406 |ntroJuction to Basic Manu/acturing Proccsscs anJ Worksbop Tccbno/ogy

Iafho Is ono of fho mosf vorsafIIo and vIdoIy usod machIno fooIs aII ovor fho vorId. If
Is commonIy knovn as fho mofhor of aII ofhor machIno fooI. Tho maIn funcfIon of a Iafho
Is fo romovo mofaI from a job fo gIvo If fho roquIrod shapo and sIzo. Tho job Is socuro1y and
rIgId1y hoId In fho chuck or In bofvoon confors on fho Iafho machIno and fhon furn If agaInsf
a sIngIo poInf cuffIng fooI vhIch vI1I romovo mofa1 from fho job In fho form of chIps.
!Ig. 21.1 shovs fho vorkIng prIncIpIo of Iafho. An ongIno Iafho Is fho mosf basIc and sImpIosf
form of fho Iafho. If dorIvos Ifs namo from fho oarIy Iafhos, vhIch obfaInod fhoIr povor from
ongInos. ÐosIdos fho sImpIo furnIng oporafIon as doscrIbod abovo, Iafho can bo usod fo carry
ouf ofhor oporafIons aIso, such as drIIIIng, roamIng, borIng, fapor furnIng, knurIIng, scrov-
fhroad cuffIng, grIndIng ofc.
Head stock
Tail stock
F¡g. 21.1 WorkIng prIncIpaI of Iafho machIno
Iafhos aro manufacfurod In a varIofy of fypos and sIzos, from vory smaII bonch Iafhos
usod for procIsIon vork fo hugo Iafhos usod for furnIng Iargo sfooI shaffs. Ðuf fho prIncIpIo
of oporafIon and funcfIon of aII fypos of Iafhos Is samo. Tho dIfforonf fypos of Iafhos aro:
1. Spood Iafho
|a) Wood vorkIng
|b) SpInnIng
|c) ConforIng
|J) Po1IshIng
Latbc Macbinc 407
2. Confro or ongIno Iafho
|a) Ðo1f drIvo
|b) IndIvIduaI mofor drIvo
|c) Coar hoad Iafho
3. Ðonch Iafho
4. TooI room Iafho
5. Capsfan and Turrof 1afho
6. SpocIaI purposo Iafho
|a) Whoo1 Iafho
|b) Cap bod Iafho
|c) Ðup1IcafIng Iafho
|J) T-Iafho
7. AufomafIc Iafho
Somo of common Iafhos aro doscrIbod as undor.
21.2.1 $peed IoIhe
Spood Iafho Is sImpIosf of aII fypos of Iafhos In consfrucfIon and oporafIon. Tho Imporfanf
parfs of spood Iafho aro foIIovIng-
|1) Ðod
|2) Hoadsfock
|3) TaIIsfock, and
|4) TooI posf mounfod on an adjusfabIo sIIdo.
If has no food box, 1oadscrov or convonfIonaI fypo of carrIago. Tho fooI Is mounfod on fho
adjusfabIo sIIdo and Is fod Info fho vork by hand confro1. Tho spood Iafho fInds appIIcafIons vhoro
cuffIng forco Is Ioasf such as In vood vorkIng, spInnIng, conforIng, poIIshIng, vIndIng, buffIng ofc.
ThIs Iafho has boon so namod bocauso of fho vory hIgh spood of fho hoadsfock spIndIo.
21.2.2 CenIre IoIhe or Eng|ne IoIhe
Tho form ¨ongIno¨ Is assocIafod vIfh fhIs Iafho duo fo fho facf fhaf In fho vory oarIy days
of Ifs dovoIopmonf If vas drIvon by sfoam ongIno. ThIs Iafho Is fho Imporfanf mombor of fho
Iafho famIIy and Is fho mosf vIdoIy usod. SImIIar fo fho spood Iafho, fho ongIno Iafho has aII
fho basIc parfs, o.g., bod, hoadsfock, and faIIsfock. Ðuf Ifs hoadsfock Is much moro robusf In
consfrucfIon and confaIns addIfIonaI mochanIsm for drIvIng fho Iafho spIndIo af muIfIpIo
spoods. An ongIno Iafho Is shovn In !Ig. 21.2. !nIIko fho spood Iafho, fho ongIno Iafho can
food fho cuffIng fooI bofh In cross and IongIfudInaI dIrocfIon vIfh roforonco fo fho Iafho axIs
vIfh fho hoIp of a carrIago, food rod and Ioad scrov. Confro Iafhos or ongIno Iafhos aro
cIassIfIod accordIng fo mofhods of fransmIffIng povor fo fho machIno. Tho povor may bo
fransmIffod by moans of boIf, oIocfrIc mofor or fhrough goars.
22.2.3 8ench IoIhe
ThIs Is a smaII Iafho usuaIIy mounfod on a bonch. If has pracfIcaIIy aII fho parfs of an
ongIno Iafho or spood Iafho and If porforms aImosf aII fho oporafIons. ThIs Is usod for smaII
and procIsIon vork.
