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Chairman MGT

Lecture - 1

# Statistics:

⊗ Statistics - Facts, figures, data. Information, (1) this is plural meaning of Statistics.

⊗ Statistics is a distinct area of knowledge. It will help us to know - hoe to collect data, how to

use data, how to evaluate information from data, what are data, how to present & interpret

data. This is called singular meaning of Statistics. (2)

variables.

⊗ The term data means groups of information that represent the qualitative or quantitative

attributes of a variable or set of variables.

# Example:

This is an example about the wrong statistical evaluation in the field of literacy rate of Bangladesh.

Literacy Rate (1996) - 60% according to Sheikh Hasina government, (we see a jump ? ? ?)

Best efforts ever taken in the field of literacy rate in this country after the liberation are -

1

1. During Sheikh Muzib Govt. - University students used to teach illiterate people around

the and the students were paid moderately for teaching the illiterate people.

2. During Zia Govt. - Every people were asked to literate one people.

# What is Fact? -

What has been recorded and accepted by society may be refer to fact, whether it is true or false.

Real Fact is Genuine and Statistical fact is not genuine but nearly genuine.

Example: Very few facts can not be expressed under statistics (human emotions, white-

black, good-bad, and male-female).

Example: fact must be aggregate of several data as like above 30 pcs of information.

several factors and also final result of a student.

Example: when things are not comparable, it will not be statistics & the things and facts

should be similar or alike.

Example: Utilization of resource minimally and maximize our purpose make things easy &

this is referred to systematic way of doing things.

Resource allocation starts with priority basis, which will give us most profitable return.

2

⊗ Statistics is also important in govt. administration.

Lecture - 2

# Reference:

1. Business Statistics

# Limitations of Statistics:

2. The rules or laws of statistics are true only in the long run.

1. Primary Data

2. Secondary Data

3

# Primary Data:

⊗ Example: Please mention your date of birth… If the data is got from any official source, it is

secondary data. Else if the data is obtained by direct investigation in field like in any given school,

then it is called primary data.

⊗ For authentication of data, we need to rely on secondary data, e.g. Population of Bangladesh.

⊗ If any one wants to establish a dairy farm, he will require the live stock data of the region he

wants to establish the dairy farm. He will need the govt. data about the live stock of that particular

region. It is secondary data.

2. Interview method

3. Observation method

4

Lecture - 3

2. Questions should be prepared in most simple & common terms.

3. Questions should be prepared in a manner so that response can be given very easily.

4. There should not be any biasness in the questions in a questionnaire.

5. There should be sufficient check & balance in questions of a questionnaire.

6. There should not be any leading questions in a questionnaire.

7. There should not be any double barreled questions in a questionnaire.

8. The overall design of the questionnaire should be attractive & appealing.

9. Every questionnaire must accompany a forwarding letter.

• Questionnaire – MCQ, Yes-No, Ranking of data, Range of data in rather than exact value is

more preferable.

• Political & religious biasness is very harmful.

# Means of questionnaire:

2. Employing some individual, who will carry out the questionnaire to public. The employee is

called the investigator. There are several benefits of this means over the first means.

# Editing of data:

2. Editing for Uniformity: numerical values must be obtained in same unit.

3. Editing for Consistency: Check & Balance in questions.

4. Editing for Timeliness:

Classification is the process of arrangement of data on the basis of some characteristics that are

present in the data set.

2. On the basis of space.

3. On the basis of variables.

4. On the basis of attributes.

5

#Example: on the basis of time

1991 200

1992 210

1993 114

1994 224

1995 218

#Example: on the basis of Space

Dhaka 400

Chittagong 600

Rajshahi 1200

Khulna 700

Barisal 900

Sylhet 500

# Variables:

These will vary from one person to another.

It may have continuity in its character.

Variables are those elements that can be directly expressed in numerical forms, that will vary from

one unit to the next unit and it may have continuity in its character.

# Example:

51-55 3

56-60 4

61-65 8

66-70 5

71-75 4

These are mutually exclusive in nature.

Attributes are qualitative characteristics of an object that can not be directly expressed in numerical

form and these are mutually exclusive in nature.

6

# Example:

Farming 300

Business 100

Service 200

Professional 50

Others 7

# Methods of classification:

Income taka (X) Frequency (F) Income taka (X) Frequency (F)

101-200 3 100-200 4

201-300 5 200-300 6

301-400 10 300-400 12

401-500 6 400-500 5

501-600 4 500-600 2

Total 28 Total 29

distribution

(not preferred in statistics)

Income taka (X) Frequency (F) Income taka (X) Frequency (F)

100-200 1 Upto 300 1

200-300 4 300-400 5

300-400 6 400-500 8

400-500 2 500-600 6

500-800 1 600 & above 1

Total 14 Total 21

Income taka (X) Frequency (F)

100-200 1

200-300 5

300-400 8

400-500 6

500-600 0

600-700 0

700-800 1

Total 21

7

• In inclusive method of classification, both the upper & lower limit elements are included in

that particular class.

• In exclusive method of classification, the upper limit element of each class is excluded in

that class.

