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Rating Scales Measurement scales that allow a respondent to register the degree (or amount) of a characteristic or attribute possessed by an object directly on the scale. Six main types of rating scales: 1. Category scale 2. Semantic differential scale 3. Stapel scale 4. Likert scale (Summated ratings scale) 5. Constant sum scale 6. Graphic scale Category Scale A rating scale which the response options provided for a closedended question are labeled with specific verbal descriptions. Example: Please rate car model A on each of the following dimensions: Poor a)Durability b)Fuel consumption Characteristics: • • •
Fair [ [ ] ]
Good [ [ ] ]
Very good [ [ ] ]
Excellent [ [ ] ]
Response options are still verbal descriptions. Response categories are usually ordered according to a particular descriptive or evaluative dimension. Therefore scale has ordinal properties. However, researchers often assume that it possesses interval properties => but this is only an assumption. ** One special version is the Simple category scale.
Simple Category Scale A category scale with only two response categories (or scale points) both of which are labeled.
Example: Please rate brand A on each of the following dimensions: Poor a) Durability [ ] ] excellent [ [ ] ]
b) Fuel consumption [
Semantic Differential Scale A rating scale in which bipolar adjectives are placed at both ends (or poles) of the scale, and response options are expressed as “semantic” space. Example: Please rate car model A on each of the following dimensions: Durable -:-X-:---:---:---:---:--- Not durable
Low fuel consumption ---:---:---:---:---:-X-:--- High fuel consumption Characteristics 1. The scale has properties of an interval scale. 2. Sometimes descriptive phrases are used instead of bipolar adjectives, especially when it is difficult to get adjectives that are exact opposites 3. It is often used to construct an image profile. Stapel Scale A simplified version of the semantic differential scale in which a single adjective or descriptive phrase is used instead of bipolar adjectives. Characteristics 1. The scale measures both attribute simultaneously. the direction and intensity of the
2. It has properties similar to the semantic differential. Example:
Model A -3 -2 -1 Durable Car -3 -2 -1 Good Fuel Conaumption
1 2 3 1 2 3
Constant-Sum Scale • A rating scale in which respondents divide a constant sum among different attributes of an object (usually to indicate the relative importance of each attribute). Assumed to have ratio level properties.
Example: Divide 100 points among the following dimensions to indicate their level of importance to you when you purchase a car: Durability Fuel Consumption Total Numerical Scale Any rating scale in which numbers rather than semantic space or verbal descriptions are used as response options. Examples: Poor Durability Durable 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 Excellent 6 6 7 7 Not durable 100
Graphic Ratings Scales
Rating scales in which respondent’s rate an object on a graphic continuum, usually a straight line. Modified versions are the ladder scale and happy face scale.
Characteristics 1. The straight line scale has ratio level properties. 2. The ladder and happy face scales have properties depending on the labeling option chosen – whether all response categories are labeled (ordinal properties) or only the scale end-points are labeled (interval properties). The Likert Scale (Summated Ratings Scale) • A multiple item rating scale in which the degree of an attribute possessed by an object is determined by asking respondents to
agree or disagree with a series of positive and/or negative statements describing the object. Example:
Attitude toward buying from the Internet Totally disagree Disagree Neutral a) Shopping takes much longer on the Internet [ ] [ ] [ ] b) It is a good thing that Saudi consumers have the opportunity to buy products through the [ ] [ ] [ ] c) Buying products over the Internet is not a sensible thing to do [ ] [ ] [ ] Agree [ ] [ [ ] ] Totally agree [ ] [ [ ] ]
Characteristics of the Likert Scale • The following procedure is used to analyze data from Likert scales: 1. First, weights are assigned Totally agree=1, Agree=2, etc to the responses options, e.g.
2. Then negatively-worded statements are reverse-coded (or reverse scored). E.g. a score of 2 for a negatively-worded statement with a 5-point response options is equivalent to a score of 4 on an equivalent positive statement. 3. Next, scores are summed across statements to arrive at a total (or summated) score. 4. Each respondent’s score can then be compared with the mean score or the scores of other respondents to determine his level of attitude, loyalty, or other construct that is being measured • Note that the response for expressed on a category scale. each individual statement is
Issues in Selecting a Measurement Scale 1. Whether to use single or index measure. 2. Whether to use a ranking, sorting, choice, or rating scale. 3. Whether to use monadic or comparative scale. • • • Monadic rating scale is one in which respondents evaluate an object in isolation Comparative scale s one in which the object is evaluated in relation to other objects Construction and labeling comparative scales is different for monadic and
4. Whether to use category labels or not. 5. If the decision is to use category labels, what labels to use.
of response options (scale categories) whether to use 2, 3, 4, 5, etc response categories •
In general, the larger the number of categories the more sensitive the scale is; but also the more difficult it is for respondents to answer
7. Whether to use balanced or unbalanced scale. • A balanced scale has an equal number of points to the left and right of a mid-point. An unbalanced scale has more response options on one side than the other
the scale should force choice among the response categories, i.e. should the scale contain a “neutral” or “don’t know” category.