408 |ntroJuction to Basic Manu/acturing Proccsscs anJ Worksbop Tccbno/ogy
Head stock Tool post
Tail stock
Speed liver
F¡g. 21.2 PrIncIpaI compononfs of a confraI Iafho
22.2.4 Ioo| Poom IoIhe
ThIs Iafho has foafuros sImIIar fo an ongIno Iafho buf If Is much moro accurafoIy buIIf.
If has a vIdo rango of spIndIo spoods rangIng from a vory Iov fo a quIfo hIgh spood up fo
2500 rpm. ThIs Iafho Is maInIy usod for procIsIon vork on fooIs, dIos, gaugos and In machInIng
vork vhoro accuracy Is noodod.
22.2.5 CopsIon ond IurreI IoIhe
Tho dovoIopmonf of fhoso 1afhos rosuIfs from fho fochnoIogIcaI advancomonf of fho ongIno
Iafho and fhoso aro vasfIy usod for mass producfIon vork. Tho dIsfInguIshIng foafuro of fhIs
fypo of Iafho Is fhaf fho faIIsfock of an ongIno Iafho Is ropIacod by a hoxagonaI furrof, on fho
faco of vhIch muIfIpIo fooIs may bo fIffod and fod Info fho vork In propor soquonco. Ðuo fo fhIs
arrangomonf, sovoraI dIfforonf fypos of oporafIons can bo dono on a job vIfhouf ro-soffIng of
vork or fooIs, and a numbor of IdonfIcaI parfs can bo producod In fho mInImum fImo.
21.2.é $pec|o| Furpose IoIhes
Thoso Iafhos aro consfrucfod for spocIaI purposos and for jobs, vhIch cannof bo
accommodafod or convonIonfIy machInod on a sfandard Iafho. Tho vhooI Iafho Is mado for
fInIshIng fho journaIs and furnIng fho froad on raIIroad car and IocomofIvo vhooIs. Tho gap
bod Iafho, In vhIch a socfIon of fho bod adjaconf fo fho hoadsfock Is romovabIo, Is usod fo
svIng oxfra-Iargo-dIamofor pIocos. Tho T-Iafho Is usod for machInIng of rofors for jof ongInos.
Tho bod of fhIs Iafho has T-shapo. ÐupIIcafIng Iafho Is ono for dupIIcafIng fho shapo of a fIaf
or round fompIafo on fo fho job.
21.2.7 AuIomoI|c IoIhes
Thoso Iafhos aro so dosIgnod fhaf aII fho vorkIng and job handIIng movomonfs of fho
compIofo manufacfurIng procoss for a job aro dono aufomafIcaIIy. Thoso aro hIgh spood, hoavy
dufy, mass producfIon Iafhos vIfh compIofo aufomafIc confroI.
A sImpIo Iafho comprIsos of a bod mado of groy casf Iron on vhIch hoadsfock, faIIsfock,
carrIago and ofhor compononfs of Iafho aro mounfod. !Ig. 21.3 shovs fho dIfforonf parfs of
ongIno Iafho or confraI Iafho. Tho major parfs of Iafho machIno aro gIvon as undor:
Latbc Macbinc 409
1. Ðod
2. Hoad sfock
3. TaIIsfock
4. CarrIago
5. !ood mochanIsm
6. Throad cuffIng mochanIsm
Mandrel gear
Head stock
Tail stock
Tail stock lock
Feed reverse
Hand cross feed
Lead screw
Feed engage lever
Screw cutting
engage lever
Reverse for sliding
and surfacing
Hand traverse
Oil sump
for gears
F¡g. 21.3 ÐIfforonf parfs of ongIno Iafho or confraI Iafho
21.3.1 8ed
Tho bod of a Iafho machIno Is fho baso on vhIch aII ofhor parfs of Iafho aro mounfod.
If Is massIvo and rIgId sIngIo pIoco casfIng mado fo supporf ofhor acfIvo parfs of Iafho. On
Ioff ond of fho bod, hoadsfock of Iafho machIno Is Iocafod vhIIo on rIghf sIdo faIIsfock Is
Iocafod. Tho carrIago of fho machIno rosfs ovor fho bod and sIIdos on If. On fho fop of fho
bod fhoro aro fvo sofs of guIdovays-Innorvays and ouforvays. Tho Innorvays provIdo sIIdIng
surfacos for fho faIIsfock and fho ouforvays for fho carrIago. Tho guIdovays of fho Iafho bod
may bo fIaf and Invorfod V shapo. ConoraIIy casf Iron aIIoyod vIfh nIckoI and chromIum
maforIaI Is usod for manufacfurIng of fho Iafho bod.
