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The Physics GRE Solution Guide
GR8677 Test
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/physicsgre_v2
April 15, 2009
Author:
David S. Latchman
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Chapter 1
Preface
This solution guide initially started out on the Yahoo Groups web site and was pretty
successful at the time. Unfortunately, the group was lost and with it, much of the the
hard work that was put into it. This is my attempt to recreate the solution guide and
make it more widely avaialble to everyone. If you see any errors, think certain things
could be expressed more clearly, or would like to make suggestions, please feel free to
do so.
David Latchman
Document Changes
04-15-2009 First Version
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Contents
1 Preface 3
2 Classical Mechanics 13
2.1 Kinematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.1.1 Linear Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.1.2 Circular Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.2 Newton’s Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.2.1 Newton’s Laws of Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.2.2 Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.2.3 Impulse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.3 Work & Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.3.1 Kinetic Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.3.2 The Work-Energy Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.3.3 Work done under a constant Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.3.4 Potential Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.3.5 Hooke’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.3.6 Potential Energy of a Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.4 Oscillatory Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.4.1 Equation for Simple Harmonic Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.4.2 Period of Simple Harmonic Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.4.3 Total Energy of an Oscillating System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.4.4 Damped Harmonic Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.4.5 Small Oscillations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.4.6 Coupled Harmonic Oscillators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.4.7 Doppler Eﬀect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.5 Rotational Motion about a Fixed Axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.5.1 Moment of Inertia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.5.2 Rotational Kinetic Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.5.3 Parallel Axis Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.5.4 Torque . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.5.5 Angular Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.5.6 Kinetic Energy in Rolling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.6 Dynamics of Systems of Particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.6.1 Center of Mass of a System of Particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.7 Central Forces and Celestial Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.7.1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
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2.7.2 Potential Energy of a Gravitational Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.7.3 Escape Speed and Orbits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.7.4 Kepler’s Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.7.5 Types of Orbits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.7.6 Derivation of Vis-viva Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2.8 Three Dimensional Particle Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2.9 Fluid Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2.9.1 Archimedes’ Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2.9.2 Equation of Continuity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.9.3 Bernoulli’s Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.10 Non-inertial Reference Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.11 Hamiltonian and Lagrangian Formalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.11.1 Lagrange’s Function (L) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.11.2 Equations of Motion(Euler-Lagrange Equation) . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.11.3 Hamiltonian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
3 Electromagnetism 25
3.1 Electrostatics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3.1.1 Coulomb’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3.1.2 Electric Field of a point charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3.1.3 Gauss’ Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
3.1.4 Equivalence of Coulomb’s Law and Gauss’ Law . . . . . . . . . . 27
3.1.5 Electric Field due to a line of charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
3.1.6 Electric Field in a Solid Non-Conducting Sphere . . . . . . . . . . 27
3.1.7 Electric Potential Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
3.1.8 Electric Potential of a Point Charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
3.1.9 Electric Potential due to a line charge along axis . . . . . . . . . . 29
3.2 Currents and DC Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
3.3 Magnetic Fields in Free Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
3.4 Lorentz Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
3.5 Induction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
3.6 Maxwell’s Equations and their Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
3.7 Electromagnetic Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
3.8 AC Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
3.9 Magnetic and Electric Fields in Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
3.10 Capacitance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
3.11 Energy in a Capacitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
3.12 Energy in an Electric Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
3.13 Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
3.14 Current Destiny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
3.15 Current Density of Moving Charges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
3.16 Resistance and Ohm’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
3.17 Resistivity and Conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
3.18 Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
3.19 Kirchoﬀ’s Loop Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
3.20 Kirchoﬀ’s Junction Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
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3.21 RC Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
3.22 Maxwell’s Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
3.22.1 Integral Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
3.22.2 Diﬀerential Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
3.23 Speed of Propagation of a Light Wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
3.24 Relationship between E and B Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
3.25 Energy Density of an EM wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
3.26 Poynting’s Vector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
4 Optics & Wave Phonomena 35
4.1 Wave Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
4.2 Superposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
4.3 Interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
4.4 Diﬀraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
4.5 Geometrical Optics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
4.6 Polarization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
4.7 Doppler Eﬀect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
4.8 Snell’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
4.8.1 Snell’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
4.8.2 Critical Angle and Snell’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
5 Thermodynamics & Statistical Mechanics 37
5.1 Laws of Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
5.2 Thermodynamic Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
5.3 Equations of State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
5.4 Ideal Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
5.5 Kinetic Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
5.6 Ensembles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
5.7 Statistical Concepts and Calculation of Thermodynamic Properties . . . 38
5.8 Thermal Expansion & Heat Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
5.9 Heat Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
5.10 Speciﬁc Heat Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
5.11 Heat and Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
5.12 First Law of Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
5.12.1 Special Cases to the First Law of Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . 38
5.13 Work done by Ideal Gas at Constant Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
5.14 Heat Conduction Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
5.15 Ideal Gas Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
5.16 Stefan-Boltzmann’s Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
5.17 RMS Speed of an Ideal Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
5.18 Translational Kinetic Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
5.19 Internal Energy of a Monatomic gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
5.20 Molar Speciﬁc Heat at Constant Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
5.21 Molar Speciﬁc Heat at Constant Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
5.22 Equipartition of Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
5.23 Adiabatic Expansion of an Ideal Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
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5.24 Second Law of Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
6 Quantum Mechanics 43
6.1 Fundamental Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
6.2 Schr¨ odinger Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
6.2.1 Inﬁnite Square Wells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
6.2.2 Harmonic Oscillators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
6.2.3 Finite Square Well . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
6.2.4 Hydrogenic Atoms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
6.3 Spin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
6.4 Angular Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
6.5 Wave Funtion Symmetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
6.6 Elementary Perturbation Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
7 Atomic Physics 49
7.1 Properties of Electrons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
7.2 Bohr Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
7.3 Energy Quantization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
7.4 Atomic Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
7.5 Atomic Spectra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
7.5.1 Rydberg’s Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
7.6 Selection Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
7.7 Black Body Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
7.7.1 Plank Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
7.7.2 Stefan-Boltzmann Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
7.7.3 Wein’s Displacement Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
7.7.4 Classical and Quantum Aspects of the Plank Equation . . . . . . 51
7.8 X-Rays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
7.8.1 Bragg Condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
7.8.2 The Compton Eﬀect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
7.9 Atoms in Electric and Magnetic Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
7.9.1 The Cyclotron Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
7.9.2 Zeeman Eﬀect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
7.9.3 Franck-Hertz Experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
8 Special Relativity 57
8.1 Introductory Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
8.1.1 Postulates of Special Relativity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
8.2 Time Dilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
8.3 Length Contraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
8.4 Simultaneity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
8.5 Energy and Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
8.5.1 Relativistic Momentum & Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
8.5.2 Lorentz Transformations (Momentum & Energy) . . . . . . . . . 58
8.5.3 Relativistic Kinetic Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
8.5.4 Relativistic Dynamics (Collisions) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
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8.6 Four-Vectors and Lorentz Transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
8.7 Velocity Addition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
8.8 Relativistic Doppler Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
8.9 Lorentz Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
8.10 Space-Time Interval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
9 Laboratory Methods 63
9.1 Data and Error Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
9.1.1 Addition and Subtraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
9.1.2 Multiplication and Division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
9.1.3 Exponent - (No Error in b) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
9.1.4 Logarithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
9.1.5 Antilogs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
9.2 Instrumentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
9.3 Radiation Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
9.4 Counting Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
9.5 Interaction of Charged Particles with Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
9.6 Lasers and Optical Interferometers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
9.7 Dimensional Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
9.8 Fundamental Applications of Probability and Statistics . . . . . . . . . . 66
10 GR8677 Exam Solutions 67
10.1 Motion of Rock under Drag Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
10.2 Satellite Orbits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
10.3 Speed of Light in a Dielectric Medium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
10.4 Wave Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
10.5 Inelastic Collision and Putty Spheres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
10.6 Motion of a Particle along a Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
10.7 Resolving Force Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
10.8 Nail being driven into a block of wood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
10.9 Current Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
10.10Charge inside an Isolated Sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
10.11Vector Identities and Maxwell’s Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
10.12Doppler Equation (Non-Relativistic) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
10.13Vibrating Interference Pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
10.14Speciﬁc Heat at Constant Pressure and Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
10.15Helium atoms in a box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
10.16The Muon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
10.17Radioactive Decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
10.18Schr¨ odinger’s Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
10.19Energy Levels of Bohr’s Hydrogen Atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
10.20Relativistic Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
10.21Space-Time Interval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
10.22Lorentz Transformation of the EM ﬁeld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
10.23Conductivity of a Metal and Semi-Conductor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
10.24Charging a Battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
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10.25Lorentz Force on a Charged Particle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
10.26K-Series X-Rays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
10.27Electrons and Spin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
10.28Normalizing a wavefunction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
10.29Right Hand Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
10.30Electron Conﬁguration of a Potassium atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
10.31Photoelectric Eﬀect I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
10.32Photoelectric Eﬀect II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
10.33Photoelectric Eﬀect III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
10.34Potential Energy of a Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
10.35Hamiltonian of a Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
10.36Principle of Least Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
10.37Tension in a Conical Pendulum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
10.38Diode OR-gate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
10.39Gain of an Ampliﬁer vs. Angular Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
10.40Counting Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
10.41Binding Energy per Nucleon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
10.42Scattering Cross Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
10.43Coupled Oscillators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
10.43.1 Calculating the modes of oscillation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
10.44Collision with a Rod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
10.45Compton Wavelength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
10.46Stefan-Boltzmann’s Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
10.47Franck-Hertz Experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
10.48Selection Rules for Electronic Transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
10.49The Hamilton Operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
10.50Hall Eﬀect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
10.51Debye and Einstein Theories to Speciﬁc Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
10.52Potential inside a Hollow Cube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
10.53EM Radiation from Oscillating Charges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
10.54Polarization Charge Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
10.55Kinetic Energy of Electrons in Metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
10.56Expectation or Mean Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
10.57Eigenfuction of Wavefunction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
10.58Holograms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
10.59Group Velocity of a Wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
10.60Potential Energy and Simple Harmonic Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
10.61Rocket Equation I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
10.62Rocket Equation II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
10.63Surface Charge Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
10.64Maximum Power Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
10.65Magnetic Field far away from a Current carrying Loop . . . . . . . . . . 95
10.66Maxwell’s Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
10.67Partition Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
10.68Particle moving at Light Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
10.69Car and Garage I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
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10.70Car and Garage II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
10.71Car and Garage III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
10.72Refrective Index of Rock Salt and X-rays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
10.73Thin Flim Non-Reﬂective Coatings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
10.74Law of Malus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
10.75Geosynchronous Satellite Orbit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
10.76Hoop Rolling down and Inclined Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
10.77Simple Harmonic Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
10.78Total Energy between Two Charges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
10.79Maxwell’s Equations and Magnetic Monopoles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
10.80Gauss’ Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
10.81Biot-Savart Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
10.82Zeeman Eﬀect and the emission spectrum of atomic gases . . . . . . . . 104
10.83Spectral Lines in High Density and Low Density Gases . . . . . . . . . . 105
10.84Term Symbols & Spectroscopic Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
10.85Photon Interaction Cross Sections for Pb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
10.86The Ice Pail Experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
10.87Equipartition of Energy and Diatomic Molecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
10.88Fermion and Boson Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
10.89Wavefunction of Two Identical Particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
10.90Energy Eigenstates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
10.91Bragg’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
10.92Selection Rules for Electronic Transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
10.93Moving Belt Sander on a Rough Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
10.94RL Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
10.95Carnot Cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
10.96First Order Perturbation Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
10.97Colliding Discs and the Conservation of Angular Momentum . . . . . . 114
10.98Electrical Potential of a Long Thin Rod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
10.99Ground State of a Positronium Atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
10.100The Pinhole Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
A Constants & Important Equations 117
A.1 Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
A.2 Vector Identities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
A.2.1 Triple Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
A.2.2 Product Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
A.2.3 Second Derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
A.3 Commutators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
A.3.1 Lie-algebra Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
A.3.2 Canonical Commutator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
A.3.3 Kronecker Delta Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
A.4 Linear Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
A.4.1 Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
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Chapter 2
Classical Mechanics
2.1 Kinematics
2.1.1 Linear Motion
Average Velocity
v =
∆x
∆t
=
x
2
− x
1
t
2
− t
1
(2.1)
Instantaneous Velocity
v = lim
∆t→0
∆x
∆t
=
dx
dt
= v(t) (2.2)
Kinematic Equations of Motion
The basic kinematic equations of motion under constant acceleration, a, are
v = v
0
+ at (2.3)
v
2
= v
2
0
+ 2a (x − x
0
) (2.4)
x − x
0
= v
0
t +
1
2
at
2
(2.5)
x − x
0
=
1
2
(v + v
0
) t (2.6)
2.1.2 Circular Motion
In the case of Uniform Circular Motion, for a particle to move in a circular path, a
radial acceleration must be applied. This acceleration is known as the Centripetal
Acceleration
Centripetal Acceleration
a =
v
2
r
(2.7)
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Angular Velocity
ω =
v
r
(2.8)
We can write (Equation 2.7) in terms of ω
a = ω
2
r (2.9)
Rotational Equations of Motion
The equations of motion under a constant angular acceleration, α, are
ω = ω
0
+ αt (2.10)
θ =
ω + ω
0
2
t (2.11)
θ = ω
0
t +
1
2
αt
2
(2.12)
ω
2
= ω
2
0
+ 2αθ (2.13)
2.2 Newton’s Laws
2.2.1 Newton’s Laws of Motion
First Law A body continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion unless acted upon
by an external unbalanced force.
Second Law The net force ona body is proportional to its rate of change of momentum.
F =
dp
dt
= ma (2.14)
Third Law When a particle A exerts a force on another particle B, B simultaneously
exerts a force on A with the same magnitude in the opposite direction.
F
AB
= −F
BA
(2.15)
2.2.2 Momentum
p = mv (2.16)
2.2.3 Impulse
∆p = J =

Fdt = F
avg
dt (2.17)
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2.3 Work & Energy
2.3.1 Kinetic Energy
K ≡
1
2
mv
2
(2.18)
2.3.2 The Work-Energy Theorem
The net Work done is given by
W
net
= K
f
− K
i
(2.19)
2.3.3 Work done under a constant Force
The work done by a force can be expressed as
W = F∆x (2.20)
In three dimensions, this becomes
W = F · ∆r = F∆r cos θ (2.21)
For a non-constant force, we have
W =
x
f

x
i
F(x)dx (2.22)
2.3.4 Potential Energy
The Potential Energy is
F(x) = −
dU(x)
dx
(2.23)
for conservative forces, the potential energy is
U(x) = U
0

x

x
0
F(x

)dx

(2.24)
2.3.5 Hooke’s Law
F = −kx (2.25)
where k is the spring constant.
2.3.6 Potential Energy of a Spring
U(x) =
1
2
kx
2
(2.26)
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2.4 Oscillatory Motion
2.4.1 Equation for Simple Harmonic Motion
x(t) = Asin(ωt + δ) (2.27)
where the Amplitude, A, measures the displacement from equilibrium, the phase, δ, is
the angle by which the motion is shifted from equilibrium at t = 0.
2.4.2 Period of Simple Harmonic Motion
T =

ω
(2.28)
2.4.3 Total Energy of an Oscillating System
Given that
x = Asin(ωt + δ) (2.29)
and that the Total Energy of a System is
E = KE + PE (2.30)
The Kinetic Energy is
KE =
1
2
mv
2
=
1
2
m
dx
dt
=
1
2
mA
2
ω
2
cos
2
(ωt + δ) (2.31)
The Potential Energy is
U =
1
2
kx
2
=
1
2
kA
2
sin
2
(ωt + δ) (2.32)
Adding (Equation 2.31) and (Equation 2.32) gives
E =
1
2
kA
2
(2.33)
2.4.4 Damped Harmonic Motion
F
d
= −bv = −b
dx
dt
(2.34)
where b is the damping coeﬃcient. The equation of motion for a damped oscillating
system becomes
− kx − b
dx
dt
= m
d
2
x
dt
2
(2.35)
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Solving(Equation 2.35) goves
x = Ae
−αt
sin(ω

t + δ) (2.36)
We ﬁnd that
α =
b
2m
(2.37)
ω

=

k
m

b
2
4m
2
=

ω
2
0

b
2
4m
2
=

ω
2
0
− α
2
(2.38)
2.4.5 Small Oscillations
The Energy of a system is
E = K + V(x) =
1
2
mv(x)
2
+ V(x) (2.39)
We can solve for v(x),
v(x) =

2
m
(E − V(x)) (2.40)
where E ≥ V(x) Let the particle move in the potential valley, x
1
≤ x ≤ x
2
, the potential
can be approximated by the Taylor Expansion
V(x) = V(x
e
) + (x − x
e
)
,
dV(x)
dx
¸
x=x
e
+
1
2
(x − x
e
)
2
,
d
2
V(x)
dx
2
¸
x=x
e
+ · · · (2.41)
At the points of inﬂection, the derivative dV/dx is zero and d
2
V/dx
2
is positive. This
means that the potential energy for small oscillations becomes
V(x) V(x
e
) +
1
2
k(x − x
e
)
2
(2.42)
where
k ≡
,
d
2
V(x)
dx
2
¸
x=x
e
≥ 0 (2.43)
As V(x
e
) is constant, it has no consequences to physical motion and can be dropped.
We see that Equation 2.42 is that of simple harmonic motion.
2.4.6 Coupled Harmonic Oscillators
Consider the case of a simple pendulum of length, , and the mass of the bob is m
1
.
For small displacements, the equation of motion is
¨
θ + ω
0
θ = 0 (2.44)
1
Add ﬁgure with coupled pendulum-spring system
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18 Classical Mechanics
We can express this in cartesian coordinates, x and y, where
x = cos θ ≈ (2.45)
y = sinθ ≈ θ (2.46)
Equation 2.44 becomes
¨ y + ω
0
y = 0 (2.47)
This is the equivalent to the mass-spring system where the spring constant is
k = mω
2
0
=
mg

(2.48)
This allows us to to create an equivalent three spring system to our coupled pendulum
system. The equations of motion can be derived from the Lagrangian, where
L = T − V
=
1
2
m˙ y
2
1
+
1
2
m˙ y
2
2

1
2
ky
2
1
+
1
2
κ

y
2
− y
1

2
+
1
2
ky
2
2
¸
=
1
2
m

˙ y
1
2
+ ˙ y
2
2

1
2

k

y
2
1
+ y
2
2

+ κ

y
2
− y
1

2

(2.49)
We can ﬁnd the equations of motion of our system
d
dt
¸
∂L
∂ ˙ y
n

=
∂L
∂y
n
(2.50)
The equations of motion are
m¨ y
1
= −ky
1
+ κ

y
2
− y
1

(2.51)
m¨ y
2
= −ky
2
+ κ

y
2
− y
1

(2.52)
We assume solutions for the equations of motion to be of the form
y
1
= cos(ωt + δ
1
) y
2
= Bcos(ωt + δ
2
)
¨ y
1
= −ωy
1
¨ y
2
= −ωy
2
(2.53)
Substituting the values for ¨ y
1
and ¨ y
2
into the equations of motion yields

k + κ − mω
2

y
1
− κy
2
= 0 (2.54)
−κy
1
+

k + κ − mω
2

y
2
= 0 (2.55)
We can get solutions from solving the determinant of the matrix

k + κ − mω
2

−κ
−κ

k + κ − mω
2

= 0 (2.56)
Solving the determinant gives

2

2
− 2mω
2
(k + κ) +

k
2
+ 2kκ

= 0 (2.57)
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This yields
ω
2
=

¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
k
m
=
g

k + 2κ
m
=
g

+

m
(2.58)
We can now determine exactly how the masses move with each mode by substituting
ω
2
into the equations of motion. Where
ω
2
=
k
m
We see that
k + κ − mω
2
= κ (2.59)
Substituting this into the equation of motion yields
y
1
= y
2
(2.60)
We see that the masses move in phase with each other. You will also notice
the absense of the spring constant term, κ, for the connecting spring. As the
masses are moving in step, the spring isn’t stretching or compressing and hence
its absence in our result.
ω
2
=
k + κ
m
We see that
k + κ − mω
2
= −κ (2.61)
Substituting this into the equation of motion yields
y
1
= −y
2
(2.62)
Here the masses move out of phase with each other. In this case we see the
presence of the spring constant, κ, which is expected as the spring playes a role.
It is being stretched and compressed as our masses oscillate.
2.4.7 Doppler Eﬀect
The Doppler Eﬀect is the shift in frequency and wavelength of waves that results from
a source moving with respect to the medium, a receiver moving with respect to the
medium or a moving medium.
Moving Source If a source is moving towards an observer, then in one period, τ
0
, it
moves a distance of v
s
τ
0
= v
s
/ f
0
. The wavelength is decreased by
λ

= λ −
v
s
f
0

v − v
s
f
0
(2.63)
The frequency change is
f

=
v
λ

= f
0

v
v − v
s
¸
(2.64)
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20 Classical Mechanics
Moving Observer As the observer moves, he will measure the same wavelength, λ, as
if at rest but will see the wave crests pass by more quickly. The observer measures
a modiﬁed wave speed.
v

= v + |v
r
| (2.65)
The modiﬁed frequency becomes
f

=
v

λ
= f
0

1 +
v
r
v
¸
(2.66)
Moving Source and Moving Observer We can combine the above two equations
λ

=
v − v
s
f
0
(2.67)
v

= v − v
r
(2.68)
To give a modiﬁed frequency of
f

=
v

λ

=

v − v
r
v − v
s
¸
f
0
(2.69)
2.5 Rotational Motion about a Fixed Axis
2.5.1 Moment of Inertia
I =

R
2
dm (2.70)
2.5.2 Rotational Kinetic Energy
K =
1
2

2
(2.71)
2.5.3 Parallel Axis Theorem
I = I
cm
+ Md
2
(2.72)
2.5.4 Torque
τ = r × F (2.73)
τ = Iα (2.74)
where α is the angular acceleration.
2.5.5 Angular Momentum
L = Iω (2.75)
we can ﬁnd the Torque
τ =
dL
dt
(2.76)
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2.5.6 Kinetic Energy in Rolling
With respect to the point of contact, the motion of the wheel is a rotation about the
point of contact. Thus
K = K
rot
=
1
2
I
contact
ω
2
(2.77)
I
contact
can be found from the Parallel Axis Theorem.
I
contact
= I
cm
+ MR
2
(2.78)
Substitute (Equation 2.77) and we have
K =
1
2

I
cm
+ MR
2

ω
2
=
1
2
I
cm
ω
2
+
1
2
mv
2
(2.79)
The kinetic energy of an object rolling without slipping is the sum of hte kinetic energy
of rotation about its center of mass and the kinetic energy of the linear motion of the
object.
2.6 Dynamics of Systems of Particles
2.6.1 Center of Mass of a System of Particles
Position Vector of a System of Particles
R =
m
1
r
1
+ m
2
r
2
+ m
3
r
3
+ · · · + m
N
r
N
M
(2.80)
Velocity Vector of a System of Particles
V =
dR
dt
=
m
1
v
1
+ m
2
v
2
+ m
3
v
3
+ · · · + m
N
v
N
M
(2.81)
Acceleration Vector of a System of Particles
A =
dV
dt
=
m
1
a
1
+ m
2
a
2
+ m
3
a
3
+ · · · + m
N
a
N
M
(2.82)
2.7 Central Forces and Celestial Mechanics
2.7.1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation
F = −

GMm
r
2
¸
ˆ r (2.83)
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22 Classical Mechanics
2.7.2 Potential Energy of a Gravitational Force
U(r) = −
GMm
r
(2.84)
2.7.3 Escape Speed and Orbits
The energy of an orbiting body is
E = T + U
=
1
2
mv
2

GMm
r
(2.85)
The escape speed becomes
E =
1
2
mv
2
esc

GMm
R
E
= 0 (2.86)
Solving for v
esc
we ﬁnd
v
esc
=

2GM
R
e
(2.87)
2.7.4 Kepler’s Laws
First Law The orbit of every planet is an ellipse with the sun at a focus.
Second Law A line joining a planet and the sun sweeps out equal areas during equal
intervals of time.
Third Law The square of the orbital period of a planet is directly proportional to the
cube of the semi-major axis of its orbit.
T
2
R
3
= C (2.88)
where C is a constant whose value is the same for all planets.
2.7.5 Types of Orbits
The Energy of an Orbiting Body is deﬁned in (Equation 2.85), we can classify orbits by
their eccentricities.
Circular Orbit A circular orbit occurs when there is an eccentricity of 0 and the orbital
energy is less than 0. Thus
1
2
v
2

GM
r
= E < 0 (2.89)
The Orbital Velocity is
v =

GM
r
(2.90)
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Three Dimensional Particle Dynamics 23
Elliptic Orbit An elliptic orbit occurs when the eccentricity is between 0 and 1 but the
speciﬁc energy is negative, so the object remains bound.
v =

GM

2
r

1
a
¸
(2.91)
where a is the semi-major axis
Parabolic Orbit A Parabolic Orbit occurs when the eccentricity is equal to 1 and the
orbital velocity is the escape velocity. This orbit is not bounded. Thus
1
2
v
2

GM
r
= E = 0 (2.92)
The Orbital Velocity is
v = v
esc
=

2GM
r
(2.93)
Hyperbolic Orbit In the Hyperbolic Orbit, the eccentricity is greater than 1 with an
orbital velocity in excess of the escape velocity. This orbit is also not bounded.
v

=

GM
a
(2.94)
2.7.6 Derivation of Vis-viva Equation
The total energy of a satellite is
E =
1
2
mv
2

GMm
r
(2.95)
For an elliptical or circular orbit, the speciﬁc energy is
E = −
GMm
2a
(2.96)
Equating we get
v
2
= GM

2
r

1
a
¸
(2.97)
2.8 Three Dimensional Particle Dynamics
2.9 Fluid Dynamics
2.9.1 Archimedes’ Principle
When an object is fully or partially immersed, the buoyant force is equal to the weight
of ﬂuid displaced.
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24 Classical Mechanics
2.9.2 Equation of Continuity
ρ
1
v
1
A
1
= ρ
2
v
2
A
2
(2.98)
2.9.3 Bernoulli’s Equation
P +
1
2
ρv
2
+ ρgh = a constant (2.99)
2.10 Non-inertial Reference Frames
2.11 Hamiltonian and Lagrangian Formalism
2.11.1 Lagrange’s Function (L)
L = T − V (2.100)
where T is the Kinetic Energy and V is the Potential Energy in terms of Generalized
Coordinates.
2.11.2 Equations of Motion(Euler-Lagrange Equation)
∂L
∂q
=
d
dt
¸
∂L
∂ ˙ q

(2.101)
2.11.3 Hamiltonian
H = T + V
= p ˙ q − L(q, ˙ q) (2.102)
where
∂H
∂p
= ˙ q (2.103)
∂H
∂q
= −
∂L
∂x
= −˙ p (2.104)
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Chapter 3
Electromagnetism
3.1 Electrostatics
3.1.1 Coulomb’s Law
The force between two charged particles, q
1
and q
2
is deﬁned by Coulomb’s Law.
F
12
=
1

0
¸
q
1
q
2
r
2
12

ˆ r
12
(3.1)
where
0
is the permitivitty of free space, where

0
= 8.85 × 10
−12
C
2
N.m
2
(3.2)
3.1.2 Electric Field of a point charge
The electric ﬁeld is deﬁned by mesuring the magnitide and direction of an electric
force, F, acting on a test charge, q
0
.
E ≡
F
q
0
(3.3)
The Electric Field of a point charge, q is
E =
1

0
q
r
2
ˆ r (3.4)
In the case of multiple point charges, q
i
, the electric ﬁeld becomes
E(r) =
1

0
n
¸
i=1
q
i
r
2
i
ˆ r
i
(3.5)
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26 Electromagnetism
Electric Fields and Continuous Charge Distributions
If a source is distributed continuously along a region of space, Equation 3.5 becomes
E(r) =
1

0

1
r
2
ˆ rdq (3.6)
If the charge was distributed along a line with linear charge density, λ,
λ =
dq
dx
(3.7)
The Electric Field of a line charge becomes
E(r) =
1

0

line
λ
r
2
ˆ rdx (3.8)
In the case where the charge is distributed along a surface, the surface charge density
is, σ
σ =
Q
A
=
dq
dA
(3.9)
The electric ﬁeld along the surface becomes
E(r) =
1

0

Surface
σ
r
2
ˆ rdA (3.10)
In the case where the charge is distributed throughout a volume, V, the volume charge
density is
ρ =
Q
V
=
dq
dV
(3.11)
The Electric Field is
E(r) =
1

0

Volume
ρ
r
2
ˆ rdV (3.12)
3.1.3 Gauss’ Law
The electric ﬁeld through a surface is
Φ =

surface S
dΦ =

surface S
E · dA (3.13)
The electric ﬂux through a closed surface encloses a net charge.

E · dA =
Q

0
(3.14)
where Q is the charge enclosed by our surface.
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Electrostatics 27
3.1.4 Equivalence of Coulomb’s Law and Gauss’ Law
The total ﬂux through a sphere is

E · dA = E(4πr
2
) =
q

0
(3.15)
From the above, we see that the electric ﬁeld is
E =
q

0
r
2
(3.16)
3.1.5 Electric Field due to a line of charge
Consider an inﬁnite rod of constant charge density, λ. The ﬂux through a Gaussian
cylinder enclosing the line of charge is
Φ =

top surface
E · dA+

bottom surface
E · dA+

side surface
E · dA (3.17)
At the top and bottom surfaces, the electric ﬁeld is perpendicular to the area vector, so
for the top and bottom surfaces,
E · dA = 0 (3.18)
At the side, the electric ﬁeld is parallel to the area vector, thus
E · dA = EdA (3.19)
Thus the ﬂux becomes,
Φ =

side sirface
E · dA = E

dA (3.20)
The area in this case is the surface area of the side of the cylinder, 2πrh.
Φ = 2πrhE (3.21)
Applying Gauss’ Law, we see that Φ = q/
0
. The electric ﬁeld becomes
E =
λ

0
r
(3.22)
3.1.6 Electric Field in a Solid Non-Conducting Sphere
Within our non-conducting sphere or radius, R, we will assume that the total charge,
Q is evenly distributed throughout the sphere’s volume. So the charge density of our
sphere is
ρ =
Q
V
=
Q
4
3
πR
3
(3.23)
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28 Electromagnetism
The Electric Field due to a charge Q is
E =
Q

0
r
2
(3.24)
As the charge is evenly distributed throughout the sphere’s volume we can say that
the charge density is
dq = ρdV (3.25)
where dV = 4πr
2
dr. We can use this to determine the ﬁeld inside the sphere by
summing the eﬀect of inﬁnitesimally thin spherical shells
E =

E
0
dE =

r
0
dq
4πr
2
=
ρ

0

r
0
dr
=
Qr
4
3
π
0
R
3
(3.26)
3.1.7 Electric Potential Energy
U(r) =
1

0
qq
0
r (3.27)
3.1.8 Electric Potential of a Point Charge
The electrical potential is the potential energy per unit charge that is associated with a
static electrical ﬁeld. It can be expressed thus
U(r) = qV(r) (3.28)
And we can see that
V(r) =
1

0
q
r
(3.29)
A more proper deﬁnition that includes the electric ﬁeld, E would be
V(r) = −

C
E · d (3.30)
where C is any path, starting at a chosen point of zero potential to our desired point.
The diﬀerence between two potentials can be expressed such
V(b) − V(a) = −

b
E · d +

a
E · d
= −

b
a
E · d (3.31)
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Electrostatics 29
This can be further expressed
V(b) − V(a) =

b
a
(∇V) · d (3.32)
And we can show that
E = −∇V (3.33)
3.1.9 Electric Potential due to a line charge along axis
Let us consider a rod of length, , with linear charge density, λ. The Electrical Potential
due to a continuous distribution is
V =

dV =
1

0

dq
r
(3.34)
The charge density is
dq = λdx (3.35)
Substitutingthis intothe above equation, we get the electrical potential at some distance
x along the rod’s axis, with the origin at the start of the rod.
dV =
1

0
dq
x
=
1

0
λdx
x
(3.36)
This becomes
V =
λ

0
ln
,
x
2
x
1
¸
(3.37)
where x
1
and x
2
are the distances from O, the end of the rod.
Now consider that we are some distance, y, from the axis of the rod of length, . We
again look at Equation 3.34, where r is the distance of the point P from the rod’s axis.
V =
1

0

dq
r
=
1

0

0
λdx

x
2
+ y
2
1
2
=
λ

0
ln
,
x +

x
2
+ y
2
1
2
¸

0
=
λ

0
ln
,
+

2
+ y
2
1
2
¸
− ln y
=
λ

0
ln
,
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
+

2
+ y
2

1
2
d
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
(3.38)
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30 Electromagnetism
3.2 Currents and DC Circuits
2
3.3 Magnetic Fields in Free Space
3
3.4 Lorentz Force
4
3.5 Induction
5
3.6 Maxwell’s Equations and their Applications
6
3.7 Electromagnetic Waves
7
3.8 AC Circuits
8
3.9 Magnetic and Electric Fields in Matter
9
3.10 Capacitance
Q = CV (3.39)
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Energy in a Capacitor 31
3.11 Energy in a Capacitor
U =
Q
2
2C
=
CV
2
2
=
QV
2
(3.40)
3.12 Energy in an Electric Field
u ≡
U
volume
=

0
E
2
2
(3.41)
3.13 Current
I ≡
dQ
dt
(3.42)
3.14 Current Destiny
I =

A
J · dA (3.43)
3.15 Current Density of Moving Charges
J =
I
A
= n
e
qv
d
(3.44)
3.16 Resistance and Ohm’s Law
R ≡
V
I
(3.45)
3.17 Resistivity and Conductivity
R = ρ
L
A
(3.46)
E = ρJ (3.47)
J = σE (3.48)
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32 Electromagnetism
3.18 Power
P = VI (3.49)
3.19 Kirchoﬀ’s Loop Rules
Write Here
3.20 Kirchoﬀ’s Junction Rule
Write Here
3.21 RC Circuits
E − IR −
Q
C
= 0 (3.50)
3.22 Maxwell’s Equations
3.22.1 Integral Form
Gauss’ Law for Electric Fields

closed surface
E · dA =
Q

0
(3.51)
Gauss’ Law for Magnetic Fields

closed surface
B · dA = 0 (3.52)
Amp` ere’s Law

B · ds = µ
0
I + µ
0

0
d
dt

surface
E · dA (3.53)

E · ds = −
d
dt

surface
B · dA (3.54)
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Speed of Propagation of a Light Wave 33
3.22.2 Diﬀerential Form
Gauss’ Law for Electric Fields
∇ · E =
ρ

0
(3.55)
Gauss’ Law for Magnetism
∇ · B = 0 (3.56)
Amp` ere’s Law
∇ × B = µ
0
J + µ
0

0
∂E
∂t
(3.57)
∇ · E = −
∂B
∂t
(3.58)
3.23 Speed of Propagation of a Light Wave
c =
1

µ
0

0
(3.59)
In a material with dielectric constant, κ,
c

κ =
c
n
(3.60)
where n is the refractive index.
3.24 Relationship between E and B Fields
E = cB (3.61)
E · B = 0 (3.62)
3.25 Energy Density of an EM wave
u =
1
2
¸
B
2
µ
0
+
0
E
2

