard profiles and thereby avoid interoperability problems between
different manufacturers.

The Bluetooth baseband protocol is a combination of circuit and packet switching.

Slots can be reserved for synchronous packet. Each packet is transmitted in a different
hop frequency. A packet nominally covers a single slot, but can be extended to cover up
to 5 slots. Bluetooth can support an asynchronous data channel, up to 3 simultaneous
synchronous voice channels, or a channel that simultaneously supports asynchronous data
synchronous voice. Each voice channel supports 64 kbps synchronous (voice) link. The
asynchronous channel can support an asymmetric link of maximally 721 kbps in either
direction while permitting 57.6 kbps in the return direction, or a 432.6 kbps symmetric

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 Possible 3-G support application.

 The specification
 Technical definition.


Possible 3G Support Applications

The following examples demonstrate how 3G and Bluetooth work
together, providing local intercommunication as well as wide area connectivity in a wide
range of applications. These are not definitive and by no means exhaustive, but aim to
show how complementary standards can work together to provide a greater level of
service than either could achieve separately.

Vending machines in shopping mall

All the automatic vending machines within a confined area can, through a
Bluetooth access system, be connected to a central vending machine administration unit,
that in turn uses a 3G access system to call for maintenance or supplies. Minor problems
can be relayed to the Mall technician directly through his Bluetooth communicator.
Pricing changes can be sent from central administration and locally “broadcast” to all
Bluetooth vending machines.

E-mail delivery to the PC

3G terminals will be able to handle several channels simultaneously (e.g. voice,
fax and data each requiring different channel characteristics and speeds). With
predictions of terminal penetration being very high (every member of the population
above the age of 12 in a few years), the PC itself does not have to be a 3G terminal in
order to receive e-mails on the move. A Bluetooth/3G terminal can receive e-mail as a
data transmission and forward it, via Bluetooth to the PC (assuming it is within close
proximity). When the reception is complete, the PC can notify the user via Bluetooth and
a short message to his mobile terminal that he has e- mail, and if an item is urgent, this
fact can be forwarded too. This concept allows the 3G terminal to be the local “headend”
for a variety of applications that are locally interconnected via Bluetooth. If for example,
such an e- mail was received while waiting for a train or plane, the user could approach a

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Bluetooth services booth (example new commercial enterprise for business travelers).
Here, for a fee chargeable to his charge/credit card or e-Wallet, he can instruct his PC to
print the e- mails of interest (using his 3G/Bluetooth terminal to control it, leaving the PC
in the briefcase).

The e-Wallet
Many people believe that the mobile phone can become the portal of first choice
to the e-commerce world. At present however a separate Smart Card is required to hold
electronic cash - no-one wants to remove their SIM from the phone in order have it read
by a Point of Sale terminal. Bluetooth of course will allow the SIM (which now becomes
a multi- function Smart Card) to be read while it remains in the phone. With 100 Kbytes
Smart Cards on the horizon we can foresee our mobile phones becoming the main
repository for our cash, health info, personal preferences, season tickets, etc. etc. The
wide area cellular world will be one of the main routes for updating it.

The Underground Train

Underground facilities suffer from “poor” coverage on cellular systems.

Many underground rail operators are overcoming this by installing systems designed to
provide driver and station staff with a reliable communication network. Systems such as
TETRA (TErrestrial Trunked Radio) provide sufficient capacity that there is spare to
carry some passenger traffic too. Carriages equipped with Bluetooth transceivers would
provide a gateway between the train TETRA system and the user‟s 3G/Bluetooth
terminal, and the TETRA system would provide the gateway to the surface public
networks. For the convenience of other passengers, not all carriages would be enabled for
support of voice over Bluetooth (though the use of Bluetooth for broadcasting timetable
information, advertising etc. could be available in all carriages).

The Bluetooth Headset

The 3G/Bluetooth terminal mentioned in the above example does not in fact need
to be in the user‟s hand or pocket during most of the noted transactions. The user will
have a Bluetooth headset (a product already announced by Ericsson) allowing him to
leave the terminal in his briefcase too. This may provide voice control/recognition
functionality, removing most of the need for a keyboard or display on the 3G terminal.
These suggestions may raise the question as to where the terminal (3G) in fact should
reside. Much of the functionality delivered by 3G systems will be directed towards a data
terminal device such as a PC or palm top computer and it may be logical to build the 3G
terminal into it. With an external (Bluetooth) headset, there would be nothing to hold,
though a simple MMI (Man Machine Interface) device to allow dialing and displaying of
short messages (connected to the main terminal by Bluetooth of course) may be required.
If this could be made credit card sized it becomes a small version of the bpad discussed
above and may well replace the handset/terminal as we know it. Alternatively, as has
been suggested previously in this paper, the PC and 3G terminal may be physically
separate devices while being functionally connected when in close proximity to each

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other. This perhaps offers greater flexibility (it wouldn‟t be necessary to carry a PC
everywhere simply to make and receive calls), while losing none of the functionality of
the combined device. In some cases it may even be possible to leave the PC at home
connected to the Home Base Station (via Bluetooth), and retrieve data from it directly to
the bpad using Bluetooth and 3G together.


Frequency band :2.4 GHz (unlicensed ISM band)
Transmitting power: 1 milliwatt(0dBm)
Technology : spread spectrum ; hybrid direct sequence and frequency hopping.
Maximum voice channels : 3 per piconet
Data speed : 721 kbps per piconet
Expected system range : 10 meters (40 feet)
Number of devices supported : 8 per piconet, 10 piconets in coverage area.
Security : Yes, link layer.
Power requirements :2.7 volts.
Power consumption : 30 uA sleep, 50 uA hold, 300uA stand by, 8-30mAtransmitting.
Module size : 0.5 square inches.
Interference : Bluetooth minimize potential interference by employing fast frequency
hopping –1600 times a second.

PICONET : A collection of devices connected via Bluetooth technology in an ad hoc
fashion. A piconet starts with grow to eight connected devices. All Bluetooth devices are
peer unit and have identical implementations. However, when establishing a piconet
connection. The Bluetooth system supports both point-to-point and point-to-multi point

SCATTERNET : Multiple independent and non-synchronized piconets form a


MASTER UNIT : The devices in the piconet whose clock and hopping sequence are used
to synchronize all other devices in the piconet.

SLAVE UNITS : All devices in the piconet that are not the master.

MAC ADDRESS : 3-bit address to distinguish between units participating in the piconet.

PARKED UNITS : Devices in a piconet, which are synchronized but do not have a MAC

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SNIFF AND HOLD MODE : Devices synchronized to a piconet can enter power saving
modes in which device activity is lowered.

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