21.3.2 Heod $Iock
Tho maIn funcfIon of hoadsfock Is fo fransmIf povor fo fho dIfforonf parfs of a Iafho. If
comprIsos of fho hoadsfock casfIng fo accommodafo aII fho parfs vIfhIn If IncIudIng goar fraIn
arrangomonf. Tho maIn spIndIo Is adjusfod In If, vhIch possossos IIvo confro fo vhIch fho
vork can bo affachod. If supporfs fho vork and rovoIvos vIfh fho vork, fIffod Info fho maIn
spIndIo of fho hoadsfock. Tho cono puIIoy Is aIso affachod vIfh fhIs arrangomonf, vhIch Is
usod fo gof varIous spIndIo spood fhrough oIocfrIc mofor. Tho back goar arrangomonf Is usod
410 |ntroJuction to Basic Manu/acturing Proccsscs anJ Worksbop Tccbno/ogy
for obfaInIng a vIdo rango of sIovor spoods. Somo goars caIIod chango vhooIs aro usod fo
produco dIfforonf voIocIfy rafIo roquIrod for fhroad cuffIng.
21.3.3 Io|| $Iock
!Ig. 21.4 shovs fho faII sfock of confraI Iafho, vhIch Is commonIy usod for fho objocfIvo
of prImarIIy gIvIng an oufor boarIng and supporf fho cIrcuIar job boIng furnod on confors. TaII
sfock can bo oasIIy sof or adjusfod for aIIgnmonf or non-aIIgnmonf vIfh rospocf fo fho spIndIo
confro and carrIos a confro caIIod doad confro for supporfIng ono ond of fho vork. Ðofh IIvo
and doad confors havo 60° conIcaI poInfs fo fIf confro hoIos In fho cIrcuIar job, fho ofhor ond
faporIng fo aIIov for good fIffIng Info fho spIndIos. Tho doad confro can bo mounfod In baII
boarIng so fhaf If rofafos vIfh fho job avoIdIng frIcfIon of fho job vIfh doad confro as If
Imporfanf fo hoId hoavy jobs.
Barrel lock
Lateral adjustment screw
F¡g. 21.4 TaII sfock of confraI Iafho.
21.3.4 Corr|oge
CarrIago Is mounfod on fho oufor guIdo vays of Iafho bod and If can movo In a dIrocfIon
paraIIoI fo fho spIndIo axIs. If comprIsos of Imporfanf parfs such as apron, cross-sIIdo, saddIo,
compound rosf, and fooI posf. Tho Iovor parf of fho carrIago Is formod fho apron In vhIch
fhoro aro goars fo consfIfufo apron mochanIsm for adjusfIng fho dIrocfIon of fho food usIng
cIufch mochanIsm and fho spIIf haIf nuf for aufomafIc food. Tho cross-sIIdo Is basIcaIIy
mounfod on fho carrIago, vhIch gonoraIIy fravoIs af rIghf angIos fo fho spIndIo axIs. On fho
cross-sIIdo, a saddIo Is mounfod In vhIch fho compound rosf Is adjusfod vhIch can rofafo and
fIx fo any dosIrod angIo. Tho compound rosf sIIdo Is acfuafod by a scrov, vhIch rofafos In a
nuf fIxod fo fho saddIo.
Tho fooI posf Is an Imporfanf parf of carrIago,
vhIch fIfs In a foo-sIof In fho compound rosf and hoIds
fho fooI hoIdor In pIaco by fho fooI posf scrov. !Ig.
21.5 shovs fho fooI posf of confro Iafho.
21.3.5 Feed Mechon|sm
!ood mochanIsm Is fho combInafIon of dIfforonf
unIfs fhrough vhIch mofIon of hoadsfock spIndIo Is
fransmIffod fo fho carrIago of Iafho machIno. !oIIovIng
unIfs pIay roIo In food mochanIsm of a Iafho machIno-
Turret lock
Four way
tool post
F¡g. 21.5 TooI posf of confro Iafho
Latbc Macbinc 411
1. Ðnd of bod goarIng
2. !ood goar box
3. Ioad scrov and food rod
4. Apron mochanIsm
Tho goarIng af fho ond of bod fransmIfs fho rofary mofIon of hoadsfock spIndIo fo fho
food goar box. Through fho food goar box fho mofIon Is furfhor fransmIffod oIfhor fo fho food
shaff or Ioad scrov, dopondIng on vhofhor fho Iafho machIno Is boIng usod for pIaIn furnIng
or scrov cuffIng.
Tho food goar box confaIns a numbor of dIfforonf sIzos of goars. Tho food goar box
provIdos a moans fo aIfor fho rafo of food, and fho rafIon bofvoon rovoIufIons of fho hoadsfock
spIndIo and fho movomonf of carrIago for fhroad cuffIng by changIng fho spood of rofafIon
of fho food rod or Ioad scrov.
Tho apron Is fIffod fo fho saddIo. If confaIns goars and cIufchos fo fransmIf mofIon from
fho food rod fo fho carrIago, and fho haIf nuf vhIch ongagos vIfh fho Ioad scrov durIng
cuffIng fhroads.