(3.63)
3.26 Poynting’s Vector
S =
1
µ
0
E × B (3.64)
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34 Electromagnetism
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Chapter 4
Optics & Wave Phonomena
4.1 Wave Properties
1
4.2 Superposition
2
4.3 Interference
3
4.4 Diﬀraction
4
4.5 Geometrical Optics
5
4.6 Polarization
6
4.7 Doppler Eﬀect
7
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36 Optics & Wave Phonomena
4.8 Snell’s Law
4.8.1 Snell’s Law
n
1
sinθ
1
= n
2
sinθ
2
(4.1)
4.8.2 Critical Angle and Snell’s Law
The critical angle, θ
c
, for the boundary seperating two optical media is the smallest
angle of incidence, in the medium of greater index, for which light is totally refelected.
From Equation 4.1, θ
1
= 90 and θ
2
= θ
c
and n
2
> n
1
.
n
1
sin90 = n
2
sinθ
c
sinθ
c
=
n
1
n
2
(4.2)
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Chapter 5
Thermodynamics & Statistical
Mechanics
5.1 Laws of Thermodynamics
1
5.2 Thermodynamic Processes
2
5.3 Equations of State
3
5.4 Ideal Gases
4
5.5 Kinetic Theory
5
5.6 Ensembles
6
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38 Thermodynamics & Statistical Mechanics
5.7 Statistical Concepts and Calculation of Thermody-
namic Properties
7
5.8 Thermal Expansion & Heat Transfer
8
5.9 Heat Capacity
Q = C

T
f
− T
i

(5.1)
where C is the Heat Capacity and T
f
and T
i
are the ﬁnal and initial temperatures
respectively.
5.10 Speciﬁc Heat Capacity
Q = cm

T
f
− t
i

(5.2)
where c is the speciﬁc heat capacity and m is the mass.
5.11 Heat and Work
W =

V
f
V
i
PdV (5.3)
5.12 First Law of Thermodynamics
dE
int
= dQ− dW (5.4)
where dE
int
is the internal energy of the system, dQ is the Energy added to the system
and dW is the work done by the system.
5.12.1 Special Cases to the First Law of Thermodynamics
Adiabatic Process During an adiabatic process, the systemis insulated such that there
is no heat transfer between the system and its environment. Thus dQ = 0, so
∆E
int
= −W (5.5)
If work is done on the system, negative W, then there is an increase in its internal
energy. Conversely, if work is done by the system, positive W, there is a decrease
in the internal energy of the system.
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Work done by Ideal Gas at Constant Temperature 39
Constant Volume (Isochoric) Process If the volume is held constant, then the system
can do no work, δW = 0, thus
∆E
int
= Q (5.6)
If heat is added to the system, the temperature increases. Conversely, if heat is
removed from the system the temperature decreases.
Closed Cycle In this situation, after certain interchanges of heat and work, the system
comes back to its initial state. So ∆E
int
remains the same, thus
∆Q = ∆W (5.7)
The work done by the system is equal to the heat or energy put into it.
Free Expansion In this process, no work is done on or by the system. Thus ∆Q =
∆W = 0,
∆E
int
= 0 (5.8)
5.13 Work done by Ideal Gas at Constant Temperature
Starting with Equation 5.3, we substitute the Ideal gas Law, Equation 5.11, to get
W = nRT

V
f
V
i
dV
V
= nRT ln
V
f
V
i
(5.9)
5.14 Heat Conduction Equation
The rate of heat transferred, H, is given by
H =
Q
t
= kA
T
H
− T
C
L
(5.10)
where k is the thermal conductivity.
5.15 Ideal Gas Law
PV = nRT (5.11)
where
n = Number of moles
P = Pressure
V = Volume
T = Temperature
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40 Thermodynamics & Statistical Mechanics
and R is the Universal Gas Constant, such that
R ≈ 8.314 J/mol. K
We can rewrite the Ideal gas Law to say
PV = NkT (5.12)
where k is the Boltzmann’s Constant, such that
k =
R
N
A
≈ 1.381 × 10
−23
J/K
5.16 Stefan-Boltzmann’s Formula
P(T) = σT
4
(5.13)
5.17 RMS Speed of an Ideal Gas
v
rms
=

3RT
M
(5.14)
5.18 Translational Kinetic Energy
¯
K =
3
2
kT (5.15)
5.19 Internal Energy of a Monatomic gas
E
int
=
3
2
nRT (5.16)
5.20 Molar Speciﬁc Heat at Constant Volume
Let us deﬁne, C
V
such that
Q = nC
V
∆T (5.17)
Substituting into the First Law of Thermodynamics, we have
∆E
int
+ W = nC
V
∆T (5.18)
At constant volume, W = 0, and we get
C
V
=
1
n
∆E
int
∆T
(5.19)
Substituting (Equation 5.16), we get
C
V
=
3
2
R = 12.5 J/mol.K (5.20)
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Molar Speciﬁc Heat at Constant Pressure 41
5.21 Molar Speciﬁc Heat at Constant Pressure
Starting with
Q = nC
p
∆T (5.21)
and
∆E
int
= Q− W
⇒ nC
V
∆T = nC
p
∆T + nR∆T
∴ C
V
= C
p
− R (5.22)
5.22 Equipartition of Energy
C
V
=
¸
f
2

R = 4.16f J/mol.K (5.23)
where f is the number of degrees of freedom.
Table 5.1: Table of Molar Speciﬁc Heats
Degrees of Freedom Predicted Molar Speciﬁc Heats
Molecule Translational Rotational Total ( f ) C
V
C
P
= C
V
+ R
Monatomic 3 0 3
3
2
R
5
2
R
Diatomic 3 2 5
5
2
R
7
2
R
Polyatomic 3 3 6 3R 4R
5.23 Adiabatic Expansion of an Ideal Gas
PV
γ
= a constant (5.24)
where γ =
C
P
C
V
.
We can also write
TV
γ−1
= a constant (5.25)
5.24 Second Law of Thermodynamics
Something.
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42 Thermodynamics & Statistical Mechanics
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Chapter 6
Quantum Mechanics
6.1 Fundamental Concepts
1
6.2 Schr¨ odinger Equation
Let us deﬁne Ψto be
Ψ = Ae
−iω(t−
x
v
)
(6.1)
Simplifying in terms of Energy, E, and momentum, p, we get
Ψ = Ae

i(Et−px)

(6.2)
We obtain Schr¨ odinger’s Equation from the Hamiltonian
H = T + V (6.3)
To determine E and p,

2
Ψ
∂x
2
= −
p
2

2
Ψ (6.4)
∂Ψ
∂t
=
iE

Ψ (6.5)
and
H =
p
2
2m
+ V (6.6)
This becomes
EΨ = HΨ (6.7)
EΨ = −

i
∂Ψ
∂t
p
2
Ψ = −
2

2
Ψ
∂x
2
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44 Quantum Mechanics
The Time Dependent Schr¨ odinger’s Equation is
i
∂Ψ
∂t
= −

2
2m

2
Ψ
∂x
2
+ V(x)Ψ (6.8)
The Time Independent Schr¨ odinger’s Equation is
EΨ = −

2
2m

2
Ψ
∂x
2
+ V(x)Ψ (6.9)
6.2.1 Inﬁnite Square Wells
Let us consider a particle trapped in an inﬁnite potential well of size a, such that
V(x) =

0 for 0 < x < a
∞ for |x| > a,
so that a nonvanishing force acts only at ±a/2. An energy, E, is assigned to the system
such that the kinetic energy of the particle is E. Classically, any motion is forbidden
outside of the well because the inﬁnite value of V exceeds any possible choice of E.
Recalling the Schr¨ odinger Time Independent Equation, Equation 6.9, we substitute
V(x) and in the region (−a/2, a/2), we get

2
2m
d
2
ψ
dx
2
= Eψ (6.10)
This diﬀerential is of the form
d
2
ψ
dx
2
+ k
2
ψ = 0 (6.11)
where
k =

2mE

2
(6.12)
We recognize that possible solutions will be of the form
cos kx and sinkx
As the particle is conﬁned in the region 0 < x < a, we say
ψ(x) =

Acos kx + Bsinkx for 0 < x < a
0 for |x| > a
We have known boundary conditions for our square well.
ψ(0) = ψ(a) = 0 (6.13)
It shows that
⇒ Acos 0 + Bsin0 = 0
∴ A = 0 (6.14)
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Schr¨ odinger Equation 45
We are now left with
Bsinka = 0
ka = 0; π; 2π; 3π; · · ·
(6.15)
While mathematically, ncanbe zero, that wouldmeanthere wouldbe nowave function,
so we ignore this result and say
k
n
=

a
for n = 1, 2, 3, · · ·
Substituting this result into Equation 6.12 gives
k
n
=

a
=

2mE
n

(6.16)
Solving for E
n
gives
E
n
=
n
2
π
2

2
2ma
2
(6.17)
We cna now solve for B by normalizing the function

a
0
|B|
2
sin
2
kxdx = |A|
2
a
2
= 1
So |A|
2
=
2
a
(6.18)
So we can write the wave function as
ψ
n
(x) =

2
a
sin

nπx
a
¸
(6.19)
6.2.2 Harmonic Oscillators
Classically, the harmonic oscillator has a potential energy of
V(x) =
1
2
kx
2
(6.20)
So the force experienced by this particle is
F = −
dV
dx
= −kx (6.21)
where k is the spring constant. The equation of motion can be summed us as
m
d
2
x
dt
2
= −kx (6.22)
And the solution of this equation is
x(t) = Acos

ω
0
t + φ

(6.23)
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46 Quantum Mechanics
where the angular frequency, ω
0
is
ω
0
=

k
m
(6.24)
The QuantumMechanical description on the harmonic oscillator is based on the eigen-
function solutions of the time-independent Schr¨ odinger’s equation. By taking V(x)
from Equation 6.20 we substitute into Equation 6.9 to get
d
2
ψ
dx
2
=
2m

2
¸
k
2
x
2
− E

ψ =
mk

2

x
2

2E
k
¸
ψ
With some manipulation, we get

mk
d
2
ψ
dx
2
=

¸
¸
¸
¸
¸

mk

x
2

2E

m
k

¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
ψ
This step allows us to to keep some of constants out of the way, thus giving us
ξ
2
=

mk

x
2
(6.25)
and λ =
2E

m
k
=
2E
ω
0
(6.26)
This leads to the more compact
d
2
ψ

2
=

ξ
2
− λ

ψ (6.27)
where the eigenfunction ψ will be a function of ξ. λ assumes an eigenvalue anaglaous
to E.
From Equation 6.25, we see that the maximum value can be determined to be
ξ
2
max
=

mk

A
2
(6.28)
Using the classical connection between A and E, allows us to say
ξ
2
max
=

mk

2E
k
= λ (6.29)
From Equation 6.27, we see that in a quantum mechanical oscillator, there are non-
vanishing solutions in the forbidden regions, unlike in our classical case.
A solution to Equation 6.27 is
ψ(ξ) = e
−ξ
2
/2
(6.30)
where

= −ξe
−ξ
2
/2
and
d
ψ

2
= ξ
2
e
−xi
2
/2
− e
−ξ
2
/2
=

ξ
2
− 1

e
−ξ
2
/2
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Schr¨ odinger Equation 47
This gives is a special solution for λ where
λ
0
= 1 (6.31)
Thus Equation 6.26 gives the energy eigenvalue to be
E
0
=
ω
0
2
λ
0
=
ω
0
2
(6.32)
The eigenfunction e
−ξ
2
/2
corresponds to a normalized stationary-state wave function
Ψ
0
(x, t) =
¸
mk
π
2

2
1
8
e

mkx
2
/2
e
−iE
0
t/
(6.33)
This solution of Equation 6.27 produces the smallest possibel result of λ and E. Hence,
Ψ
0
and E
0
represents the ground state of the oscillator. and the quantity ω
0
/2 is the
zero-point energy of the system.
6.2.3 Finite Square Well
For the Finite Square Well, we have a potential region where
V(x) =

−V
0
for −a ≤ x ≤ a
0 for |x| > a
We have three regions
Region I: x < −a In this region, The potential, V = 0, so Schr¨ odinger’s Equation be-
comes

2
2m
d
2
ψ
dx
2
= Eψ

d
2
ψ
dx
2
= κ
2
ψ
where κ =

−2mE

This gives us solutions that are
ψ(x) = Aexp(−κx) + Bexp(κx)
As x → ∞, the exp(−κx) term goes to ∞; it blows up and is not a physically
realizable function. So we can drop it to get
ψ(x) = Be
κx
for x < −a (6.34)
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48 Quantum Mechanics
Region II: −a < x < a In this region, our potential is V(x) = V
0
. Substitutin this into
the Schr¨ odinger’s Equation,Equation 6.9, gives

2
2m
d
2
ψ
dx
2
− V
0
ψ = Eψ
or
d
2
ψ
dx
2
= −l
2
ψ
where l ≡

2m(E + V
0
)

(6.35)
We notice that E > −V
0
, making l real and positive. Thus our general solution
becomes
ψ(x) = Csin(lx) + Dcos(lx) for −a < x < a (6.36)
Region III: x > a Again this Region is similar to Region III, where the potential, V = 0.
This leaves us with the general solution
ψ(x) = Fexp(−κx) + Gexp(κx)
As x → ∞, the second term goes to inﬁnity and we get
ψ(x) = Fe
−κx
for x > a (6.37)
This gives us
ψ(x) =

¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
Be
κx
for x < a
Dcos(lx) for 0 < x < a
Fe
−κx
for x > a
(6.38)
6.2.4 Hydrogenic Atoms
c
6.3 Spin
3
6.4 Angular Momentum
4
6.5 Wave Funtion Symmetry
5
6.6 Elementary Perturbation Theory
6
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Chapter 7
Atomic Physics
7.1 Properties of Electrons
1
7.2 Bohr Model
To understand the Bohr Model of the Hydrogen atom, we will take advantage of our
knowlegde of the wavelike properties of matter. As we are building on a classical
model of the atom with a modern concept of matter, our derivation is considered to be
‘semi-classical’. In this model we have an electron of mass, m
e
, and charge, −e, orbiting
a proton. The cetripetal force is equal to the Coulomb Force. Thus
1

0
e
2
r
2
=
m
e
v
2
r
(7.1)
The Total Energy is the sum of the potential and kinetic energies, so
E = K + U =
p
2
2m
e
− | f race
2

0
r (7.2)
We can further reduce this equation by subsituting the value of momentum, which we
ﬁnd to be
p
2
2m
e
=
1
2
m
e
v
2
=
e
2

0
r
(7.3)
Substituting this into Equation 7.2, we get
E =
e
2

0
r

e
2

0
r
= −
e
2

0
r
(7.4)
At this point our classical description must end. An accelerated charged particle, like
one moving in circular motion, radiates energy. So our atome here will radiate energy
and our electron will spiral into the nucleus and disappear. To solve this conundrum,
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50 Atomic Physics
1. The classical circular orbits are replaced by stationary states. These stationary
states take discreet values.
2. The energy of these stationary states are determined by their angular momentum
which must take on quantized values of .
L = n (7.5)
We can ﬁnd the angular momentum of a circular orbit.
L = m
3
vr (7.6)
From Equation 7.1 we ﬁnd v and by substitution, we ﬁnd L.
L = e

m
3
r

0
(7.7)
Solving for r, gives
r =
L
2
m
e
e
2
/4π
0
(7.8)
We apply the condition from Equation 7.5
r
n
=
n
2

2
m
e
e
2
/4π
0
= n
2
a
0
(7.9)
where a
0
a
0
= 0.53 × 10
−10
m (7.10)
Having discreet values for the allowed radii means that we will also have discreet
values for energy. Replacing our value of r
n
into Equation 7.4, we get
E
n
= −
m
e
2n
2
¸
e
2

0

= −
13.6
n
2
eV (7.11)
7.3 Energy Quantization
3
7.4 Atomic Structure
4
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Atomic Spectra 51
7.5 Atomic Spectra
7.5.1 Rydberg’s Equation
1
λ
= R
H

1
n
2

1
n
2
¸
(7.12)
where R
H
is the Rydberg constant.
For the Balmer Series, n

= 2, which determines the optical wavelengths. For
n

= 3, we get the infrared or Paschen series. The fundamental n

= 1 series falls in the
ultraviolet region and is known as the Lyman series.
7.6 Selection Rules
6
7.7.1 Plank Formula
u( f, T) =

c
3
f
3
e
h f /kT
− 1
(7.13)
7.7.2 Stefan-Boltzmann Formula
P(T) = σT
4
(7.14)
7.7.3 Wein’s Displacement Law
λ
max
T = 2.9 × 10
−3
m.K (7.15)
7.7.4 Classical and Quantum Aspects of the Plank Equation
Rayleigh’s Equation
u( f, T) =
8πf
2
c
3
kT (7.16)
We can get this equation from Plank’s Equation, Equation 7.13. This equation is a
classical one and does not contain Plank’s constant in it. For this case we will look at
the situation where hf < kT. In this case, we make the approximation
e
x
1 + x (7.17)
Thus the demonimator in Equation 7.13 becomes
e
h f /kT
− 1 1 +
hf
kT
− 1 =
hf
kT
(7.18)
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52 Atomic Physics
Thus Equation 7.13 takes the approximate form
u( f, T)
8πh
c
3
f
3
kT
hf
=
8πf
2
c
3
kT (7.19)
As we can see this equation is devoid of Plank’s constant and thus independent of
quantum eﬀects.
Quantum
At large frequencies, where hf > kT, quantum eﬀects become apparent. We can
estimate that
e
hf /kT
− 1 e
h f /kT
(7.20)
Thus Equation 7.13 becomes
u( f, T)
8πh
c
3
f
3
e
−h f /kT
(7.21)
7.8 X-Rays
7.8.1 Bragg Condition
2d sinθ = mλ (7.22)
for constructive interference oﬀ parallel planes of a crystal with lattics spacing, d.
7.8.2 The Compton Eﬀect
The Compton Eﬀect deals with the scattering of monochromatic X-Rays by atomic
targets and the observation that the wavelength of the scattered X-ray is greater than
the incident radiation. The photon energy is given by
E = hυ =
hc
λ
(7.23)
The photon has an associated momentum
E = pc (7.24)
⇒ p =
E
c
=

c
=
h
λ
(7.25)
The Relativistic Energy for the electron is
E
2
= p
2
c
2
+ m
2
e
c
4
(7.26)
where
p − p

= P (7.27)
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Atoms in Electric and Magnetic Fields 53
Squaring (Equation 7.27) gives
p
2
− 2p · p

+ p
2
= P
2
(7.28)
Recall that E = pc and E

= cp

, we have
c
2
p
2
− 2c
2
p · p

+ c
2
p
2
= c
2
P
2
E
2
− 2E E

cos θ + E
2
= E
2
− m
2
e
c
4
(7.29)
E + m
e
c
2
= E

+ E (7.30)
Solving
E − E

= E − m
e
c
2
E
2
− 2E E

+ E

= E
2
− 2Em
e
c
2
+ m
2
e
c
4
(7.31)
2E E

− 2E E

cos θ = 2Em
e
c
2
− 2m
2
e
c
4
(7.32)
∆λ = λ

− λ =
h
m
e
c
(1 − cos θ) (7.33)
where λ
c
=
h
m
e
c
is the Compton Wavelength.
λ
c
=
h
m
e
c
= 2.427 × 10
−12
m (7.34)
7.9 Atoms in Electric and Magnetic Fields
7.9.1 The Cyclotron Frequency
A test charge, q, with velocity v enters a uniform magnetic ﬁeld, B. The force acting on
the charge will be perpendicular to v such that
F
B
= qv × B (7.35)
or more simply F
B
= qvB. As this traces a circular path, from Newton’s Second Law,
we see that
F
B
=
mv
2
R
= qvB (7.36)
Solving for R, we get
R =
mv
qB
(7.37)
We also see that
f =
qB
2πm
(7.38)
The frequency is depends on the charge, q, the magnetic ﬁeld strength, B and the mass
of the charged particle, m.
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54 Atomic Physics
7.9.2 Zeeman Eﬀect
The Zeeman eﬀect was the splitting of spectral lines in a static magnetic ﬁeld. This is
similar to the Stark Eﬀect which was the splitting in the presence in a magnetic ﬁeld.
In the Zeeman experiment, a sodium ﬂame was placed in a magnetic ﬁeld and its
spectrum observed. In the presence of the ﬁeld, a spectral line of frequency, υ
0
was
split into three components, υ
0
− δυ, υ
0
and υ
0
+ δυ. A classical analysis of this eﬀect
allows for the identiﬁcation of the basic parameters of the interacting system.
The application of a constant magnetic ﬁeld, B, allows for a direction in space in
which the electron motion can be referred. The motion of an electron can be attributed
to a simple harmonic motion under a binding force −kr, where the frequency is
υ
0
=
1

k
m
e
(7.39)
The magnetic ﬁeld subjects the electron to an additional Lorentz Force, −ev × B. This
produces two diﬀerent values for the angular velocity.
v = 2πrυ
The cetripetal force becomes
m
e
v
2
r
= 4π
2
υ
2
rm
e
Thus the certipetal force is

2
υ
2
rm
e
= 2πυreB + kr for clockwise motion

2
υ
2
rm
e
= −2πυreB + kr for counterclockwise motion
We use Equation 7.39, to emiminate k, to get
υ
2

eB
2πm
e
υ − υ
0
= 0 (Clockwise)
υ
2
+
eB
2πm
e
υ − υ
0
= 0 (Counterclockwise)
As we have assumed a small Lorentz force, we can say that the linear terms in υ are
small comapred to υ
0
υ = υ
0
+
eB
4πm
e
for clockwise motion (7.40)
υ = υ
0

eB
4πm
e
for counterclockwise motion (7.41)
We note that the frequency shift is of the form
δυ =
eB
4πm
e
(7.42)
If we view the source along the direction of B, we will observe the light to have two
polarizations, a closckwise circular polarization of υ
0
+ δυ and a counterclosckwise
circular polarization of υ
0
− δυ.
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Atoms in Electric and Magnetic Fields 55
7.9.3 Franck-Hertz Experiment
The Franck-Hertz experiment, performed in 1914 by J. Franck and G. L. Hertz, mea-
sured the colisional excitation of atoms. Their experiement studied the current of
electrons in a tub of mercury vapour which revealed an abrupt change in the current
at certain critical values of the applied voltage.
1
They interpreted this observation as
evidence of a threshold for inelastic scattering in the colissions of electrons in mer-
cury atoms.The bahavior of the current was an indication that electrons could lose
a discreet amount of energy and excite mercury atoms in their passage through the
mercury vapour. These observations constituted a direct and decisive conﬁrmation of
the existence os quantized energy levels in atoms.
1
Put drawing of Franck-Hertz Setup
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56 Atomic Physics
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Chapter 8
Special Relativity
8.1 Introductory Concepts
8.1.1 Postulates of Special Relativity
1. The laws of Physics are the same in all inertial frames.
2. The speed of light is the same in all inertial frames.
We can deﬁne
γ =
1

1 −
u
2
c
2
(8.1)
8.2 Time Dilation
∆t = γ∆t

(8.2)
where ∆t

is the time measured at rest relative to the observer, ∆t is the time measured
in motion relative to the observer.
8.3 Length Contraction
L =
L

γ
(8.3)
where L

is the length of an object observed at rest relative to the observer and L is the
length of the object moving at a speed u relative to the observer.
8.4 Simultaneity
4
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58 Special Relativity
8.5 Energy and Momentum
8.5.1 Relativistic Momentum & Energy
In relativistic mechanics, to be conserved, momentum and energy are deﬁned as
Relativistic Momentum
¯ p = γm¯ v (8.4)
Relativistic Energy
E = γmc
2
(8.5)
8.5.2 Lorentz Transformations (Momentum & Energy)
p

x
= γ

p
x
− β
E
c
¸
(8.6)
p

y
= p
y
(8.7)
p

z
= p
z
(8.8)
E

c
= γ

E
c
− βp
x
¸
(8.9)
8.5.3 Relativistic Kinetic Energy
K = E − mc
2
(8.10)
= mc
2

¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1

1 −
v
2
c
2
− 1

¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
(8.11)
= mc
2

γ − 1

(8.12)
8.5.4 Relativistic Dynamics (Collisions)
∆P

x
= γ

∆P
x
− β
∆E
c
¸
(8.13)
∆P

y
= ∆P
y
(8.14)
∆P

z
= ∆P
z
(8.15)
∆E

c
= γ

∆E
c
− β∆P
x
¸
(8.16)
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Four-Vectors and Lorentz Transformation 59
8.6 Four-Vectors and Lorentz Transformation
We can represent an event in S with the column matrix, s,
s =
,
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
x
y
z
ict
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
(8.17)
A diﬀerent Lorents frame, S

, corresponds to another set of space time axes so that
s

=
,
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
x

y

z

ict

¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
(8.18)
The Lorentz Transformation is related by the matrix
,
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
x

y

z

ict

¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
=
,
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
γ 0 0 iγβ
0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0
−iγβ 0 0 γ
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
,
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
x
y
z
ict
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
(8.19)
We can express the equation in the form
s

= Ls (8.20)
The matrix L contains all the information needed to relate position four–vectors for
any given event as observed in the two Lorentz frames S and S

. If we evaluate
s
T
s =
,
x y z ict
¸
,
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
x
y
z
ict
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
− c
2
t
2
(8.21)
Similarly we can show that
s
T
s

= x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
− c
2
t
2
(8.22)
We can take any collection of four physical quantities to be four vector provided that
they transform to another Lorentz frame. Thus we have
b =
,
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
b
x
b
y
b
z
ib
t
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
(8.23)
this can be transformed into a set of quantities of b

in another frame S

such that it
satisﬁes the transformation
b

= Lb (8.24)
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60 Special Relativity
Looking at the momentum-Energy four vector, we have
p =
,
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
p
x
p
y
p
z
iE/c
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
(8.25)
Applying the same transformation rule, we have
p

= Lp (8.26)
We can also get a Lorentz-invariation relation between momentum and energy such
that
p
T
p

= p
T
p (8.27)
The resulting equality gives
p
2
x
+ p
2
y
+ p
2
z

E
2
c
2
= p
2
x
+ p
2
y
+ p
2
z

E
2
c
2
(8.28)
v

=
v − u
1 −
uv
c
2
(8.29)
8.8 Relativistic Doppler Formula
¯ υ = υ
0

c + u
c − u
let r =

c − u
c + u
(8.30)
We have
¯ υ
receding
= rυ
0
red-shift (Source Receding) (8.31)
¯ υ
approaching
=
υ
0
r
blue-shift (Source Approaching) (8.32)
8.9 Lorentz Transformations
Given two reference frames S(x, y, z, t) and S

(x

, y

, z

, t

), where the S

-frame is moving
in the x-direction, we have,
x

= γ(x − ut) x = (x

− ut

) (8.33)
y

= y y = y

(8.34)
z

= y y

= y (8.35)
t

= γ

t −
u
c
2
x
¸
t = γ

t

+
u
c
2
x

¸
(8.36)
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8.10 Space-Time Interval
(∆S)
2
= (∆x)
2
+

∆y

2
+ (∆z)
2
− c
2
(∆t)
2
(8.37)
Space-Time Intervals may be categorized into three types depending on their separa-
tion. They are
Time-like Interval
c
2
∆t
2
> ∆r
2
(8.38)
∆S
2
> 0 (8.39)
When two events are separated by a time-like interval, there is a cause-eﬀect
relationship between the two events.
Light-like Interval
c
2
∆t
2
= ∆r
2
(8.40)
S
2
= 0 (8.41)
Space-like Intervals
c
2
∆t
2
< ∆r
2
(8.42)
∆S < 0 (8.43)
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Chapter 9
Laboratory Methods
9.1 Data and Error Analysis
x = a + b − c (9.1)
The Error in x is
(δx)
2
= (δa)
2
+ (δb)
2
+ (δc)
2
(9.2)
9.1.2 Multiplication and Division
x =
a × b
c
(9.3)
The error in x is

δx
x
¸
2
=

δa
a
¸
2
+
¸
δb
b

2
+

δc
c
¸
2
(9.4)
9.1.3 Exponent - (No Error in b)
x = a
b
(9.5)
The Error in x is
δx
x
= b

δa
a
¸
(9.6)
9.1.4 Logarithms
Base e
x = lna (9.7)
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64 Laboratory Methods
We ﬁnd the error in x by taking the derivative on both sides, so
δx =
d lna
da
· δa
=
1
a
· δa
=
δa
a
(9.8)
Base 10
x = log
10
a (9.9)
The Error in x can be derived as such
δx =
d(loga)
da
δa
=
lna
ln10
da
δa
=
1
ln10
δa
a
= 0.434
δa
a
(9.10)
9.1.5 Antilogs
Base e
x = e
a
(9.11)
We take the natural log on both sides.
lnx = a lne = a (9.12)
Applaying the same general method, we see
d lnx
dx
δx = δa

δx
x
= δa (9.13)
Base 10
x = 10
a
(9.14)
We follow the same general procedure as above to get
logx = a log 10
logx
dx
δx = δa
1
ln10
d lna
dx
δx = δa
δx
x
= ln10δa (9.15)
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9.2 Instrumentation
2
3
9.4 Counting Statistics
Let’s assume that for a particular experiment, we are making countung measurements
for a radioactive source. In this experiment, we recored N counts in time T. The
counting rate for this trial is R = N/T. This rate should be close to the average rate,
¯
R.
The standard deviation or the uncertainty of our count is a simply called the

N rule.
So
σ =

N (9.16)
Thus we can report our results as
Number of counts = N ±

N (9.17)
We can ﬁnd the count rate by dividing by T, so
R =
N
T
±

N
T
(9.18)
The fractional uncertainty of our count is
δN
N
. We can relate this in terms of the count
rate.
δR
R
=
δN
T
N
T
=
δN
N
=

N
N
=
1
N
(9.19)
We see that our uncertainty decreases as we take more counts, as to be expected.
9.5 Interaction of Charged Particles with Matter
5
9.6 Lasers and Optical Interferometers
6
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66 Laboratory Methods
9.7 Dimensional Analysis
Dimensional Analysis is used to understand physical situations involving a mis of
diﬀerent types of physical quantities. The dimensions of a physical quantity are
associated with combinations of mass, length, time, electric charge, and temperature,
represented by symbols M, L, T, Q, and θ, respectively, each raised to rational powers.
9.8 Fundamental Applications of Probability and Statis-
tics
8
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Chapter 10
GR8677 Exam Solutions
10.1 Motion of Rock under Drag Force
From the information provided we can come up with an equation of motion for the
rock.
m¨ x = −mg − kv (10.1)
If you have seen this type of equation, and solved it, you’d know that the rock’s speed
will asymtotically increase to some max speed. At that point the drag force and the
force due to gravity will be the same. We canbest answer this questionthroughanalysis
and elimination.
A Dividing Equation 10.1 by m gives
¨ x = −g −
k
m
˙ x (10.2)
We see that this only occurs when ˙ x = 0, which only happens at the top of the
ﬂight. So FALSE.
B From Equation 10.2, we see that this is TRUE.
C Again from Equation 10.2 we see that the acceleration is dependent on whether the
rock is moving up or down. If ˙ x > 0 then ¨ x < −g and if ˙ x < 0 then ¨ x > −g. So this
is also FALSE.
D If there was no drag (ﬁctional) force, then energy would be conserved and the rock
will return at the speed it started with but there is a drag force so energy is lost.
The speed the rock returns is v < v
0
. Hence FALSE.
E Again FALSE. Once the drag force and the gravitational force acting on the rock is
balanced the rock won’t accelerate.
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10.2 Satellite Orbits
The question states that the astronaut ﬁres the rocket’s jets towards Earth’s center. We
infer that no extra energy is given to the systemby this process. subsection 2.7.5, shows
that the only other orbit where the speciﬁc energy is also negative is an elliptical one.
10.3 Speed of Light in a Dielectric Medium
Solutions to the Electromagnetic wave equation gives us the speed of light in terms of
the electromagnetic permeability, µ
0
and permitivitty,
0
.
c =
1

µ
0

0
(10.3)
where c is the speed of light. The speed through a dielectric medium becomes
v =
1

µ
0
=
1

2.1µ
0

0
=
c

2.1
(10.4)
10.4 Wave Equation
We are given the equation
y = Asin

t
T

x
λ
¸
(10.5)
A The Amplitude, A in the equation is the displacement from equilibrium. So this
choice is incorrect.
B As the wave moves, we seek to keep the

t
T

x
λ

term constant. So as t increases, we
expect x to increase as well as there is a negative sign in front of it. This means
that the wave moves in the positive x-direction. This choice is also incorrect.
C The phase of the wave is given by

t
T

x
λ

, we can do some manipulation to show

t
T

x
λ
¸
= 2πf t − kx
= ωt − kx (10.6)
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Inelastic Collision and Putty Spheres 69
Or rather
kx = ωt (10.7)
Diﬀerentiating Equation 10.7 gives us the phase speed, which is
v =
λ
T
(10.8)
This is also incorrect
E From Equation 10.8 the above we see that is the answer.
10.5 Inelastic Collision and Putty Spheres
We are told the two masses coalesce so we know that the collision is inelastic and
hence, energy is not conserved. As mass A falls, it looses Potential Energy and gains
Kinetic Energy.
Mgh
0
=
1
2
Mv
2
0
(10.9)
Thus
v
2
0
= 2gh
0
(10.10)
Upon collision, momentum is conserved, thus
Mv
0
= (3M+ M) v
1
= 4Mv
1
⇒ v
1
=
v
0
4
(10.11)
The fused putty mass rises, kinetic energy is converted to potential energy and we ﬁnd
our ﬁnal height.
1
2
(4M) v
2
1
= 4Mgh
h =
v
2
1
2g
=
1
2g

v
0
4
¸
2
=
h
0
16
(10.12)
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10.6 Motion of a Particle along a Track
As the particle moves from the top of the track and runs down the frictionless track,
its Gravitational Potential Energy is converted to Kinetic Energy. Let’s assume that the
particle is at a height, y
0
when x = 0. Since energy is conserved, we get
1
mgy
0
= mg(y
0
− y) +
1
2
mv
2

1
2
v
2
= gy (10.13)
So we have a relationship between v and the particle’s position on the track.
The tangential acceleration in this case is
mg cos θ =
mv
2
r
(10.14)
where r is the radius of curvature and is equal to

x
2
+ y
2
.
Substituting this into Equation 10.14 gives
g cos θ =
v
2
r
=
gx
2
2

x
2
+ y
2
=
gx

x
2
+ 4
(10.15)
10.7 Resolving Force Components
This question is a simple matter of resolving the horizontal and vertical components
of the tension along the rope. We have
T sinθ = F (10.16)
T cos θ = mg (10.17)
Thus we get
tanθ =
F
mg
=
10
(2)(9.8)

1
2
(10.18)
1
Insert Free Body Diagram of particle along track.
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Nail being driven into a block of wood 71
10.8 Nail being driven into a block of wood
We recall that
v
2
= v
2
0
+ 2as (10.19)
where v, v
0
, a and s are the ﬁnal speed, initial speed, acceleration and displacement
that the nail travels. Now it’s just a matter os plugging in what we know
0 = 100 + 2a(0.025) (10.20)
⇒ a = −
100
2(0.025)
= −2000 m/s
2
(10.21)
The Force on the nail comes from Newton’s Second Law
F = ma
= 5 · 2000 = 10000 N (10.22)
10.9 Current Density
We can ﬁnd the drift vleocity from the current density equation
J = env
d
(10.23)
where e is the charge of an electron, n is the density of electrons per unit volume and
v
d
is the drift speed. Plugging in what we know
J =
I
A
I =nAv
d
e
v
d
=
I
nAe
=
100
(1 × 10
28
)
π×2×10
−4
4
1.6 × 10
−19
(10.24)
paying attention to the indices of the equation we get
2 − 28 + 4 + 19 = −4 (10.25)
So we expect an answer where v
d
≈ 10
−4
.
2
2
It also helps if you knew that the electron drift velocity was slow, in the order of mm/s.
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10.10 Charge inside an Isolated Sphere
You can answer this by thinking about Gauss’ Law. The bigger the Gaussian surface
the more charge it encloses and the bigger the electric ﬁeld. Beyond the radius of the
sphere, the ﬁeld decreases exponentially.
We can calculate these relationships by using Gauss’ Law.