• In any classification method, the lower limit element must be counted in the class.

• Exclusive method is more preferable in statistics than inclusive method.

• There is no possibility of missing link or value in exclusive method of classification.

• A benefit of exclusive method is to calculate the mid value of a class interval.

# Central Tendency:

In many statistical distributions, there is a tendency among most of the values to concentrate around

a certain value, generally in the middle of the distribution. This tendency of the values is known as

central tendency.

There are different statistical methods of measuring the central tendency. These methods

collectively are known as measures of central tendency.

2. Mode.

3. Median.

4. Geometric mean.

5. Harmonic mean.

6. Quadratic mean.

Lecture - 4

8

Distribution:

When we represent statistical value in different classes along with the frequency of the classes, it is

called statistical distribution.

2. To describe the whole distribution by the representative value in a relative situation.

Example:

Here we obtained the representative value of the people of Bangladesh and we got a comparative

scenario with other two countries in terms of per capita income of the people.

X=Variable ; X = Average Xi fi Xi fi

1 n 10 4 40

X= ∑ Xi

n i =1 15 5 75

and also 20 6 120

25 3 75

1 n

X= ∑ Xi *

n i =1

fi 30 2 60

Total 20 ∑= 370

Example: therefore,

1 n

Income (x) in Tk. f Mid Value (X) Xifi

X = ∑ Xi * fi

100-200 2 150 300 n i =1

200-300 3 250 750

=1/16 * 5500

300-400 6 350 2100

400-500 4 450 1800 = 343.75

500-600 1 550 550

This method is called direct

Total 16 5500

method.

9

Short Method:

Σfd

X = A+ ×C

n

X−A

d=

C

A is assumed average and C is the class interval

100-200 150 2 -2 -4

200-300 250 3 -1 -3

300-400 350 = A 6 0 0

400-500 450 4 1 4

500-600 550 1 2 2

∑ = 16 ∑=

-1

Therefore, X = A+ ( ∑ f d / n) * C

= 350+ (-1/16)*100 = 343.75

Comparative Example 2:

10-20 1 15 15 -2 -2

20-30 2 25 50 -1 -2

30-40 5 35=A 175 0 0

40-50 2 45 90 1 2

50-60 1 55 55 2 2

Total 11 385 0

ΣfX 385

direct method, X = = = 35

n 11

Σfd 0

short method, X = A + × C = 35 + ×10 = 35

n 11

** When class intervals are equal, then we can apply both direct & short method. For unequal class

interval, only direct method is applicable.

** In case of open ended distribution, we will consider the class interval of the open end as like the

other class intervals.

Median:

10

Median is a form of statistical average. It is the value that divides a series into two equal parts,

when we rearrange those values either in ascending or descending order.

n +1

Median = th Value (odd number of data)

2

n n

+ ( + 1)

Median = 2 2 th Value (even number of data)

2

(x)

100-200 2 e frequency

2 16

200-300 3 5 14

300-400 6 11 11

400-500 4 15 5

500-600 1 16 1

n +1

− fc

Median = L1 + 2 ×C

fm

L = Lower limit of the median group

1

f m = normal frequency of the median class

Therefore Median = 300 + {(8.5 – 5) / 6}*100

= 358.33

n +1

Marks (x) fi Cumulative − fc

20-30 4 frequency

4 ∴ Median = L1+ 2 ×C

30-40 6 10

fm

40-50 10 20 = 40+ (13-10)/10 * 10

50-60 3 23

60-70 2 25 = 43

Mode:

Mode is the value that contains the highest no. of frequency in a statistical distribution.

11

Example: Discrete Data

X f

3 2

5 4

7 8

9 15

11 12

The mode of this distribution is 9.

Income (x) fi

100-200 2

200-300 3

300-400 6

400-500 4

500-600 1

Mode = L1 + ∆ 1

×C

∆1 + ∆ 2

∆ 1

= modal class frequency - premodal class frequency

∆ 2

= modal class frequency - postmodal class frequency

100-200 8 3 2

200-300 6 6 4

300-400 5 4 15

400-500 4 5 15

500-600 2 10 12

1. In case of fi1, extreme frequency occurs at the beginning class. Here the derivation of Δ1 is

not possible.

2. In case of fi2, extreme frequency occurs at the ending class. Here the derivation of Δ2 is not

possible.

3. In case of fi3, there are two modal classes. This is called a Bi-modal Problem.

In these conditions, to determine the mode of a distribution:

12

Uses of Mode:

2. Mode is highly useful in selecting the location of a business house.

3. Mode is used in biological offspring studies.

4. Mode is also useful in case of open ended distributions.

Uses of Median:

2. Median is used in the construction of dividers on the streets.

3. Median is used where there are presence of extreme values in any distribution.

4. Median can also be used in case of open ended distributions.

It should be easy to define and easy to calculate. Yes Yes Yes

It should take into consideration all the values in a distribution. Yes Yes No

It should be suitable for higher statistical and mathematical use. Yes No No

It should not be affected by extreme values. No Yes No

It should not be highly affected by sampling fluctuations. Yes Yes No

13

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