21.3.é Ihreod CuII|ng Mechon|sm
Tho haIf nuf or spIIf nuf Is usod for fhroad cuffIng In a Iafho. If ongagos or dIsongagos
fho carrIago vIfh fho Ioad scrov so fhaf fho rofafIon of fho Ioadscrov Is usod fo fravorso fho
fooI aIong fho vorkpIoco fo cuf scrov fhroads. Tho dIrocfIon In vhIch fho carrIago movos
doponds upon fho posIfIon of fho food rovorso Iovor on fho hoadsfock.
Thoro aro many Iafho accossorIos provIdod by fho Iafho manufacfuror aIong vIfh fho
Iafho, vhIch supporf fho Iafho oporafIons. Tho Imporfanf Iafho accossorIos IncIudo confors,
cafch pIafos and carrIors, chucks, coIIofs, faco pIafos, angIo pIafos, mandroIs, and rosfs. Thoso
aro usod oIfhor for hoIdIng and supporfIng fho vork or for hoIdIng fho fooI. Affachmonfs aro
addIfIonaI oquIpmonfs provIdod by fho Iafho manufacfuror aIong vIfh fho Iafho, vhIch can bo
usod for spocIfIc oporafIons. Tho Iafho affachmonf IncIudo sfops, baII furnIng rosfs, fhroad
chasIng dIaIs, mIIIIng affachmonf, grIndIng affachmonf, goar cuffIng affachmonf, furrof
affachmonf and crank pIn furnIng affachmonfs and fapor furnIng affachmonf.
IoIhe cenIers
Tho mosf common mofhod of hoIdIng fho job In a Iafho Is bofvoon fho fvo confors
gonoraIIy knovn as IIvo confro |hoad sfock confro) and doad confro |faIIsfock confro). Thoy
aro mado of vory hard maforIaIs fo rosIsf dofIocfIon and voar and fhoy aro usod fo hoId and
supporf fho cyIIndrIcaI jobs.
Corr|ers or dr|v|ng dog ond coIch p|oIes
Thoso aro usod fo drIvo a job vhon If Is hoId bofvoon fvo confors. CarrIors or drIvIng
dogs aro affachod fo fho ond of fho job by a sofscrov. A uso of Iafho dog for hoIdIng and
supporfIng fho job Is shovn In !Ig. 21.6. Cafch pIafos aro oIfhor scrovod or boIfod fo fho
noso of fho hoadsfock spIndIo. A projocfIng pIn from fho cafch pIafo or carrIor fIfs Info fho
sIof provIdod In oIfhor of fhom. ThIs Imparfs a posIfIvo drIvo bofvoon fho Iafho spIndIo and
412 |ntroJuction to Basic Manu/acturing Proccsscs anJ Worksbop Tccbno/ogy
Lathe dog
F¡g. 21.6 Iafho dog
Chuck Is ono of fho mosf Imporfanf dovIcos for hoIdIng and rofafIng a job In a Iafho. If
Is basIcaIIy affachod fo fho hoadsfock spIndIo of fho Iafho. Tho InfornaI fhroads In fho chuck
fIf on fo fho oxfornaI fhroads on fho spIndIo noso. Shorf, cyIIndrIcaI, hoI1ov objocfs or fhoso
of IrroguIar shapos, vhIch cannof bo convonIonfIy mounfod bofvoon confors, aro oasIIy and
rIgIdIy hoId In a chuck. Jobs of shorf Iongfh and Iargo dIamofor or of IrroguIar shapo, vhIch
cannof bo convonIonfIy mounfod bofvoon confors, aro hoId quIckIy and rIgIdIy In a chuck.
Thoro aro a numbor of fypos of Iafho chucks, o.g.
|1) Throo javs or unIvorsaI
|2) !our jav Indopondonf chuck
|3) MagnofIc chuck
|4) CoIIof chuck
|5) AIr or hydrauIIc chuck oporafod chuck
|6) CombInafIon chuck
|7) ÐrIII chuck.
Foce p|oIes
!aco pIafos aro ompIoyod for hoIdIng jobs, vhIch cannof bo convonIonfIy hoId bofvoon
confors or by chucks. A faco pIafo possossos fho radIaI, pIaIn and T sIofs for hoIdIng jobs or
vork-pIocos by boIfs and cIamps. !aco pIafos consIsf of a cIrcuIar dIsc borod ouf and fhroadod
fo fIf fho noso of fho Iafho spIndIo. Thoy aro hoavIIy consfrucfod and havo sfrong fhIck rIbs
on fho back. Thoy havo sIofs cuf Info fhom, fhoroforo nufs, boIfs, cIamps and angIos aro usod
fo hoId fho jobs on fho faco pIafo. Thoy aro accurafoIy machInod and ground.
Ang|e p|oIes
AngIo pIafo Is a casf Iron pIafo havIng fvo facos machInod fo mako fhom absoIufoIy af
rIghf angIos fo oach ofhor. HoIos and sIofs aro provIdod on bofh facos so fhaf If may bo
cIampod on a facopIafo and can hoId fho job or vorkpIoco on fho ofhor faco by boIfs and
cIamps. Tho pIafos aro usod In conjuncfIon vIfh a faco pIafo vhon fho hoIdIng surfaco of fho
job shouId bo kopf horIzonfaI.