S
E · dS =
Q
enclosed

0
(10.26)
where the current density, ρ is
ρ =
Q
4
3
πR
3
=
Q
enclosed
4
3
πr
3
(10.27)
where R is the radius of the sphere.
for r < R The enclosed charge becomes
Q
enclosed
= ρ

4
3
πr
3
¸
=
Qr
3
R
3
(10.28)
Gauss’ Law becomes
E

4πr
2

=
Qr
3

0
R
3
(10.29)
The Electric ﬁeld is
E
(r<R)
=
Qr

0
R
3
(10.30)
This is a linear relationship with respect to r.
for r ≥ R The enclosed charge is
Q
enclosed
= Q (10.31)
Gauss’ Law becomes
E

4πr
2

=
Q

0
(10.32)
The Electric ﬁeld is
E
(r≥R)
=
Q

0
r
2
(10.33)
The linear increase is exhibited by choice (C).
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Vector Identities and Maxwell’s Laws 73
10.11 Vector Identities and Maxwell’s Laws
We recall the vector identity
∇ · (∇ × A) = 0 (10.34)
Thus
∇ · (∇ × H) = ∇ ·

˙
D+ J

= 0 (10.35)
10.12 Doppler Equation (Non-Relativistic)
we recall the Doppler Equation
3
f = f
0

v − v
r
v − v
s
¸
(10.36)
where v
r
and v
s
are the observer and source speeds respectively. We are told that v
r
= 0
and v
s
= 0.9v. Thus
f = f
0

v
v − 0.9v
¸
= 10f
0
= 10 kHz (10.37)
10.13 Vibrating Interference Pattern
Answering this question takes some analysis. The sources are coherent, so they will
produce an interference pattern. We are also told that ∆f = 500 Hz. This will produce
a shifting interference pattern that changes too fast for the eye to see.
4
10.14 Speciﬁc Heat at Constant Pressure and Volume
From section 5.20 and section 5.21, we see that
C
p
= C
V
+ R (10.38)
The diﬀerence is due to the work done in the environment by the gas when it expands
under constant pressure.
3
4
Add Young’s Double Slit Experiment equations.
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74 GR8677 Exam Solutions
We can prove this by starting with the First Law of Thermodynamics.
dU = −dW+ dQ (10.39)
Where dU is the change in Internal Energy, dW is the work done by the system and dQ
is the change in heat of the system.
We also recall the deﬁnition for Heat Capacity
dQ = CdT (10.40)
At constant volume, there is no work done by the system, dV = 0. So it follows that
dW = 0. The change in internal energy is the change of heat into the system, thus we
can deﬁne, the heat capacity at constant volume to be
dU
V
= C
V
dT = dQ
V
(10.41)
At constant pressure, the change in internal energy is accompanied by a change in heat
ﬂow as well as a change in the volume of the gas, thus
dU
p
= −dW
p
+ dQ
p
= −pdV + C
p
dT where pdV = nRdT
= −nRdT + C
p
dT (10.42)
If the changes in internal energies are the same in both cases, then Equation 10.42 is
equal to Equation 10.41. Thus
C
V
dT = −nRdT + C
p
dT
This becomes
C
p
= C
V
+ nR (10.43)
We see the reason why C
p
> C
V
is due to the addition of work on the system; Equa-
tion 10.41 shows no work done by the gas while Equation 10.42 shows that there is
work done.
10.15 Helium atoms in a box
Let’s say the probability of the atoms being inside the box is 1. So the probability that
an atom will be found outside of a 1.0 × 10
−6
cm
3
box is
P = 1 − 1.0 × 10
−6
(10.44)
As there are N atoms and the probability of ﬁnding one is mutually exclusive of the
other, the probabolity becomes
P =

1 − 1.0 × 10
−6

N
(10.45)
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The Muon 75
10.16 The Muon
It helps knowing what these particles are
Muon The muon, is a lepton, like the electron. It has the ame charge, −e and spin, 1/2,
as the electron execpt it’s about 200 times heavier. It’s known as a heavy electron.
Graviton This is a hypothetical particle that mediates the force of gravity. It has no
charge, no mass and a spin of 2. Nothing like an electron.
Photon The photon is the quantum of the electromagnetic ﬁeld. It has no charge or
mass and a spin of 1. Again nothing like an electron.
Pion The Pion belongs to the meson family. Again, nothing like leptons.
Proton This ia a sub atomic particle and is found in the nucleus of all atoms. Nothing
like an electron.
From the changes in the Mass and Atomic numbers after the subsequent decays, we
expect an α and β decay.
Alpha Decay
A
Z
X →
A−4
Z−2
X

+
4
2
α (10.46)
Beta Decay
A
Z
X →
A
Z+1
X

+
−1
e

+ ¯ υ
e
(10.47)
Combining both gives
A
Z
X →
A−4
Z−2
X

+
4
2
α →
A
Z−1
Y +
−1
e

+ ¯ υ
e
(10.48)
10.18 Schr¨ odinger’s Equation
We recall that Schr¨ odinger’s Equation is
Eψ = −

2
2m

2
ψ
∂x
2
+ V(x)ψ (10.49)
Given that
ψ(x) = Aexp

b
2
x
2
2

(10.50)
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76 GR8677 Exam Solutions
We diﬀerentiate and get

2
ψ
∂x
2
=

b
4
x
2
− b
2

ψ (10.51)
Plugging into Schr¨ odinger’s Equation, Equation 10.49, gives us
Eψ = −

2
2m

b
4
x
2
− b
2

ψ + V(x)ψ (10.52)
Applying the boundary condition at x = 0 gives
Eψ = −

2
2m
b
2
ψ (10.53)
This gives

2
b
2
2m
ψ = −

2
2m

b
4
x
2
− b
2

ψ + v(x)ψ (10.54)
Solving for V(x) gives
V(x) =

2
b
4
x
2
2m
(10.55)
10.19 Energy Levels of Bohr’s Hydrogen Atom
We recall that the Energy Levels for the Hydrogen atom is
E
n
= −
Z
2
n
2
13.6 eV (10.56)
where Zis the atomic number andn is the quantumnumber. This can easily be reduced
to
E
n
= −
A
n
2
(10.57)
10.20 Relativistic Energy
The Rest Energy of a particle is given
E = mc
2
(10.58)
The Relativistic Energy is for a relativistic particle moving at speed v
E = γ
v
mc
2
(10.59)
We are told that a kaon moving at relativistic speeds has the same energy as the rest
mass as a proton. Thus
E
K
+ = E
p
(10.60)
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Space-Time Interval 77
where
E
K
+ = γ
v
m
K
+c
2
(10.61)
E
p
= m
p
c
2
(10.62)
Equating both together gives
γ
v
=
m
p
m
K
+
(10.63)
=
939
494
(10.64)

940
500
(10.65)
This becomes
γ
v
≈ 1.9 (10.66)
Solving gives
v
2
=
2.61
3.61
c
2
(10.67)
This gives v
2
in the order of 0.7. Squaring will give an answer that’s greater than 0.7,
10.21 Space-Time Interval
We recall the Space-Time Interval from section 8.10.
(∆S)
2
= (∆x)
2
+

∆y

2
+ (∆z)
2
− c
2
(∆t)
2
(10.68)
We get
∆S
2
= (5 − 3)
2
+ (3 − 3)
2
+ (3 − 1)
2
− c
2
(5 − 3)
2
= 2
2
+ 0
2
+ 2
2
− 2
2
= 2
2
∆S = 2 (10.69)
10.22 Lorentz Transformation of the EM ﬁeld
Lorentz transformations show that electric and magnetic ﬁelds are diﬀerent aspects of
the same force; the electromagnetic force. If there was one stationary charge in our
rest frame, we would observe an electric ﬁeld. If we were to move to a moving frame
of reference, Lorentz transformations predicts the presence of an additional magnetic
ﬁeld.
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10.23 Conductivity of a Metal and Semi-Conductor
More of a test of what you know.
A Copper is a conductor so we expect its conductivity to be much greater than that of
a semiconductor. TRUE.
B As the temperature of the conductor is increased its atoms vibrate more and disrupt
the ﬂow of electrons. As a result, resistance increases. TRUE.
C Diﬀerent process. As temperature increases, electrons gain more energy to jump the
energy barrier into the conducting region. So conductivity increases. TRUE.
D You may have paused to think for this one but this is TRUE. The addition of an
impurity causes an increase of electron scattering oﬀ the impurity atoms. As a
result, resistance increases.
5
E The eﬀect of adding an impurity on a semiconductor’s conductivity depends on
how many extra valence electrons it adds or subtracts; you can either widen or
narrow the energy bandgap. This is of crucial importance to electronics today.
So this is FALSE.
10.24 Charging a Battery
The Potential Diﬀerence across the resistor, R is
PD = 120 − 100 = 20 V (10.70)
The Total Resistance is
R + r =
V
I
=
20
10
R + 1 = 2
⇒ R = 1Ω (10.71)
10.25 Lorentz Force on a Charged Particle
We are told that the charged particle is released from rest in the electric and magnetic
ﬁelds. The charged particle will experience a force from the magnetic ﬁeld only when
5
There are one or two cases where this is not true. The addition of Silver increases the conductivity
of Copper. But the conductivity will still be less than pure silver.
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K-Series X-Rays 79
it moves perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld lines. The particle will
move along the direction of the electric ﬁeld.
We can also anylize this by looking at the Lorentz Force equation
F
q
= q [E + (v × B)] (10.72)
v is in the same direction as B so the cross product between them is zero. We are left
with
F
q
= qE (10.73)
The force is directed along the electrical ﬁeld line and hence it moves in a straight line.
10.26 K-Series X-Rays
To calculate we look at the energy levels for the Bohr atom. As the Bohr atomconsiders
the energy levels for the Hydrogen atom, we need to modify it somewhat
E
n
= Z
2
eﬀ

¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1
n
2
f

1
n
2
i

¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
13.6 eV (10.74)
where Z
eﬀ
is the eﬀective atomic number and n
f
and n
i
are the energy levels. For the
n
f
= 1 transition
Z
eﬀ
= Z − 1 (10.75)
where Z = 28 for nickle. As the electrons come in fromn
i
= ∞, Equation 10.74 becomes
E
1
= (28 − 1)
2
,
1
1
2

1

2
¸
13.6 eV (10.76)
This works out to
E
1
= (27
2
)13.6 eV
≈ (30)
2
× 13.6 eV (10.77)
This takes us in the keV range.
10.27 Electrons and Spin
It helps if you knew some facts here.
A The periodic table’s arrangement of elements tells us about the chemical properties
of an element and these properties are dependent on the valent electrons. How
these valent electrons are arranged is, of course, dependent on spin. So this
choice is TRUE.
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B The energy of an elecron is quantized and obey the Pauli’s Exclusion Principle. All
the electrons are accomodated fromthe lowest state up to the Fermi Level and the
distribution among levels is described by the Fermi distribution function, f (E),
which deﬁnes the probability that the energy level, E, is occupied by an electron.
f (E) =

1, E < E
F
0, E > E
F
where f (E) is the Fermi-Dirac Distribution
f (E) =
1
e
E−E
F
/kT
+ 1
(10.78)
As a system goes above 0K, thermal energy may excite to higher energy states
but this energy is not shared equally by all the electrons. The way energy is
distributed comes about from the exclusion principle, the energy an electron my
absorb at room temperture is kT which is much smaller than E
F
= 5eV. We can
deﬁne a Fermi Temperature,
E
F
= kT
F
(10.79)
which works out to be, T
F
= 60000K. Thus only electrons close to this temperature
can be excited as the levels above E
F
are empty. This results in a small number
of electrons being able to be thermally excited and the low electronic speciﬁc
heat.[1]
C =
π
2
2
Nk
¸
T
T
f

where kT << E
F
So this choice is also TRUE.
C The Zeeman Eﬀect describes what happens to Hydrogen spectral lines in a magnetic
ﬁeld; the spectral lines split. In some atoms, there were further splits in spctral
lines that couln’t be explained by magnetic dipole moments. The explanation for
this additional splitting was discovered to be due to electron spin.
6
D The deﬂection of an electron in a uniform magnetic ﬁeld deﬂects only in one way
and demonstrates none of the electron’s spin properties. Electrons can be de-
ﬂected depending on their spin if placed in a non-uniform magnetic ﬁeld, as was
demonstrated in the Stern-Gerlach Experiment.
7
E When the Hydrogen spectrum is observed at a very high resolution, closely spaced
doublets are observed. This was one of the ﬁrst experimental evidence for electron
spin.
8
6
Write up on Zeeman and anomalous Zeemen eﬀects
7
Write up on Stern-Gerlach Experiment
8
Write up on Fine Structure
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10.28 Normalizing a wavefunction
We are given
ψ(φ) = Ae
imφ
(10.80)
Normalizing a function means

−∞
|Ψ(x)|
2
dx = 1 (10.81)
In this case, we want

0

ψ(φ)

2
dφ = 1 (10.82)
and that

ψ(x)

2
= ψ

(x)ψ(x) (10.83)
So

ψ(φ)

2
= A
2
e
imφ
e
−imφ
A
2

0
dφ = 1
A
2
[2π − 0] = 1
⇒ A =
1

(10.84)
10.29 Right Hand Rule
First we use the ‘Grip’ rule to tell what direction the magnetic ﬁeld lines are going.
Assuming the wire and current are coming out of the page, the magnetic ﬁeld is in a
clockwise direction around the wire. Now we can turn to Fleming’s Right Hand Rule,
to solve the rest of the question.
As we want the force acting on our charge to be parallel to the current direction,
we see that this will happen when the charge moves towards the wire
9
.
10.30 Electron Conﬁguration of a Potassium atom
We can alalyze and eliminate
A The n = 3 shell has unﬁlled d-subshells. So this is NOT TRUE.
B The 4s subshell only has one electron. The s subshell can ‘hold’ two electrons so this
is also NOT TRUE.
C Unknown.
9
Don’t forget to bring your right hand to the exam
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D The sum of all the electrons, we add all the superscripts, gives 19. As this is a
ground state, a lone potassium atom, we can tell that the atomic number is 19.
So this is NOT TRUE.
E Potassium has one outer electron, like Hydrogen. So it will also have a spherically
symmetrical charge distribution.
10.31 Photoelectric Eﬀect I
We are given
|eV| = hυ − W (10.85)
We recall that V is the stopping potential, the voltage needed to bring the current to
zero. As electrons are negatively charged, we expect this voltage to be negative.
10.32 Photoelectric Eﬀect II
Some history needs to be known here. The photoelectric eﬀect was one of the exper-
iments that proved that light was absorbed in discreet packets of energy. This is the
experimental evidence that won Einstein the Nobel Prize in 1921.
10.33 Photoelectric Eﬀect III
The quantity W is known as the work function of the metal. This is the energy that is
needed to just liberate an electron from its surface.
10.34 Potential Energy of a Body
We recall that
F = −
dU
dx
(10.86)
Given that
U = kx
4
(10.87)
The force on the body becomes
F = −
d
dx
kx
4
= −4kx
3
(10.88)
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10.35 Hamiltonian of a Body
The Hamiltonian of a body is simply the sum of the potential and kinetic energies.
That is
H = T + V (10.89)
where T is the kinetic energy and V is the potential energy. Thus
H =
1
2
mv
2
+ kx
4
(10.90)
We can also express the kinetic energy in terms of momentum, p. So
H =
p
2
2m
+ kx
4
(10.91)
10.36 Principle of Least Action
Hamilton’s Principle of Least Action
10
states
Φ =

T

T

q(t), ˙ q(t)

− V

q(t)

dt (10.92)
where T is the kinetic energy and V is the potential energy. This becomes
Φ =

t
2
t
1

1
2
mv
2
− kx
4
¸
dt (10.93)
10.37 Tension in a Conical Pendulum
This is a simple case of resolving the horizontal and vertical components of forces. So
we have
T cos θ = mg (10.94)
T sinθ = mrω
2
(10.95)
Squaring the above two equations and adding gives
T
2
= m
2
g
2
+ m
2
r
2
ω
4
(10.96)
Leaving us with
T = m

g
2
+ r
2
ω
4

(10.97)
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Table 10.1: Truth Table for OR-gate
Input 1 Input 2 Output
0 0 0
0 1 1
1 0 1
1 1 1
10.38 Diode OR-gate
This is an OR gate and can be illustrated by the truth table below.
10.39 Gain of an Ampliﬁer vs. Angular Frequency
We are given that the ampliﬁer has some sort of relationship where
G = Kω
a
(10.98)
falls outside of the ampliﬁer bandwidth region. This is that ‘linear’ part of the graph
on the log-log graph. From the graph, we see that, G = 10
2
, for ω = 3 × 10
5
second
-1
.
Substituting, we get
10
2
= K

3 × 10
5

a
∴ log(10
2
) = a log
,
K

3.5 × 10
5
¸
⇒ a ≈ 2 − 5 (10.99)
We can roughly estimate by subtracting the indices. So our relationship is of the form
G = Kω
−2
(10.100)
10.40 Counting Statistics
We recall from section 9.4 , that he standard deviation of a counting rate is σ =

N,
where N is the number of counts. We have a count of N = 9934, so the standard
deviation is
σ =

N =

9934

10000
= 100 (10.101)
10
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10.41 Binding Energy per Nucleon
More of a knowledge based question. Iron is the most stable of all the others.
11
10.42 Scattering Cross Section
We are told the particle density of our scatterer is ρ = 10
20
nuclei per cubic centimeter.
Given the thickness of our scatterer is = 0.1 cm, the cross sectional area is
ρ =
N
V
=
N
A
⇒ A =
N
ρ
(10.102)
Now the probability of striking a proton is 1 in a million. So
10.43 Coupled Oscillators
There are two ways this system can oscillate, one mass on the end moves a lot and the
other two move out of in the opposite directions but not as much or the centermass
can be stationary and the two masses on the end move out of phase with each other. In
the latter case, as there isn’t any energy transfer between the masses, the period would
be that of a single mass-spring system. The frequency of this would simply be
f =
1

k
m
(10.103)
where k is the spring constant and m is the mass.
10.43.1 Calculating the modes of oscillation
In case yourequire a more rigorous approach, we can calculate the modes of oscillation.
The Lagrangian of the system is
L = T − V
=
1
2
m
,
˙ x
2
1
+ 2 ˙ x
2
2
+ ˙ x
2
3
¸

1
2
k
,
(x
2
− x
2
)
2
+ (x
3
− x
2
)
2
¸
(10.104)
The equation of motion can be found from
d
dt
¸
∂L
∂ ˙ x
n

=
∂L
∂x
n
(10.105)
11
Write up on Binding Energy
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The equations of motion are
m¨ x
1
= k (x
2
− x
1
) (10.106)
2m¨ x
2
= kx
1
− 2kx
2
+ kx
3
(10.107)
m¨ x
3
= −k (x
3
− x
2
) (10.108)
The solutions of the equations are
x
1
= Acos(ωt) x
2
= Bcos(ωt) x
3
= Ccos(ωt)
¨ x
1
= −ω
2
x
1
¨ x
2
= −ω
2
x
2
¨ x
3
= −ω
2
x
3
(10.109)
Solving this, we get

k − mω
2

x
1
− kx
2
= 0 (10.110)
−kx
1
+

2k − 2mω
2

x
2
− kx
3
= 0 (10.111)
−kx
2
+

k − mω
2

x
3
= 0 (10.112)
We can solve the modes of oscillation by solving

k − mω
2
−k 0
−k 2k − 2mω
2
−k
0 −k k − mω
2

= 0 (10.113)
Finding the determinant results in

k − mω
2

,
2

k − mω
2

2
− k
2
¸
− k
,
k

k − mω
2
¸
(10.114)
Solving, we get
ω =
k
m
;
k
m
±

2k
m
(10.115)
Substituting ω = k/m into the equations of motion, we get
x
1
= −x
3
(10.116)
x
2
= 0 (10.117)
We see that the two masses on the ends move out of phase with each other and the
middle one is stationary.
10.44 Collision with a Rod
Momentum will be conserved, so we can say
mv = MV
V =
mv
M
(10.118)
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Compton Wavelength 87
10.45 Compton Wavelength
We recall from subsection 7.8.2, the Compton Equation from Equation 7.33
∆λ = λ

− λ =
h
m
e
c
(1 − cos θ) (10.119)
Let θ = 90

, we get the Compton Wavelength
λ
c
=
h
m
e
c
= 2.427 × 10
−12
m (10.120)
10.46 Stefan-Boltzmann’s Equation
We recall the Stefan-Boltzmann’s Equation, Equation 5.13
P(T) = σT
4
(10.121)
At temperature, T
1
,
P
1
= σT
1
= 10 mW (10.122)
We are given T
2
= 2T
1
, so
P
2
= σT
4
2
= σ (2T
1
)
4
= 16T
4
2
= 16P
1
= 160 mW (10.123)
10.47 Franck-Hertz Experiment
The Franck-Hertz Experiment as seen in subsection 7.9.3 deals with the manner in
which electrons of certain energies scatter or collide with Mercury atoms. At certain
energy levels, the Mercury atoms can ‘absorb’ the electrons energy and be excited and
this occurs in discreet steps.
10.48 Selection Rules for Electronic Transitions
We recall the selection rules for photon emission
∆ = ±1 Orbital angular momentum
∆m

= 0, ±1 Magnetic quantum number
∆m
s
= 0 Secondary spin quantum number,
∆j = 0, ±1 Total angular momentum
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NOT FINISHED
10.49 The Hamilton Operator
The time-independent Schr¨ odinger equation can be written
ˆ
Hψ = Eψ (10.124)
We can determine the energy of a quantum particle by regarding the classical nonrel-
ativistic relationship as an equality of expectation values.
H =

p
2
2m
.
+ V (10.125)
We can solve this through the substition of a momentum operator
p →

i

∂x
(10.126)
Substituting this into Equation 10.125 gives us
H =

+∞
−∞
ψ

,

2m

2
∂x
2
ψ + V(x)ψ
¸
dx
=

+∞
−∞
ψ

i

∂t
ψdx (10.127)
So we can get a Hamiltonian operator
H → i

∂t
(10.128)
10.50 Hall Eﬀect
The Hall Eﬀect describes the production of a potential diﬀerence across a current
carrying conductor that has been placed in a magnetic ﬁeld. The magnetic ﬁeld is
directed perpendicularly to the electrical current.
As a charge carrier, an electron, moves through the conductor, the Lorentz Force
will cause a deviation in the carge carrier’s motion so that more charges accumulate
in one location than another. This asymmetric distribution of charges produces an
electric ﬁeld that prevents the build up of more electrons. This ‘equilibrium’ voltage
across the conductor is known as the Hall Voltage and remains as long as a current
ﬂows through our conductor.
As the deﬂection and hence, the Hall Voltage, is determined by the sign of the
carrier, this can be used to measure the sign of charge carriers.
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Debye and Einstein Theories to Speciﬁc Heat 89
An equilibrium condition is reached when the electric force, generated by the accu-
mulated charge carriers, is equal the the magnetic force, that causes the accumulation
of charge carriers. Thus
F
m
= ev
d
B F
e
= eE (10.129)
The current through the conductor is
I = nAv
d
e (10.130)
For a conductor of width, w and thickness, d, there is a Hall voltage across the width
of the conductor. Thus the electrical force becomes
F
e
= eE
=
EV
H
w
(10.131)
The magnetic force is
F
m
=
BI
neA
(10.132)
Equation 10.131 is equal to Equation 10.132, thus
eV
H
w
=
BI
newd
∴ V
H
=
BI
ned
(10.133)
So for a measured magnetic ﬁeld and current, the sign of the Hall voltage gives is the
sign of the charge carrier.
10.51 Debye and Einstein Theories to Speciﬁc Heat
The determination of the speciﬁc heat capacity was ﬁrst deermined by the Law of
Dulong and Petite. This Law was based on Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics and was
accurate in its predictions except in the region of low temperatures. At that point there
is a departure from prediction and measurements and this is where the Einstein and
Debye models come into play.
Both the Einstein and Debye models begin with the assumption that a crystal is
made up of a lattice of connected quantum harmonic oscillators; choice B.
The Einstein model makes three assumptions
1. Each atom is a three-dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator.
2. Atoms do not interact with each other.
3. Atoms vibrate with the same frequency.
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Einstein assumed a quantum oscillator model, similar to that of the black body radi-
ation problem. But despite its success, his theory predicted an exponential decress in
heat capacity towards absolute zero whereas experiments followed a T
3
relationship.
This was solved in the Debye Model.
The Debye Model looks at phonon contribution to speciﬁc heat capacity. This
theory correctly predicted the T
3
proportionality at low temperatures but suﬀered at
intemediate temperatures.
10.52 Potential inside a Hollow Cube
By applying Gauss’ Law and drawing a Gaussian surface inside the cube, we see that
no charge is enclosed and hence no electric ﬁeld
12
. We can realte the electric ﬁeld to
the potential
E = −∇V (10.134)
Where V is the potential.
Gauss’ Law shows that with no enclosed charge we have no electric ﬁeld inside our
cube. Thus
E = −∇V = 0 (10.135)
As Equation 10.134 is equal to zero, the potential is the same throughout the cube.
13
10.53 EM Radiation from Oscillating Charges
As the charge particle oscillates, the electric ﬁeldoscillates as well. As the ﬁeldoscillates
and changes, we would expect this changing ﬁeld to aﬀect a distant charge. If we
consider a charge along the xy-plane, looking directly along the x-axis, we won’t “see”
the charge oscillating but we would see it clearly if we look down the y-axis. If we
were to visualize the ﬁeld, it would look like a doughnut around the x-axis. Based on
that analysis, we choose (C)
10.54 Polarization Charge Density
D =
0
E + P (10.136)
∇ · D =
0
∇ · E + ∇ · P
=

D
∇ · E
κ
− σ
p
12
Draw Cube at potential V with Gaussian Surface enclosing no charge
13
As we expect there to be no Electric Field, we must expect the potential to be the same throughout
the space of the cube. If there were diﬀerences, a charge place inside the cube would move.
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14
10.55 Kinetic Energy of Electrons in Metals
Electrons belong to a group known as fermions
15
and as a result obey the Pauli Exclu-
sion Principle
16
. So in the case of a metal, there are many fermions present each with
a diﬀerent set of quantum numbers. The electron with the highest energy state is has
an energy value known as the Fermi Energy.
NOT FINSIHED
10.56 Expectation or Mean Value
This is a deﬁnition question. The question states that for an operator Q,
Q =

+∞
−∞
ψ

Qψdx (10.137)
This is the very deﬁnition of the expectation or mean value of Q.
10.57 Eigenfuction of Wavefunction
We are given the momentum operator as
p = −i

∂x
(10.138)
With an eigenvalue of k. We can do this by trying each solution and seeing if they
match
17
− i
∂ψ
∂x
= kψ (10.139)
A: ψ = cos kx We expect ψ, to have the form of an exponential function. Substituting
this into the eigenfuntion, Equation 10.139, we have
−i

∂x
cos kx = −i (−k sinkx)
= ik sinkx kψ
ψ does not surive our diﬀerentiation and so we can eliminate it.
14
Check Polarization in Griﬃths
15
Examples of fermions include electrons, protons and neutrons
16
The Pauli Exclusion Principle states that no two fermions may occupy the same quantum state
17
We can eliminate choices (A) & (B) as we would expect the answer to be an exponential function in
this case. These choices were just done for illustrative purposes and you should know to avoid them in
the exam.
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B: ψ = sinkx This is a similar case to the one above and we can eliminate for this
reason.
−i

∂x
sinkx = −i (k cos kx)
= −ik cos kx kψ
Again we see that ψ does not survive when we apply our operator and so we can
eliminate this choice as well.
C: ψ = exp−ikx Substituting this into Equation 10.139, gives
−i

∂x
e
−ikx
= −i

−ike
−ikx

= −ke
−ikx

Close but we are oﬀ, so we can eliminate this choice as well.
D: ψ = expikx If the above choice didn’t work, this might be more likely to.
−i

∂x
e
ikx
= −i

ike
ikx

= ke
−ikx
= kψ
E: = ψ = exp−kx
−i

∂x
e
−kx
= −i

−ke
−kx

= −ike
−kx

Again this choice does not work, so we can eliminate this as well
10.58 Holograms
The hologram is an image that produces a 3-dimensional image using both the Am-
plitude and Phase of a wave. Coherent, monochromatic light, such as from a laser, is
split into two beams. The object we wish to “photograph” is placed in the path of the
illumination beam and the scattered light falls on the recording medium. The second
beam, the reference beam is reﬂected unimpeded to the recording medium and these
two beams produces an interference pattern.
The intensity of light recordedon our mediumis the same as the scatteredlight from
our object. The interference pattern is a result of phase changes as light is scattered oﬀ
our object. Thus choices (I) and (II) are true.
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10.59 Group Velocity of a Wave
We are given the dispersion relationship of a wave as
ω
2
=

c
2
k
2
+ m
2
1
2
(10.140)
The Group Velocity of a Wave is
v
g
=

dk
(10.141)
By diﬀerentiating Equation 10.140 with respect to k, we can determine th groupvelocity
2ωdω = 2c
2
kdk

dk
=
c
2
k
ω
=
c
2
k

c
2
k
2
+ m
2
(10.142)
We want to examine the cases as k → 0 and k → ∞.
As k → 0, we have

dk
=
c
2
0

0 + m
2
= 0 (10.143)
As k → ∞, c
2
k
2
>> m
2
the denominator becomes

c
2
k
2
+ m ≈ c
2
k
2
(10.144)
Replacing the denominator for our group velocity gives

dk
=
c
2
k
ck
= c (10.145)
10.60 Potential Energy and Simple Harmonic Motion
We are given a potential energy of
V(x) = a + bx
2
(10.146)
We can determine the mass’s spring constant, k, from V

(x)
V

(x) = 2b = k (10.147)
The angular frequency, ω, is
ω
2
=
k
m
=
2b
m
(10.148)
We see this is dependent on b and m.
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10.61 Rocket Equation I
We recall from the rocket equation that u in this case is the speed of the exaust gas
relative to the rocket.
10.62 Rocket Equation II
The rocket equation is
m
dv
dt
+ u
dm
dt
= 0 (10.149)
Solving this equation becomes
mdv = udm

v
0
dv = u

m
m
0
dm
m
v = uln

m
m
0
¸
(10.150)
This ﬁts none of the answers given.
10.63 Surface Charge Density
This question was solved as ‘The Classic Image Problem’[2]. Below is an alternative
method but the principles are the same. Instead of determining the electrical potential,
as was done by Griﬃths, we will ﬁnd the electrical ﬁeld of a dipole and determine the
surface charge density using
E =
σ

0
(10.151)
Our point charge, −q will induce a +q on the grounded conducting plane. The
resulting electrical ﬁeld will be due to a combination of the real charge and the ‘virtual’
induced charge. Thus
E = −E
y
ˆ
j = (E

+ E
+
)
ˆ
j
= 2E

ˆ
j (10.152)
Remember the two charges are the same, so at any point along the x-axis, or rather our
grounded conductor, the electrical ﬁeld contributions from both charges will be the
same. Thus
E

=
q
4πr
2
cos θ where cos θ =
d
r
=
qd

0
r
3
(10.153)
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Maximum Power Theorem 95
Our total ﬁeld becomes
E =
2qd

0
r
3
(10.154)
You may recognize that 2qd is the electrical dipole moment. Now, putting Equa-
tion 10.154 equal to Equation 10.151 gives us
σ

0
=
qd

0
r
3
(10.155)
where r = D, we get
σ =
qd
2πD
2
(10.156)
10.64 Maximum Power Theorem
We are given the impedance of our generator
Z
g
= R
g
+ jX
g
(10.157)
For the maximumpower tobe transmitted, the maximumpower theoremstates that the
load impedance must be equal to the complex conjugate of the generator’s impedance.
Z
g
= Z

(10.158)
Thus
Z

= R
g
+ jX

= R
g
− jX
g
(10.159)
10.65 Magnetic Field far away from a Current carrying
Loop
The Biot-Savart Law is
dB =
µ
0
i

d × ˆ r
r
3
(10.160)
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Let θ be the angle between the radius, b and the radius vector, r, we get
B =
µ
0
i

rd cos θ
r
3
where cos θ =
b
r
=
mu
0
i

d cos θ
r
2
=
µ
0
i

bd
r
3
where r =

b
2
+ h
2
=
µ
0
i

bd
(b
2
+ h
2
)
3
2
where d = b · dθ
=
µ0i

·
b
2
(b
2
+ h
2
)
3
2

0

=
µ
0
i
2
b
2
(b
2
+ h
2
)
3
2
(10.161)
we see that
B ∝ ib
2
(10.162)
10.66 Maxwell’s Relations
To derive the Maxwell’s Relations we begin with the thermodynamic potentials
First Law
dU = TdS − PdV (10.163)
Entalpy
H = E + PV
∴ dH = TdS + VdP (10.164)
Helmholtz Free Energy
F = E − TS
∴ dF = −SdT − PdV (10.165)
Gibbs Free Energy
G = E − TS + PV
∴ dG = −SdT + VdP (10.166)
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Partition Functions 97
All of these diﬀerentials are of the form
dz =
¸
∂z
∂x

y
dx +
¸
∂z
∂y

x
dy
= Mdx + Ndy
For the variables listed, we choose Equation 10.163 and applying the above condition
we get
T =
¸
∂U
∂S

V
P =
¸
∂U
∂V

S
(10.167)
Thus taking the inverse of T, gives us
1
T
=
¸
∂S
∂U

V
(10.168)
10.67 Partition Functions
NOT FINISHED
10.68 Particle moving at Light Speed
10.69 Car and Garage I
We are given the car’s length in its rest frame to be L

= 5 meters and its Lorentz
Contracted length to be L = 3 meters. We can determine the speed from Equation 8.3
L = L