ATTITUDE An enduring disposition to consistently respond in a given manner Attitudes as Hypothetical Constructs The term hypothetical construct is used to describe a variable that is not directly observable, but is measurable by an indirect means such as verbal expression or overt behavior - attitudes are considered to be such variables. The Attitude Measuring Process RANKING RATING SORTING CHOICE Rank order preference Estimates magnitude of a characteristic Arrange or classify concepts Selection of preferred alternative
Ranking tasks require that the respondent rank order a small number of objects in overall performance on the basis of some characteristic or stimulus. Rating asks the respondent to estimate the magnitude of a characteristic, or quality, that an object possesses. The respondent’s position on a scale(s) is where he or she would rate an object.
Sorting might present the respondent with several concepts typed on cards and require that the respondent arrange the cards into a number of piles or otherwise classify the concepts. Choice between two or more alternatives is another type of attitude measurement - it is assumed that the chosen object is preferred over the other.
Simple Attitude Scaling In its most basic form, attitude scaling requires that an individual agree with a statement or respond to a single question. This type of self-rating scale merely classifies respondents into one of two categories. Simplified Scaling Example THE PRESIDENT SHOULD RUN FOR RE-ELECTION _______ AGREE Category Scales A category scale is a more sensitive measure than a scale having only two response categories - it provides more information. Questions working are an extremely usefulness of these scales. EXAMPLE OF CATEGORY SCALE How important were the following in your decision to visit San Diego? (Check one for each item) VERY IMPORTANT CLIMATE COST OF TRAVEL FAMILY ORIENTED EDUCATIONAL /HISTORICAL ASPECTS _________ FAMILIARITY WITH ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ SOMEWHAT IMPORTANT ___________ ___________ ___________ NOT TOO IMPORTANT ___________ ___________ ___________ important factor in the ______ DISAGREE
Method of Summated Ratings:
The Likert Scale
An extremely popular means for measuring attitudes. Respondents indicate their own attitudes by checking how strongly they agree or disagree with statements. Response alternatives: “strongly agree”, “agree”, “uncertain”, “disagree”, and “strongly disagree”. LIKERT SCALE FOR MEASURING ATTITUDES TOWARD TENNIS It is more fun to play a tough, competitive tennis match than to play an easy one. ___Strongly Agree ___Agree ___Not Sure ___Disagree ___Strongly Disagree
There is really no such thing as a tennis stroke that cannot be mastered. ___Strongly Agree ___Agree ___Not Sure ___Disagree ___Strongly Disagree
Playing tennis is a great way to exercise. ___Strongly Agree ___Agree ___Not Sure ___Disagree ___Strongly Disagree
Semantic Differential A series of seven-point bipolar rating scales. Bipolar adjectives, such as “good” and “bad”, anchor both ends (or poles) of the scale. A weight is assigned to each position on the rating scale. Traditionally, scores are 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, or +3, +2, +1, 0, -1, -2, -3. SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL SCALES FOR MEASURING ATTITUDES TOWARD TENNIS Exciting Interesting Simple Passive ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : Calm ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : Dull ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : Complex ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : Active
Numerical Scales Numerical scales have numbers as response options, rather than “semantic space’ or verbal descriptions, to identify categories (response positions). Stapel Scales Modern versions of the Staple scale place a single adjective as a substitute for the semantic differential when it is difficult to create pairs of bipolar adjectives. The advantage and disadvantages of a Stapel scale, as well as the results, are very similar to those for a semantic differential. However, the stapel scale tends to be easier to conduct and administer. A Stapel Scale for Measuring a Store’s Image Department Store Name +3 +2 +1 Wide Selection -1
-2 -3 Select a plus number for words that you think describe the store accurately. The more accurately you think the work describes the store, the larger the plus number you should choose. Select a minus number for words you think do not describe the store accurately. The less accurately you think the word describes the store, the large the minus number you should choose, therefore, you can select any number from +3 for words that you think are very accurate all the way to -3 for words that you think are very inaccurate. Rank Order Scales • Rank the following in order of preference, 1 being the most preferred and 3 the least: • • • Brand A _________ Brand B _________ Brand C _________
Rank Order Scales Easy to understand and use, ordinal scales, comparative data, number and kinds of alternatives could be a problem and difficult to know how far apart. Constant Sum Scale • Divide 100 points among each of the following brands according to your preference for the brand: • • • Brand A _________ Brand B _________ Brand C _________
Constant Sum Scale • • • Magnitude of each alternative known Equal value can be indicated. Too many can confuse
Graphic Rating Scales A graphic continuum. rating scale presents respondents with a graphic
Graphic Rating Scale Stressing Pictorial Visual Communications
1 3 Very Good Poor
Easy to construct and simple to use, can discern fine distinctions, but not very reliable, can be treated as interval data.
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