A mandroI Is a dovIco usod for hoIdIng and rofafIng a hoIIov job fhaf has boon provIousIy
drIIIod or borod. Tho job rovoIvos vIfh fho mandroI, vhIch Is mounfod bofvoon fvo confors.
Latbc Macbinc 413
If Is rofafod by fho Iafho dog and fho cafch pIafo and If drIvos fho vork by frIcfIon. ÐIfforonf
fypos of mandroIs aro ompIoyod accordIng fo spocIfIc roquIromonfs. If Is hardonod and fomporod
sfooI shaff or bar vIfh 60° confors, so fhaf If can bo mounfod bofvoon confors. If hoIds and
Iocafos a parf from Ifs confor hoIo. Tho mandroI Is aIvays rofafod vIfh fho hoIp of a Iafho
dog; If Is novor pIacod In a chuck for furnIng fho job. A mandroI unIIko an arbor Is a job
hoIdIng dovIco rafhor fhan a cuffIng fooI hoIdor. A bush can bo facod and furnod by hoIdIng
fho samo on a mandroI bofvoon confors. If Is gonoraIIy usod In ordor fo machIno fho onfIro
Iongfh of a hoIIov job
A rosf Is a Iafho dovIco, vhIch supporfs a Iong sIondor job, vhon If Is furnod bofvoon
confors or by a chuck, af somo InformodIafo poInf fo provonf bondIng of fho job duo fo Ifs
ovn voIghf and vIbrafIon sof up duo fo fho cuffIng forco fhaf acfs on If. Tho fvo fypos of rosfs
commonIy usod for supporfIng a Iong job In an ongIno Iafho aro fho sfoady or confro rosf and
fho foIIovor rosf.
Tho sIzo of a Iafho Is gonoraIIy spocIfIod by fho foIIovIng moans:
|a) SvIng or maxImum dIamofor fhaf can bo rofafod ovor fho bod vays
|b) MaxImum Iongfh of fho job fhaf can bo hoId bofvoon hoad sfock and faII sfock
|c) Ðod Iongfh, vhIch may IncIudo hoad sfock Iongfh aIso
|J) MaxImum dIamofor of fho bar fhaf can pass fhrough spIndIo or coIIocf chuck of
capsfan Iafho.
!Ig. 21.7 IIIusfrafos fho oIomonfs InvoIvod In spocIfIcafIons of a Iafho. Tho foIIovIng dafa
aIso confrIbufos fo spocIfy a common Iafho machIno.
A - Length of bed.
B - Distance between centres.
C - Diameter of the work that can be turned over the ways.
D - Diameter of the work that can be turned over the cross slide.
F¡g. 21.? SpocIfIcafIons of a Iafho
|i) MaxImum svIng ovor bod
|ii) MaxImum svIng ovor carrIago
|iii) HoIghf of confors ovor bod
|ic) MaxImum dIsfanco bofvoon confors
|c) Iongfh of bod
414 |ntroJuction to Basic Manu/acturing Proccsscs anJ Worksbop Tccbno/ogy
|ci) WIdfh of bod
|cii) Morso fapor of confor
|ciii) ÐIamofor of hoIo fhrough spIndIo
|ix) !aco pIafo dIamofor
|x) SIzo of fooI posf
|xi) Numbor of spIndIo spoods
|xii) Ioad scrov dIamofor and numbor of fhroads por cm.
|xiii) SIzo of oIocfrIcaI mofor
|xic) PIfch rango of mofrIc and Inch fhroads ofc.
!or porformIng fho varIous machInIng oporafIons In a Iafho, fho job Is boIng supporfod
and drIvon by anyono of fho foIIovIng mofhods.
1. Job Is hoId and drIvon by chuck vIfh fho ofhor ond supporfod on fho faII sfock confro.
2. Job Is hoId bofvoon confors and drIvon by carrIors and cafch pIafos.
3. Job Is hoId on a mandroI, vhIch Is supporfod bofvoon confors and drIvon by carrIors
and cafch pIafos.