1 −
v
2
c
2

3
5
¸
2
= 1 −
v
2
c
2
⇒ v =
4
5
c (10.169)
10.70 Car and Garage II
As the car approaches the garage, the driver will notice that things around him, in-
cluding the garage, are length contracted. We have calculated that the speed that
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he is travelling at to be, v = 0.8c, in the previous section. We again use the Length
Contraction formula, Equation 8.3, to solve this question.
L
g
= L

g
¸
1 −
v
2
c
2

= 4

1 − 0.8
2

= 2.4 meters (10.170)
10.71 Car and Garage III
This is more of a conceptual question. What happens depends on whose frame of
reference you’re in.
10.72 Refrective Index of Rock Salt and X-rays
No special knowledge is needed but a little knowledge always helps. You can start by
eliminating choices when in doubt.
Choice A NOT TRUE Relativity says nothing about whether light is in a vacuum or
not. If anything, this choice goes against the postulates of Special Relativity. The
laws of Physics don’t change in vacuum.
Choice B NOT TRUE. X-rays can “transmit” signals or energy; any waveform can
once it is not distorted too much during propagation.
Choice C NOT TRUE. Photons have zero rest mass. Though the tachyon, a hypothet-
ical particle, has imaginary mass. This allows it to travel faster than the speed or
light though they don’t violate the principles of causality.
Choice D NOT TRUE. How or when we discover physical theories has no bearing
on observed properties or behavior; though according to some it may seem so at
times
18
Choice E The phase andgroupspeeds can be diﬀerent. The phase velocity is the rate at
which the crests of the wave propagate or the rate at which the phase of the wave
is moving. The group speed is the rate at which the envelope of the waveform
18
There is a quote by Douglas Adams[3],
There is a theory which states that is ever anyone discovers exactly what the Universe is
for and why it is here, it will instantly disappear and be replaced by something even more
bizarre and inexplicable.
There is another which states this has already happened.
So maybe the order in which discoveries are made matters. Who am I to question Douglas Adams?
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is moving or rather it’s the rate at which the amplitude varies in the waveform.
We can use this principle of n < 1 materials to create X-ray mirrors using “total
external reﬂection”.
10.73 Thin Flim Non-Reﬂective Coatings
To analyze this system, we consider our lens with refractive index, n
3
, being coated by
our non-reﬂective coating of refractive index, n
2
, and thickness, t, in air with refractive
index, n
1
, where
n
1
< n
2
< n
3
(10.171)
As our ray of light in air strikes the ﬁrst boundary, the coating, it moves from a less
optically dense medium to a more optically dense one. At the point where it reﬂects,
there will be a phase change in the reﬂected wave. The transmitted wave goes through
without a phase change.
The refracted ray passes through our coating to strike our glass lens, which is
optically more dense than our coating. As a result there will be a phase change in
our reﬂected ray. Destructive interference occurs when the optical path diﬀerence, 2t,
occurs in half-wavelengths multiples. So
2t =

m+
1
2
¸
λ
n
2
(10.172)
where m = 0; 1; 2; 3. The thinnest possible coating occurs at m = 0. Thus
t =
1
4
λ
n
2
(10.173)
We need a non-reﬂective coating that has an optical thicknes of a quarter wavelength.
10.74 Law of Malus
The Law of Malus states that when a perfect polarizer is placed in a polarized beam
of light, the intensity I, is given by
I = I
0
cos
2
θ (10.174)
where θ is the angle between the light’s plane of polarization and the axis of the
polarizer. A beam of light can be considered to be a uniform mix of plane polarization
angles and the average of this is
I = I
0

0
cos
2
θ
=
1
2
I
0
(10.175)
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So the maximum fraction of transmitted power through all three polarizers becomes
I
3
=

1
2
¸
3
=
I
0
8
(10.176)
10.75 Geosynchronous Satellite Orbit
We can relate the period or the angluar velocity of a satellite and Newton’s Law of
Gravitation
mRω
2
= mR

T
¸
2
=
GMm
R
2
(10.177)
where M is the mass of the Earth, m is the satellite mass and R
E
From this we can get a relationship between the radius of orbit and its period, which
you may recognize as Kepler’s Law.
R
3
∝ T
2
(10.178)
We can say
R
3
E
∝ (80)
2
(10.179)
R
3
S
∝ (24 × 60)
2
(10.180)
(10.181)
Dividing Equation 10.180 and Equation 10.181, gives

R
S
R
E
¸
3
=

24 × 60
80
¸
2
R
3
S
= 18
2
R
3
E
(10.182)
10.76 Hoop Rolling down and Inclined Plane
As the hoop rolls down the inclined plane, its gravitational potential energy is con-
verted to translational kinetic energy and rotational kinetic energy
Mgh =
1
2
Mv
2
+
1
2

2
(10.183)
Recall that v = ωR, Equation 10.183 becomes
MgH =
1
2
MR
2
ω
2
+
1
2

MR
2

ω
2
(10.184)
Solving for ω leaves
ω =
¸
gh
R
2
1
2
(10.185)
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The angular momentum is
L = Iω (10.186)
Substituting Equation 10.185 gives us
L = MR
¸
gh
R
2
1
2
= MR

gh (10.187)
10.77 Simple Harmonic Motion
We are told that a particle obeys Hooke’s Law, where
F = −kx (10.188)
We can write the equation of motion as
m¨ x − kx where ω
2
=
k
m
where
x = Asin

ωt + φ

(10.189)
and ˙ x = ωAcos

ωt + φ

(10.190)
We are told that
1
2
= sin

ωt + φ

(10.191)
We can show that
cos

ωt + φ

=

3
2
(10.192)
Substituting this into Equation 10.190 gives
˙ x = 2πf A ·

3
2
=

3πf A (10.193)
Amswer: (B)
10.78 Total Energy between Two Charges
We are told three things
1. There is a zero potential energy, and
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2. one particle has non-zero speed and hence kinetic energy.
3. No radiation is emitted, so no energy is lost.
The total energy of the system is
E = Potential Energy + Kinetic Energy
= 0 + (KE > 0)
> 0 (10.194)
Applying the three condition, we expect the total energy to be positive and constant.
10.79 Maxwell’s Equations and Magnetic Monopoles
Youmay have heardseveral things about the ∇·B = 0 equationinMaxwell’s Laws. One
of them is there being no magnetic monopoles or charges. There are some implications
to this. No charge implies that the amount of ﬁeld lines that enter a Gaussian surface
must be equal to the amount of ﬁeld lines that leave. So using this principle we know
from the electric form of this law we can get an answer to this question.
Choice A The number of ﬁeld lines that enter is the same as the number that leaves.
So this does not violate the above law.
Choice B Again we see that the number of ﬁeld lines entering is the same as the
number leaving.
Choice C The same as above
Choice D In this case, we see that the ﬁeld lines at the edge of the Gaussian Surface
are all leaving; no ﬁeld lines enter the surface. This is also what we’d expect the
ﬁeld to look like for a region bounded by a magnetic monopole.
Choice E The ﬁeld loops in on itself, so the total number of ﬁeld lines is zero. This ﬁts
with the above law.
10.80 Gauss’ Law
To determine an electric ﬁeld that could exist in a region of space with no charges we
turn to Gauss’ Law.
∇ · E = 0 (10.195)
or rather

∂x
E
x
+

∂y
E
y
+

∂z
E
z
= 0 (10.196)
So we analyze each choice in turn to get our answer.
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Choice A
E = 2xy
ˆ
i − xy
ˆ
k
∇ · E =

∂x
2xy +

∂z
(−xz)
= 2y + x 0 (10.197)
Choice B
E = −xy
ˆ
j + xz
ˆ
k
∇ · E =

∂y
(−xy) +

∂z
xz
= −x + x = 0 (10.198)
Choice C
E = xz
ˆ
i + xz
ˆ
j
∇ · E =

∂x
xz +

∂y
xz
= z + 0 0 (10.199)
Choice D
E = xyz(
ˆ
i +
ˆ
j)
∇ · E =

∂x
xyz +

∂y
xyz
= yz + xz 0 (10.200)
Choice E
E = xyz
ˆ
i
∇ · E =

∂x
xyz
= yz 0 (10.201)
10.81 Biot-Savart Law
We can determine the magnetic ﬁeld produced by our outer wire from the Biot-Savart
Law
dB =
µ
0

d × r
r
3
(10.202)
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As our radius and diﬀerential length vectors are orthogonal, the magnetic ﬁeld works
out to be
dB =
µ
0

I
dr
r
3
=
µ
0
I

·
rdθ
r
2
B =
µ
0
I
4πr

0

=
µ
0
I
2b
(10.203)
We know from Faraday’s Law, a changing magnetic ﬂux induces a EMF,
E =

dt
(10.204)
where Φ = BA. The magnetic ﬂux becomes
Φ =
µ
0
I
2b
· πa
2
(10.205)
The induced EMF becomes
E =
µ
0
π
2
¸
a
2
b

dI
dt
=
µ
0
π
2
¸
a
2
b

ωI
0
sinωt (10.206)
10.82 ZeemanEﬀect andthe emissionspectrumof atomic
gases
Another knowledge based question best answered by the process of elimination.
Stern-Gerlach Experiemnt The Stern-Gerlach Experiment has nothing to do with
spectral emissions. This experiment, performed by O. Stern and W. Gerlach
in 1922 studies the behavior of a beam atoms being split in two as they pass
through a non-uniform magnetic ﬁeld.
Stark Eﬀect The Stark Eﬀect deals with the shift in spectral lines in the presence of
electrical ﬁelds; not in magnetic ﬁelds.
Nuclear Magnetic Moments of atoms Close, the splitting seen in the Stern-Gerlach
Experiment is due to this. Emission spectrum typically deals with electrons and
so we would expect it to deal with electrons on some level.
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Emission lines are split in two Closer but still not accurate. There is splitting but in
some cases it may be more than two.
Emission lines are greater or equal than in the absence of the magnetic ﬁeld This we
know to be true.
The diﬀerence in the emission spectrum of a gas in a magnetic ﬁeld is due to the
Zeeman eﬀect.
10.83 Spectral Lines in High Density and Low Density
Gases
We expect the spectral lines to be broader in a high density gas and narrower in a low
density gas ue to the increased colissions between the molecules. Atomic collisions
add another mechanism to transfer energy.[4]
10.84 Term Symbols & Spectroscopic Notation
To determine the termsymbol for the sodiumground state, we start with the electronic
conﬁguration. This is easy as they have given us the number of electrons the element
has thus allowing us to ﬁll sub-shells using the Pauli Exclusion Principle. We get
1s
2
, 2s
2
, 2p
6
, 3s
1
(10.207)
We are most interested in the 3s
1
sub-shell and can ignore the rest of the ﬁlled sub-
shells. As we only have one valence electron then m
s
= +1/2. Now we can calculate
the total spin quantum number, S. As there is only one unpaired electron,
S =
1
2
(10.208)
Now we can calculate the total angular momentum quantum number, J = L + S. As
the 3s sub-shell is half ﬁlled then
L = 0 (10.209)
This gives us
J =
1
2
(10.210)
and as L = 0 then we use the symbol S. Thus our term equation becomes
2
S1
2
(10.211)
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10.85 Photon Interaction Cross Sections for Pb
Check Brehm p. 789
10.86 The Ice Pail Experiment
Gauss’ law is equivalent to Coulomb’s Law because Coulomb’s Law is an inverse
square law; testing one is a valid test of the other. Much of our knowledge of the
consequences of the inverse square law came from the study of gravity. Jason Priestly
knew that there is no gravitational ﬁeld within a spherically symmetrical mass distri-
bution. It was suspected that was the same reason why a charged cork ball inside a
charged metallic container isn’t attracted to the walls of a container.
10.87 Equipartition of Energy and Diatomic Molecules
To answer this question, we will turn to the equipartition of energy equation
c
v
=
¸
f
2

R (10.212)
where f is the number of degrees of freedom. In the case of Model I, we see that So the
Table 10.2: Speciﬁc Heat, c
v
for a diatomic molecule
Degrees of Freedom Model I Model II
Translational 3 3
Rotational 2 2
Vibrational 0 2
Total 5 7
speciﬁc heats for Models I & II are
c
v
I
=
5
2
Nk c
v
II
=
7
2
Nk
Choice A From our above calculations, we see that c
v
I
= 5/2Nk. So this choice is
WRONG.
Choice B Again, our calculations showthat the speciﬁc heat for Model II is larger than
than of Model I. This is due to the added degrees of freedom (vibrational) that it
possesses. So this choice is WRONG.
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C & D They both contradict the other and they both contradict Choice (E).
E This is TRUE. We know that at higher temperatures we have an additional degree
of freedom between our diatomic molecule.
10.88 Fermion and Boson Pressure
To answer this question, we must understand the diﬀerences between fermions and
bosons. Fermions follow Fermi-Dirac statistics and their behavior is obey the Pauli
Exclusion Principle. Basically, this states that no two fermions may have the same
quantum state. Bosons on the other hand follow Bose-Einstein statistics and several
bosons can occupy the same quantum state.
As the temperature of a gas drops, the particles are going to ﬁll up the available
energy states. In the case of fermions, as no two fermions can occupy the same state,
then these particles will try to occupy all the energy states it can until the highest is
ﬁlled. Bosons on the other hand can occupy the same state, so they will all ‘group’
together for the lowest they can. Classically, we don’t pay attention to this grouping,
so based on our analyis, we expect,
P
F
> P
C
> P
B
(10.213)
where P
B
is the boson pressure, P
C
is the pressure with no quantumeﬀects taking place
and P
F
to be the fermion pressure.
10.89 Wavefunction of Two Identical Particles
We are given the wavefunction of two identical particles,
ψ =
1

2
,
ψ
α
(x
1

β
(x
2
) + ψ
β
(x
1

α
(x
2
)
¸
(10.214)
This is a symmetric function and satisﬁes the relation
ψ
αβ
(x
2
, x
1
) = ψ
αβ
(x
1
, x
2
) (10.215)
Symmetric functions obey Bose-Einstein statistics and are known as bosons[6, 7, 8].
Upon examination of our choices, we see that
19
electrons fermion
positrons fermion
protons fermion
19
You could have easily played the ‘one of thes things is not like the other...’ game
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neutron fermion
deutrons Boson
Incidentally, a anti-symmetric function takes the form,
ψ =
1

2
,
ψ
α
(x
1

β
(x
2
) − ψ
β
(x
1

α
(x
2
)
¸
(10.216)
and satisﬁes the relation
ψ
αβ
(x
2
, x
1
) = −ψ
αβ
(x
1
, x
2
) (10.217)
These obey Fermi-Dirac Statistics and are known as fermions.
10.90 Energy Eigenstates
We may recognize this wavefunction from studying the particle in an inﬁnite well
problem and see this is the n = 2 wavefunction. We know that
E
n
= n
2
E
0
(10.218)
We are given that E
2
= 2 eV. So
E
0
=
1
n
2
E
2
=
2
4
eV
=
1
2
eV (10.219)
10.91 Bragg’s Law
We recall Bragg’s Law
2d sinθ = nλ (10.220)
Plugging in what we know, we determine λ to be
λ = 2(3Å)(sin30)
= 2(3Å)(0.5)
= 3Å (10.221)
We employ the de Broglie relationship between wavelength and momentum
p =
h
λ
(10.222)
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We get
mv =
h
λ
⇒ v =
h

=
6.63 × 10
−34
(9.11 × 10
−31
)(3 × 10
(
− 10))
(10.223)
We can determine the order of our answer by looking at the relevant indices
− 34 − (−31) − (−10) = 7 (10.224)
We see that (D) is close to what we are looking for.
10.92 Selection Rules for Electronic Transitions
The selection rules for an electric dipole transition are[9]
∆ = ±1 Orbital angular momentum
∆m

= 0, ±1 Magnetic quantum number
∆m
s
= 0 Secondary spin quantum number,
∆j = 0, ±1 Total angular momentum
We have no selection rules for spin, ∆s, so we can eliminate this choice.
10.93 Moving Belt Sander on a Rough Plane
We know the work done on a body by a force is
W = F × x (10.225)
We can relate this to the power of the sander; power is the rate at which work is done.
So
P =
dW
dt
= F
dx
dt
= Fv (10.226)
The power of the sander can be calculated
P = VI (10.227)
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where V and I are the voltage across and the current through the sander. By equating
the Mechanical Power, Equation 10.226 and the Electrical Power, Equation 10.227, we
can determine the force that the motor exerts on the belt.
F =
VI
v
=
120 × 9
10
= 108 N (10.228)
The sander is motionless, so
F − µR = 0 (10.229)
where Ris the normal force of the sander pushingagainst the wood. Thus the coeﬃcient
of friction is
µ =
F
R
=
108
100
= 1.08 (10.230)
10.94 RL Circuits
When the switch, S, is closed, a magnetic ﬁeld builds up within the inductor and the
inductor stores energy. The charging of the inductor can be derived from Kirchoﬀ’s
Rules.
E − IR − L
dI
dt
= 0 (10.231)
and the solution to this is
I(t) = I
0
,
1 − exp

R
1
t
L
¸¸
(10.232)
where the time constant, τ
1
= L/R
1
.
We can ﬁnd the voltage across the resistor, R
1
, by multiplying the above by R
1
,
giving us
V(t) = R
1
· I
0
,
1 − exp

R
1
t
L
¸¸
= E
,
1 − exp

R
1
t
L
¸¸
(10.233)
The potential at A can be found by measuring the voltage across the inductor. Given
that
E − V
R
1
− V
L
= 0
∴ V
L
= E − V
R
1
= E exp

R
1
t
L
¸
(10.234)
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This we know to be an exponential decay and (fortunately) limits our choices to either
(A) or (B)
20
The story doesn’t end here. If the inductor was not present, the voltage would
quickly drop and level oﬀ to zero but with the inductor present, a change in current
means a change in magnetic ﬂux; the inductor opposes this change. We would expect
to see a reversal in the potential at A. Since both (A) and (B) show this ﬂip, we need to
think some more.
The energy stored by the inductor is
U
L
=
1
2
LI
2
0
=
1
2
L

E
R
1
¸
2
(10.235)
With S opened, the inductor is going to dump its energy across R
2
and assuming that
the diode has negligible resistance, all of this energy goes to R
2
. Thus
U =
1
2
L
¸
V
R
2
R
2

2
(10.236)
The above two equations are equal, thus
E
R
1
=
V
R
2
R
2
V
R
2
= 3E (10.237)
We expect the potential at A to be larger when S is opened. Graph (B) ﬁts this choice.
10.95 Carnot Cycles
The Carnot Cycle is made up of two isothermal transformations, KL and MN, and two
adiabatic transformations, LM and NK. For isothermal transformations, we have
PV = nRT = a constant (10.238)
PV
γ
= a constant (10.239)
where γ = C
P
/C
V
.
For the KL transformation, dU = 0.
Q
2
= W
K→L
∴ W
K→L
=

V
L
V
K
PdV
= nRT
2
ln

V
K
V
L
¸
(10.240)
20
If you get stuck beyond this point, you can guess. The odds are now in your favor.
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For the LM transformation,
P
L
V
γ
L
= P
M
V
γ
M
(10.241)
For the MN transformation, dU = 0.
Q
1
= W
M→N
∴ W
M→N
=

V
N
V
M
PdV
= nRT
1
ln

V
N
V
M
¸
(10.242)
For the NK transformation,
P
N
V
γ
N
= P
K
V
γ
K
(10.243)
Dividing Equation 10.241 and Equation 10.243, gives
P
L
V
γ
L
P
K
V
γ
K
=
P
M
V
γ
M
P
N
V
γ
N

V
L
V
K
=
V
M
V
N
(10.244)
The eﬀeciency of an engine is deﬁned
η = 1 −
Q
1
Q
2
(10.245)
We get
η = 1 −
Q
1
Q
2
= 1 −
−W
M→N
W
K→L
= 1 −
nRT
1
ln

VM
V
N

nRT
2
ln

VK
V
L

= 1 −
T
1
T
2
(10.246)
1. We see that
1 −
Q
1
Q
2
= 1 −
T
1
T
2

Q
1
Q
2
=
T
1
T
2
(10.247)
Thus choice (A) is true.
2. Heat moves from the hot reservoir and is converted to work and heat. Thus
Q
2
= Q
1
+ W (10.248)
The entropy change from the hot reservoir
S =
dQ
2
T
(10.249)
As the hot reservoir looses heat, the entropy decreases. Thus choice (B) is true.
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First Order Perturbation Theory 113
3. For a reversible cycle, there is no net heat ﬂow over the cycle. The change in
entropy is deﬁned by Calusius’s Theorem.

dQ
T
= 0 (10.250)
We see that the entropy of the system remains the same. Thus choice (C) is false.
4. The eﬃcieny is deﬁned
η =
W
Q
2
(10.251)
This becomes
η = 1 −
Q
1
Q
2
=
Q
2
− Q
1
Q
2
(10.252)
Thus W = Q
2
− Q
1
. So choice (D) is true,
5. The eﬀeciency is based on an ideal gas and has no relation to the substance used.
So choice (E) is also true.
10.96 First Order Perturbation Theory
PerturbationTheory is a procedure for obtaining approximate solutions for a perturbed
state by studying the solutions of the unperturbed state[10]. We can, and shouldn’t,
calculate this in the exam.
We can get the ﬁrst order correction to be ebergy eigenvalue[11]
E
1
n
= ψ
0
n
|H

0
n
(10.253)
From there we can get the ﬁrst order correction to the wave function
ψ
1
n
=
¸
mn
ψ
0
m
|H

0
n

E
0
n
− E
0
m
(10.254)
and can be expressed as
ψ
1
n
=
¸
mn
c
(n)
m
ψ
0
m
(10.255)
you may recognize this as a Fourier Series and this will help you knowing that the
perturbing potential is one period of a saw tooth wave. And you may recall that the
Fourier Series of a saw tooth wave form is made up of even harmonics.
21
21
Griﬃths gives a similar problem in his text[12]
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10.97 Colliding Discs and the Conservation of Angular
Momentum
As the disk moves, it possessed both angular and linear momentums. We can not
exactly add these two as they, though similar, are quite diﬀerent beasts. But we can
deﬁne a linear angular motion with respect to some origin. As the two discs hit each
other, they fuse. This slows the oncoming disc. We can calculate the linear angular
momentum
L = r × p (10.256)
where p is the linear momentum and r is the distance from the point P to the center of
disc I. This becomes
L
v
0
= MR × v
0
= −MRv
0
(10.257)
It’s negative as the cross product of R and v
0
is negative.
The Rotational Angular Momentum is
L
ω
0
= Iω
0
(10.258)
Adding Equation 10.258 and Equation 10.257 gives the total angular momentum.
L = L
ω
0
+ L
v
0
= Iω
0
− MRv
0
=
1
2
MR
2
ω
0

1
2
MR
2
ω
0
= 0
Thus the total angular momentum at the point P is zero.
10.98 Electrical Potential of a Long Thin Rod
We have charge uniformly distributed along the glass rod. It’s linear charge density is
λ =
Q

=
dQ
dx
(10.259)
The Electric Potential is deﬁned
V(x) =
q

0
x
(10.260)
We can ‘slice’ our rod into inﬁnitesimal slices and sum them to get the potential of the
rod.
dV =
1

0
λdx
x
(10.261)
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Ground State of a Positronium Atom 115
We assume that the potential at the end of the rod, x = is V = 0 and at some point
away from the rod, x, the potential is V. So

V
0
dV =
λ

0

x

dx
x
=
λ

0
ln

x

¸
(10.262)
Where x = 2, Equation 10.262 becomes
V =
Q

1

0
ln

2

¸
=
Q

1

0
ln2 (10.263)
10.99 Ground State of a Positronium Atom
Positronium consists of an electron and a positron bound together to form an “exotic”
atom. As the masses of the electron and positron are the same, we must use a reduced-
mass correction factor to determine the enrgy levels of this system.
22
. The reduced
mass of the system is
1
µ
=
1
m
e
+
1
m
p
(10.264)
Thus /mu is
µ =
m
e
· m
p
m
e
+ m
p
=
m
e
2
(10.265)
The ground state of the Hydrogen atom, in terms of the reduced mass is
E
1
= −
µ
m
e
E
0
= −
1
2
E
0
(10.266)
where E
0
= 13.6 eV.
10.100 The Pinhole Camera
A pinhole camera is simply a camera with no lens and a very small aperature. Light
passes throughthis hole toproduce aninvertedimage ona screen. For the photography
22
Place cite here
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116 GR8677 Exam Solutions
buﬀs among you, you know that by varying the size of a camera’s aperature can
accomplish various things; making the aperature bigger allows more light to enter and
produces a “brighter” picture while making the aperature smaller produces a sharper
image.
In the case of the pinhole camera, making the pinhole, or aperature, smaller pro-
duces a sharper image because it reduces “image overlap”. Think of a large hole as
a set of tiny pinholes places close to each other. This results in an inﬁnite amount of
images overlapping each other and hence a blurry image. So to produce a sharp image,
it is best to use the smallest pinhole possible, the tradeoﬀ being an image that’s not as
“bright”.
There are limits to the size of our pinhole. We can not say, for example, use an
inﬁnitely small pinhole the produce the sharpest possible image. Beyond some point
diﬀraction eﬀects take place and will ruin our image.
Consider a pinhole camera of length, D, with a pinhole of diameter, d. We know
how much a beam of light will be diﬀracted through this pinhole by
23
d sinθ = mλ (10.267)
this is the equation for the diﬀraction of a single slit. As θ is small and we will consider
ﬁrst order diﬀraction eﬀects, Equation 10.267 becomes
dθ = λ
⇒ θ =
λ
d
(10.268)
The “size” of this spread out image is
y = 2θD
=
2λD
d
(10.269)
So the ‘blur’ of our resulting image is
B = y − d
=
2λD
d
− d (10.270)
We can see that we want to reduce y as much as possible. i.e. make it d. So Equa-
tion 10.270 becomes
0 =
2λD
d
− d

2λD
d
= d
Thus d =

2λD (10.271)
So we’d want a pinhole of that size to produce or sharpest image possible. This result
is close to the result that Lord Rayleigh used, which worked out to be
d = 1.9

Dλ (10.272)
23
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Appendix A
Constants & Important Equations
A.1 Constants
Constant Symbol Value
Speed of light in a vacuum c 2.99 × 10
8
m/s
Gravitational Constant G 6.67 × 10
−11
m
3
/kg.s
2
Rest Mass of the electron m
e
9.11 × 10
−31
kg
A
6.02 × 10
23
mol
-1
Universal Gas Constant R 8.31 J/mol.K
Boltzmann’s Constant k 1.38 × 10
−23
J/K
Electron charge e 1.60 × 10
−9
C
Permitivitty of Free Space
0
8.85 × 10
−12
C
2
/N.m
2
Permeability of Free Space µ
0
4π × 10
−7
T.m/A
Athmospheric Pressure 1 atm 1.0 × 10
5
M/m
2
0
0.529 × 10
−10
m
A.2 Vector Identities
A.2.1 Triple Products
A· (B × C) = B · (C × A) = C · (A× B) (A.1)
A× (B × C) = B(A· C) − C(A· B) (A.2)
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A.2.2 Product Rules

f g

= f

∇g

+ g

∇f

(A.3)
∇(A· B) = A× (∇ × B) + B × (∇ × A) + (A· ∇) B + (B · ∇) A (A.4)
∇ ·

f A

= f (∇ · A) + A·

∇f

(A.5)
∇ · (A× B) = B · (∇ × A) − A· (∇ × B) (A.6)
∇ ×

f A

= f (∇ × A) − A×

∇f

(A.7)
∇ × (A× B) = (B · ∇) A− (A· ∇) B + A(∇ · B) − B(∇ · A) (A.8)
A.2.3 Second Derivatives
∇ · (∇ × A) = 0 (A.9)
∇ ×

∇f

= 0 (A.10)
∇ × (∇ × A) = ∇(∇ · A) − ∇
2
A (A.11)
A.3 Commutators
A.3.1 Lie-algebra Relations
[A, A] = 0 (A.12)
[A, B] = −[B, A] (A.13)
[A, [B, C]] + [B, [C, A]] + [C, [A, B]] = 0 (A.14)
A.3.2 Canonical Commutator
[x, p] = i (A.15)
A.3.3 Kronecker Delta Function
δ
mn
=

0 if m n;
1 if m = n;
For a wave function

ψ
m
(x)

ψ
n
(x)dx = δ
mn
(A.16)
A.4 Linear Algebra
A.4.1 Vectors
The sum of two vectors is another vector
|α + |β = |γ (A.17)
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Commutative
|α + |β = |β + |α (A.18)
Associative
|α +

|β + |γ

=

|α + |β

+ |γ (A.19)
Zero Vector
|α + |0 = |α (A.20)
Inverse Vector
|α + | − α = |0 (A.21)
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Bibliography
[1] John J. Brehm and William J. Mullin. Introduction to the Structure of Matter, chapter
11-6, pages 567–571. Wiley, ﬁrst edition, 1989.
[2] David J. Griﬃths. Introduction to Electrodyanmics, chapter 3.2.1, pages 121–123.
Prentice Hall, third edition, 1999.
[3] Douglas Adams. The restaurant at the end of the universe.
[4] Wikipedia. Spectral line — wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, 2009. [Online;
accessed 17-March-2009].
[5] Wikipedia. Term symbol — wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, 2008. [Online;
accessed 22-March-2009].
[6] John J. Brehm and William J. Mullin. Introduction to the Structure of Matter, chapter
5-10, pages 283–287. Wiley, ﬁrst edition, 1989.
[7] John J. Brehm and William J. Mullin. Introduction to the Structure of Matter, chapter
11-1, pages 539–540. Wiley, ﬁrst edition, 1989.
[8] David J. Griﬃths. Introduction to QuantumMechanics, chapter 5.1.1, pages 203–205.
Prentice Hall, second edition, 2005.
[9] David J. Griﬃths. Introduction to QuantumMechanics, chapter 9.3.3, pages 359–362.
Prentice Hall, second edition, 2005.
[10] David J. Griﬃths. Introduction to Quantum Mechanics, chapter 6.1.1, page 249.
Prentice Hall, second edition, 2005.
[11] David J. Griﬃths. Introduction to QuantumMechanics, chapter 6.1.2, pages 251–254.
Prentice Hall, second edition, 2005.
[12] David J. Griﬃths. Introduction to Quantum Mechanics, chapter 6.1.2, page 254.
Prentice Hall, second edition, 2005.
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Index
Ampliﬁers
GR8677 Q39, 84
Angular Momentum, see Rotational Mo-
tion
Archimedes’ Principle, 23
Bernoulli’s Equation, 24
Binding Energy
GR8677 Q41, 85
Bohr Model
GR8677 Q19, 76
Hydrogen Model, 49
Celestial Mechanics, 21
Circular Orbits, 22
Elliptical Orbit, 23
Escape Speed, 22
Hyperbolic Orbit, 23
Kepler’s Laws, 22
Newton’s Law of Gravitation, 21
Orbits, 22
Parabolic Orbit, 23
Potential Energy, 22
Vis-viva Equation, 23
Center of Mass, see System of Particles
Cetripetal Motion
GR8677 Q06, 70
Circular Orbits, see Celestial Mechanics
Commutators, 118
Canonical Commutators, 118
Kronecker Delta Function, 118
Lie-algebra Relations, 118
Compton Eﬀect, 52
Compton Wavelength
GR8677 Q45, 87
Conductivity
GR8677 Q23, 78
Counting Statistics, 65
GR8677 Q40, 84
Current Density
GR8677 Q09, 71
Dielectrics
GR8677 Q03, 68
Digital Circuits
GR8677 Q38, 84
Doppler Eﬀect, 19
Drag Force
GR8677 Q01, 67
Elastic Colissions
GR8677 Q05, 69
Electricity
GR8677 Q24, 78
Electron Spin
GR8677 Q27, 79
Electronic Conﬁguration
GR8677 Q30, 81
Elliptic Orbits, see Orbits
Energy
Kinectic Energy, 15
Potential Energy, 15
Work-Energy Theorem, 15
Equation of Continuity, 24
Fleming’s Right Hand Rule
GR8677 Q29, 81
Fluid Dynamics, 23
Archimedes’ Principle, 23
Bernoulli’s Equation, 24
Equation of Continuity, 24
Franck-Hertz Experiment, 55
GR8677 Q47, 87
Gauss’ Law
GR8677 Q10, 72
Gravitation, see Celestial Mechanics
Hall Eﬀect
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GR8677 Q50, 88
Hamiltonian, 24
GR8677 Q35, 83
Hooke’s Law, 15
Potential Energy of a Spring, 15
Hyperbolic Orbits, see Orbits
Interference
GR8677 Q13, 73
Kepler’s Laws, see Celestial Mechanics
Kinematics
Circular Motion, 13
Linear Motion, 13
Kronecker Delta Function, 118
Laboratory Methods
GR8677 Q40, 84
Lagrangian, 24
Linear Algebra, 118
Vectors, 118
Lorentz Force Law
GR8677 Q25, 78
Lorentz Transformation
GR8677 Q22, 77
Maximum Power Theorem
GR8677 Q64, 95
Maxwell’s Laws
GR8677 Q11, 73
Mechanics
GR8677 Q07, 70
GR8677 Q08, 71
GR8677 Q37, 83
Moment of Inertia, see Rotational Motion
Newton’s Law of Gravitation, see Celestial
Mechanics
Newton’s Laws, 14
Impulse, 14
Momentum, 14
Nuclear Physics
GR8677 Q17, 75
Orbits
Elliptical Orbit, 23
Hyperbolic Orbit, 23
Parabolic Orbit, 23
Oscillatory Motion, 16
Coupled Harmonic Oscillators, 17
GR8677 Q43, 85
Damped Motion, 16
Kinetic Energy, 16
Potential Energy, 16
Simple Harmonic Motion Equation, 16
Small Oscillations, 17
Total Energy, 16
Parabolic Orbits, see Orbits
Parallel Axis Theorem, see Rotational Mo-
tion
Particle Physics
Muon
GR8677 Q16, 75
Photoelectric Eﬀect
GR8677 Q31, 82
GR8677 Q32, 82
GR8677 Q33, 82
Potential Energy, see Energy
GR8677 Q34, 82
Potential Energy of a Spring, see Hooke’s
Law
Principle of Least Action
GR8677 Q36, 83
Probability
GR8677 Q15, 74
Rolling Kinetic Energy, see Rotational Mo-
tion
Rotational Kinetic Energy, see Rotational
Motion
Rotational Motion, 20
Angular Momentum, 20
Moment of Inertia, 20
Parallel Axis Theorem, 20
Rolling Kinetic Energy, 21
Rotational Kinetic Energy, 20
Torque, 20
Satellite Orbits
GR8677 Q02, 68
Schr¨ odinger’s Equation
GR8677 Q18, 75
Space-Time Interval
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124 Index
GR8677 Q21, 77
Special Relativity
Doppler Shift
GR8677 Q12, 73
Energy
GR8677 Q20, 76
Speciﬁc Heat
GR8677 Q14, 73
Stefan-Boltzmann’s Equation, 40
GR8677 Q46, 87
System of Particles, 21
Center of Mass, 21
Thin Film Interference
GR8677 Q73, 99
Torque, see Rotational Motion
Vector Identities, 117
Product Rules, 118
Second Derivatives, 118
Triple Products, 117
Vis-viva Equation, 23
Wave Equation
GR8677 Q04, 68
Wave function
GR8677 Q28, 81
Work
Constant Force, 15
Work-Energy Theorem, see Energy
X-Rays
GR8677 Q26, 79

2

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Chapter 1 Preface

04-15-2009 First Version

D

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Document Changes

FT

This solution guide initially started out on the Yahoo Groups web site and was pretty successful at the time. Unfortunately, the group was lost and with it, much of the the hard work that was put into it. This is my attempt to recreate the solution guide and make it more widely avaialble to everyone. If you see any errors, think certain things could be expressed more clearly, or would like to make suggestions, please feel free to do so. David Latchman

Latchman ©2009 RA FT .4 Preface D David S.