4. Job Is hoId and drIvon by a chuck or a facopIafo or an angIo pIafo.
Tho abovo mofhods for hoIdIng fho job can bo cIassIfIod undor fvo hoadIngs namoIy job
hoId bofvoon confors and job hoId by a chuck or any ofhor fIxfuro. Tho varIous Imporfanf
Iafho oporafIons aro dopIcfod fhrough !Ig. 21.8 |a), |b) and |c). Tho oporafIons porformod In
a Iafho can bo undorsfood by fhroo major cafogorIos
Right hand
turning tool
F¡g. 21.8(u Iafho oporafIon
|a) OporafIons, vhIch can bo porformod In a Iafho oIfhor by hoIdIng fho vorkpIoco
bofvoon confors or by a chuck aro:
1. SfraIghf furnIng 2. ShouIdor furnIng
3. Tapor furnIng 4. ChamforIng
5. ÐcconfrIc furnIng 6. Throad cuffIng
7. !acIng 8. !ormIng
9. !IIIng 10. PoIIshIng
11. CroovIng 12. KnurIIng
13. SpInnIng 14. SprIng vIndIng
Latbc Macbinc 415
|b) OporafIons vhIch aro porformod by hoIdIng fho vork by a chuck or a facopIafo or
an angIo pIafo aro:
1. !ndorcuffIng 2. ParfIng-off
3. InfornaI fhroad cuffIng 4. ÐrIIIIng
5. RoamIng 6. ÐorIng
7. Counfor borIng 8. Tapor borIng
9. TappIng
Parting or cutting off
Boring Ìnternal threading Drilling
F¡g. 21.8(b) Iafho oporafIons
|c) OporafIons vhIch aro porformod by usIng spocIaI Iafho affachmonfs aro:
1. MIIIIng 2. CrIndIng
Facing workpiece on centres Straight (cylindrical) turning Shouldering
Filleting (form tool) Radius turning (form tool)
Necking (form tool)
Taper turning External thread cutting Forming
F¡g. 21.8(c) Iafho oporafIon
416 |ntroJuction to Basic Manu/acturing Proccsscs anJ Worksbop Tccbno/ogy
Somo of fho Imporfanf oporafIons porformod on a Iafho machIno aro dIscussod as undor.
A fapor Is dofInod as a unIform Incroaso or docroaso In dIamofor of a pIoco of vork
moasurod aIong Ifs Iongfh. In a Iafho machIno, fapor furnIng moans fo produco a conIcaI
surfaco by graduaI roducfIon In dIamofor from a cyIIndrIcaI job. Tapor In fho ÐrIfIsh Sysfom
Is oxprossod In fapor por foof or fapor por Inch.
Tapor por Inch = |Ð ÷ J) //
Ð = Is fho dIamofor of fho Iargo ond of cyIIndrIcaI job,
J = Is fho dIamofor of fho smaII ond of cyIIndrIcaI job, and
/ = Is fho Iongfh of fho fapor of cyIIndrIcaI job, aII oxprossod In Inchos,
Whon fho fapor Is oxprossod In fapor por foof, fho Iongfh of fho fapor I Is oxprossod In
foof, buf fho dIamofors aro oxprossod In Inchos.
A fapor Is gonoraIIy furnod In a Iafho by foodIng fho fooI af an angIo fo fho axIs of
rofafIon of fho vorkpIoco. Tho angIo formod by fho pafh of fho fooI vIfh fho axIs of fho
vorkpIoco shouId corrospond fo fho haIf fapor angIo. A fapor can bo furnod by anyono of fho
foIIovIng mofhods:
1. Ðy svIvoIIng fho compound rosf,
2. Ðy soffIng ovor fho faIIsfock confro,
3. Ðy a broad noso form fooI,
4. Ðy a fapor furnIng affachmonf,
5. Ðy combInIng IongIfudInaI and cross food In a spocIaI Iafho and
6. Ðy usIng numorIcaI confroI Iafho
Somo of fho Imporfanf fapor furnIng mofhods aro dIscussod as undor.
21.7.1 Ioper Iurn|ng by $w|ve|||ng Ihe Compound PesI
ThIs mofhod usos fho prIncIpIo of furnIng fapor by rofafIng fho vorkpIoco on fho Iafho
axIs and foodIng fho fooI af an angIo fo fho axIs of rofafIon of fho vorkpIoco. Tho fooI Is
mounfod on fho compound rosf vhIch Is affachod fo a cIrcuIar baso, graduafod In dogroos.
Tho compound rosf can oasIIy bo svIvoIod or rofafod and cIampod af any dosIrod angIo as
shovn In !Ig. 21.9 |a). Onco fho compound rosf Is sof af fho dosIrod haIf fapor angIo, rofafIon
of fho compound sIIdo scrov vIII causo fho fooI fo bo fod af fhaf angIo and gonorafo a
corrospondIng fapor. ThIs mofhod Is IImIfod fo furn a shorf buf sfoop fapor bocauso of fho
IImIfod movomonf of fho cross-sIIdo. Tho compound rosf can bo svIvoIod af 45° on oIfhor sIdo
of fho Iafho axIs onabIIng If fo furn a sfoop fapor. Tho movomonf of fho sIngIo poInf cuffIng
fooI In fhIs mofhod Is boIng puroIy confroIIod by hand. Thus If provIdos a Iov producfIon
capacIfy and poor surfaco fInIsh. Tho posIfIonIng or soffIng of fho compound rosf Is accompIIshod
by svIvoIIng fho rosf af fho haIf fapor angIo, If fhIs Is aIroady knovn. If fho dIamofor of fho
smaII and Iargo ond and Iongfh of fapor aro knovn, fho haIf fapor angIo can bo caIcuIafod. Tho
compIofo sofup for producIng a fapor by svoIIIng fho compound rosf Is gIvon In !Ig. 21.9|b)
Latbc Macbinc 417
= Half of
taper angle
Feed lever
F¡g. 21.9(u) Tapor furnIng by svIvoIIng compound rosf
Headstock centre
Face plate
Tool post and tool holder
Cross slide
Tail stock
Tail stock quill
Tail stock
Cutting tool
Direction of feed
rest slide
Compound rest
hand crank
F¡g. 21.9(b) SvIvoIIng compound rosf sof-up
21.7.2 Ioper Iurn|ng AIIochmenI MeIhod
ThIs mofhod Is commonIy ompIoyod for gonorafIng oxfornaI fapors onIy. In fhIs mofhod,
fho fapor furnIng affachmonf Is boIfod back of fho Iafho machIno as shovn In !Ig.21.10. If
Cross slide
feed lever
Taper turning
F¡g. 21.10 Tapor furnIng affachmonf
418 |ntroJuction to Basic Manu/acturing Proccsscs anJ Worksbop Tccbno/ogy
has guIdo bar vhIch may bo sof af any dosIrod angIo or fapor. As fho carrIago movos aIong
fho bod Iongfh asIdo ovor bar causos fho fooI fo movo In and ouf accordIng fo soffIng of fho
bar. Tho fapor soffIng on fho bar Is dupIIcafod on fho job or vork. Tho morIf of fhIs mofhod
Is fhaf fho Iafho confros aro kopf In aIIgnmonf.