. . .1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . .5 Hooke’s Law . . . . .7 Central Forces and Celestial Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . 2. 2. . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . .2 Newton’s Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . .3 Work & Energy . . . . . . . . . .1 Equation for Simple Harmonic Motion 2. . . . . . . .4 Torque . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . .5 Rotational Motion about a Fixed Axis . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . .1 Linear Motion . . . . 3 13 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 16 16 16 16 16 17 17 19 20 20 20 20 20 20 21 21 21 21 21 D RA FT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Oscillatory Motion . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . .3 Total Energy of an Oscillating System . . . 2.7. . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. .3 Parallel Axis Theorem . . . . . . . . . .1 Newton’s Laws of Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . .3. . . . . . . . . 2. . .2 Rotational Kinetic Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Coupled Harmonic Oscillators . 2. .Contents 1 2 Preface Classical Mechanics 2. . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . .3 Work done under a constant Force . . . . . .2 Period of Simple Harmonic Motion . . . . . . . . .4. . . . .5. . . . . 2. . . . .7 Doppler Eﬀect . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . .1 Kinematics .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Kinetic Energy . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Angular Momentum . . .5.1 Center of Mass of a System of Particles 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Circular Motion . . .4 Potential Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Impulse . 2.6 Potential Energy of a Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.6 Dynamics of Systems of Particles . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . .4 Damped Harmonic Motion . . . . . .4. . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . .6 Kinetic Energy in Rolling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. 2. . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . 2. . . . . .5 Small Oscillations . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Moment of Inertia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. .6. 2. . . . . . .1. . 2. . . . . . .5. . . . . . . .3. 2. . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 The Work-Energy Theorem . . . . .

.1. . . . .8 AC Circuits . . . . . .6 Derivation of Vis-viva Equation . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . 3. . . . . . . . 2. . . . 3. . . . . .9.7. . . . . . . . . 23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . .1. . . . . .19 Kirchoﬀ’s Loop Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.16 Resistance and Ohm’s Law . 3. . .1 Lagrange’s Function (L) . .14 Current Destiny . . . . . .8 Three Dimensional Particle Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . .2 Electric Field of a point charge . . . . . . . . .11. . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . .9 Magnetic and Electric Fields in Matter . .1. .13 Current .3 Hamiltonian . 3. . . . . . . . .1 Coulomb’s Law . . . . . . . . 25 25 25 25 26 27 27 27 28 28 29 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 32 32 32 D David S. . . . . . . . .1. 23 . 2. .7. . . . . . . . .9 Electric Potential due to a line charge along axis 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Electric Field due to a line of charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 . . . . . . . . . 24 . . . . . .11. . . . . . 3. . . . . . .8 Electric Potential of a Point Charge . . . . .2 Equations of Motion(Euler-Lagrange Equation) 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Energy in a Capacitor . . . . . . . . . . 3. . .1. . . . .11 Hamiltonian and Lagrangian Formalism . . 24 . . . Latchman RA ©2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Kirchoﬀ’s Junction Rule . . . . . 3. . Contents . . . . . . . . . FT . . . . . . 2.15 Current Density of Moving Charges . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . .7. . . . .1. . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . .10 Non-inertial Reference Frames . . . . 3. . . . 23 .9.7 Electromagnetic Waves . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Kepler’s Laws . . . . . . . 3. 3. .5 Types of Orbits . . . . . . . . .12 Energy in an Electric Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Fluid Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . 24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 . .17 Resistivity and Conductivity . . . . . 2. . . . . 24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11. .1 Archimedes’ Principle . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . 3. . . . . . . 3.10 Capacitance . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Bernoulli’s Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 . .2 Equation of Continuity . . . . .3 Magnetic Fields in Free Space . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . .6 Maxwell’s Equations and their Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Electrostatics . . .4 Lorentz Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Electromagnetism 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Escape Speed and Orbits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Currents and DC Circuits . . 3. . .3 Gauss’ Law . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Potential Energy of a Gravitational Force . . . 2. 2. . . . 3. . . . . . . . 22 . . . .18 Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 . . 22 . . . . . .1. . . . . . . .6 Electric Field in a Solid Non-Conducting Sphere 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Electric Potential Energy . . . . . . . . .4 Equivalence of Coulomb’s Law and Gauss’ Law 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Induction . . . .

.22 Equipartition of Energy . . . . 4 Optics & Wave Phonomena 4. . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Ideal Gas Law . . . . . . . . . .9 Heat Capacity . 4. . . . . .2 Superposition . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Kinetic Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Internal Energy of a Monatomic gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Speciﬁc Heat Capacity . .23 Speed of Propagation of a Light Wave 3.2 Diﬀerential Form .22 Maxwell’s Equations . . . . .4 Ideal Gases . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . .14 Heat Conduction Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . .6 Ensembles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Molar Speciﬁc Heat at Constant Volume . . .8 Snell’s Law . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . .1 Laws of Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . .21 RC Circuits . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . 5. . . . . .1 Integral Form . . . . . 5. . . . FT David S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . .2 Critical Angle and Snell’s Law . . . . . . .Contents 3.3 Equations of State .8. . . . . . . . . 4. . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Translational Kinetic Energy . . .12. .7 Doppler Eﬀect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Thermodynamic Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Wave Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . .26 Poynting’s Vector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Statistical Concepts and Calculation of Thermodynamic Properties 5. . . . . . .4 Diﬀraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Latchman . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . .23 Adiabatic Expansion of an Ideal Gas . . . .22. . . . . . .17 RMS Speed of an Ideal Gas . . . . . 5.3 Interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . .8 Thermal Expansion & Heat Transfer .5 Geometrical Optics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.16 Stefan-Boltzmann’s Formula . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . .1 Snell’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 Relationship between E and B Fields . . . . . . . . . . .22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . .12 First Law of Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . .13 Work done by Ideal Gas at Constant Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Special Cases to the First Law of Thermodynamics . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Polarization . .21 Molar Speciﬁc Heat at Constant Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 32 32 32 33 33 33 33 33 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 36 36 36 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 38 38 38 38 38 38 38 39 39 39 40 40 40 40 40 41 41 41 D ©2009 RA 5 Thermodynamics & Statistical Mechanics 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Energy Density of an EM wave .11 Heat and Work . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . 5. . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . .3 Finite Square Well . . . . . . . RA FT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Atomic Structure . . . .2. . . . . . . Special Relativity 8. . .5.2 Zeeman Eﬀect . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . .5. . .2. . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ©2009 . . . . . . . 7. . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . .3 Wein’s Displacement Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Elementary Perturbation Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Black Body Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Relativistic Dynamics (Collisions) . . . .3 Franck-Hertz Experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . 8. . . 7. . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Quantum Mechanics 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 43 43 44 45 47 48 48 48 48 48 49 49 49 50 50 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 52 52 52 53 53 54 55 57 57 57 57 57 57 58 58 58 58 58 6 7 D 8 David S. . . . . . . . . .2 Lorentz Transformations (Momentum & Energy) 8. . . . .1 Plank Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Classical and Quantum Aspects of the Plank Equation 7. .4 Simultaneity . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Harmonic Oscillators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . 6. . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . .1 Introductory Concepts . . . . . . . . .4 Angular Momentum . .3 Energy Quantization . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 The Compton Eﬀect . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 X-Rays . . .24 Second Law of Thermodynamics . . . . 6. . . . . . 8. . . . . . .9. . . .1 Relativistic Momentum & Energy . . . . . . . . .9. . .2 Stefan-Boltzmann Formula . . . . . . . .1 Postulates of Special Relativity . . . . . . . . 6. 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Fundamental Concepts . . 7. . . . . . . . . . .6 Selection Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Contents 5. . . . . . .1 Inﬁnite Square Wells . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Atomic Spectra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Latchman Atomic Physics 7. . . . 7. . . . . . . .1 Rydberg’s Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . .1 Properties of Electrons . . . . . . . . . . .2 Schrodinger Equation . . . .7.8. . .5.2. . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Length Contraction . . .5 Energy and Momentum . . . . . . . . . . .2 Time Dilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Hydrogenic Atoms . . 7. . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . 8. . 7. .7. 7. . . .1 Bragg Condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Atoms in Electric and Magnetic Fields . . . . . . . . . .1 The Cyclotron Frequency . . . . . . . . . . 6.7. . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . 6. 7. . . ¨ 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Bohr Model . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . .2. . . . . . .3 Relativistic Kinetic Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Wave Funtion Symmetry . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Spin . .

11Vector Identities and Maxwell’s Laws . . .9 Current Density . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RA D ©2009 FT . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 . . . . . . .4 Wave Equation . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . .4 Counting Statistics . . . 9. . . . . . . . .17Radioactive Decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Addition and Subtraction . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . Latchman . . . . . . .8 Fundamental Applications of Probability and Statistics David S. .18Schrodinger’s Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Resolving Force Components . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12Doppler Equation (Non-Relativistic) . . . . . .19Energy Levels of Bohr’s Hydrogen Atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14Speciﬁc Heat at Constant Pressure and Volume 10. . . .23Conductivity of a Metal and Semi-Conductor . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . .5 Inelastic Collision and Putty Spheres . . . .20Relativistic Energy . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15Helium atoms in a box . . . . . . . . . . . .10Charge inside an Isolated Sphere . . . . . . . . . . .6 Motion of a Particle along a Track . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Satellite Orbits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . .2 Instrumentation . . . .(No Error in b) . . . .3 Exponent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. .24Charging a Battery .3 Radiation Detection . . . . . . 10. . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . .2 Multiplication and Division . . . . . Laboratory Methods 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Four-Vectors and Lorentz Transformation 8. . . 10. . . . . . . 9.21Space-Time Interval . .1. . . . . . ¨ 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Lorentz Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Lasers and Optical Interferometers . . . 9. . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . 10. . .7 Velocity Addition . 8. . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . .8 Nail being driven into a block of wood . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . .16The Muon . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Space-Time Interval . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . .1 Motion of Rock under Drag Force . .22Lorentz Transformation of the EM ﬁeld . . . . 9 59 60 60 60 61 63 63 63 63 63 63 64 65 65 65 65 65 66 66 67 67 68 68 68 69 70 70 71 71 72 73 73 73 73 74 75 75 75 76 76 77 77 78 78 10 GR8677 Exam Solutions 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.5 Interaction of Charged Particles with Matter . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13Vibrating Interference Pattern . . 10. . 10. . . . . . . .5 Antilogs . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . .7 Dimensional Analysis . .4 Logarithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . .3 Speed of Light in a Dielectric Medium . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1 Data and Error Analysis . . . . . . . . .Contents 8. . . . 9. . . . . . . .8 Relativistic Doppler Formula . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . .47Franck-Hertz Experiment . Angular Frequency . . . . 94 . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . .68Particle moving at Light Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 10. . . . . . . 89 . 10. 78 . . . 91 . . 10. . 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 . .31Photoelectric Eﬀect I . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 . . . . . . . . . . . 83 . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . 81 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33Photoelectric Eﬀect III . . . .50Hall Eﬀect . . . . .57Eigenfuction of Wavefunction . . . . . . . .35Hamiltonian of a Body . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . .44Collision with a Rod . . . . 10. 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 . . 10. .45Compton Wavelength . . . . .25Lorentz Force on a Charged Particle . . . . . . . . 10. . . . 87 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . 10. 87 . . . 84 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69Car and Garage I . 10. . . . . . . . . 87 . . . . . .56Expectation or Mean Value . 95 . . . . . . . .62Rocket Equation II . . 82 . .39Gain of an Ampliﬁer vs. . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . .58Holograms . . . 95 . 10. 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 . . .26K-Series X-Rays . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28Normalizing a wavefunction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 . . . . . . 84 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. 10.53EM Radiation from Oscillating Charges . . 10. . . . . . 97 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 . 10. . . . . . . . 88 . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . .51Debye and Einstein Theories to Speciﬁc Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63Surface Charge Density . . . 81 . . 93 . . . . . . 82 . Latchman RA FT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 . . . . . .30Electron Conﬁguration of a Potassium atom . . . . . . . . .43Coupled Oscillators . . . . . . . . .67Partition Functions . . . 85 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 ©2009 D David S. . . . . . . . . . . . .36Principle of Least Action . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 . . 85 . . . .34Potential Energy of a Body . . . . . . 10. . . . .49The Hamilton Operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 . . . 79 . . . . . 10. . . .65Magnetic Field far away from a Current carrying Loop 10. . .66Maxwell’s Relations . . . . . .43. . . . . . . . . 10.52Potential inside a Hollow Cube . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . Contents . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . 79 . . . . . 87 . . . 10.54Polarization Charge Density . . . 10. . . . . . . . . 94 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38Diode OR-gate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Calculating the modes of oscillation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . 94 . . . . . . . . . .41Binding Energy per Nucleon . . . . . . 81 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29Right Hand Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 . .32Photoelectric Eﬀect II . . . . . . . . . .27Electrons and Spin . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. .61Rocket Equation I . . . . . . . . . . . . .40Counting Statistics . . . . . .64Maximum Power Theorem . . . . . . . . 10.46Stefan-Boltzmann’s Equation . . . . . . . . . . 85 . 10.60Potential Energy and Simple Harmonic Motion .48Selection Rules for Electronic Transitions . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . 85 . . . 90 . . . . . . . . .59Group Velocity of a Wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . .55Kinetic Energy of Electrons in Metals . . . . . . . . . .37Tension in a Conical Pendulum . . . . . . . 82 . . . . . . . . . 90 . 84 . . . . . . . . . . . . .42Scattering Cross Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . A. .75Geosynchronous Satellite Orbit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72Refrective Index of Rock Salt and X-rays . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RA . . . . . . . . .97Colliding Discs and the Conservation of Angular Momentum 10.96First Order Perturbation Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . 10. . . .79Maxwell’s Equations and Magnetic Monopoles . . . . .81Biot-Savart Law . . . . . .1 Lie-algebra Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . David S.82Zeeman Eﬀect and the emission spectrum of atomic gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . Latchman . . . . .100 he Pinhole Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.74Law of Malus . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . .1 Triple Products . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91Bragg’s Law . . . 10. . .99Ground State of a Positronium Atom . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . 10. .92Selection Rules for Electronic Transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94RL Circuits . . . . . . . . 11 97 98 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 104 105 105 106 106 106 107 107 108 108 109 109 110 111 113 114 114 115 115 117 117 117 117 118 118 118 118 118 118 118 118 FT . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88Fermion and Boson Pressure . . . . . 10. . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . 10. . . . . 10. A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . .80Gauss’ Law . . . . . .1 Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. .76Hoop Rolling down and Inclined Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87Equipartition of Energy and Diatomic Molecules . . . . . . .2 Product Rules . .85Photon Interaction Cross Sections for Pb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86The Ice Pail Experiment .70Car and Garage II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . .1 Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Second Derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . 10. . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98Electrical Potential of a Long Thin Rod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contents 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77Simple Harmonic Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Vector Identities . . . . . . . . .2 Canonical Commutator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71Car and Garage III . . 10. . . . . . . .73Thin Flim Non-Reﬂective Coatings . . . .90Energy Eigenstates . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Commutators . . . . .89Wavefunction of Two Identical Particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . .4 Linear Algebra . . . . 10. .78Total Energy between Two Charges . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . .84Term Symbols & Spectroscopic Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . 10. . . . . 10. . . . . . . . .95Carnot Cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Kronecker Delta Function A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . T . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .D ©2009 A Constants & Important Equations A. . . . . .2. . .93Moving Belt Sander on a Rough Plane . . . . . .83Spectral Lines in High Density and Low Density Gases . . . . . . . . .

12 Contents D David S. Latchman ©2009 RA FT .

1 Kinematics (2.1. a radial acceleration must be applied.7) .Chapter 2 Classical Mechanics 2. for a particle to move in a circular path.2) Kinematic Equations of Motion The basic kinematic equations of motion under constant acceleration.1 Linear Motion Average Velocity v= Instantaneous Velocity ∆x x2 − x1 = ∆t t2 − t1 FT v2 r 2. This acceleration is known as the Centripetal Acceleration Centripetal Acceleration (2.6) v2 = v2 + 2a (x − x0 ) 0 1 x − x0 = v0 t + at2 2 1 x − x0 = (v + v0 ) t 2 D 2.2 Circular Motion In the case of Uniform Circular Motion. a.4) (2.1.5) (2.3) (2.1) RA v = lim v = v0 + at a= ∆x dx = = v(t) ∆t→0 ∆t dt (2. are (2.

15) RA p = mv ∆p = J = FT Fdt = Favg dt (2.14) D 2.1 Newton’s Laws of Motion First Law A body continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion unless acted upon by an external unbalanced force.3 Impulse David S.2 Momentum 2.7) in terms of ω a = ω2 r Rotational Equations of Motion v r Classical Mechanics (2.13) 2.14 Angular Velocity ω= We can write (Equation 2.16) (2.8) (2. are ω = ω0 + αt ω + ω0 t θ= 2 1 θ = ω0 t + αt2 2 2 2 ω = ω0 + 2αθ (2.10) (2. Latchman Third Law When a particle A exerts a force on another particle B. Second Law The net force on a body is proportional to its rate of change of momentum.12) (2. B simultaneously exerts a force on A with the same magnitude in the opposite direction. α.2. F= dp = ma dt (2.2 Newton’s Laws 2.2.11) (2.9) The equations of motion under a constant angular acceleration.17) ©2009 .2. FAB = −FBA (2.

3. we have (2. (2. this becomes FT xf (2.21) RA W= F(x)dx xi For a non-constant force.3.26) David S.3 Work & Energy 1 K ≡ mv2 2 2.18) 2.22) 2. the potential energy is F(x) = − x (2.3.25) 2.20) W = F · ∆r = F∆r cos θ (2.5 Hooke’s Law ©2009 dU(x) dx for conservative forces.6 Potential Energy of a Spring 1 U(x) = kx2 2 (2.3.2 The Work-Energy Theorem The net Work done is given by Wnet = K f − Ki (2.19) 2.1 Kinetic Energy (2.3.3 Work done under a constant Force The work done by a force can be expressed as W = F∆x In three dimensions.3.4 Potential Energy The Potential Energy is D 2.23) U(x) = U0 − x0 F(x )dx (2. Latchman .Work & Energy 15 2.24) F = −kx where k is the spring constant.

1 Equation for Simple Harmonic Motion where the Amplitude.2 Period of Simple Harmonic Motion T= 2π ω (2.31) The Potential Energy is D David S.32) gives (2. is the angle by which the motion is shifted from equilibrium at t = 0.4.28) Given that x = A sin (ωt + δ) E = KE + PE FT 2. A.3 Total Energy of an Oscillating System (2. measures the displacement from equilibrium.4. The equation of motion for a damped oscillating system becomes dx d2 x − kx − b = m 2 (2.34) dt where b is the damping coeﬃcient. 2.4 Damped Harmonic Motion dx (2. Latchman (2. the phase.31) and (Equation 2.27) 2.30) The Kinetic Energy is RA 1 E = kA2 2 Fd = −bv = −b 1 KE = mv2 2 1 dx = m 2 dt 1 = mA2 ω2 cos2 (ωt + δ) 2 1 U = kx2 2 1 = kA2 sin2 (ωt + δ) 2 (2. δ.33) 2.4 Oscillatory Motion x(t) = A sin (ωt + δ) (2.32) Adding (Equation 2.35) dt dt ©2009 .4.16 Classical Mechanics 2.29) and that the Total Energy of a System is (2.4.

42 is that of simple harmonic motion. . x1 ≤ x ≤ x2 .4. We see that Equation 2.Oscillatory Motion Solving(Equation 2. the potential can be approximated by the Taylor Expansion V(x) = V(xe ) + (x − xe ) d2 V(x) 1 + (x − xe )2 2 dx2 2 + ··· x=xe (2. For small displacements.42) (2.35) goves x = Ae−αt sin (ω t + δ) We ﬁnd that α= ω = = = b 2m k b2 − m 4m2 ω2 − 0 b2 4m2 17 (2. the derivative dV/dx is zero and d V/dx2 is positive. 2.4.6 Coupled Harmonic Oscillators Consider the case of a simple pendulum of length. v(x) = FT x=xe (2.44) ©2009 David S.36) (2.43) As V(xe ) is constant.39) RA dV(x) dx V(x) k≡ d2 V(x) dx2 x=xe 2 (E − V(x)) (2.40) m where E ≥ V(x) Let the particle move in the potential valley. it has no consequences to physical motion and can be dropped. Latchman . the equation of motion is ¨ θ + ω0 θ = 0 Add ﬁgure with coupled pendulum-spring system (2.5 Small Oscillations The Energy of a system is 1 E = K + V(x) = mv(x)2 + V(x) 2 We can solve for v(x).41) At the points of inﬂection.38) 2. and the mass of the bob is m1 .37) ω2 − α2 0 (2. This means that the potential energy for small oscillations becomes D where 1 1 V(xe ) + k(x − xe )2 2 ≥0 (2.

45) (2.57) ©2009 .44 becomes ¨ y + ω0 y = 0 mg Classical Mechanics (2. Latchman y1 = cos(ωt + δ1 ) y2 = B cos(ωt + δ2 ) ¨ ¨ y1 = −ωy1 y2 = −ωy2 (2.50) The equations of motion are ¨ m y1 = −ky1 + κ y2 − y1 ¨ m y2 = −ky2 + κ y2 − y1 (2. x and y. The equations of motion can be derived from the Lagrangian.55) We can get solutions from solving the determinant of the matrix (2.46) (2.53) ¨ ¨ Substituting the values for y1 and y2 into the equations of motion yields k + κ − mω2 y1 − κy2 = 0 −κy1 + k + κ − mω2 y2 = 0 (2.18 We can express this in cartesian coordinates. where x = cos θ ≈ y = sin θ ≈ θ Equation 2. where L=T−V 1 1 ˙1 ˙ = m y2 + m y2 − 2 2 2 1 ˙ ˙ = m y1 2 + y2 2 − 2 1 2 1 1 2 ky1 + κ y2 − y1 + ky2 2 2 2 2 1 2 k y2 + y2 + κ y2 − y1 2 1 2 FT −κ =0 k + κ − mω2 (2.52) We assume solutions for the equations of motion to be of the form D David S.48) This allows us to to create an equivalent three spring system to our coupled pendulum system.47) This is the equivalent to the mass-spring system where the spring constant is k = mω2 = 0 (2.49) We can ﬁnd the equations of motion of our system ∂L d ∂L = ˙ dt ∂ yn ∂yn RA k + κ − mω2 −κ mω2 2 (2.56) Solving the determinant gives − 2mω2 (k + κ) + k2 + 2kκ = 0 (2.54) (2.51) (2.

63) The frequency change is (2.64) David S. Moving Source If a source is moving towards an observer. a receiver moving with respect to the medium or a moving medium.60) (2.59) Substituting this into the equation of motion yields We see that the masses move in phase with each other. It is being stretched and compressed as our masses oscillate. In this case we see the presence of the spring constant.7 Doppler Eﬀect The Doppler Eﬀect is the shift in frequency and wavelength of waves that results from a source moving with respect to the medium. the spring isn’t stretching or compressing and hence its absence in our result. D ©2009 2.58) We can now determine exactly how the masses move with each mode by substituting ω2 into the equations of motion. You will also notice the absense of the spring constant term. κ. for the connecting spring.62) Here the masses move out of phase with each other. it moves a distance of vs τ0 = vs / f0 . The wavelength is decreased by (2. which is expected as the spring playes a role.61) Substituting this into the equation of motion yields (2. τ0 . then in one period. As the masses are moving in step. Where ω2 = k We see that m k + κ − mω2 = κ (2. Latchman . κ.Oscillatory Motion This yields  g  k   =   m ω2 =  k + 2κ  g 2κ   = +  m m 19 (2. ω2 = k+κ We see that m RA y1 = −y2 λ =λ− f = k + κ − mω2 = −κ FT vs v − vs − f0 f0 v v = f0 λ v − vs y1 = y2 (2.4.

Latchman .69) 2.74) 2. The observer measures a modiﬁed wave speed.20 Classical Mechanics Moving Observer As the observer moves.5.68) f = FT v v − vr = f0 λ v − vs R2 dm dL dt To give a modiﬁed frequency of (2.70) 2.5.65) The modiﬁed frequency becomes f = vr v = f0 1 + λ v (2.2 Rotational Kinetic Energy (2.73) (2. v = v + |vr | (2.71) 2.5.72) (2. as if at rest but will see the wave crests pass by more quickly.5.4 Torque where α is the angular acceleration.75) (2. λ.3 Parallel Axis Theorem D 2.5 Angular Momentum (2.1 Moment of Inertia I= RA 1 K = Iω2 2 I = Icm + Md2 τ=r×F τ = Iα L = Iω τ= (2.5.5 Rotational Motion about a Fixed Axis 2. he will measure the same wavelength. (2.66) Moving Source and Moving Observer We can combine the above two equations v − vs λ = (2.76) ©2009 we can ﬁnd the Torque David S.67) f0 v = v − vr (2.

Dynamics of Systems of Particles

21

2.5.6 Kinetic Energy in Rolling
With respect to the point of contact, the motion of the wheel is a rotation about the point of contact. Thus 1 K = Krot = Icontact ω2 (2.77) 2 Icontact can be found from the Parallel Axis Theorem. Icontact = Icm + MR2 Substitute (Equation 2.77) and we have 1 Icm + MR2 ω2 2 1 1 = Icm ω2 + mv2 (2.79) 2 2 The kinetic energy of an object rolling without slipping is the sum of hte kinetic energy of rotation about its center of mass and the kinetic energy of the linear motion of the object. K= (2.78)

2.6

Dynamics of Systems of Particles

Position Vector of a System of Particles R=

RA
V= A= F=− GMm ˆ r r2

2.6.1 Center of Mass of a System of Particles

m1 r1 + m2 r2 + m3 r3 + · · · + mN rN M

FT

(2.80)

Velocity Vector of a System of Particles

D
2.7

dR dt m1 v1 + m2 v2 + m3 v3 + · · · + mN vN = M

(2.81)

Acceleration Vector of a System of Particles dV dt m1 a1 + m2 a2 + m3 a3 + · · · + mN aN = M

(2.82)

Central Forces and Celestial Mechanics

2.7.1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation
(2.83) David S. Latchman

22

Classical Mechanics GMm r

2.7.2 Potential Energy of a Gravitational Force
U(r) = − (2.84)

2.7.3 Escape Speed and Orbits
The energy of an orbiting body is E=T+U 1 GMm = mv2 − 2 r The escape speed becomes

(2.85)

FT
2GM Re T2 =C R3 GM r

1 GMm E = mv2 − =0 esc 2 RE Solving for vesc we ﬁnd

(2.86)

vesc =

(2.87)

2.7.4 Kepler’s Laws

First Law The orbit of every planet is an ellipse with the sun at a focus. Second Law A line joining a planet and the sun sweeps out equal areas during equal intervals of time. Third Law The square of the orbital period of a planet is directly proportional to the cube of the semi-major axis of its orbit. (2.88)

D
David S. Latchman

where C is a constant whose value is the same for all planets.

2.7.5 Types of Orbits
The Energy of an Orbiting Body is deﬁned in (Equation 2.85), we can classify orbits by their eccentricities. Circular Orbit A circular orbit occurs when there is an eccentricity of 0 and the orbital energy is less than 0. Thus 1 2 GM v − =E<0 2 r The Orbital Velocity is v= (2.90) ©2009 (2.89)

RA

Three Dimensional Particle Dynamics 23 Elliptic Orbit An elliptic orbit occurs when the eccentricity is between 0 and 1 but the speciﬁc energy is negative, so the object remains bound. v= where a is the semi-major axis Parabolic Orbit A Parabolic Orbit occurs when the eccentricity is equal to 1 and the orbital velocity is the escape velocity. This orbit is not bounded. Thus 1 2 GM v − =E=0 2 r (2.92) GM 2 1 − r a (2.91)

v = vesc =

FT
2GM r GM a GMm 2a 2 1 − r a

The Orbital Velocity is

(2.93)

Hyperbolic Orbit In the Hyperbolic Orbit, the eccentricity is greater than 1 with an orbital velocity in excess of the escape velocity. This orbit is also not bounded. v∞ = (2.94)

2.7.6 Derivation of Vis-viva Equation
The total energy of a satellite is

RA
1 GMm E = mv2 − 2 r E=− v2 = GM

(2.95)

For an elliptical or circular orbit, the speciﬁc energy is

D
Equating we get

(2.96)

(2.97)

2.8 2.9

Three Dimensional Particle Dynamics Fluid Dynamics

2.9.1 Archimedes’ Principle
When an object is fully or partially immersed, the buoyant force is equal to the weight of ﬂuid displaced. ©2009 David S. Latchman

9.3 Bernoulli’s Equation 1 P + ρv2 + ρgh = a constant 2 (2.3 Hamiltonian (2.11.101) 2.11. Latchman (2.10 2.99) 2.2 Equation of Continuity 2. 2.100) where T is the Kinetic Energy and V is the Potential Energy in terms of Generalized Coordinates.102) where D David S.1 Lagrange’s Function (L) (2.9.104) ©2009 .11.24 Classical Mechanics ρ1 v1 A1 = ρ2 v2 A2 (2.103) (2.2 Equations of Motion(Euler-Lagrange Equation) RA H =T+V ˙ ˙ = pq − L(q. q) ∂H ˙ =q ∂p ∂L ∂H =− ∂q ∂x ˙ = −p ∂L d ∂L = ˙ ∂q dt ∂q (2.11 Non-inertial Reference Frames Hamiltonian and Lagrangian Formalism L=T−V FT 2.98) 2.

q0 .5) i=1 . F.3) q0 The Electric Field of a point charge. q1 and q2 is deﬁned by Coulomb’s Law.4) In the case of multiple point charges. F E≡ (3. qi . acting on a test charge.1 Coulomb’s Law The force between two charged particles.1) 0 is the permitivitty of free space. F12 = where 1 4π q1 q2 r2 12 r12 ˆ (3.2) 3. where 0 RA E= 1 q r ˆ 4π 0 r2 1 E(r) = 4π n 0 = 8. the electric ﬁeld becomes qi r2 i ri ˆ (3.85 × 10−12 C2 N.1 Electrostatics (3.1.1. q is (3.m2 FT 0 3.2 Electric Field of a point charge D The electric ﬁeld is deﬁned by mesuring the magnitide and direction of an electric force.Chapter 3 Electromagnetism 3.

λ= The Electric Field of a line charge becomes E(r) = 1 4π λ rdx ˆ r2 (3.6) 0 If the charge was distributed along a line with linear charge density.14) .26 Electric Fields and Continuous Charge Distributions Electromagnetism If a source is distributed continuously along a region of space. E · dA = where Q is the charge enclosed by our surface. λ.11) ρ= V dV The Electric Field is ρ 1 E(r) = (3.10) D 3.9) σ= A dA The electric ﬁeld along the surface becomes RA E(r) = 0 Surface Volume 1 4π FT line 0 σ rdA ˆ r2 (3. σ dq Q = (3.5 becomes E(r) = 1 4π 1 rdq ˆ r2 (3. Equation 3. V. the surface charge density is. Latchman In the case where the charge is distributed throughout a volume.3 Gauss’ Law David S.7) In the case where the charge is distributed along a surface. the volume charge density is dq Q = (3. ©2009 Q 0 (3.8) dq dx (3.1.12) rdV ˆ 4π 0 r2 The electric ﬁeld through a surface is Φ= surface S dΦ = surface S E · dA (3.13) The electric ﬂux through a closed surface encloses a net charge.

RA Φ= E · dA = E side sirface At the top and bottom surfaces.1.20) The area in this case is the surface area of the side of the cylinder.Electrostatics 27 3. 2πrh. The electric ﬁeld becomes E= λ 2π 0 r (3.16) q 0 (3.19) Thus the ﬂux becomes.17) bottom surface At the side. the electric ﬁeld is parallel to the area vector.1. D ©2009 Φ = 2πrhE (3.22) 3. R.15) 3.6 Electric Field in a Solid Non-Conducting Sphere Within our non-conducting sphere or radius. λ. so for the top and bottom surfaces. we see that the electric ﬁeld is E= q 4π 0 r2 (3. Q is evenly distributed throughout the sphere’s volume.23) V πR3 3 David S. we see that Φ = q/ 0 .4 Equivalence of Coulomb’s Law and Gauss’ Law The total ﬂux through a sphere is E · dA = E(4πr2 ) = From the above. E · dA = 0 (3.21) Applying Gauss’ Law. The ﬂux through a Gaussian cylinder enclosing the line of charge is (3.5 Electric Field due to a line of charge Φ= top surface E · dA + FT E · dA + E · dA side surface Consider an inﬁnite rod of constant charge density. So the charge density of our sphere is Q Q ρ= = 4 (3.18) dA (3. we will assume that the total charge.1. Latchman . thus E · dA = EdA (3. the electric ﬁeld is perpendicular to the area vector.

Latchman (3. The diﬀerence between two potentials can be expressed such b a V(b) − V(a) = − b E·d + E·d a E·d (3.27) D David S.28) And we can see that RA V(r) = 1 q 4π 0 r V(r) = − C U(r) = 1 qq0 r 4π 0 (3.28 The Electric Field due to a charge Q is E= Q 4π 0 r2 Electromagnetism (3.30) where C is any path. We can use this to determine the ﬁeld inside the sphere by summing the eﬀect of inﬁnitesimally thin spherical shells E r E= 0 dE = = ρ 0 dq 4π r2 r FT dr 0 0 = Qr 4 π 0 R3 3 (3. E would be E·d (3.31) ©2009 =− . It can be expressed thus U(r) = qV(r) (3. starting at a chosen point of zero potential to our desired point.25) where dV = 4πr2 dr.7 Electric Potential Energy 3.1.29) A more proper deﬁnition that includes the electric ﬁeld.1.26) 3.24) As the charge is evenly distributed throughout the sphere’s volume we can say that the charge density is dq = ρdV (3.8 Electric Potential of a Point Charge The electrical potential is the potential energy per unit charge that is associated with a static electrical ﬁeld.

37) D ©2009 where x1 and x2 are the distances from O. . with linear charge density.38) 1 2 David S. from the axis of the rod of length.9 Electric Potential due to a line charge along axis Let us consider a rod of length. We again look at Equation 3.34) dq = λdx (3.Electrostatics This can be further expressed b 29 V(b) − V(a) = a ( V) · d (3. λ. Latchman . the end of the rod. we get the electrical potential at some distance x along the rod’s axis.35) Substituting this into the above equation. where r is the distance of the point P from the rod’s axis.1.34. dq r λdx 0 0 x2 + y2 1 2 1 2 λ ln x + x2 + y2 4π 0 λ = ln + 2 + y2 4π 0   λ  + 2 + y2  = ln   4π 0  d 0 1 2 − ln y        (3.33) 3.36) This becomes (3. Now consider that we are some distance.32) And we can show that E=− V (3. . The Electrical Potential due to a continuous distribution is V= The charge density is dV = FT 0 1 4π dq r (3. y. RA dV = 1 dq 4π 0 x 1 λdx = 4π 0 x λ x2 ln 4π 0 x1 V= V= = = 1 4π 1 4π 0 (3. with the origin at the start of the rod.