21.7.3 Ioper Iurn|ng w|Ih Io||sIock seI over MeIhod
ThIs mofhod Is basIcaIIy ompIoyod for furnIng smaII fapors on Iongor jobs and Is confInod
fo oxfornaI fapors onIy. In fhIs mofhod, fho faIIsfock Is sof ovor Is caIcuIafod usIng !Ig. 21.11
by IoosonIng fho nuf from Ifs confro IIno oquaI fo fho vaIuo obfaInod by formuIa gIvon boIov.
Taper length
Set over of
tail stock
F¡g. 21.11 TaIIsfock sof ovor
TaII sfock sof ovor = Tapor Iongfh × SIno of haIf of fapor angIo
|Ð ÷ J) / 2 = / × sIn |a/2)
Whoro, Ð = Is fho dIamofor of fho Iargo ond of cyIIndrIcaI job,
J = Is fho dIamofor of fho smaII ond of cyIIndrIcaI job, and
/ = Is fho Iongfh of fho fapor of cyIIndrIcaI job, aII oxprossod In Inchos,
a = fapor angIo
Whon a parf Iongfh of fho job Is fo bo gIvon fapor fhon faII sfock sof
= ||Ð ÷ J)/2)) × |fofaI Iongfh of fho cyIIndrIcaI job/Iongfh of fapor)
= I × sIn |a/2) × |fofaI Iongfh of fho cyIIndrIcaI job/Iongfh of fapor)
21.7.4 Form Ioo| MeIhod
!Ig. 21.12 shovs fhIs mofhod In vhIch a fapor form Is usod fo obfaIn fapors. If Is IImIfod
fo shorf oxfornaI fapors. Tho odgo fooI musf bo oxacfIy sfraIghf for accurafo vork.
F¡g. 21.12 !orm fooI fapor furnIng
21.7.5 Ioper Iurn|ng w|Ih Doub|e Feeds
Tapor furnIng can aIso bo cuf by combInIng fho fvo foods. !Ig. 21.13 shovs fhIs
arrangomonf of fapor furnIng, vhIch Is good mofhod of fapor furnIng. In corfaIn Iafhos bofh
Latbc Macbinc 419
IongIfudInaI and cross foods may bo ongagod sImuIfanoousIy causIng fho fooI fo foIIov a
dIagonaI poInf vhIch Is fho rosuIfanf of fho magnIfudo of fho fvo foods. Tho dIrocfIon of
rosuIfanf food may bo changod by varyIng fho rafo of foods by chango goars provIdod InsIdo
fho apron of fho Iafho.
F¡g. 21.13 Tapor furnIng usIng combInod foods
!Ig.21.14 shovs fho sofup of fhroad cuffIng on a Iafho. Throad of any pIfch, shapo and
sIzo can bo cuf on a Iafho usIng sIngIo poInf cuffIng fooI. Throad cuffIng Is oporafIon of
producIng a hoIIcaI groovo on spIndIo shapo such as V, squaro or povor fhroads on a cyIIndrIcaI
surfaco. Tho job Is hoId In bofvoon confros or In a chuck and fho cuffIng fooI Is hoId on fooI
posf. Tho cuffIng fooI musf fravoI a dIsfanco oquaI fo fho pIfch |In mm) as fho vork pIoco
compIofos a rovoIufIon. Tho dofInIfo roIafIvo rofary and IInoar mofIon bofvoon job and cuffIng
fooI Is achIovod by IockIng or ongagIng a carrIago mofIon vIfh Ioad scrov and nuf mochanIsm
and fIxIng a goar rafIo bofvoon hoad sfock spIndIo and Ioad scrov. To mako or cuf fhroads,
fho cuffIng fooI Is broughf fo fho sfarf of job and a smaII dopfh of cuf Is gIvon fo cuffIng fooI
usIng cross sIIdo.