9 9 Magnetic and Electric Fields in Matter 3.2 2 Currents and DC Circuits 3. Latchman RA 3.4 4 Lorentz Force 3.5 5 Induction 6 3.6 Maxwell’s Equations and their Applications FT .10 Capacitance Q = CV (3.39) ©2009 David S.3 3 Magnetic Fields in Free Space 3.7 7 Electromagnetic Waves D 3.30 Electromagnetism 3.8 8 AC Circuits 3.

43) 3.45) Resistivity and Conductivity (3.47) (3.12 Energy in an Electric Field 3.14 Current Destiny (3.41) (3.15 Current Density of Moving Charges (3. Latchman .40) 3.48) David S.16 3.13 Current I≡ FT 2 dQ dt J · dA A U u≡ = volume 0E 2 (3.44) D 3.11 Energy in a Capacitor U= Q2 2C CV 2 = 2 QV = 2 (3.46) (3.42) RA I= J= I = ne qvd A R≡ V I R=ρ L A E = ρJ J = σE 3.17 ©2009 Resistance and Ohm’s Law (3.Energy in a Capacitor 31 3.

32

Electromagnetism

3.18

Power
P = VI (3.49)

3.19

Kirchoﬀ’s Loop Rules

Write Here

3.20

Kirchoﬀ’s Junction Rule

3.21

RC Circuits

E − IR −

FT
Q =0 C E · dA = Q
0

Write Here

(3.50)

3.22

Maxwell’s Equations

3.22.1 Integral Form

Gauss’ Law for Electric Fields

RA
closed surface closed surface

(3.51)

D
Amp` re’s Law e Faraday’s Law David S. Latchman

Gauss’ Law for Magnetic Fields B · dA = 0 (3.52)

B · ds = µ0 I + µ0

0

d dt

E · dA
surface

(3.53)

E · ds = −

d dt

B · dA
surface

(3.54)

Speed of Propagation of a Light Wave

33

3.22.2 Diﬀerential Form
Gauss’ Law for Electric Fields ·E= Gauss’ Law for Magnetism Amp` re’s Law e × B = µ0 J + µ0 Faraday’s Law ·E=− ∂B ∂t
0

ρ
0

(3.55)

·B=0 ∂E ∂t

(3.56)

(3.57)

(3.58)

3.23

Speed of Propagation of a Light Wave
c= √ 1 µ0
0

FT
0E 2

(3.59)

In a material with dielectric constant, κ,

RA
E = cB E·B=0 u= 1 B2 + 2 µ0 S= 1 E×B µ0

√ c c κ= n

(3.60)

where n is the refractive index.

3.24

Relationship between E and B Fields
(3.61) (3.62)

D
3.25 3.26

Energy Density of an EM wave
(3.63)

Poynting’s Vector
(3.64)

David S. Latchman

34

Electromagnetism

D

RA

FT

3 3 Interference 4.1 Wave Properties .5 5 Geometrical Optics 4.6 6 Polarization 4.7 7 Doppler Eﬀect RA FT 4.4 4 Diﬀraction D 4.Chapter 4 Optics & Wave Phonomena 1 4.2 2 Superposition 4.

2 Critical Angle and Snell’s Law The critical angle. for the boundary seperating two optical media is the smallest angle of incidence.8. From Equation 4. θ1 = 90 and θ2 = θc and n2 > n1 . n1 sin 90 = n2 sinθc n1 sin θc = n2 D David S.1) 4. for which light is totally refelected.36 Optics & Wave Phonomena 4.1 Snell’s Law 4.1. θc . Latchman ©2009 RA FT (4. in the medium of greater index.8 Snell’s Law n1 sin θ1 = n2 sin θ2 (4.2) .8.

Chapter 5 Thermodynamics & Statistical Mechanics 5.5 5 Kinetic Theory 5.3 3 Equations of State D 5.4 4 Ideal Gases 5.2 Thermodynamic Processes FT .1 1 Laws of Thermodynamics 2 5.6 6 Ensembles RA 5.

3) 5. positive W.12. Latchman where dEint is the internal energy of the system. 5.38 Thermodynamics & Statistical Mechanics 5. 5.2) where c is the speciﬁc heat capacity and m is the mass.9 Heat Capacity where C is the Heat Capacity and T f and Ti are the ﬁnal and initial temperatures respectively. if work is done by the system. there is a decrease in the internal energy of the system.10 Speciﬁc Heat Capacity Q = cm T f − ti FT Vf Q = C T f − Ti (5. Thus dQ = 0.1 Special Cases to the First Law of Thermodynamics Adiabatic Process During an adiabatic process. negative W.1) (5.4) D David S.12 First Law of Thermodynamics dEint = dQ − dW (5. dQ is the Energy added to the system and dW is the work done by the system.5) If work is done on the system.11 Heat and Work RA W= PdV Vi (5. 5. Conversely. ©2009 .7 7 Statistical Concepts and Calculation of Thermodynamic Properties 5. the system is insulated such that there is no heat transfer between the system and its environment. then there is an increase in its internal energy. so ∆Eint = −W (5.8 8 Thermal Expansion & Heat Transfer 5.

11.9) 5.14 Heat Conduction Equation The rate of heat transferred.6) If heat is added to the system. no work is done on or by the system. Ideal Gas Law PV = nRT (5. after certain interchanges of heat and work. Equation 5.8) (5. to get RA W = nRT Vi = nRT ln FT dV V Vf Vi Free Expansion In this process. is given by D 5. if heat is removed from the system the temperature decreases. the system comes back to its initial state.Work done by Ideal Gas at Constant Temperature 39 Constant Volume (Isochoric) Process If the volume is held constant. then the system can do no work. δW = 0. So ∆Eint remains the same.15 where ©2009 H= Q TH − TC = kA t L (5. the temperature increases.13 Work done by Ideal Gas at Constant Temperature Vf Starting with Equation 5. H. thus ∆Eint = Q (5.7) 5. Closed Cycle In this situation. Latchman . ∆Eint = 0 (5. thus ∆Q = ∆W The work done by the system is equal to the heat or energy put into it. we substitute the Ideal gas Law.10) where k is the thermal conductivity. Thus ∆Q = ∆W = 0. (5.11) n = Number of moles P = Pressure V = Volume T = Temperature David S.3. Conversely.

such that R ≈ 8.18) Let us deﬁne.16 Stefan-Boltzmann’s Formula 5.13) (5. K We can rewrite the Ideal gas Law to say PV = NkT where k is the Boltzmann’s Constant.12) 5.14) RA ¯ 3 K = kT 2 3 Eint = nRT 2 Q = nCV ∆T CV = 5.40 Thermodynamics & Statistical Mechanics and R is the Universal Gas Constant.19 Internal Energy of a Monatomic gas (5.15) 5.16) D David S. CV such that Substituting into the First Law of Thermodynamics. Latchman 5.17) (5.381 × 10−23 J/K NA (5.20 Molar Speciﬁc Heat at Constant Volume (5.314 J/mol.16). we get 3 CV = R = 12.5 J/mol.K 2 (5. and we get (5. W = 0.18 Translational Kinetic Energy (5.20) ©2009 . such that k= R ≈ 1.17 RMS Speed of an Ideal Gas vrms = 3RT M FT 1 ∆Eint n ∆T P(T) = σT4 (5. we have ∆Eint + W = nCV ∆T At constant volume.19) Substituting (Equation 5.

25) 5.23) where f is the number of degrees of freedom.Molar Speciﬁc Heat at Constant Pressure 41 5.1: Table of Molar Speciﬁc Heats 5.23 Adiabatic Expansion of an Ideal Gas PV γ = a constant (5. ©2009 David S. Table 5.22) 5.21 Molar Speciﬁc Heat at Constant Pressure Q = nCp ∆T (5.24) D CP where γ = CV . Latchman .21) Starting with and ∆Eint = Q − W ⇒ nCV ∆T = nCp ∆T + nR∆T ∴ CV = Cp − R (5.16 f J/mol.22 Equipartition of Energy CV = FT f R = 4.K 2 (5.24 Second Law of Thermodynamics Something. We can also write RA TV γ−1 = a constant Degrees of Freedom Predicted Molar Speciﬁc Heats Molecule Translational Rotational Total ( f ) CV CP = CV + R 3 5 Monatomic 3 0 3 R R 2 2 5 7 R R Diatomic 3 2 5 2 2 Polyatomic 3 3 6 3R 4R (5.

Latchman ©2009 RA FT .42 Thermodynamics & Statistical Mechanics D David S.

we get Ψ = Ae− i(Et−px) RA H =T+V p2 ∂2 Ψ = − 2Ψ ∂x2 ∂Ψ iE = Ψ ∂t H= p2 +V 2m EΨ = HΨ EΨ = − ∂Ψ i ∂t p2 Ψ = − Ψ = Ae−iω(t− v ) x FT 2∂ 6. (6.1) (6.4) (6.5) (6.7) Ψ ∂x2 2 . p. and momentum.2 Schrodinger Equation ¨ Let us deﬁne Ψ to be Simplifying in terms of Energy.2) We obtain Schrodinger’s Equation from the Hamiltonian ¨ (6.Chapter 6 Quantum Mechanics 1 6. E.1 Fundamental Concepts (6.6) (6.3) D and This becomes To determine E and p.

10) This diﬀerential is of the form (6. is assigned to the system such that the kinetic energy of the particle is E.1 Inﬁnite Square Wells Let us consider a particle trapped in an inﬁnite potential well of size a.8) The Time Independent Schrodinger’s Equation is ¨ EΨ = − ∂2 Ψ + V(x)Ψ 2m ∂x2 2 (6. we substitute ¨ V(x) and in the region (−a/2. Classically. Latchman cos kx As the particle is conﬁned in the region 0 < x < a. An energy. such that for 0 < x < a for |x| > a.9. a/2).2. ψ(0) = ψ(a) = 0 (6. E. we say ψ(x) = A cos kx + B sin kx 0 We have known boundary conditions for our square well.13) ⇒ A cos 0 + B sin 0 = 0 ∴A=0 (6. Equation 6.12) We recognize that possible solutions will be of the form D It shows that David S.9) 6. we get RA − d2 ψ + k2 ψ = 0 2 dx k= 2mE 2 d2 ψ = Eψ 2m dx2 2 FT and sin kx for 0 < x < a for |x| > a V(x) = 0 ∞ (6. any motion is forbidden outside of the well because the inﬁnite value of V exceeds any possible choice of E. so that a nonvanishing force acts only at ±a/2. Recalling the Schrodinger Time Independent Equation.14) ©2009 .11) where (6.44 The Time Dependent Schrodinger’s Equation is ¨ 2 2 ∂Ψ ∂Ψ i =− + V(x)Ψ 2m ∂x2 ∂t Quantum Mechanics (6.

The equation of motion can be summed us as (6. π.16) (6.23) David S.2. so we ignore this result and say kn = nπ a for n = 1. 3π. n can be zero.12 gives √ 2mEn nπ kn = = a (6. 3.20) So the force experienced by this particle is (6. that would mean there would be no wave function. 2π.2 Harmonic Oscillators D ©2009 Classically.15) While mathematically.19) 6.21) where k is the spring constant.18) So we can write the wave function as (6. · · · Solving for En gives n2 π2 2 2ma2 We cna now solve for B by normalizing the function En = a 0 FT a =1 2 nπx 2 sin a a dV = −kx dx Substituting this result into Equation 6. · · · 45 (6.17) |B|2 sin2 kxdx = |A|2 So |A|2 = 2 a RA ψn (x) = 1 V(x) = kx2 2 F=− m d2 x = −kx dt2 x(t) = A cos ω0 t + φ (6.Schr¨ dinger Equation o We are now left with B sin ka = 0 ka = 0.22) And the solution of this equation is (6. the harmonic oscillator has a potential energy of (6. 2. Latchman .

24) The Quantum Mechanical description on the harmonic oscillator is based on the eigenfunction solutions of the time-independent Schrodinger’s equation. we get √  d2 ψ  mk 2 2E = x −  √  2 mk dx  m  ψ  k This step allows us to to keep some of constants out of the way. allows us to say √ mk 2E 2 =λ (6. From Equation 6. Latchman and dψ 2 = −ξe−ξ /2 dξ dψ 2 2 2 = ξ2 e−xi /2 − e−ξ /2 = ξ2 − 1 e−ξ /2 2 dξ ©2009 .29) ξmax = k From Equation 6. we see that the maximum value can be determined to be √ mk 2 ξ2 = A (6. By taking V(x) ¨ from Equation 6. ω0 is ω0 = k m Quantum Mechanics (6. we see that in a quantum mechanical oscillator.27) where the eigenfunction ψ will be a function of ξ.9 to get d2 ψ 2m k 2 mk 2E = 2 x − E ψ = 2 x2 − ψ dx2 2 k With some manipulation.25.30) D where David S. there are nonvanishing solutions in the forbidden regions.20 we substitute into Equation 6.26) RA d2 ψ = ξ2 − λ ψ dξ2 ψ(ξ) = e−ξ /2 2 FT (6.46 where the angular frequency. λ assumes an eigenvalue anaglaous to E. thus giving us √ mk 2 ξ2 = x (6.25) and This leads to the more compact λ= 2E 2E m = k ω0 (6. unlike in our classical case.27.28) max Using the classical connection between A and E.27 is (6. A solution to Equation 6.

The potential. Ψ0 and E0 represents the ground state of the oscillator. so Schrodinger’s Equation be¨ comes D ©2009 This gives us solutions that are ψ(x) = A exp(−κx) + B exp(κx) As x → ∞. V = 0. So we can drop it to get ψ(x) = Beκx for x < −a (6. Hence.3 Finite Square Well We have three regions Region I: x < −a In this region. Latchman RA V(x) = −V0 0 2 For the Finite Square Well.27 produces the smallest possibel result of λ and E. and the quantity ω0 /2 is the zero-point energy of the system. 6.32) The eigenfunction e−ξ /2 corresponds to a normalized stationary-state wave function mk Ψ0 (x.Schr¨ dinger Equation o This gives is a special solution for λ where λ0 = 1 Thus Equation 6.31) ω0 ω0 λ0 = 2 2 (6.26 gives the energy eigenvalue to be E0 = 2 47 (6.33) This solution of Equation 6.2. t) = 2 2 π 1 8 √ e− mkx2 /2 e−iE0 t/ (6. we have a potential region where for −a ≤ x ≤ a for |x| > a where FT − κ= d2 ψ = Eψ 2m dx2 d2 ψ ⇒ 2 = κ2 ψ √ dx −2mE . it blows up and is not a physically realizable function. the exp(−κx) term goes to ∞.34) David S.

the second term goes to inﬁnity and we get ψ(x) = Fe−κx This gives us  κx  Be    ψ(x) =  D cos(lx)  −κx   Fe for x > a FT for x < a for 0 < x < a for x > a Region III: x > a Again this Region is similar to Region III.48 Quantum Mechanics Region II: −a < x < a In this region. our potential is V(x) = V0 .37) RA (6.4 Hydrogenic Atoms c 6.35) We notice that E > −V0 .6 6 Elementary Perturbation Theory ©2009 David S. Latchman .36) ψ(x) = F exp(−κx) + G exp(κx) As x → ∞.4 4 Angular Momentum 6. Thus our general solution becomes ψ(x) = C sin(lx) + D cos(lx) for −a < x < a (6. gives ¨ − d2 ψ − V0 ψ = Eψ 2m dx2 d2 ψ = −l2 ψ or dx2 2m (E + V0 ) 2 where l≡ (6. V = 0.3 3 Spin D 6. where the potential.2. This leaves us with the general solution (6. making l real and positive.Equation 6.9.5 5 Wave Funtion Symmetry 6. Substitutin this into the Schrodinger’s Equation.38) 6.

To solve this conundrum. like one moving in circular motion.3) 2me 2 8π 0 r Substituting this into Equation 7. we will take advantage of our knowlegde of the wavelike properties of matter. and charge. In this model we have an electron of mass. so D p2 − | f race2 4π 0 r 2me FT 7. our derivation is considered to be ‘semi-classical’. we get e2 e2 e2 − =− 8π 0 r 4π 0 r 8π 0 r (7.1 Properties of Electrons (7.2. −e. radiates energy. which we ﬁnd to be p2 1 e2 = me v2 = (7. So our atome here will radiate energy and our electron will spiral into the nucleus and disappear. me . The cetripetal force is equal to the Coulomb Force.2 Bohr Model RA 1 e2 me v2 = 4π 0 r2 r E=K+U = E= To understand the Bohr Model of the Hydrogen atom.4) At this point our classical description must end. Thus (7. As we are building on a classical model of the atom with a modern concept of matter. . orbiting a proton. An accelerated charged particle. Bohr made two assumptions.Chapter 7 Atomic Physics 1 7.1) The Total Energy is the sum of the potential and kinetic energies.2) We can further reduce this equation by subsituting the value of momentum.

Replacing our value of rn into Equation 7. 2.10) D 7.7) We apply the condition from Equation 7.1 we ﬁnd v and by substitution. we get En = − e2 me 2n2 4π 0 =− 13. L = m3 vr (7. L=n (7.3 3 Having discreet values for the allowed radii means that we will also have discreet values for energy.8) = n2 a0 (7. gives r= FT m3 r 4π 0 0 From Equation 7.6) L=e Solving for r.11) Energy Quantization 7. These stationary states take discreet values. Latchman ©2009 .50 Atomic Physics 1.9) where a0 is the Bohr radius. (7. The energy of these stationary states are determined by their angular momentum which must take on quantized values of .4 4 Atomic Structure David S.5) We can ﬁnd the angular momentum of a circular orbit.6 eV n2 (7. The classical circular orbits are replaced by stationary states. a0 = 0.5 rn = RA n2 2 me e2 /4π 0 L2 me e2 /4π (7.4.53 × 10−10 m (7. we ﬁnd L.

For n = 3.1 Plank Formula u( f.13.2 Stefan-Boltzmann Formula RA P(T) = σT4 u( f.7. For this case we will look at the situation where h f < kT. we make the approximation (7.4 Classical and Quantum Aspects of the Plank Equation 8π f 2 kT (7.15) D Rayleigh’s Equation ©2009 7. In this case.16) c3 We can get this equation from Plank’s Equation.13 becomes (7. we get the infrared or Paschen series.7.Atomic Spectra 51 7. Equation 7.5 Atomic Spectra 7.5.17) Thus the demonimator in Equation 7.7.18) David S.9 × 10−3 m. n = 2.7 Black Body Radiation 7. which determines the optical wavelengths.K (7.6 6 Selection Rules 7. This equation is a classical one and does not contain Plank’s constant in it. The fundamental n = 1 series falls in the ultraviolet region and is known as the Lyman series.14) 7. For the Balmer Series. T) = ex eh f /kT − 1 (7.13) (7. Latchman .7.12) λ n2 n where RH is the Rydberg constant. T) = FT f3 8π c3 eh f /kT − 1 1+x 1+ hf hf −1= kT kT 7.1 Rydberg’s Equation 1 1 1 = RH − 2 (7. 7.3 Wein’s Displacement Law λmax T = 2.

24) (7. Quantum At large frequencies.27) ©2009 . quantum eﬀects become apparent.52 Thus Equation 7.13 takes the approximate form u( f.19) As we can see this equation is devoid of Plank’s constant and thus independent of quantum eﬀects. Latchman (7. where h f > kT.26) (7.21) 7.22) for constructive interference oﬀ parallel planes of a crystal with lattics spacing.25) The Relativistic Energy for the electron is (7.2 The Compton Eﬀect The Compton Eﬀect deals with the scattering of monochromatic X-Rays by atomic targets and the observation that the wavelength of the scattered X-ray is greater than the incident radiation.8.13 becomes (7. T) FT 8πh 3 −h f /kT f e c3 hc λ Thus Equation 7. 7.8.20) u( f. The photon energy is given by D where David S.23) The photon has an associated momentum = pc E hυ h ⇒p = = = c c λ (7. d.8 X-Rays RA 2d sin θ = mλ E = hυ = E E2 = p2 c2 + m2 c4 e p−p =P 7.1 Bragg Condition (7. We can estimate that eh f /kT − 1 eh f /kT (7. T) 8πh 3 kT 8π f 2 f = 3 kT c3 hf c Atomic Physics (7.

1 The Cyclotron Frequency D We also see that ©2009 A test charge.38) 2πm The frequency is depends on the charge.33) RA λc = FB = qv × B f = is the Compton Wavelength. we get mv R= (7. The force acting on the charge will be perpendicular to v such that (7.32) ∆λ = λ − λ = where λc = h me c (7.30) FT h (1 − cos θ) me c E − E = E − me c2 E 2 − 2E E + E = E2 − 2Eme c2 + m2 c4 e 2E E − 2E E cos θ = 2Eme c2 − 2m2 c4 e Solving leads to (7. m. we have c2 p2 − 2c2 p · p + c2 p 2 = c2 P2 E 2 − 2E E cos θ + E 2 = E2 − m2 c4 e Conservation of Energy leads to E + me c2 = E + E Solving 53 (7. q.37) qB qB (7.27) gives p2 − 2p · p + p 2 = P2 Recall that E = pc and E = cp . from Newton’s Second Law. with velocity v enters a uniform magnetic ﬁeld.9 Atoms in Electric and Magnetic Fields 7. the magnetic ﬁeld strength. As this traces a circular path.28) (7.31) (7. David S.34) 7. B. h = 2. we see that mv2 FB = = qvB (7.36) R Solving for R. B and the mass of the charged particle.29) (7.427 × 10−12 m me c (7.9. Latchman .35) or more simply FB = qvB.Atoms in Electric and Magnetic Fields Squaring (Equation 7. q.

In the presence of the ﬁeld.40) (7. This produces two diﬀerent values for the angular velocity. a closckwise circular polarization of υ0 + δυ and a counterclosckwise circular polarization of υ0 − δυ. B. where the frequency is υ0 = 1 2π k me (7. v = 2πrυ The cetripetal force becomes me v2 = 4π2 υ2 rme r Thus the certipetal force is 4π2 υ2 rme = 2πυreB + kr We use Equation 7. a spectral line of frequency.2 Zeeman Eﬀect The Zeeman eﬀect was the splitting of spectral lines in a static magnetic ﬁeld. −ev × B.39. Latchman As we have assumed a small Lorentz force. ©2009 RA 4π2 υ2 rme = −2πυreB + kr eB υ − υ0 = 0 (Clockwise) 2πme eB υ2 + υ − υ0 = 0 (Counterclockwise) 2πme FT for clockwise motion for counterclockwise motion . we can say that the linear terms in υ are small comapred to υ0 . allows for a direction in space in which the electron motion can be referred. The application of a constant magnetic ﬁeld.9. In the Zeeman experiment. υ0 was split into three components. A classical analysis of this eﬀect allows for the identiﬁcation of the basic parameters of the interacting system. a sodium ﬂame was placed in a magnetic ﬁeld and its spectrum observed. to emiminate k. to get υ2 − D David S.41) We note that the frequency shift is of the form δυ = eB 4πme (7. This is similar to the Stark Eﬀect which was the splitting in the presence in a magnetic ﬁeld. υ0 − δυ. we will observe the light to have two polarizations.39) The magnetic ﬁeld subjects the electron to an additional Lorentz Force. υ0 and υ0 + δυ. The motion of an electron can be attributed to a simple harmonic motion under a binding force −kr.42) If we view the source along the direction of B. Solving the above quadratic equations leads to eB 4πme eB υ = υ0 − 4πme υ = υ0 + for clockwise motion for counterclockwise motion (7.54 Atomic Physics 7.

performed in 1914 by J.9.1 They interpreted this observation as evidence of a threshold for inelastic scattering in the colissions of electrons in mercury atoms.3 Franck-Hertz Experiment The Franck-Hertz experiment. D 1 Put drawing of Franck-Hertz Setup ©2009 RA David S. Hertz. Latchman FT .The bahavior of the current was an indication that electrons could lose a discreet amount of energy and excite mercury atoms in their passage through the mercury vapour. Franck and G. These observations constituted a direct and decisive conﬁrmation of the existence os quantized energy levels in atoms. measured the colisional excitation of atoms.Atoms in Electric and Magnetic Fields 55 7. L. Their experiement studied the current of electrons in a tub of mercury vapour which revealed an abrupt change in the current at certain critical values of the applied voltage.

Latchman ©2009 RA FT .56 Atomic Physics D David S.

3) 8.3 8.1 Postulates of Special Relativity 1. 2. ∆t is the time measured in motion relative to the observer. The laws of Physics are the same in all inertial frames.Chapter 8 Special Relativity 8. Simultaneity . RA γ= 1 1− u2 c2 We can deﬁne FT (8.2 Time Dilation ∆t = γ∆t D 8.4 4 where ∆t is the time measured at rest relative to the observer.2) L γ (8. The speed of light is the same in all inertial frames.1 Introductory Concepts 8.1.1) (8. Length Contraction L= where L is the length of an object observed at rest relative to the observer and L is the length of the object moving at a speed u relative to the observer.

11) (8.6) (8.3 Relativistic Kinetic Energy RA K = E − mc2     1 2  = mc      1− = mc2 γ − 1 ∆Px = γ ∆Px − β ∆P y = ∆P y ∆Pz = ∆Pz ∆E ∆E =γ − β∆Px c c ∆E c pz = pz E E =γ − βpx c c (8. Latchman       − 1     8.5.5.15) (8.2 Lorentz Transformations (Momentum & Energy) px = γ px − β py = py E c FT v2 c2 (8.5 Energy and Momentum 8.1 Relativistic Momentum & Energy In relativistic mechanics.7) (8.4) 8.5.4 Relativistic Dynamics (Collisions) (8.13) (8.58 Special Relativity 8.14) (8.12) D David S.16) ©2009 . to be conserved.5) (8.10) (8.5.8) (8. momentum and energy are deﬁned as Relativistic Momentum ¯ ¯ p = γmv Relativistic Energy E = γmc2 (8.9) 8.

22) We can take any collection of four physical quantities to be four vector provided that they transform to another Lorentz frame.18) The Lorentz Transformation is related by the matrix     x   γ   y   0              z = 0            ict −iγβ We can express the equation in the form 0 1 0 0 FT   0 iγβ   x      0 0  y        z    1 0      0 γ ict (8. s. Latchman .20) The matrix L contains all the information needed to relate position four–vectors for any given event as observed in the two Lorentz frames S and S .17) A diﬀerent Lorents frame.19) RA s = Ls sT s =    bx    b       b= y    bz         ibt (8. corresponds to another set of space time axes so that    x     y       s =    z        ict (8. S . Thus we have (8.23) this can be transformed into a set of quantities of b in another frame S such that it satisﬁes the transformation b = Lb (8. (8. If we evaluate    x    y         = x2 + y2 + z2 − c2 t2 x y z ict     z       ict (8.Four-Vectors and Lorentz Transformation 59 8.21) D ©2009 Similarly we can show that s T s = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 − c2 t 2 (8.24) David S.6 Four-Vectors and Lorentz Transformation    x     y       s=    z        ict We can represent an event in S with the column matrix.

27) The resulting equality gives px2 + p y2 + pz2 − E2 E2 = p2 + p2 + p2 − 2 x y z c2 c FT v−u 1 − uv c2 let r = c−u c+u x = (x − ut ) y=y y =y u t = γ t + 2x c (8.29) 8. z .26) We can also get a Lorentz-invariation relation between momentum and energy such that p T p = pT p (8.60 Looking at the momentum-Energy four vector.34) (8. we have. t ). where the S -frame is moving in the x-direction.35) (8.36) ©2009 .28) 8. Latchman red-shift (Source Receding) (8.9 David S. y.25) Applying the same transformation rule.30) We have D 8.8 Relativistic Doppler Formula (8. we have   px   p   p= y   pz    iE/c             Special Relativity (8.33) (8. z. y .7 Velocity Addition RA ¯ υ = υ0 c+u c−u ¯ υreceding = rυ0 υ0 ¯ υapproaching = r x = γ (x − ut) y =y z =y u t = γ t − 2x c v = (8. t) and S (x .32) blue-shift (Source Approaching) Lorentz Transformations Given two reference frames S(x.31) (8. we have p = Lp (8. (8.

Latchman RA c2 ∆t2 < ∆r2 ∆S < 0 (8.42) (8. They are Time-like Interval c2 ∆t2 > ∆r2 ∆S2 > 0 (8.39) When two events are separated by a time-like interval.10 Space-Time Interval (∆S)2 = (∆x)2 + ∆y 2 + (∆z)2 − c2 (∆t)2 (8.40) (8.41) Space-like Intervals D ©2009 David S.37) Space-Time Intervals may be categorized into three types depending on their separation.38) (8.43) .Space-Time Interval 61 8. Light-like Interval c2 ∆t2 = ∆r2 S =0 2 FT (8. there is a cause-eﬀect relationship between the two events.

Latchman ©2009 RA FT .62 Special Relativity D David S.

(No Error in b) x = ab δa δx =b x a (9.1 Addition and Subtraction x=a+b−c The Error in x is FT a×b c 2 9.3 Exponent .1.2 Multiplication and Division x= RA δx x 2 (9.1) (δx)2 = (δa)2 + (δb)2 + (δc)2 (9.4) D The Error in x is 9.1.6) 9.Chapter 9 Laboratory Methods 9.2) 9.1.1.3) The error in x is δa = a δb + b 2 + δc c 2 (9.7) .5) (9.1 Data and Error Analysis (9.4 Logarithms Base e x = ln a (9.

13) (9.8) Base 10 x = log10 a The Error in x can be derived as such δx = = d(log a) δa da ln a ln 10 (9. Latchman (9.5 Antilogs (9.12) We take the natural log on both sides.64 We ﬁnd the error in x by taking the derivative on both sides.10) Base e RA x = ea ln x = a ln e = a d ln x δx = δa dx δx ⇒ = δa x x = 10a log x = a log 10 log x δx = δa dx 1 d ln a δx = δa ln 10 dx δx = ln 10δa x 9.434 a FT (9.14) We follow the same general procedure as above to get (9.15) ©2009 .1.11) (9. so δx = d ln a · δa da 1 = · δa a δa = a Laboratory Methods (9.9) δa da 1 δa = ln 10 a δa = 0. Applaying the same general method. we see D Base 10 David S.

R.18) We can relate this in terms of the count D 9.5 5 (9. N δN T N T Let’s assume that for a particular experiment.16) σ= N (9. we are making countung measurements for a radioactive source. The ¯ counting rate for this trial is R = N/T.6 6 ©2009 Lasers and Optical Interferometers David S.19) We see that our uncertainty decreases as we take more counts.17) RA δR = R δN N √ N = N 1 = N = We can ﬁnd the count rate by dividing by T. Interaction of Charged Particles with Matter 9. (9. So √ (9. Latchman . √ The standard deviation or the uncertainty of our count is a simply called the N rule.3 3 Radiation Detection 9.4 Counting Statistics Thus we can report our results as Number of counts = N ± FT √ N δN . This rate should be close to the average rate.Instrumentation 65 9.2 2 Instrumentation 9. we recored N counts in time T. so √ N N ± R= T T The fractional uncertainty of our count is rate. In this experiment. as to be expected.

and θ. each raised to rational powers. 9. length. respectively.66 Laboratory Methods 9. The dimensions of a physical quantity are associated with combinations of mass. Q. L. and temperature. represented by symbols M. electric charge. time.8 8 Fundamental Applications of Probability and Statistics D David S. Latchman ©2009 RA FT .7 Dimensional Analysis Dimensional Analysis is used to understand physical situations involving a mis of diﬀerent types of physical quantities. T.

E Again FALSE. So FALSE. Once the drag force and the gravitational force acting on the rock is balanced the rock won’t accelerate. C Again from Equation 10. m¨ = −mg − kv x (10. you’d know that the rock’s speed will asymtotically increase to some max speed.Chapter 10 GR8677 Exam Solutions From the information provided we can come up with an equation of motion for the rock.1 by m gives RA ¨ x = −g − k ˙ x m FT 10.1 Motion of Rock under Drag Force (10. we see that this is TRUE. .2.1) If you have seen this type of equation. then energy would be conserved and the rock will return at the speed it started with but there is a drag force so energy is lost.2) ˙ We see that this only occurs when x = 0. At that point the drag force and the force due to gravity will be the same. So this is also FALSE. If x > 0 then x < −g and if x < 0 then x > −g. We can best answer this question through analysis and elimination. which only happens at the top of the ﬂight. The speed the rock returns is v < v0 . D If there was no drag (ﬁctional) force. Hence FALSE.2 we see that the acceleration is dependent on whether the ˙ ¨ ˙ ¨ rock is moving up or down. D Answer: (B) B From Equation 10. A Dividing Equation 10. and solved it.

4) Answer: (D) 10. The speed through a dielectric medium becomes v = = = √ 1 µ RA y = A sin t T FT 0 0 c= √ 1 µ0 (10.3) 1 2. A in the equation is the displacement from equilibrium. µ0 and permitivitty.5) A The Amplitude.1µ0 c √ 2.6) ©2009 t x − T λ . Latchman x t − T λ We can analyze and eliminate from what we know about this equation (10. This choice is also incorrect.68 GR8677 Exam Solutions 10. we expect x to increase as well as there is a negative sign in front of it. So this choice is incorrect.1 0 (10. We infer that no extra energy is given to the system by this process. t x B As the wave moves.5. we can do some manipulation to show = 2π f t − kx = ωt − kx (10. we seek to keep the T − λ term constant. subsection 2. So as t increases. 0 .2 Satellite Orbits The question states that the astronaut ﬁres the rocket’s jets towards Earth’s center. Answer: (A) 10.4 Wave Equation We are given the equation D David S.3 Speed of Light in a Dielectric Medium Solutions to the Electromagnetic wave equation gives us the speed of light in terms of the electromagnetic permeability. C The phase of the wave is given by − x λ .7. This means that the wave moves in the positive x-direction. shows that the only other orbit where the speciﬁc energy is also negative is an elliptical one. where c is the speed of light.

momentum is conserved. kinetic energy is converted to potential energy and we ﬁnd our ﬁnal height. Latchman . it looses Potential Energy and gains Kinetic Energy.5 Inelastic Collision and Putty Spheres Thus RA v2 = 2gh0 0 1 (4M) v2 = 4Mgh 1 2 v2 1 h = 2g 1 v0 = 2g 4 h0 = 16 We are told the two masses coalesce so we know that the collision is inelastic and hence. Answer: (E) λ T 69 (10. energy is not conserved.7) (10.12) David S.7 gives us the phase speed.10) Upon collision.8) 10. As mass A falls. (10.9) Mgh0 = Mv2 0 2 (10.8 the above we see that is the answer. thus D Answer: (A) ©2009 Mv0 = (3M + M) v1 = 4Mv1 v0 ⇒ v1 = 4 FT 2 (10.Inelastic Collision and Putty Spheres Or rather kx = ωt Diﬀerentiating Equation 10. 1 (10.11) The fused putty mass rises. which is v= This is also incorrect E From Equation 10.

David S. We have (10. The tangential acceleration in this case is mg cos θ = (10. v2 r gx2 mv2 r (10. its Gravitational Potential Energy is converted to Kinetic Energy.17) F mg 10 1 = ≈ (2)(9. we get1 1 mgy0 = mg(y0 − y) + mv2 2 1 2 ⇒ v = gy 2 So we have a relationship between v and the particle’s position on the track.14 gives g cos θ = = RA 2 x2 + y2 gx = √ x2 + 4 T sin θ = F T cos θ = mg tan θ = (10.18) Insert Free Body Diagram of particle along track.15) Answer: (D) 10. Since energy is conserved.70 GR8677 Exam Solutions 10. y0 when x = 0.13) FT x2 + y2 .7 Resolving Force Components D Thus we get Answer: (A) 1 This question is a simple matter of resolving the horizontal and vertical components of the tension along the rope.16) (10. Let’s assume that the particle is at a height.14) where r is the radius of curvature and is equal to Substituting this into Equation 10. Latchman ©2009 .6 Motion of a Particle along a Track As the particle moves from the top of the track and runs down the frictionless track.8) 2 (10.

Now it’s just a matter os plugging in what we know 0 = 100 + 2a(0.025) 100 ⇒a = − = −2000 m/s2 2(0.24) paying attention to the indices of the equation we get 2 − 28 + 4 + 19 = −4 So we expect an answer where vd ≈ 10−4 .2 Answer: (D) It also helps if you knew that the electron drift velocity was slow. Plugging in what we know J= I A I =nAvd e I vd = nAe = D 2 RA 10. n is the density of electrons per unit volume and vd is the drift speed.9 Current Density (1 × 1028 ) π×2×10 1. (10. Latchman .19) We recall that where v.8 Nail being driven into a block of wood v2 = v2 + 2as 0 (10.25) ©2009 David S.6 × 10−19 4 (10. v0 .20) (10.22) We can ﬁnd the drift vleocity from the current density equation J = envd (10. acceleration and displacement that the nail travels. a and s are the ﬁnal speed. in the order of mm/s.23) where e is the charge of an electron.025) The Force on the nail comes from Newton’s Second Law F = ma = 5 · 2000 = 10000 N Answer: (D) (10. initial speed.21) FT 100 −4 (10.Nail being driven into a block of wood 71 10.

E · dS = S Qenclosed 0 (10.30) D The Electric ﬁeld is David S.27) (10.31) Gauss’ Law becomes E 4πr2 = (10.26) where the current density.10 Charge inside an Isolated Sphere You can answer this by thinking about Gauss’ Law.72 GR8677 Exam Solutions 10.28) (10.32) E(r≥R) = The linear increase is exhibited by choice (C). The bigger the Gaussian surface the more charge it encloses and the bigger the electric ﬁeld. Latchman This is a linear relationship with respect to r. the ﬁeld decreases exponentially. Answer: (C) (10. ρ is 4 πR3 3 where R is the radius of the sphere. Beyond the radius of the sphere. We can calculate these relationships by using Gauss’ Law.33) ©2009 .29) The Electric ﬁeld is (10. for r < R The enclosed charge becomes Gauss’ Law becomes RA E 4πr2 = E(r<R) = Qenclosed = Q Q 0 Qenclosed FT Qr3 4 3 = ρ πr = 3 3 R Qr3 3 0R Qr 4π 0 R3 Q 4π 0 r2 ρ= Q = Qenclosed 4 πr3 3 (10. for r ≥ R The enclosed charge is (10.

The sources are coherent.9v (10.12 Doppler Equation (Non-Relativistic) f = f0 we recall the Doppler Equation3 FT v − vr v − vs v v − 0. This will produce a shifting interference pattern that changes too fast for the eye to see. so they will produce an interference pattern.36) where vr and vs are the observer and source speeds respectively.21.20 and section 5.Vector Identities and Maxwell’s Laws 73 10.9v.14 3 4 Answering this question takes some analysis.35) 10. we see that The diﬀerence is due to the work done in the environment by the gas when it expands under constant pressure. Latchman .34) We recall the vector identity Thus · ( × H) = = 0 Answer: (A) ˙ · D+J (10.13 Vibrating Interference Pattern D 10.11 Vector Identities and Maxwell’s Laws · ( × A) = 0 (10.38) From section 5. Add Young’s Double Slit Experiment equations. Add reference to Dopler Equations. Thus RA = 10 f0 = 10 kHz Cp = CV + R f = f0 (10. We are told that vr = 0 and vs = 0.37) Answer: (E) 10. ©2009 David S.4 Answer: (E) Speciﬁc Heat at Constant Pressure and Volume (10. We are also told that ∆ f = 500 Hz.

thus we can deﬁne. then Equation 10. The change in internal energy is the change of heat into the system. Thus CV dT = −nRdT + Cp dT (10.42 is equal to Equation 10.15 Answer: (C) David S.45) ©2009 . So the probability that an atom will be found outside of a 1. dU = −dW + dQ (10. the change in internal energy is accompanied by a change in heat ﬂow as well as a change in the volume of the gas. Equation 10.41.40) At constant volume.42) This becomes RA Cp = CV + nR P = 1 − 1. dV = 0.0 × 10−6 cm3 box is (10. thus dUp = −dWp + dQp = −pdV + Cp dT = −nRdT + Cp dT pdV = nRdT FT where N dUV = CV dT = dQV (10.42 shows that there is work done.0 × 10−6 P = 1 − 1. the heat capacity at constant volume to be At constant pressure. Answer: (A) Helium atoms in a box Let’s say the probability of the atoms being inside the box is 1. there is no work done by the system. the probabolity becomes (10.39) Where dU is the change in Internal Energy.0 × 10−6 If the changes in internal energies are the same in both cases. dW is the work done by the system and dQ is the change in heat of the system. Latchman We see the reason why Cp > CV is due to the addition of work on the system. So it follows that dW = 0.74 GR8677 Exam Solutions We can prove this by starting with the First Law of Thermodynamics.43) D 10.44) As there are N atoms and the probability of ﬁnding one is mutually exclusive of the other.41 shows no work done by the gas while Equation 10. We also recall the deﬁnition for Heat Capacity dQ = CdT (10.41) (10.

Nothing like an electron. Electron This is the answer. Nothing like an electron. It has no charge or mass and a spin of 1. It’s known as a heavy electron.18 Schrodinger’s Equation ¨ ∂2 ψ Eψ = − + V(x)ψ 2m ∂x2 We recall that Schrodinger’s Equation is ¨ (10. nothing like leptons.16 The Muon It helps knowing what these particles are Muon The muon. It has the ame charge.47) ¯ →A X +−1 e− + υe Z+1 Combining both gives D Answer: (B) A−4 ¯ →Z−2 X +4 α →A Y +−1 e− + υe 2 Z−1 (10. Proton This ia a sub atomic particle and is found in the nucleus of all atoms. −e and spin. Photon The photon is the quantum of the electromagnetic ﬁeld.48) 10. Answer: (A) 10. Again. (10.The Muon 75 10. Alpha Decay Beta Decay A ZX RA A ZX A ZX 2 FT →A−4 X +4 α 2 Z−2 b2 x2 2 Pion The Pion belongs to the meson family. Again nothing like an electron.46) (10. Graviton This is a hypothetical particle that mediates the force of gravity. like the electron. as the electron execpt it’s about 200 times heavier. we expect an α and β decay. 1/2.17 Radioactive Decay From the changes in the Mass and Atomic numbers after the subsequent decays. is a lepton. It has no charge.49) Given that ψ(x) = A exp − ©2009 (10. Latchman .50) David S. no mass and a spin of 2.

52) Applying the boundary condition at x = 0 gives Eψ = − This gives 2 2 2 2m b2 ψ (10. Equation 10. This can easily be reduced to A En = − 2 (10. Thus EK + = Ep (10.60) ©2009 RA 10.49.58) The Rest Energy of a particle is given The Relativistic Energy is for a relativistic particle moving at speed v E = γv mc2 (10.55) We recall that the Energy Levels for the Hydrogen atom is En = − Z2 13.20 David S.6 eV n2 (10.53) Solving for V(x) gives V(x) = Answer: (B) FT 2 4 2 2 b − ψ=− b4 x2 − b2 ψ + v(x)ψ 2m 2m (10.19 Energy Levels of Bohr’s Hydrogen Atom .59) We are told that a kaon moving at relativistic speeds has the same energy as the rest mass as a proton. Latchman where Z is the atomic number and n is the quantum number.54) bx 2m (10.57) n Answer: (E) Relativistic Energy E = mc2 (10. gives us ¨ Eψ = − 2 2m b4 x2 − b2 ψ + V(x)ψ (10.51) ∂2 ψ = b4 x2 − b2 ψ ∂x2 Plugging into Schrodinger’s Equation.56) D 10.76 We diﬀerentiate and get GR8677 Exam Solutions (10.

Lorentz transformations predicts the presence of an additional magnetic ﬁeld. Answer: (E) 10. Answer: (B) ©2009 David S.66) 2. RA ∆S2 = = = ∆S = (∆S)2 = (∆x)2 + ∆y 2 + (∆z)2 − c2 (∆t)2 (10. we would observe an electric ﬁeld. the only answer is 0.63) (10.7.68) We get D Answer: (C) (5 − 3)2 + (3 − 3)2 + (3 − 1)2 − c2 (5 − 3)2 22 + 02 + 22 − 22 22 2 (10. Squaring will give an answer that’s greater than 0.69) 10.10.Space-Time Interval where EK+ = γv mK+ c2 Ep = mp c2 Equating both together gives γv = = ≈ This becomes 940 500 77 (10. the electromagnetic force.21 Space-Time Interval We recall the Space-Time Interval from section 8.61 2 c (10.61 This gives v2 in the order of 0.85c.62) mp mK+ 939 494 (10. If there was one stationary charge in our rest frame.67) 3.65) FT γv ≈ 1.7.22 Lorentz Transformation of the EM ﬁeld Lorentz transformations show that electric and magnetic ﬁelds are diﬀerent aspects of the same force.61) (10.64) (10.9 Solving gives v2 = (10. If we were to move to a moving frame of reference. Latchman .

A Copper is a conductor so we expect its conductivity to be much greater than that of a semiconductor. Answer: (E) 10.25 Lorentz Force on a Charged Particle We are told that the charged particle is released from rest in the electric and magnetic ﬁelds. As a result. TRUE.78 GR8677 Exam Solutions 10. resistance increases. TRUE.70) The Total Resistance is D Answer: (C) (10. As a result. 5 David S. you can either widen or narrow the energy bandgap. D You may have paused to think for this one but this is TRUE. The charged particle will experience a force from the magnetic ﬁeld only when There are one or two cases where this is not true. So conductivity increases. This is of crucial importance to electronics today.24 Charging a Battery The Potential Diﬀerence across the resistor. Latchman ©2009 . TRUE. C Diﬀerent process. B As the temperature of the conductor is increased its atoms vibrate more and disrupt the ﬂow of electrons. As temperature increases. The addition of Silver increases the conductivity of Copper. electrons gain more energy to jump the energy barrier into the conducting region.5 E The eﬀect of adding an impurity on a semiconductor’s conductivity depends on how many extra valence electrons it adds or subtracts. So this is FALSE.71) 10. The addition of an impurity causes an increase of electron scattering oﬀ the impurity atoms. But the conductivity will still be less than pure silver. resistance increases. R is RA V I 20 = 10 R+1=2 ⇒ R = 1Ω R+r= PD = 120 − 100 = 20 V FT (10.23 Conductivity of a Metal and Semi-Conductor More of a test of what you know.

David S. As the electrons come in from ni = ∞.6 eV ≈ (30)2 × 13. of course.K-Series X-Rays 79 it moves perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld lines. How these valent electrons are arranged is. As the Bohr atom considers the energy levels for the Hydrogen atom. dependent on spin. We are left with Fq = qE (10.26 K-Series X-Rays (10. Answer: (E) To calculate we look at the energy levels for the Bohr atom.74) where Zeﬀ is the eﬀective atomic number and n f and ni are the energy levels. We can also anylize this by looking at the Lorentz Force equation Fq = q [E + (v × B)] (10. Equation 10.27 ©2009 RA E1 = (272 )13. Latchman .76) This works out to D 10. A The periodic table’s arrangement of elements tells us about the chemical properties of an element and these properties are dependent on the valent electrons. we need to modify it somewhat   1 1     En = Z2  2 − 2  13.6 eV FT 10.73) The force is directed along the electrical ﬁeld line and hence it moves in a straight line.6 eV   eﬀ  n ni  f (10. So this choice is TRUE.6 eV 2 1 ∞ (10.72) v is in the same direction as B so the cross product between them is zero.75) where Z = 28 for nickle. For the n f = 1 transition Zeﬀ = Z − 1 (10. Answer: (D) Electrons and Spin It helps if you knew some facts here. The particle will move along the direction of the electric ﬁeld.77) This takes us in the keV range.74 becomes E1 = (28 − 1)2 1 1 − 2 13.

f (E). In some atoms. the energy an electron my absorb at room temperture is kT which is much smaller than EF = 5eV.[1] T π2 Nk where kT << EF C= 2 Tf So this choice is also TRUE.78) FT EF = kTF As a system goes above 0K. closely spaced doublets are observed. TF = 60000K. there were further splits in spctral lines that couln’t be explained by magnetic dipole moments. Electrons can be deﬂected depending on their spin if placed in a non-uniform magnetic ﬁeld. E < EF E > EF where f (E) is the Fermi-Dirac Distribution f (E) = 1 eE−EF /kT + 1 (10. Latchman ©2009 . All the electrons are accomodated from the lowest state up to the Fermi Level and the distribution among levels is described by the Fermi distribution function.8 Write up on Zeeman and anomalous Zeemen eﬀects Write up on Stern-Gerlach Experiment 8 Write up on Fine Structure RA David S. The way energy is distributed comes about from the exclusion principle.80 GR8677 Exam Solutions B The energy of an elecron is quantized and obey the Pauli’s Exclusion Principle. 0. Thus only electrons close to this temperature can be excited as the levels above EF are empty. We can deﬁne a Fermi Temperature. as was demonstrated in the Stern-Gerlach Experiment.79) which works out to be. thermal energy may excite to higher energy states but this energy is not shared equally by all the electrons. This results in a small number of electrons being able to be thermally excited and the low electronic speciﬁc heat. This was one of the ﬁrst experimental evidence for electron spin.6 D The deﬂection of an electron in a uniform magnetic ﬁeld deﬂects only in one way and demonstrates none of the electron’s spin properties. the spectral lines split. f (E) = 1. D 6 7 C The Zeeman Eﬀect describes what happens to Hydrogen spectral lines in a magnetic ﬁeld.7 E When the Hydrogen spectrum is observed at a very high resolution. is occupied by an electron. E. (10. The explanation for this additional splitting was discovered to be due to electron spin. which deﬁnes the probability that the energy level.

83) So ⇒ ψ(φ) 2π A 2 0 dφ = 1 RA ⇒A = 1 √ 2π A2 [2π − 0] = 1 FT = A2 eimφ e−imφ and that 2 (10. As we want the force acting on our charge to be parallel to the current direction.29 Right Hand Rule D 10. So this is NOT TRUE. B The 4s subshell only has one electron. we see that this will happen when the charge moves towards the wire9 . 9 First we use the ‘Grip’ rule to tell what direction the magnetic ﬁeld lines are going.81) In this case. Assuming the wire and current are coming out of the page. Now we can turn to Fleming’s Right Hand Rule.Normalizing a wavefunction 81 10. we want 0 2π ψ(φ) dφ = 1 ψ(x) = ψ∗ (x)ψ(x) 2 2 (10. the magnetic ﬁeld is in a clockwise direction around the wire. The s subshell can ‘hold’ two electrons so this is also NOT TRUE. Latchman .28 Normalizing a wavefunction ψ(φ) = Aeimφ (10. Don’t forget to bring your right hand to the exam ©2009 David S. Answer: (A) Electron Conﬁguration of a Potassium atom We can alalyze and eliminate A The n = 3 shell has unﬁlled d-subshells.30 C Unknown. to solve the rest of the question.82) (10.80) We are given Normalizing a function means ∞ |Ψ(x)|2 dx = 1 −∞ (10.84) 10.

82 GR8677 Exam Solutions D The sum of all the electrons, we add all the superscripts, gives 19. As this is a ground state, a lone potassium atom, we can tell that the atomic number is 19. So this is NOT TRUE. E Potassium has one outer electron, like Hydrogen. So it will also have a spherically symmetrical charge distribution.

10.31

Photoelectric Eﬀect I
|eV| = hυ − W (10.85)

We are given We recall that V is the stopping potential, the voltage needed to bring the current to zero. As electrons are negatively charged, we expect this voltage to be negative. Answer: (A)

10.32

Photoelectric Eﬀect II

10.33

Photoelectric Eﬀect III

The quantity W is known as the work function of the metal. This is the energy that is needed to just liberate an electron from its surface. Answer: (D)

D
10.34
We recall that Given that Answer: (B) David S. Latchman

Potential Energy of a Body
F=− dU dx (10.86) (10.87)

The force on the body becomes F = − d 4 kx dx = −4kx3

RA
U = kx4

Some history needs to be known here. The photoelectric eﬀect was one of the experiments that proved that light was absorbed in discreet packets of energy. This is the experimental evidence that won Einstein the Nobel Prize in 1921. Answer: (D)

FT

(10.88)

Hamiltonian of a Body

83

10.35

Hamiltonian of a Body

The Hamiltonian of a body is simply the sum of the potential and kinetic energies. That is H =T+V (10.89) where T is the kinetic energy and V is the potential energy. Thus 1 H = mv2 + kx4 2 We can also express the kinetic energy in terms of momentum, p. So H= Answer: (A) p2 + kx4 2m (10.91) (10.90)

10.36

Principle of Least Action

Hamilton’s Principle of Least Action10 states Φ=

where T is the kinetic energy and V is the potential energy. This becomes Φ=
t2

RA
T t1

˙ T q(t), q(t) − V q(t) dt

FT
1 2 mv − kx4 dt 2

(10.92)

(10.93)

D

10.37

Tension in a Conical Pendulum

This is a simple case of resolving the horizontal and vertical components of forces. So we have T cos θ = mg T sin θ = mrω2 (10.94) (10.95)

Squaring the above two equations and adding gives T2 = m2 g2 + m2 r2 ω4 T = m g2 + r2 ω4 (10.96)

(10.97)

David S. Latchman

84 Table 10.1: Truth Table for OR-gate Input 1 Input 2 Output 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1

GR8677 Exam Solutions

10.38

Diode OR-gate

10.39

Gain of an Ampliﬁer vs. Angular Frequency
G = Kωa

We are given that the ampliﬁer has some sort of relationship where

FT
a

This is an OR gate and can be illustrated by the truth table below. Answer: (A)

(10.98)

RA
102 = K 3 × 105 ⇒a≈2−5 G = Kω−2

falls outside of the ampliﬁer bandwidth region. This is that ‘linear’ part of the graph on the log-log graph. From the graph, we see that, G = 102 , for ω = 3 × 105 second-1 . Substituting, we get

∴ log(102 ) = a log K 3.5 × 105 (10.99)

We can roughly estimate by subtracting the indices. So our relationship is of the form (10.100)

D
10.40
10

Counting Statistics

√ We recall from section 9.4 , that he standard deviation of a counting rate is σ = N, where N is the number of counts. We have a count of N = 9934, so the standard deviation is √ √ σ = N = 9934 √ ≈ 10000 = 100 (10.101)
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David S. Latchman

The Lagrangian of the system is L=T−V 1 1 ˙1 ˙2 ˙3 = m x2 + 2x2 + x2 − k (x2 − x2 )2 + (x3 − x2 )2 2 2 (10.11 Answer: (C) 10.105) Write up on Binding Energy ©2009 David S. one mass on the end moves a lot and the other two move out of in the opposite directions but not as much or the centermass can be stationary and the two masses on the end move out of phase with each other. the cross sectional area is N V N = A N ⇒A= ρ ρ= FT 1 2π k m (10. the period would be that of a single mass-spring system.1 cm. So 10. Answer: (B) Calculating the modes of oscillation In case you require a more rigorous approach.42 Scattering Cross Section We are told the particle density of our scatterer is ρ = 1020 nuclei per cubic centimeter. we can calculate the modes of oscillation. Iron is the most stable of all the others. Latchman . as there isn’t any energy transfer between the masses.43 Coupled Oscillators RA f = d ∂L ∂L = ˙ dt ∂xn ∂xn There are two ways this system can oscillate.103) D 10. The frequency of this would simply be (10.Binding Energy per Nucleon 85 10.43. In the latter case. Given the thickness of our scatterer is = 0.1 11 where k is the spring constant and m is the mass.41 Binding Energy per Nucleon More of a knowledge based question.104) The equation of motion can be found from (10.102) Now the probability of striking a proton is 1 in a million.

117) We see that the two masses on the ends move out of phase with each other and the middle one is stationary.118) ©2009 .114) √ 2k k k ω= .106) (10. so we can say (10.116) (10.108) x1 = A cos(ωt) x2 = B cos(ωt) x3 = C cos(ωt) ¨ ¨ ¨ x1 = −ω2 x1 x2 = −ω2 x2 x3 = −ω2 x3 Solving this.86 The equations of motion are ¨ mx1 = k (x2 − x1 ) ¨ 2mx2 = kx1 − 2kx2 + kx3 ¨ mx3 = −k (x3 − x2 ) The solutions of the equations are GR8677 Exam Solutions (10. we get Solving. we get k − mω2 x1 − kx2 = 0 (10.115) D 10.110) (10.112) −kx2 + k − mω2 x3 = 0 We can solve the modes of oscillation by solving k − mω2 −k 0 −k 2k − 2mω2 −k =0 2 0 −k k − mω Finding the determinant results in FT 2 −kx1 + 2k − 2mω2 x2 − kx3 = 0 (10.113) RA k − mω2 2 k − mω2 x1 = −x3 x2 = 0 mv = MV mv V= M − k2 − k k k − mω2 (10. ± m m m Substituting ω = k/m into the equations of motion.107) (10. Collision with a Rod Momentum will be conserved.109) (10. Latchman (10. we get (10.44 Answer: (A) David S.111) (10.

121) (10. We are given T2 = 2T1 . Equation 5.122) P1 = σT1 = 10 mW 4 P2 = σT2 RA = σ (2T1 )4 ∆ = ±1 ∆m = 0.46 Stefan-Boltzmann’s Equation (10.48 ©2009 The Franck-Hertz Experiment as seen in subsection 7.45 Compton Wavelength ∆λ = λ − λ = h (1 − cos θ) me c We recall from subsection 7. ±1 4 = 16T2 = 16P1 = 160 mW (10. the Compton Equation from Equation 7. T1 . we get the Compton Wavelength λc = Answer: (C) h = 2.427 × 10−12 m me c (10.9. At certain energy levels.123) Answer: (E) 10.47 Franck-Hertz Experiment D 10.33 (10.8.Compton Wavelength 87 10. Total angular momentum David S.2.119) Let θ = 90◦ .3 deals with the manner in which electrons of certain energies scatter or collide with Mercury atoms. the Mercury atoms can ‘absorb’ the electrons energy and be excited and this occurs in discreet steps. so FT 10. Answer: (C) Selection Rules for Electronic Transitions Orbital angular momentum Magnetic quantum number Secondary spin quantum number. ±1 ∆ms = 0 ∆ j = 0. Latchman We recall the selection rules for photon emission .13 P(T) = σT4 At temperature.120) We recall the Stefan-Boltzmann’s Equation.

©2009 . This ‘equilibrium’ voltage across the conductor is known as the Hall Voltage and remains as long as a current ﬂows through our conductor.125) We can solve this through the substition of a momentum operator p→ ∂ i ∂x FT ∂ ∂t (10. As a charge carrier. Latchman Hall Eﬀect The Hall Eﬀect describes the production of a potential diﬀerence across a current carrying conductor that has been placed in a magnetic ﬁeld.88 NOT FINISHED Answer: (D) GR8677 Exam Solutions 10. the Hall Voltage.50 David S.49 The Hamilton Operator ˆ Hψ = Eψ (10. As the deﬂection and hence.124) The time-independent Schrodinger equation can be written ¨ We can determine the energy of a quantum particle by regarding the classical nonrelativistic relationship as an equality of expectation values. This asymmetric distribution of charges produces an electric ﬁeld that prevents the build up of more electrons. the Lorentz Force will cause a deviation in the carge carrier’s motion so that more charges accumulate in one location than another. The magnetic ﬁeld is directed perpendicularly to the electrical current. this can be used to measure the sign of charge carriers.128) Answer: (B) D 10.127) So we can get a Hamiltonian operator H→i (10. p2 + V H = 2m (10. moves through the conductor. is determined by the sign of the carrier.125 gives us H = = +∞ −∞ +∞ ∗ RA ψ∗ i −∞ ∂2 ψ + V(x)ψ dx ψ − 2m ∂x2 ∂ ψdx ∂t (10.126) Substituting this into Equation 10. an electron.

Each atom is a three-dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator.129) The current through the conductor is I = nAvd e (10.132) Equation 10.131) (10. thus RA eVH BI = w newd BI ∴ VH = ned (10. choice B. that causes the accumulation of charge carriers. At that point there is a departure from prediction and measurements and this is where the Einstein and Debye models come into play. the sign of the Hall voltage gives is the sign of the charge carrier. Thus Fm = evd B Fe = eE (10. Atoms vibrate with the same frequency. there is a Hall voltage across the width of the conductor.132.133) So for a measured magnetic ﬁeld and current. The Einstein model makes three assumptions 1. generated by the accumulated charge carriers.Debye and Einstein Theories to Speciﬁc Heat 89 An equilibrium condition is reached when the electric force.51 Debye and Einstein Theories to Speciﬁc Heat D ©2009 The determination of the speciﬁc heat capacity was ﬁrst deermined by the Law of Dulong and Petite. w and thickness. 3.130) For a conductor of width. Thus the electrical force becomes Fe = eE EVH = w The magnetic force is Fm = FT BI neA (10. Both the Einstein and Debye models begin with the assumption that a crystal is made up of a lattice of connected quantum harmonic oscillators. This Law was based on Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics and was accurate in its predictions except in the region of low temperatures. David S. Atoms do not interact with each other. d. 2. Answer: (C) 10. Latchman .131 is equal to Equation 10. is equal the the magnetic force.

Latchman ©2009 . we see that no charge is enclosed and hence no electric ﬁeld12 .134 is equal to zero.54 12 13 As the charge particle oscillates. We can realte the electric ﬁeld to the potential E=− V (10. similar to that of the black body radiation problem. the electric ﬁeld oscillates as well. we won’t “see” the charge oscillating but we would see it clearly if we look down the y-axis. Based on that analysis. If we consider a charge along the xy-plane.13 Answer: (E) FT By applying Gauss’ Law and drawing a Gaussian surface inside the cube. we must expect the potential to be the same throughout the space of the cube. Answer: (B) 10.135) 10.136) ·E+ ·P D ·E = − σp κ Draw Cube at potential V with Gaussian Surface enclosing no charge As we expect there to be no Electric Field. a charge place inside the cube would move.53 EM Radiation from Oscillating Charges D 10. This was solved in the Debye Model. looking directly along the x-axis. we choose (C) Answer: (C) Polarization Charge Density D= ·D= 0 0E RA +P As Equation 10. As the ﬁeld oscillates and changes. we would expect this changing ﬁeld to aﬀect a distant charge. Gauss’ Law shows that with no enclosed charge we have no electric ﬁeld inside our cube. This theory correctly predicted the T3 proportionality at low temperatures but suﬀered at intemediate temperatures. it would look like a doughnut around the x-axis. But despite its success.134) (10. the potential is the same throughout the cube.52 Potential inside a Hollow Cube Where V is the potential. If we were to visualize the ﬁeld. David S. The Debye Model looks at phonon contribution to speciﬁc heat capacity. If there were diﬀerences.90 GR8677 Exam Solutions Einstein assumed a quantum oscillator model. his theory predicted an exponential decress in heat capacity towards absolute zero whereas experiments followed a T3 relationship. Thus E=− V=0 (10.

Kinetic Energy of Electrons in Metals Answer: (E)14 91 10.55 Kinetic Energy of Electrons in Metals Electrons belong to a group known as fermions15 and as a result obey the Pauli Exclusion Principle16 .138) D 14 15 With an eigenvalue of k. Equation 10. to have the form of an exponential function. there are many fermions present each with a diﬀerent set of quantum numbers.139) ∂x A: ψ = cos kx We expect ψ.137) This is the very deﬁnition of the expectation or mean value of Q. Latchman . NOT FINSIHED Answer: (B) This is a deﬁnition question. Substituting this into the eigenfuntion. We can do this by trying each solution and seeing if they match17 ∂ψ −i = kψ (10.57 Eigenfuction of Wavefunction ∂ ∂x We are given the momentum operator as RA p = −i −i (10. ©2009 David S. The question states that for an operator Q. we have ∂ cos kx = −i (−k sin kx) ∂x = i k sin kx kψ ψ does not surive our diﬀerentiation and so we can eliminate it. So in the case of a metal. Q = +∞ FT ψ∗ Qψdx −∞ 10. protons and neutrons 16 The Pauli Exclusion Principle states that no two fermions may occupy the same quantum state 17 We can eliminate choices (A) & (B) as we would expect the answer to be an exponential function in this case. Answer: (C) 10.56 Expectation or Mean Value (10. Check Polarization in Griﬃths Examples of fermions include electrons. These choices were just done for illustrative purposes and you should know to avoid them in the exam.139. The electron with the highest energy state is has an energy value known as the Fermi Energy.

C: ψ = exp −ikx Substituting this into Equation 10. The intensity of light recorded on our medium is the same as the scattered light from our object.139.92 GR8677 Exam Solutions B: ψ = sin kx This is a similar case to the one above and we can eliminate for this reason. Answer: (B) ©2009 RA −i ∂ −kx e = −i −ke−kx ∂x = −i ke−kx kψ FT . −i ∂ sin kx = −i (k cos kx) ∂x = −i k cos kx kψ Again we see that ψ does not survive when we apply our operator and so we can eliminate this choice as well. so we can eliminate this choice as well.58 David S. −i ∂ ikx e = −i ikeikx ∂x = ke−ikx = kψ Success. such as from a laser. gives −i ∂ −ikx e = −i −ike−ikx ∂x = − ke−ikx kψ Close but we are oﬀ. D: ψ = exp ikx If the above choice didn’t work. The interference pattern is a result of phase changes as light is scattered oﬀ our object. E: = ψ = exp −kx Again this choice does not work. The object we wish to “photograph” is placed in the path of the illumination beam and the scattered light falls on the recording medium. Latchman Answer: (D) Holograms The hologram is an image that produces a 3-dimensional image using both the Amplitude and Phase of a wave. so we can eliminate this as well D 10. the reference beam is reﬂected unimpeded to the recording medium and these two beams produces an interference pattern. monochromatic light. this is our answer. is split into two beams. this might be more likely to. The second beam. Thus choices (I) and (II) are true. Coherent.

As k → 0.141) By diﬀerentiating Equation 10. ω. from V (x) (10.143) (10. we have dω c2 0 = √ dk 0 + m2 =0 As k → ∞.140 with respect to k.59 Group Velocity of a Wave ω2 = c2 k2 + m2 1 2 We are given the dispersion relationship of a wave as (10.142) We want to examine the cases as k → 0 and k → ∞.145) Answer: (E) D 10.144) Replacing the denominator for our group velocity gives (10. c2 k2 >> m2 the denominator becomes √ c2 k2 + m ≈ c2 k2 RA dω c2 k = =c dk ck V(x) = a + bx2 V (x) = 2b = k ω2 = (10. k. Latchman .148) We see this is dependent on b and m.147) The angular frequency.140) The Group Velocity of a Wave is vg = dω dk (10. we can determine th group velocity 2ωdω = 2c2 kdk ⇒ dω c2 k = dk ω = √ FT c2 k c2 k2 + m2 k 2b = m m (10.Group Velocity of a Wave 93 10.60 ©2009 Potential Energy and Simple Harmonic Motion (10. is (10.146) We are given a potential energy of We can determine the mass’s spring constant. Answer: (C) David S.

Instead of determining the electrical potential. so at any point along the x-axis.63 Surface Charge Density This question was solved as ‘The Classic Image Problem’[2]. Answer: (E) 10.151) D David S.61 Rocket Equation I We recall from the rocket equation that u in this case is the speed of the exaust gas relative to the rocket. we will ﬁnd the electrical ﬁeld of a dipole and determine the surface charge density using σ E= (10. Below is an alternative method but the principles are the same. the electrical ﬁeld contributions from both charges will be the same.150) This ﬁts none of the answers given. The resulting electrical ﬁeld will be due to a combination of the real charge and the ‘virtual’ induced charge. or rather our grounded conductor.62 Rocket Equation II m dm dv +u =0 dt dt (10. Thus where cos θ = d r (10. −q will induce a +q on the grounded conducting plane.94 GR8677 Exam Solutions 10. as was done by Griﬃths.153) ©2009 .149) The rocket equation is Solving this equation becomes v 0 dv = u dm m0 m m v = u ln m0 FT m 0 mdv = udm (10. Thus E = −E y ˆ = (E− + E+ ) ˆ j j = 2E− ˆ j RA E− = q cos θ 4π r2 qd = 4π 0 r3 (10. Answer: (E) 10. Latchman Our point charge.152) Remember the two charges are the same.

Now.157) (10. Latchman For the maximum power to be transmitted.155) where r = D.156) 10.151 gives us σ 0 = qd 2π 0 r3 (10.154) You may recognize that 2qd is the electrical dipole moment. putting Equation 10. the maximum power theorem states that the load impedance must be equal to the complex conjugate of the generator’s impedance.159) (10. we get σ= Answer: (C) qd 2πD2 (10.158) (10.64 Maximum Power Theorem We are given the impedance of our generator RA Z g = R g + jX g Z g = Z∗ Z = R g + jX = R g − jX g dB = µ0 i d × r ˆ 3 4π r FT (10.160) David S.154 equal to Equation 10.65 Magnetic Field far away from a Current carrying Loop The Biot-Savart Law is ©2009 . Thus D Answer: (C) 10.Maximum Power Theorem Our total ﬁeld becomes E= 2qd 4π 0 r3 95 (10.

165) G = E − TS + PV ∴ dG = −SdT + VdP (10. b and the radius vector.162) 10. r.161) B ∝ ib2 (10.166) ©2009 .96 GR8677 Exam Solutions Let θ be the angle between the radius.163) Entalpy D Helmholtz Free Energy Gibbs Free Energy David S.66 Maxwell’s Relations To derive the Maxwell’s Relations we begin with the thermodynamic potentials First Law RA dU = TdS − PdV (10.164) F = E − TS ∴ dF = −SdT − PdV (10. we get B= µ0 i rd cos θ b where cos θ = 3 4π r r mu0 i d cos θ = 4π r2 √ µ0 i bd where r = b2 + h2 = 4π r3 µ0 i bd = where d = b · dθ 4π (b2 + h2 ) 3 2 µ0i b2 = · 3 4π (b2 + h2 ) 2 = we see that Answer: (B) µ0 i b 2 (b2 + h2 ) 3 2 2 2π dθ FT 0 (10. Latchman H = E + PV ∴ dH = TdS + VdP (10.

we choose Equation 10.163 and applying the above condition we get ∂U ∂U P= (10.69 Car and Garage I We are given the car’s length in its rest frame to be L = 5 meters and its Lorentz Contracted length to be L = 3 meters. including the garage.68 Particle moving at Light Speed Answer: (A) 10.3 D Answer: (C) RA L=L 1− 3 2 v2 =1− 2 5 c 4 ⇒v= c 5 FT V v2 c2 (10. We have calculated that the speed that ©2009 David S.167) T= ∂S V ∂V S Thus taking the inverse of T. We can determine the speed from Equation 8. the driver will notice that things around him. are length contracted.169) 10.67 Partition Functions NOT FINISHED 10. Latchman .168) 10.Partition Functions All of these diﬀerentials are of the form dz = ∂z ∂x dx + y 97 ∂z ∂y dy x = Mdx + Ndy For the variables listed.70 Car and Garage II As the car approaches the garage. gives us 1 ∂S = T ∂U Answer: (E) (10.