Workpiece Tailstock
Lead screw
Gear box
Thread cutting tool
F¡g. 21.14 Throad cuffIng
420 |ntroJuction to Basic Manu/acturing Proccsscs anJ Worksbop Tccbno/ogy
!or producIng hoIos In jobs on Iafho, fho job Is hoId In a chuck or on a faco pIafo. Tho
drIII Is hoId In fho posIfIon of faIIsfock and vhIch Is broughf noaror fho job by movIng fho
faIIsfock aIong fho guIdo vays, fho fhus drIII Is fod agaInsf fho rofafIng job as shovn In
!Ig. 21.15.
Tailstock quill clamp
Hand wheel
for moving
Tailstock clamp
Feed Cutting
F¡g. 21.15 ÐrIIIIng on Iafho
CuffIng spood for Iafho vork may bo dofInod as fho rafo In mofors por mInufo af vhIch
fho surfaco of fho job movos pasf fho cuffIng fooI. MachInIng af a corrocf cuffIng spood Is
hIghIy Imporfanf for good fooI IIfo and offIcIonf cuffIng. Too sIov cuffIng spoods roduco
producfIvIfy and Incroaso manufacfurIng cosfs vhoroas foo hIgh cuffIng spoods rosuIf In
ovorhoafIng of fho fooI and promafuro faIIuro of fho cuffIng odgo of fho fooI. Tho foIIovIng
facfors affocf fho cuffIng spood:
|i) KInd of maforIaI boIng cuf,
|ii) CuffIng fooI maforIaI,
|iii) Shapo of cuffIng fooI,
|ic) RIgIdIfy of machIno fooI and fho job pIoco and
|c) Typo of cuffIng fIuId boIng usod.
CaIcuIafIon of cuffIng spood Cs, In mofors por mInufo
Cs = ||22/7) × Ð × N)) /1000
Ð Is dIamofor of job In mm.
21.11 FEED
!ood Is dofInod as fho dIsfanco fhaf a fooI advancos Info fho vork durIng ono rovoIufIon
of fho hoadsfock spIndIo. If Is usuaIIy gIvon as a IInoar movomonf por rovoIufIon of fho spIndIo
or job. ÐurIng furnIng a job on fho confor Iafho, fho saddIo and fho fooI posf movo aIong fho
bod of fho Iafho for a parfIcuIar food for cuffIng aIong fho Iongfh of fho rofafIng job.
Latbc Macbinc 421
22.12 ObE$IION$
1. ÐoscrIbo fho vorkIng prIncIpIo of fho Iafho.
2. Namo fho dIfforonf fypos of fho Iafhos avaIIabIo In machIno shop7 ÐoscrIbo fho vorkIng of
a confro Iafho.
3. ÐxpIaIn fho parfs of a confro Iafho usIng noaf skofch.
4. ÐxpIaIn foIIovIng parfs of a Iafho by noaf skofchos:
|i) Iafho Ðod |ii) CarrIago |iii) Hoadsfock |ic) TaIIsfock
5. Hov can you spocIfy a Iafho7
6. Namo fho oporafIons, vhIch can bo porformod on a Iafho.
7. IIsfs fho accossorIos of a Iafho7 ÐxpIaIn fhom vIfh noaf skofchos.
8. ÐoscrIbo any fvo vork hoIdIng dovIcos usod on fho Iafho.
9. Whaf Is fho uso of foIIovor rosf and sfoady rosf7
10. ÐxpIaIn fho dIfforonco bofvoon fhroo jav chuck and four jav chuck.
11. !sIng noaf skofchos, doscrIbo fho varIous oporafIons fhaf can bo carrIod on Iafho machInos.
12. WIfh fho hoIp of a IIno dIagram, doscrIbo fho goar mochanIsm of an ongIno Iafho.
13. ÐIscuss fho morIfs and domorIfs of a goarod-hoad drIvo ovor cono-puIIoy drIvo.
14. Namo and skofch fho dIfforonf fypos of fho cuffIng fooIs of fho Iafho.
15. ÐoscrIbo fho procoduro of cuffIng rIghf hand V- hoads of fho Iafho.
16. WIfh hoIp of noaf dIagram, doscrIbo fho foIIovIng:
|i) !InIsh furnIng
|ii) Rough furnIng
|iii) TurnIng
|ic) ÐrIIIIng
|c) Affachmonfs of Iafho
17. Namo dIfforonf mofhods of fapor furnIng7 ÐoscrIbo fhoso mofhods usIng noaf skofchos.
18. ÐoscrIbo vIfh suIfabIo skofch fho procoduro for furnIng a fapor usIng soffIng ovor fho
19. ÐofIno fho foIIovIng forms usod In Iafho oporafIon.
|i) CuffIng spood
|ii) !ood
|iii) Ðopfh of cuf
|ic) MachInIng fImo

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