3. Latchman ©2009 . How or when we discover physical theories has no bearing on observed properties or behavior.170) = 4 1 − 0. Choice C NOT TRUE. So maybe the order in which discoveries are made matters. Answer: (E) David S. it will instantly disappear and be replaced by something even more bizarre and inexplicable. The laws of Physics don’t change in vacuum.71 Car and Garage III 10. Choice B NOT TRUE. You can start by eliminating choices when in doubt. in the previous section. a hypothetical particle.82 = 2.98 GR8677 Exam Solutions he is travelling at to be. though according to some it may seem so at times18 D 18 Choice E The phase and group speeds can be diﬀerent. What happens depends on whose frame of reference you’re in. v = 0.8c. There is another which states this has already happened. Lg = Lg 1 − v2 c2 (10. Equation 8. FT This is more of a conceptual question. to solve this question. Though the tachyon.72 Refrective Index of Rock Salt and X-rays Choice A NOT TRUE Relativity says nothing about whether light is in a vacuum or not. X-rays can “transmit” signals or energy. The phase velocity is the rate at which the crests of the wave propagate or the rate at which the phase of the wave is moving. has imaginary mass. Who am I to question Douglas Adams? RA No special knowledge is needed but a little knowledge always helps. We again use the Length Contraction formula. Choice D NOT TRUE. this choice goes against the postulates of Special Relativity. Photons have zero rest mass. This allows it to travel faster than the speed or light though they don’t violate the principles of causality.4 meters Answer: (A) 10. There is a theory which states that is ever anyone discovers exactly what the Universe is for and why it is here. The group speed is the rate at which the envelope of the waveform There is a quote by Douglas Adams[3]. any waveform can once it is not distorted too much during propagation. If anything.

Answer: (E) 10. and thickness.74 ©2009 Law of Malus The Law of Malus states that when a perfect polarizer is placed in a polarized beam of light.172) where m = 0. The transmitted wave goes through without a phase change. n1 . Latchman . we consider our lens with refractive index. being coated by our non-reﬂective coating of refractive index. n3 . Thus (10. Destructive interference occurs when the optical path diﬀerence.73 Thin Flim Non-Reﬂective Coatings To analyze this system. The refracted ray passes through our coating to strike our glass lens. At the point where it reﬂects. 2. where n1 < n2 < n3 (10. So (10. the intensity I.171) RA 2t = m + t= 1λ 4 n2 I = I0 cos2 θ 2π FT 1 λ 2 n2 cos2 θ 0 As our ray of light in air strikes the ﬁrst boundary. Answer: (A) D 10. n2 . it moves from a less optically dense medium to a more optically dense one.175) David S. t. 3.Thin Flim Non-Reﬂective Coatings 99 is moving or rather it’s the rate at which the amplitude varies in the waveform. which is optically more dense than our coating. the coating. is given by (10. 1.173) We need a non-reﬂective coating that has an optical thicknes of a quarter wavelength. in air with refractive index. The thinnest possible coating occurs at m = 0. A beam of light can be considered to be a uniform mix of plane polarization angles and the average of this is I = I0 1 = I0 2 (10. As a result there will be a phase change in our reﬂected ray. there will be a phase change in the reﬂected wave. We can use this principle of n < 1 materials to create X-ray mirrors using “total external reﬂection”. occurs in half-wavelengths multiples.174) where θ is the angle between the light’s plane of polarization and the axis of the polarizer. 2t.

185) ©2009 .76 Solving for ω leaves David S.181) Dividing Equation 10. Latchman Hoop Rolling down and Inclined Plane As the hoop rolls down the inclined plane. (10.100 GR8677 Exam Solutions So the maximum fraction of transmitted power through all three polarizers becomes I3 = Answer: (B) 1 2 3 = I0 8 (10.183) Recall that v = ωR.183 becomes (10. m is the satellite mass and RE is the orbital radius.177) T R2 where M is the mass of the Earth.180 and Equation 10. Equation 10.178) R3 ∝ (80)2 E (10. which you may recognize as Kepler’s Law.180) (10.176) 10. its gravitational potential energy is converted to translational kinetic energy and rotational kinetic energy 1 1 Mgh = Mv2 + Iω2 2 2 1 1 MgH = MR2 ω2 + MR2 ω2 2 2 (10.75 Geosynchronous Satellite Orbit R3 ∝ T2 We can say R3 S FT 2 2 1 2 We can relate the period or the angluar velocity of a satellite and Newton’s Law of Gravitation 2π 2 GMm mRω2 = mR = (10.181.179) (10. gives RS 3 24 × 60 = RE 80 3 2 3 RS = 18 RE RA gh ω= 2 R ∝ (24 × 60) (10.182) Answer: (B) D 10.184) (10. From this we can get a relationship between the radius of orbit and its period.

190 gives (10.188) We can write the equation of motion as m¨ − kx x where where RA 1 = sin ωt + φ 2 cos ωt + φ = 3 ˙ x = 2π f A · 2 √ = 3π f A x = A sin ωt + φ (10.193) 10.189) (10.187) 10.77 Simple Harmonic Motion F = −kx We are told that a particle obeys Hooke’s Law.192) Substituting this into Equation 10. Latchman .191) We can show that D Amswer: (B) (10.186) gh L = MR 2 R = MR gh Answer: (A) 1 2 (10.190) ˙ and x = ωA cos ωt + φ We are told that (10.78 Total Energy between Two Charges We are told three things 1.185 gives us 101 L = Iω (10.Simple Harmonic Motion The angular momentum is Substituting Equation 10. and ©2009 David S. where FT ω2 = k m √ 3 2 √ (10. There is a zero potential energy.

10. Choice B Again we see that the number of ﬁeld lines entering is the same as the number leaving.79 Maxwell’s Equations and Magnetic Monopoles .102 GR8677 Exam Solutions 2. so no energy is lost. Choice C The same as above Choice D In this case. The total energy of the system is E = Potential Energy + Kinetic Energy = 0 + (KE > 0) >0 (10. we see that the ﬁeld lines at the edge of the Gaussian Surface are all leaving. There are some implications to this.195) or rather ∂ ∂ ∂ Ex + E y + Ez = 0 ∂x ∂y ∂z (10. This is also what we’d expect the ﬁeld to look like for a region bounded by a magnetic monopole. So using this principle we know from the electric form of this law we can get an answer to this question. No charge implies that the amount of ﬁeld lines that enter a Gaussian surface must be equal to the amount of ﬁeld lines that leave. No radiation is emitted. Answer: (C) You may have heard several things about the ·B = 0 equation in Maxwell’s Laws. one particle has non-zero speed and hence kinetic energy. This ﬁts with the above law.80 Gauss’ Law To determine an electric ﬁeld that could exist in a region of space with no charges we turn to Gauss’ Law. D Answer: (D) Choice E The ﬁeld loops in on itself.194) Applying the three condition. no ﬁeld lines enter the surface. So this does not violate the above law. David S. FT 10.196) So we analyze each choice in turn to get our answer. Latchman ©2009 RA Choice A The number of ﬁeld lines that enter is the same as the number that leaves. 3. One of them is there being no magnetic monopoles or charges. we expect the total energy to be positive and constant. ·E=0 (10. so the total number of ﬁeld lines is zero.

81 We can determine the magnetic ﬁeld produced by our outer wire from the Biot-Savart Law µ0 d × r dB = (10.198) (10. Latchman .201) 10.199) RA Biot-Savart Law ˆ ˆ E = xyz(i + j) ∂ ∂ ·E= xyz + xyz ∂x ∂y = yz + xz 0 (10.202) 4π r3 ©2009 David S.197) ˆ ˆ E = xzi + xz j ∂ ∂ ·E= xz + xz ∂x ∂y =z+0 0 Choice D FT ˆ E = xyzi ∂ ·E= xyz ∂x = yz 0 (10.200) Choice E D Answer: (B) (10.Biot-Savart Law Choice A ˆ ˆ E = 2xyi − xyk ∂ ∂ ·E= 2xy + (−xz) ∂x ∂z = 2y + x 0 Choice B ˆ ˆ E = −xy j + xzk ∂ ∂ ·E= (−xy) + xz ∂y ∂z = −x + x = 0 Choice C 103 (10.

203) We know from Faraday’s Law. performed by O. Latchman Zeeman Eﬀect and the emission spectrum of atomic gases Another knowledge based question best answered by the process of elimination.104 GR8677 Exam Solutions As our radius and diﬀerential length vectors are orthogonal. Gerlach in 1922 studies the behavior of a beam atoms being split in two as they pass through a non-uniform magnetic ﬁeld. a changing magnetic ﬂux induces a EMF. the splitting seen in the Stern-Gerlach Experiment is due to this. Nuclear Magnetic Moments of atoms Close. E = FT dΦ dt µ0 I · πa2 2b a2 dI b dt a2 ωI0 sin ωt b (10. This experiment. The magnetic ﬂux becomes Φ= The induced EMF becomes E = µ0 π 2 µ0 π = 2 (10.206) Answer: (B) 10. Stark Eﬀect The Stark Eﬀect deals with the shift in spectral lines in the presence of electrical ﬁelds.204) where Φ = BA.82 D David S. Stern-Gerlach Experiemnt The Stern-Gerlach Experiment has nothing to do with spectral emissions.205) RA (10. not in magnetic ﬁelds. Stern and W. the magnetic ﬁeld works out to be dB = µ0 d r I 4π r3 µ0 I rdθ = · 4π r2 2π µ0 I B= dθ 4πr 0 µ0 I = 2b (10. Emission spectrum typically deals with electrons and so we would expect it to deal with electrons on some level. ©2009 .

J = L + S. we start with the electronic conﬁguration. 2p6 . Now we can calculate the total spin quantum number.207) We are most interested in the 3s1 sub-shell and can ignore the rest of the ﬁlled subshells.210) (10.83 Spectral Lines in High Density and Low Density Gases We expect the spectral lines to be broader in a high density gas and narrower in a low density gas ue to the increased colissions between the molecules. S. Answer: (E) 10.209) 1 2 and as L = 0 then we use the symbol S.Spectral Lines in High Density and Low Density Gases 105 Emission lines are split in two Closer but still not accurate.84 Term Symbols & Spectroscopic Notation To determine the term symbol for the sodium ground state. Thus our term equation becomes (10. 2s2 . Atomic collisions add another mechanism to transfer energy.208) Now we can calculate the total angular momentum quantum number. The diﬀerence in the emission spectrum of a gas in a magnetic ﬁeld is due to the Zeeman eﬀect. Latchman . Emission lines are greater or equal than in the absence of the magnetic ﬁeld This we know to be true. 3s1 (10. There is splitting but in some cases it may be more than two. D This gives us Answer: (B) ©2009 RA S= 1 2 J= 2 FT S1 2 (10. This is easy as they have given us the number of electrons the element has thus allowing us to ﬁll sub-shells using the Pauli Exclusion Principle. As there is only one unpaired electron. As the 3s sub-shell is half ﬁlled then L=0 (10. We get 1s2 .211) David S. As we only have one valence electron then ms = +1/2.[4] Answer: (C) 10.

we see that cvI = 5/2Nk. Latchman speciﬁc heats for Models I & II are 5 cvI = Nk 2 Now we can go about choosing our answer Choice A From our above calculations. we will turn to the equipartition of energy equation cv = FT 7 cvII = Nk 2 Gauss’ law is equivalent to Coulomb’s Law because Coulomb’s Law is an inverse square law. Jason Priestly knew that there is no gravitational ﬁeld within a spherically symmetrical mass distribution. we see that So the Table 10. This is due to the added degrees of freedom (vibrational) that it possesses.212) . cv for a diatomic molecule Degrees of Freedom Model I Model II Translational 3 3 Rotational 2 2 Vibrational 0 2 Total 5 7 D David S. In the case of Model I.86 The Ice Pail Experiment 10. testing one is a valid test of the other. 789 Answer: (B) 10. Much of our knowledge of the consequences of the inverse square law came from the study of gravity.106 GR8677 Exam Solutions 10. Choice B Again.85 Photon Interaction Cross Sections for Pb Check Brehm p.87 Equipartition of Energy and Diatomic Molecules f R 2 To answer this question. So this choice is WRONG. our calculations show that the speciﬁc heat for Model II is larger than than of Model I. Answer: (E) where f is the number of degrees of freedom. ©2009 RA (10.2: Speciﬁc Heat. It was suspected that was the same reason why a charged cork ball inside a charged metallic container isn’t attracted to the walls of a container. So this choice is WRONG.

107 E This is TRUE. this states that no two fermions may have the same quantum state. x2 ) (10.213) (10. Fermions follow Fermi-Dirac statistics and their behavior is obey the Pauli Exclusion Principle. We know that at higher temperatures we have an additional degree of freedom between our diatomic molecule. then these particles will try to occupy all the energy states it can until the highest is ﬁlled. so based on our analyis. we don’t pay attention to this grouping. we expect.215) Symmetric functions obey Bose-Einstein statistics and are known as bosons[6. (10. the particles are going to ﬁll up the available energy states.Fermion and Boson Pressure C & D They both contradict the other and they both contradict Choice (E). we see that19 You could have easily played the ‘one of thes things is not like the other. PC is the pressure with no quantum eﬀects taking place and PF to be the fermion pressure. 7. Bosons on the other hand follow Bose-Einstein statistics and several bosons can occupy the same quantum state.. Classically. Upon examination of our choices. In the case of fermions..88 Fermion and Boson Pressure where PB is the boson pressure.89 Wavefunction of Two Identical Particles 1 ψ = √ ψα (x1 )ψβ (x2 ) + ψβ (x1 )ψα (x2 ) 2 We are given the wavefunction of two identical particles. as no two fermions can occupy the same state. so they will all ‘group’ together for the lowest they can. D electrons fermion positrons fermion protons fermion 19 RA PF > PC > PB FT To answer this question. 8].214) This is a symmetric function and satisﬁes the relation ψαβ (x2 .’ game ©2009 David S. we must understand the diﬀerences between fermions and bosons. Answer: (E) 10. Bosons on the other hand can occupy the same state. Basically. Answer: (B) 10. Latchman . As the temperature of a gas drops. x1 ) = ψαβ (x1 .

1 ψ = √ ψα (x1 )ψβ (x2 ) − ψβ (x1 )ψα (x2 ) 2 and satisﬁes the relation ψαβ (x2 . we determine λ to be (10. Answer: (E) 10. Latchman Bragg’s Law (10. x1 ) = −ψαβ (x1 .91 We recall Bragg’s Law David S.217) These obey Fermi-Dirac Statistics and are known as fermions.222) ©2009 .5) = 3Å p= h λ FT (10.221) We employ the de Broglie relationship between wavelength and momentum (10.216) (10. x2 ) GR8677 Exam Solutions (10.219) Answer: (C) D 10. a anti-symmetric function takes the form. So (10. We know that En = n2 E0 We are given that E2 = 2 eV.90 Energy Eigenstates We may recognize this wavefunction from studying the particle in an inﬁnite well problem and see this is the n = 2 wavefunction.218) RA E0 = 1 E2 n2 2 = eV 4 1 = eV 2 2d sin θ = nλ λ = 2(3Å)(sin 30) = 2(3Å)(0.108 neutron fermion deutrons Boson Incidentally.220) Plugging in what we know.

226) (10. Answer: (D) The power of the sander can be calculated . power is the rate at which work is done.224) 10.Selection Rules for Electronic Transitions We get h λ h ⇒v= mλ mv = = 6. ±1 ∆ms = 0 ∆j = 0.227) David S. ∆s. so we can eliminate this choice. Total angular momentum FT (10.63 × 10−34 (9.92 Selection Rules for Electronic Transitions ∆ = ±1 ∆m = 0. Answer: (D) 10. ±1 The selection rules for an electric dipole transition are[9] We have no selection rules for spin. Latchman We see that (D) is close to what we are looking for.223) We can determine the order of our answer by looking at the relevant indices − 34 − (−31) − (−10) = 7 (10. So P= dW dt dx = F = Fv dt RA P = VI Orbital angular momentum Magnetic quantum number Secondary spin quantum number.93 Moving Belt Sander on a Rough Plane W =F×x (10.11 × 10−31 )(3 × 10( − 10)) 109 (10.225) D ©2009 We know the work done on a body by a force is We can relate this to the power of the sander.

so F − µR = 0 (10. By equating the Mechanical Power.227. giving us V(t) = R1 · I0 1 − exp = E 1 − exp R1 t L R1 t L (10. Equation 10. Equation 10. F= VI v 120 × 9 = 10 = 108 N (10.230) R 100 Answer: (D) 10.94 RL Circuits D David S. S. We can ﬁnd the voltage across the resistor.234) ©2009 .226 and the Electrical Power. a magnetic ﬁeld builds up within the inductor and the inductor stores energy. is closed. Given that E − VR1 − VL = 0 ∴ VL = E − VR1 R1 t = E exp L RA When the switch. dI (10.110 GR8677 Exam Solutions where V and I are the voltage across and the current through the sander.229) where R is the normal force of the sander pushing against the wood.231) E − IR − L = 0 dt and the solution to this is R1 t I(t) = I0 1 − exp (10. Thus the coeﬃcient of friction is F 108 µ= = = 1.228) The sander is motionless.08 (10. we can determine the force that the motor exerts on the belt. The charging of the inductor can be derived from Kirchoﬀ’s Rules. Latchman where the time constant. τ1 = L/R1 .232) L FT (10. R1 . by multiplying the above by R1 .233) The potential at A can be found by measuring the voltage across the inductor.

the voltage would quickly drop and level oﬀ to zero but with the inductor present. We would expect to see a reversal in the potential at A. thus FT 2 VL With S opened. LM and NK. If the inductor was not present. we need to think some more.240) If you get stuck beyond this point. The odds are now in your favor. Latchman . KL and MN.Carnot Cycles 111 This we know to be an exponential decay and (fortunately) limits our choices to either (A) or (B)20 The story doesn’t end here. the inductor is going to dump its energy across R2 and assuming that the diode has negligible resistance.239) where γ = CP /CV .238) For adiabatic transformations.237) D 20 PV = nRT = a constant (10. Graph (B) ﬁts this choice. Thus (10. we have RA PV γ = a constant Q2 = WK→L ∴ WK→L = PdV VK VR2 E = R1 R2 VR2 = 3E (10. For the KL transformation. ©2009 David S. you can guess. The energy stored by the inductor is 1 2 1 E UL = LI0 = L 2 2 R1 2 (10. and two adiabatic transformations.235) 1 VR2 U= L 2 R2 The above two equations are equal. Since both (A) and (B) show this ﬂip. For isothermal transformations. = nRT2 ln VK VL (10. we have (10. dU = 0. the inductor opposes this change. Answer: B 10.95 Carnot Cycles The Carnot Cycle is made up of two isothermal transformations. a change in current means a change in magnetic ﬂux. all of this energy goes to R2 .236) We expect the potential at A to be larger when S is opened.

Heat moves from the hot reservoir and is converted to work and heat.247) 2. Thus Q2 = Q1 + W The entropy change from the hot reservoir dQ2 (10. Latchman 1.243.112 For the LM transformation.249) T As the hot reservoir looses heat.242) (10. GR8677 Exam Solutions PL VL = PM VM Q1 = WM→N ∴ WM→N = VN γ γ (10.244) η=1− We get RA η=1− =1− =1− nRT1 ln VM VN VK VL Q1 Q2 (10. the entropy decreases. David S.246) D Thus choice (A) is true. We see that 1− Q1 T1 =1− Q2 T2 Q1 T1 ∴ = Q2 T2 (10. Thus choice (B) is true. S= ©2009 (10. gives PK VK VM VL = ∴ VK VN The eﬀeciency of an engine is deﬁned FT γ γ = PM VM PN VN γ γ (10.241 and Equation 10. PN VN = PK VK PL VL γ γ VN VM (10. dU = 0.245) Q1 −WM→N =1− Q2 WK→L nRT2 ln T1 T2 (10. For the MN transformation.243) Dividing Equation 10.248) .241) PdV VM = nRT1 ln For the NK transformation.

251) FT ψ0 |H |ψ0 m n E0 − E0 n m c(n) ψ0 m m m n η=1− Q1 Q2 Q2 − Q1 = Q2 (10.253) From there we can get the ﬁrst order correction to the wave function (10. Thus choice (C) is false. dQ =0 T (10.254) ψ1 = n (10. We can. For a reversible cycle. and shouldn’t. calculate this in the exam. We can get the ﬁrst order correction to be ebergy eigenvalue[11] RA E1 = ψ0 |H |ψ0 n n n ψ1 n = m n Answer: (C) D and can be expressed as 21 (10.255) you may recognize this as a Fourier Series and this will help you knowing that the perturbing potential is one period of a saw tooth wave. 5. The eﬃcieny is deﬁned η= This becomes W Q2 (10. 4. Answer: (B)21 Griﬃths gives a similar problem in his text[12] ©2009 David S.252) Thus W = Q2 − Q1 . So choice (D) is true.96 First Order Perturbation Theory Perturbation Theory is a procedure for obtaining approximate solutions for a perturbed state by studying the solutions of the unperturbed state[10]. Latchman .First Order Perturbation Theory 113 3. 10. So choice (E) is also true. And you may recall that the Fourier Series of a saw tooth wave form is made up of even harmonics. The change in entropy is deﬁned by Calusius’s Theorem. there is no net heat ﬂow over the cycle.250) We see that the entropy of the system remains the same. The eﬀeciency is based on an ideal gas and has no relation to the substance used.

256) where p is the linear momentum and r is the distance from the point P to the center of disc I. they fuse. Answer: (A) D 10. This slows the oncoming disc.257) It’s negative as the cross product of R and v0 is negative.258 and Equation 10. 1 λdx dV = (10. Latchman Electrical Potential of a Long Thin Rod We have charge uniformly distributed along the glass rod. We can not exactly add these two as they.258) Adding Equation 10. though similar.97 Colliding Discs and the Conservation of Angular Momentum As the disk moves.259) The Electric Potential is deﬁned V(x) = (10. We can calculate the linear angular momentum L=r×p (10.257 gives the total angular momentum. The Rotational Angular Momentum is Lω0 = Iω0 (10. This becomes FT Q = dQ dx q 4π 0 x Lv0 = MR × v0 = −MRv0 (10. it possessed both angular and linear momentums. But we can deﬁne a linear angular motion with respect to some origin. Thus the total angular momentum at the point P is zero. It’s linear charge density is λ= (10.114 GR8677 Exam Solutions 10. As the two discs hit each other.260) We can ‘slice’ our rod into inﬁnitesimal slices and sum them to get the potential of the rod.98 David S. are quite diﬀerent beasts.261) 4π 0 x ©2009 RA L = Lω0 + Lv0 = Iω0 − MRv0 1 1 = MR2 ω0 − MR2 ω0 2 2 =0 .

we must use a reducedmass correction factor to determine the enrgy levels of this system.265) D where E0 = 13. The reduced mass of the system is 1 1 1 = + (10.6 eV.100 The Pinhole Camera A pinhole camera is simply a camera with no lens and a very small aperature.264) µ me mp FT (10. Answer: (B) The ground state of the Hydrogen atom.22 . x = away from the rod. For the photography 22 Place cite here ©2009 David S. Latchman . Equation 10. Light passes through this hole to produce an inverted image on a screen.262 becomes V= Q 1 4π Q 1 = 4π ln 0 2 (10.262) Where x = 2 . As the masses of the electron and positron are the same. x. So V 0 115 is V = 0 and at some point dV = x λ dx 4π 0 x λ x = ln 4π 0 (10. the potential is V. in terms of the reduced mass is (10.Ground State of a Positronium Atom We assume that the potential at the end of the rod.266) 10.99 Ground State of a Positronium Atom Thus /mu is RA µ= me · mp me + mp me = 2 µ E0 me 1 = − E0 2 E1 = − Positronium consists of an electron and a positron bound together to form an “exotic” atom.263) ln 2 0 Answer: (D) 10.

smaller produces a sharper image because it reduces “image overlap”. Think of a large hole as a set of tiny pinholes places close to each other. i.271) So we’d want a pinhole of that size to produce or sharpest image possible. which worked out to be √ d = 1.268) (10.e.9 Dλ (10. There are limits to the size of our pinhole. making the aperature bigger allows more light to enter and produces a “brighter” picture while making the aperature smaller produces a sharper image.270) d We can see that we want to reduce y as much as possible.272) Answer: (A) 23 D David S. We can not say.267) this is the equation for the diﬀraction of a single slit. with a pinhole of diameter.270 becomes 2λD 0= −d d 2λD ∴ =d d √ Thus d = 2λD (10.269) So the ‘blur’ of our resulting image is B= y−d 2λD = −d (10.267 becomes dθ = λ λ ⇒θ= d y = 2θD 2λD = d The “size” of this spread out image is RA (10. D. Latchman Add image of pinhole camera ©2009 . Equation 10. you know that by varying the size of a camera’s aperature can accomplish various things. d. This results in an inﬁnite amount of images overlapping each other and hence a blurry image. Consider a pinhole camera of length. it is best to use the smallest pinhole possible. So to produce a sharp image. use an inﬁnitely small pinhole the produce the sharpest possible image. This result is close to the result that Lord Rayleigh used. for example. As θ is small and we will consider ﬁrst order diﬀraction eﬀects. make it d. Beyond some point diﬀraction eﬀects take place and will ruin our image. So Equation 10. or aperature.d sin θ = mλ FT 116 GR8677 Exam Solutions buﬀs among you. In the case of the pinhole camera. the tradeoﬀ being an image that’s not as “bright”. We know how much a beam of light will be diﬀracted through this pinhole by23 (10. making the pinhole.

99 × 108 m/s Gravitational Constant G 6.1 Triple Products A · (B × C) = B · (C × A) = C · (A × B) A × (B × C) = B (A · C) − C (A · B) (A.529 × 10−10 m FT .K Boltzmann’s Constant k 1.Appendix A Constants & Important Equations A.2.2) RA Constant Symbol Value Speed of light in a vacuum c 2.38 × 10−23 J/K Electron charge e 1.11 × 10−31 kg Avogadro’s Number NA 6.1) (A.85 × 10−12 C2 /N.02 × 1023 mol-1 Universal Gas Constant R 8.0 × 105 M/m2 Bohr Radius a0 0.60 × 10−9 C Permitivitty of Free Space 8.2 Vector Identities A.m/A Athmospheric Pressure 1 atm 1.s2 Rest Mass of the electron me 9.67 × 10−11 m3 /kg.m2 0 Permeability of Free Space µ0 4π × 10−7 T.1 Constants D A.31 J/mol.

2.4) (A.3.13) (A. [C. A] = 0 [A.3.3) (A.15) A. A] [A.118 Constants & Important Equations A. B]] = 0 (A.4. C]] + [B.8) A. A]] + [C.12) (A.4 Linear Algebra A.9) (A.14) A.2 Canonical Commutator (A.2 Product Rules fg = f g + g f (A · B) = A × ( × B) + B × ( × A) + (A · ) B + (B · ) A · f A = f ( · A) + A · f · (A × B) = B · ( × A) − A · ( × B) × f A = f ( × A) − A × f × (A × B) = (B · ) A − (A · ) B + A ( · B) − B ( · A) (A.3 Commutators A. if m = n. [B.10) (A.1 Lie-algebra Relations RA [x.11) A A.5) (A.16) ψm (x)∗ ψn (x)dx = δmn A.17) ©2009 David S. [A.1 Vectors Vector Addition The sum of two vectors is another vector (A.3 Second Derivatives × ( × A) = FT ( · A) − 2 · ( × A) = 0 × f =0 (A.3 Kronecker Delta Function D For a wave function if m n. B] = −[B.7) (A. (A. Latchman .6) (A.2.3. p] = i δmn = 0 1 |α + |β = |γ [A.

18) (A.Linear Algebra Commutative Associative Zero Vector Inverse Vector 119 |α + |β = |β + |α |α + |β + |γ = |α + |β + |γ (A. Latchman RA FT .20) (A.21) |α + |0 = |α |α + | − α = |0 D ©2009 David S.19) (A.

Latchman ©2009 RA FT .120 Constants & Important Equations D David S.

Prentice Hall. 2005. Griﬃths. chapter 5. Introduction to Quantum Mechanics. 1989. pages 251–254. Term symbol — wikipedia.2. Wiley. accessed 22-March-2009]. chapter 6. chapter 6. [Online.1. 1989. 2005. Introduction to Quantum Mechanics. Prentice Hall. The restaurant at the end of the universe. second edition. chapter 9. D [10] David J. accessed 17-March-2009]. ﬁrst edition. second edition. pages 203–205.3. Brehm and William J. pages 539–540. second edition. 1989. [3] Douglas Adams. Griﬃths. [8] David J. RA FT . [12] David J.2.1. Prentice Hall. [2] David J. Wiley. [6] John J. 2005. chapter 11-1. [11] David J. the free encyclopedia. [4] Wikipedia. [9] David J. pages 121–123. third edition. 1999. second edition. pages 283–287.3. 2009. [Online. Introduction to Quantum Mechanics. 2005. 2005. Introduction to the Structure of Matter. Prentice Hall. Introduction to Quantum Mechanics.1. Prentice Hall. Introduction to the Structure of Matter. Introduction to Quantum Mechanics. Griﬃths. Brehm and William J. pages 567–571. Mullin. pages 359–362.2. Prentice Hall. Wiley.1.1. Brehm and William J.1. ﬁrst edition. ﬁrst edition. [5] Wikipedia.1. chapter 3. 2008. [7] John J. Griﬃths.Bibliography [1] John J. page 249. Introduction to the Structure of Matter. Mullin. Griﬃths. Mullin. chapter 11-6. chapter 5-10. Introduction to Electrodyanmics. page 254. second edition. Spectral line — wikipedia. chapter 6. Griﬃths. the free encyclopedia.

49 GR8677 Q05. 78 Circular Orbits. see Rotational MoDielectrics tion GR8677 Q03. 79 Escape Speed. see Celestial Mechanics Counting Statistics. 21 GR8677 Q24. 24 Doppler Eﬀect. 71 GR8677 Q39. 24 Lie-algebra Relations. 23 Equation of Continuity. 23 Canonical Commutators. 55 Compton Eﬀect.Index Current Density Ampliﬁers GR8677 Q09. 67 Bohr Model GR8677 Q19. 22 Elliptic Orbits. 81 Kepler’s Laws. 84 D RA FT . see System of Particles Cetripetal Motion Fleming’s Right Hand Rule GR8677 Q06. 22 Kinectic Energy. 78 Gravitation. 85 GR8677 Q01. 23 Commutators. 22 Work-Energy Theorem. 118 Equation of Continuity. 15 Potential Energy. see Celestial Mechanics Fluid Dynamics. 76 Elastic Colissions Hydrogen Model. 118 Archimedes’ Principle. 84 Bernoulli’s Equation. 22 Electronic Conﬁguration Hyperbolic Orbit. 19 Binding Energy Drag Force GR8677 Q41. 23 Digital Circuits GR8677 Q38. see Orbits Newton’s Law of Gravitation. 70 GR8677 Q29. 69 Electricity Celestial Mechanics. 23 Potential Energy. 15 Vis-viva Equation. 22 Electron Spin Elliptical Orbit. 24 Center of Mass. 68 Archimedes’ Principle. 118 Bernoulli’s Equation. 72 GR8677 Q23. 84 Angular Momentum. 87 Compton Wavelength GR8677 Q45. 23 GR8677 Q30. 81 Circular Orbits. 87 Gauss’ Law Conductivity GR8677 Q10. 65 Hall Eﬀect GR8677 Q40. 52 GR8677 Q47. 21 Energy Orbits. 24 Kronecker Delta Function. 23 GR8677 Q27. 118 Franck-Hertz Experiment. 15 Parabolic Orbit.

20 Newton’s Laws. 82 Potential Energy. 20 Mechanics Parallel Axis Theorem. 73 Kepler’s Laws. 71 GR8677 Q37. 68 Schrodinger’s Equation ¨ Orbits GR8677 Q18. 75 Elliptical Orbit. 74 D ©2009 Maximum Power Theorem GR8677 Q64. see Energy GR8677 Q34. 21 Impulse. 88 Hamiltonian. see Rotational Motion Particle Physics Muon GR8677 Q16. 16 Kinetic Energy. 118 Vectors. 17 GR8677 Q43. see Celestial Mechanics Kinematics Circular Motion. 23 David S. 20 Momentum. 82 Potential Energy of a Spring. 75 GR8677 Q02. 82 GR8677 Q32. 15 Potential Energy of a Spring. see Rotational Motion Rotational Motion. 73 Mechanics GR8677 Q07. 20 Newton’s Law of Gravitation. 13 Kronecker Delta Function.Index GR8677 Q50. 23 Oscillatory Motion. 17 Total Energy. 16 Parabolic Orbits. 84 Lagrangian. see Orbits Interference GR8677 Q13. 20 Angular Momentum. see Orbits Parallel Axis Theorem. 24 Linear Algebra. 85 Damped Motion. 15 Hyperbolic Orbits. 14 Rolling Kinetic Energy. 78 Lorentz Transformation GR8677 Q22. 82 GR8677 Q33. 24 GR8677 Q35. 14 Torque. see Hooke’s Law Principle of Least Action GR8677 Q36. 16 Coupled Harmonic Oscillators. 13 Linear Motion. 20 Nuclear Physics Radioactive Decay Satellite Orbits GR8677 Q17. 83 Moment of Inertia. see Rotational Motion Rotational Kinetic Energy. 16 Small Oscillations. 83 Probability GR8677 Q15. 23 Space-Time Interval Hyperbolic Orbit. 95 Maxwell’s Laws GR8677 Q11. 16 Simple Harmonic Motion Equation. 14 Rotational Kinetic Energy. 118 Laboratory Methods GR8677 Q40. see Rotational Motion Rolling Kinetic Energy. 16 Potential Energy. 75 Photoelectric Eﬀect GR8677 Q31. 77 123 Parabolic Orbit. 70 GR8677 Q08. 83 Hooke’s Law. 118 Lorentz Force Law GR8677 Q25. Latchman RA FT . see Celestial Moment of Inertia.

81 Work Constant Force. 117 Product Rules. 21 Center of Mass. 77 Special Relativity Doppler Shift GR8677 Q12. 118 Second Derivatives. see Rotational Motion . 21 Index Vector Identities. 15 Work-Energy Theorem. 73 Stefan-Boltzmann’s Equation. Latchman ©2009 RA FT Thin Film Interference GR8677 Q73. 73 Energy GR8677 Q20. 68 Wave function GR8677 Q28. 23 Wave Equation GR8677 Q04. 99 Torque. 40 GR8677 Q46. 117 Vis-viva Equation. see Energy X-Rays GR8677 Q26. 76 Speciﬁc Heat GR8677 Q14. 87 System of Particles. 118 Triple Products. 79 D David S.124 GR8677 Q21.